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An Overview of Some of the Popular Management Theorists
Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Clayton P Alderfer proposed a hierarchy involving three sets of needs: Existence: needs satisfied by such factors as food, air, water, pay, and working conditions. Relatedness: needs satisfied by meaningful social and interpersonal relationships. Growth: needs satisfied by an individual making creative or productive contributions. Tested by Thematic Apperception Test
ERG Theory Relationships Among Frustration, Importance, and Satisfaction of Needs
Frustration of growth needs Importance of growth needs
Satisfaction of growth needs
Frustration of relatedness needs
Importance of relatedness needs
Satisfaction of relatedness needs
Frustration of existence needs
Importance of existence needs
Satisfaction of existence needs
Chris Argyris (1923 • Influenced by the humanist approach of Abraham Maslow and the socio-technical process of E. • Indicated his feelings about how organizations neglected human needs. • If treated like a child one will behave like a child – result is organizational mediocrity Chris Argyris Maturity – Immaturity Continuum . Wight Bakke.
. Organization • Certain organizational practices. • The result is defensive behaviors. individuals run into the obstacles posed by formal organizations. with management reacting by becoming more autocratic or by turning to sugar-coated human relations. such as the division of labor. not mature behavior. • These practices promote immature.Chris Argyris – Personality vs. interfere with the development of healthy human personalities. • In an attempt to self-actualize.
Chris Argyris .
Verbal persuasion – you become more confident because someone convinces you Self-efficacy that you have the skills necessary to Social Cognitive perform task 4. Vicarious modeling – you become more confident because you see someone else do the task Social Learning 3. self-efficacy theory) which refers to an individual’s belief that they are capable of performing a task. Arousal – if you get “psyched up” then you perform better . Enactive mastery – if you’ve performed task in the past.Albert Bandura Albert Bandura proposed a social cognitive theory (social learning theory. you can do it again 2. Four ways self efficacy can be increased: 1.
skills.Abraham Maslow Maslow defined human needs as: Physiological: the need for food. Esteem: the need for self-esteem and for respect from others. Belongingness. Self-actualization: the need to fulfill oneself by maximizing the use of abilities. and love: the need for friendship. social. and love. drink. affiliation. shelter. interaction. and relief from pain. Safety and security: the need for freedom from threat. the security from threatening events or surroundings. and potential Hierarchy of Needs .
. • A satisfied need ceases to motivate. • Lower-order needs must be satisfied before a higherorder need begins to control a person’s behavior.Maslow’s Need Hierarchy • Maslow’s theory assumes that a person attempts to satisfy the more basic needs before directing behavior toward satisfying upper-level needs.
Need Hierarchy .
David McClelland Proposed Theory of Needs: nAch nPow nAff Need for Achievement (nAch) – drive to excel. to achieve in relation to a set of standards Need for Affiliation (nAff) – the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships Need for Power (nPow) – need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise (to have power over them) .
McClelland’s Learned Needs Theory Achievement (n Ach) Affiliation (n Aff) Power (n Pow) .
• At Antioch College. • From these experiences. his ideas evolve and lead him to recognize the influence of assumptions we make about people and our managerial style. Douglas McGregor .Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) • Taught psychology at MIT. McGregor found that his classroom teaching of human relations did not always work in practice.
punished. this is a process of directing their efforts. equipment. rewarded. They must. modifying their behavior to fit the needs of the organization. We often sum it up by saying that management consists of getting things done through other people. Without this active intervention by management. be persuaded. With respect to people.Theory X • • • Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise – money. controlled – their activities must be directed. therefore. controlling their actions. materials. .in managing subordinate managers or workers. people – in the interest of economic ends. This is management’s task -. people would be passive – even resistant – to organizational needs. motivating them.
dislikes responsibility. He lacks ambition. but widespread: – – – – – The average man is by nature indolent – he works as little as possible. He is by nature resistant to change. He is gullible.Theory X • Behind this conventional theory there are several additional beliefs – less explicit. not very bright – the ready dupe of the charlatan and the demagogue. . He is inherently self-centered. prefers to be led. indifferent to organizational needs.
