Faculty Of Education And Language SMP January Intake 2011 Semester 2

OUMH 1303 English For Oral Communication


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Public speaking (a) Social contexts where public speeches occur and function ( b) How to made oral presentation (c ) Credibility of speaker and related qualities ( d) Audience analysis for effectiveness 6. How oral communication works (a) Theories of oral communication (b) Model of communication (c) Form of communication (d ) What makes the process complex 3. Interpersonal communication (a) Personal and impersonal situation (b) Appropriate topics of conversation (c) Listening and speaking skills and strategies 4. Introduction (a) Important of speaking English for study and work purposes (b) Principles of effective speaking and listening skills (c) Various forms of oral communication in English 2. Conclusion ( a ) Complexity of the speaking process ( b ) Knowledge and strategies needs for effective speaking in different social context ( C ) Need for speech training 2 CONTENT OF CONTENT .OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 Tittle : Communication Effectively In Spoken English In Selected Social Contexts TABLE OF CONTENT NO 1. Small group communication (a) How to group small group communication (b) Roles of group members (c) Question and answer strategies (d) Example of small group communication in academic context 5.

ii) Make sure that it is a two way process. at different times. As an example. This help to foster friendship. joys. and people we meet. People who are good communication will be do better in their careers. Introduction Important of speaking English for study and work purposes We communicate everyday with different level of people. and summarise information. this mean they need to learn. fears. needs and intentions. and successes as a true friend. They have to learn proper English. especially when we are able to ask questions. he cuts you off. First of all the classroom environment should have better view of the teacher. good oral communication skills help us to acquire knowledge more effectively.we also tend to win friends as most people regard and appreciate someone who listens to their problems. 3 . Whereas. listen and understand. Pupils learn English as a second language. We also can effectively share information. They needs to interact with customer and suppliers. With good oral communication skills we can create close relationships and bond with our family. people at work. thoughts. In learning process. in different ways. effective communication is the key to excellence. The most frustrating thing about communication is when the person whom you are talking to is not listening to you.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 1. express opinions and ideas. Principles of effective speaking and listening skills i) Always listen when someone is talking. Proficiency in English with good oral communication skills is an advantage to reach the higher level of education specially to further study in oversea university. especially English Teachers. feelings. English language is a compulsory subject in the Malaysian Curriculum. speak and write accurately and fluently. Before you even finish a sentence. and hold informal discussions with employers and employees. Business and professional people depend a lot on oral communication skills when they engage in different activities. participate in meetings. As a good listener . for teachers. A lot of the misunderstanding and misinterpretation are caused by not listening to other party. With good communication skills the teacher can conduct her class confidently and effectively. friends.

meetings. oral presentations and public speaking. reports. a message. So to ensure that your communication is effective. The communication process is complete once the receiver has understood the sender messages. channels and media. you must always confirm understanding. It also known as body language. charts and graphs. Basically. That's the three most basic principles for an effective communication. no words are used. Various forms of oral communication in English In communication it requires a sender. According to Camp & Satterwhite (2002). minutes of meeting. e-mail. there are three types of communication: (a) Oral Communication (b) Written Communication (c) Non-Verbal Communication Oral communication has been described as the process of people using verbal and non-verbal messages to generate meaning within and across various contexts. cultures. Messages can be communicated 4 . It sounds simple but in practice. it is perhaps the hardest principles to follow. we exchange information using the written language by words and sentences. faxes. this take place in the face-to face communication. In written communication . This can take place such as in letters. and has to be constantly worked at. and an intended recipient. Effective communication means ideas are exchanging freely. It provides documentation and proof of the exchange information. Make it safe for other to express his views. And you also understand his point. memos. Effective communication is about the RESULT you get. although the receiver need not present or aware of the sender’s intent to communicate at the time of communication. can be a very powerful form of communication .OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 Communication should always be a two way process. teleconferencing. It means the person you are communicating to totally understands your point. voice mail messages. Whereas in non-verbal communication . iii) Affirm and acknowledge results.

reacts to it and then responds to your message. which produces a message. Model of communication Transactional Model of Communication In a simple model. eye contact. 5 . In this short paper is divided into several section of oral communication on how it works such as interpersonal communication .OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 through gestures and touch . information or content (e. a message in natural language) is sent in some form (as spoken language) from an emisor/ sender/ encoder to a destination/ receiver/ decoder.Wood (2009) . According to Julia T. Your audience receives the message.by body language or posture. How Oral communication Works Theories of oral communication Communication is an important part of our lives. 2. by facial expression. The strengths of this model are simplicity. Social scientists Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver structured this model based on the following elements: 1. This common conception of communication simply views communication as a means of sending and receiving information. often referred to as the transmission model or standard view of communication. generality. grooming and dressing. That response may lead you to react and give another message. Elizabeth Tierney (1998) describes communication as process which begins when you have a message that you want to deliver to an audience. and quantifiability. An information source.g. This process may then go on and on.” Communication enables us to improve our skills at interacting with people.small group communication and public speaking.” Communication is a systematic process in which people interact with and through symbols to create and interpret meanings. nervousness.

In the presence of "communication noise" on the transmission channel (air. to which signals are adapted for transmission 4. noise is interference with the decoding of messages sent over a channel by an encoder. which creates many conceptual difficulties. which 'decodes' (reconstructs) the message from the signal. similar if not identical. at the very least. A receiver. One problem with this encode-transmit-receive-decode model is that the processes of encoding and decoding imply that the sender and receiver each possess something that functions as a codebook. What makes the process complex In any communication model. reception and decoding of content may be faulty.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 2. Interpersonal communication Interpersonal communication 6 . where the message arrives. A destination. A channel. which encodes the message into signals 3. Although something like code books is implied by the model. and thus the speech act may not achieve the desired effect. and that these two code books are. 3. A transmitter. in this case). they are nowhere represented in the model. 5.

asserting. persuading. This is a distinction between impersonal and interpersonal communication on the basis of the quality of the interaction. you concentrate on the verbal as well as non-verbal message. the more closely this mode resembles interpersonal communication. where there may be a large number of individuals involved in a communicative act. The smaller the number in the group. This involves reading gestures.This stage where you learn to decipher the meaning of the message as well as pick up cues from the emotional tone of the speaker.effective listening comprises five components as below : i) Receiving – When you listen. entertainment and persuasion are common purposes of public communication. • public communication involves a large group with a primarily one-way monologue style generating only minimal feedback. A primary concept of interpersonal communication looks at communicative acts when there are few individuals involved unlike areas of communication such as group interaction. This can include all aspects of communication such as listening. Example: two friends talking. Appropriate topics of conversation Interpersonal communication can be categorized by the number of participants. and more.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 Interpersonal communication includes message sending and message reception between two or more individuals. • group communication involves three or more persons. Impersonal communication is that which involves functional short-term exchanges such as might occur between a shopper and a salesman. the label of interpersonal is reserved for communication that functions in deeper and more meaningful relationships. Example: lecture in university class. Example: teleconference in a distance learning class. Listening and speaking skills and strategies According to Devito (2009) . ii) Understanding . body movements and facial expressions. 7 . Often group communication is done for the purpose of problem solving or decision making. Information sharing. Personal and impersonal situation Some scholars identify a category of impersonal communication. • dyadic communication involves two people. nonverbal communication. though communication scholars are inconsistent as to the top end of the number scale.

where. punctuation beginning or end of a particular interaction. or rise and fall of your voice when you speak. To be an effective speaker.The full stop . or is biased and prejudiced. Speak with a pleasing pitch that is neither too high nor too low. you have to look into the person and the context in which the words is used to get the actual meaning.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 iii) Remembering – Listening also involves remembering interpreted sounds or messages and saving them for use later. for instance marks the end of one sentences and the beginning of another. i) Interpretation of symbols create meaning – Every words has a dictionary meaning but when used by a person in an expression. Intonation is the rhythm. Similarly. Speak with the correct stress and emphasis in pronunciation skill. iv) Voice attributes effect the quality of speech. Whereas constitutive rules means by showing us the meaning behind certain kinds of symbol in communication. Regulative rules as unwritten rules tell you when. Speaker need to learn to vary the pitch of their voices when they speak so as to get the right intonation. You may need to decide whether the speaker has a personal agenda. how. the volume of voice must be heard clearly in order to let people to hear and understand what you are saying. These rules are not formalised but are unconsciously developed as we interact with family. ii) Communication rules – Verbal communication has its own set of unspoken but widely understood rules. and with whom you can have a conversation and communicate in a particular way. 4. v) Responding – Give feedback based on what you have heard. iv) Evaluating – Make some judgement about a message. Small group communication 8 can signal the . Wood (2009) lists three principles that effect oral communication in speaking skills. Speak according to the tempo rate as 125 words per minute. The tone of your voice must also be suitable for the words and the message that you intend to convey. Use clear enunciation of words will help your listener to better understand your message. Don’t speak too fast or too slowly. friends and people at work. In responding you allowed the speaker to know what you think or feel about what he has said. iii) Punctuation affect meaning .