materials. the capacity for assuming responsibility. Management does not put them there. equipment. They have become so as a result of experience in organizations. the readiness to direct behavior toward organizational goals are all present in people. People are not by nature passive or resistant to organizational needs. It is a responsibility of management to make it possible for people to recognize and develop these human characteristics for themselves. The essential task of management is to arrange organizational conditions and methods of operation so that people can achieve their own goals best by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives. • . people – in the interest of economic ends.Theory Y • • • Management is responsible for organizing the elements of productive enterprise – money. the potential for development. The motivation.
and selfactualization levels. have little desire for responsibility. and prefer to be directed. as well as physiological and security levels. Most people are not ambitious. Most people have little capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems. Self-control is often indispensable in achieving organizational goals. The capacity for creativity in solving organizational problems is widely distributed in the population. Motivation occurs at the social. . • • Work is as natural as play. People can be self-directed and creative at work if properly motivated. esteem. Motivation occurs only at the physiological and safety levels. Most people must be closely controlled and often coerced to achieve organizational objectives.Theory X • • Theory Y • • • • • • Work is inherently distasteful to most people. if the conditions are favorable.
Frederick Herzberg . These factors (according to Herzberg) did not motivate. – Job content (motivators) – factors that did lead to motivation – Money (according to Herzberg) could motivate if it was seen as a reward for accomplishment. but if money was given without regard for merit.Frederick Herzberg (1923-2000) • His research emphasized job enrichment (depth) rather than job enlargement – Job context (hygiene factors) – needed to be optimal to prevent job dissatisfaction. then it was a hygiene factor.
Status.Motivation and Hygiene Factors HYGIENE FACTORS ENVIRONMENT Policies and Administration Supervision Working Conditions Interpersonal Relations Money. Security MOTIVATORS WHAT THEY DO Achievement Recognition for Accomplishment Challenging Work Increased Responsibility Growth and Development .
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Extrinsic factors Factors within the job context: Pay Intrinsic factors Factors within the job content: Achievement Status Working conditions Increased responsibility Recognition Dissatisfiers Hygiene factors Satisfiers Motivators .
HERZBERG’S TWO-FACTOR VIEW Motivators •Feeling of achievement •Meaningful work •Opportunities for advancement •Increased responsibility •Recognition •Opportunities for growth Hygienes •Pay •Status •Job security •Working conditions •Fringe benefits •Policies and procedures •Interpersonal relations High job satisfaction Low job dissatisfaction High job dissatisfaction . TRADITIONAL High job satisfaction II.Traditional and Herzberg Views of Satisfaction Dissatisfaction High job dissatisfaction Low job satisfaction I.
Frederick Herzberg .
Motivation and Hygiene Factors THE JOB SURROUNDINGS AND THE HYGIENE FACTORS SUPERVISION WORKING CONDITIONS RESPONSIBILITY BENEFITS ACHIEVEMENT INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS THE JOB ITSELF AND THE WORK ITSELF MOTIVATOR RECOGNITION FACTORS COMPANY POLICY AND ADMINISTRATION GROWTH ADVANCEMENT SECURITY STATUS SALARY .
A Comparison of the Content Theories Maslow (need hierarchy) Herzberg (two-factor theory) Alderfer McClelland Self-actualization Higher order needs Esteem The work itself •Responsibility •Advancement Motivators •Growth Achievement Recognition Quality of interpersonal relations among peers. with supervisors. with subordinates Need for achievement Growth Need for power Belongingness. social. and love Relatedness Safety and security Need for affiliation Basic needs Physiological Hygiene conditions Job security Working conditions Salary Existence .
Work Design • Richard Hackman. and Greg Oldham’s work extended Herzberg’s notions by adding a situational (it depends…) dimension – Key job characteristics – Depending on an individual’s “growth-need strength.” these characteristics could be amplified to make the job more meaningful. . Edward Lawler.
Job Characteristics Model Core Job Characteristics Skill Variety Task Identity Task Significance Critical Psychological State Outcomes (Personal and Work) Meaningfulness of Work Autonomy Responsibility for Outcomes Feedback About Job Knowledge of Results of Work Employee Growth Need High Internal Work Motivation High Quality Work Performance High Satisfaction with Work Low Absenteeism and Turnover .