and exert influence on each other.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 Size Small group communication is. A group that has just two members or more than fifteen members would not come in the category of a small group. This person is either appointed by a higher authority or by the group. are interdependent. A small group is generally defined as a group that consists of at least three members and at the maximum around twelve to fifteen members. Small group members share a common purpose. each member of the group has a role to play. irrelevant ideas can be weeded out and the group can come to a consensus. Then. interrupt to seek clarification. Goals A group must have a common purpose or goal and they must work together to achieve that goal. the first thing a group may do is brainstorm for ideas. interrupt politely to ask questions or seek 9 . introduce the subject. through question and answer. The goal brings the group together and holds it together through conflict and tension. and has to open the discussion. substantiate them. The primary benefit of small groups is that they are more productive and creative than individuals working alone. invite people to contribute ideas. Small group communication is a fact of life. the communication that is carried out within a small group. Usually there is one person who manages the discussion. and learning to be a better small group communicator can enhance your academic performance. To this end. negotiate. your career achievement. gradually. The aim is to fulfill the objectives of the meeting. Groups will develop norms about discussion and group members will develop roles which will affect the group's interaction. of course. The other members of the group are to put forth their arguments. and finally close the discussion. Interaction A group's members must be able to communicate freely and openly with all of the other members of the group. In meeting the objectives of the meeting. and your personal success. Roles of group members Successful group interactions require active participation by members of the group.

there are five basic elements. Basically. as in any form of communication. persuasion. There are some questions that we respond with a Yes or No. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation. he/she invites members to contribute to the discussion. Question and answer strategies After the group leader introduces the topic or subject of the discussion. influence. Using polite forms to get information in a polite way such as by asking question with “Would you mind…. we use Wh-Questions when we wish to get more information or seek clarification of an issue ( Example : What are the cause of pollution?).. we need not give answers in complete sentences ( Example: Are you going to see doctor now ? Yes/No ).OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 clarification. etc. Members can offer opinions. members are cordial and polite to each other and the discussion may turn out to be a fruitful and enjoyable event. ask questions and respond to questions. 5. When replying orally. Public speaking Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured. informing. deliberate manner intended to inform. or entertain the listeners. and it is also increasingly common for selection interviews to include an oral presentation. often expressed as " who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information and to motivating people to act. (a) Body language is important. If the discussion is managed well. or simply entertaining. Standing. telling me what happened………”etc. translation. In public speaking. walking or moving about with appropriate hand gesture or facial expression is preferred to sitting down or 10 . In the workplace most information professionals will be required to address colleagues or external groups from time to time. How to made oral presentation The ability to make an oral presentation is an important skill. influence.

Speak loudly and clearly. conversely. If you 11 . Use audio-visual aids or props for enhancement if appropriate and necessary. correct it. Have direct eye contact with a number of people in the audience. Remember that communication is the key to a successful presentation. and logical conclusion). summary. i. and continue. Studies on eye contact and its effect on communication and credibility find that maintaining gaze while communicating is beneficial to credibility. Use the 3-second method. adjust and adapt. "Eyes are your window to the world. (c) Maintain sincere eye contact with your audience.e. (d) Speak to your audience. accurate and up-to-date information) to CONCLUSION (restate thesis. No need to make excuses or apologize profusely. and. Sound confident. change your strategy mid-stream if you are well prepared to do so. Use your eye contact to make everyone in your audience feel involved ." eyes can be the window to credibility. Do not mumble. look straight into the eyes of a person in the audience for 3 seconds at a time. If what you have prepared is obviously not getting across to your audience. Persuade your audience effectively. Master the use of presentation software such as PowerPoint well before your presentation. e. Do not torture your audience by putting a lengthy document in tiny print on an overhead and reading it out to them. sound clips.Like the old saying. The material you present orally should have the same ingredients as that which are required for a written research paper. If you made an error.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 standing still with head down and reading from a prepared speech. listen to their questions. Do not over-dazzle your audience with excessive use of animation. or gaudy colors which are inappropriate for your topic. respond to their reactions. averting eye contact is detrimental to credibility. and every now and then glance at the whole audience while speaking. (C) Do not read from notes for any extended length of time although it is quite acceptable to glance at your notes infrequently.g. a logical progression from INTRODUCTION (Thesis statement) to BODY (strong supporting arguments. (b) Speak with conviction as if you really believe in what you are saying.