Victor Vroom .Motivation: Expectancy Theory Victor Vroom • The expectancy theory of Victor Vroom helps explain the choosing process among individuals in terms of the value (valence) of the reward and the expectancy of receiving the reward.
Expectancy Theory .
.Expectancy Theory • Lyman Porter and Edward Lawler extended Vroom’s work with their model of expectancy.
Richard D. Porter – Edward E. 1968.Expectancy Theory (Lyman W. . Irwin Inc. Lawler III) Revised Diagram of the Theoretical Model 1 Value of Reward Abilities And Traits 4 Perceived 8 Equitable Rewards 7A Intrinsic Rewards 3 6 9 Effort Performance (Accomplishments) 7B Satisfaction Extrinsic Rewards Perceived 2 Effect-Reward Probability 5 Role Perceptions SOURCE: Managerial Attitudes and Performance.
Principles of Expectancy Theory • V1 = S(V2 x I) – The valence associated with various first-level outcomes is a sum of the multiplication of the valences (V2) attached to all second-level outcomes with their respective instrumentalities (I) • M = f(V1 x E) – Motivation is a multiplicative function of the valence for each first-level outcome (V1) and the perceived expectancy (E) that a given behavior will be followed by a particular first-level outcome • P = f(M x A) – Performance is considered to be a multiplicative function of motivation (the force) and ability .
• Managers must actively determine which second-level outcomes are important to employees.Process Theories of Motivation: Expectancy Theory (continued) Management practices: • Managers need to focus on employee expectations for success. • Managers should link desired second-level outcomes to the organization’s performance goals. .
20 1.0 Finishing budget on day after deadline (.24 0.0 0.0 0.76 0.2 0.3 2.7 .4 .4 Finishing budget on required day but after deadline (3.9) 1.2) 0.2 -0.6 Finishing budget on time (6.20) 0.1 Motivation 2.Expectancy Theory Example Expectancy (probability of performance given effort) Performance outcome (valences x instrumentalities) Instrumentalities (how much performance outcome and second-level outcome are associated Valences of secondlevel outcomes (in parentheses) Day off (6) Recognition/compliment from boss (3) Mention of performance in personnel record (1) Day off (6) Recognition/compliment from boss (3) Mention of performance in personnel record (1) Day off (6) Recognition/compliment from boss (3) Mention of performance in personnel record (1) 0.7 -0.
Elliot Jacques .Equity Theory • Equity theory is not a new one but focuses on how individuals perceive their reward or pay compared to what others are receiving. • Issues of social justice and distributive justice are involved in the theories of Stacy Adams and Elliot Jaques.
are motivated by a desire to be equitably treated at work.Process Theories of Motivation: Equity Theory • Employees compare their efforts and rewards with those of others in similar work situations. who work in exchange for rewards from the organization. • Equity exists when employees perceive that the ratios of their inputs (efforts) to their outcomes (rewards) are equivalent to the ratios of other similar employees. • Individuals. . • Inequity exists when these ratios are not equivalent.
The Equity Theory of Motivation A person (P) with certain inputs (I) and receiving certain outcomes (O) Compares his/her input/outcome ratio to reference person’s (RP) inputs (I) and outcomes (O) and perceives OP IP OP IP OP IP ORP = IRP or equity < ORP IRP or > ORP IRP inequity inequity IP: Inputs of the person OP: Outcomes of the person IRP: Inputs of reference person ORP: Outcomes of reference person .
Geert Hofstede Courtesy of Prof. – Masculinity (assertiveness) vs.Managing Across Cultures • Geert Hofstede (1928 . – Power Distance: The level of preference for equality or inequality within groups: – Uncertainty avoidance: The preference for risk vs.) describes cultural differences in different countries. – Individualism vs. Short term orientation. femininity (tender values). structure. Hofstede . – Long term vs. collectivism (group orientation).
managers worldwide—continue to appreciate what I have been saying almost since day one: that management is so much more than exercising rank and privilege. The practice of management deservers our utmost attention.’ Management affects people and their lives. both in business and in many other aspects as well.Last Thoughts …… from Peter Drucker “I would hope that American managers—indeed. it deserves to be studied” . it’s so much more than ‘making deals.
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