Credibility of speaker and related qualities 12 . as well as yourself. (e) Pause. Terminate your presentation with an interesting remark or an appropriate punch line. Just as you don't use unnecessary words in your written paper. have an emergency backup system readily available. lighting. know what could be effectively added. summarize your main points in the same way as you normally do in the CONCLUSION of a written paper. Allow yourself and your audience a little time to reflect and think. Always be prepared for the unexpected. sound system. Don't race through your presentation and leave your audience. Tell audience ahead of time that you will be giving out an outline of your presentation so that they will not waste time taking unnecessary notes during your presentation. If possible. Thank your audience and sit down. To end your presentation.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 are short of time. Check out the location ahead of time to ensure seating arrangements for audience. however. be sure all necessary equipment is set up and in good working order prior to the presentation. (h) Have handouts ready and give them out at the appropriate time. etc. (i) Know when to STOP talking. location of projection screen. (g) When using audio-visual aids to enhance your presentation. Use a timer or the microwave oven clock to time your presentation when preparing it at home. Leave your listeners with a positive impression and a sense of completion. Keep audience interested throughout your entire presentation. (f) Add humor whenever appropriate and possible. that there is a difference between spoken words appropriate for the ear and formally written words intended for reading. know what can be safely left out. Remember. feeling out of breath. but a boring speech is always too long to endure even if the presentation time is the same. Remember that an interesting speech makes time fly. are suitable for your presentation. whiteboard. blackboard. If you have extra time. Do not belabour your closing remarks. you don't bore your audience with repetitious or unnecessary words in your oral presentation.

smiling. When you give a speech. so the best speakers will find ways to allow the audience to actually participate in the presentation. iii) Credibility.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 i) Preparedness. v) Interactive Presentations. ii) Energy. iv) Structure. remember the main ideas you have spoken about. they practice. Being prepared builds your credibility and helps you to make your speech more entertaining. when a speaker forces the audience to participate. You will effective if. and by including thorough research and data to support the claims of the presentation. logical manner increases the ability of the audience to retain the information. the members of your audience have remain attentive. your goal is to communicate with your audience members. Structure does not need to be obvious.Organizing information in an easy to follow. In fact. Credibility can be established by sharing the study that went in to developing the speech.Most people have terrible listening skills. have understood what you have said.Excellent speakers know that building credibility is one of the most important factors in improving audience reception of a message. In other words.The best speakers take their time developing their speeches. and varying their pitch and volume. asking questions or demonstrations.The best speakers make an effort to keep the energy in their presentation up by speaking at a brisk pace that is still understandable. and 13 . Audience analysis for effectiveness The audience is the specific group of people to whom your speech is directed. Whether they accomplish this through activities. so be prepared. tone. They find specific points where they will deliberately gesture in order to emphasize their words. They monitor the rate. they have a stake in the presentation. the best speakers will mask structure with a conversational tone and speaking pattern. pitch and volume of their presentation. (Attachment of essential preparation and planning checklist) Experienced presenter are able to improvise and adapt to changing circumstances but you may have one chance to present your information. when you have finished speaking. increasing their attention to the materials presented. achievements of the speaker in related fields.

Ultimately one speaks not only to serve others. Be alert and respect about audience gender. plain and easily understandable English when you speak to Malaysian as well as to people from other countries in our social communication. To succeed in any field. entertainment. One will become a fully developed.centered. but also oral communication skills in order to become compete in communication with the rest of the world. thinking. personality etc. we interact with people. English is the dominant international language in communication. Try to speak using simple. we must use words appropriately and speak politely. cool which means in stlye. is a skill and to convey meaning accurately. We interact with family members at home. English has become an important language in Malaysia in this new millennium. habits. e. 14 . business. For Malaysian to be able to compete. therefore. but also to achieve one’s own goals on the job and in the public forum. the ability to convey and interact with other people is a concern. social. it is widely spoken in Malaysia. All effective public speakers are audience. cute or trendy terminology. Conclusion In everyday life. English oral communication skills are essential to success. education. with friends and colleagues at the workplace or place of learning. desires and needs. prior knowledge. Although English is a second language in Malaysia. Being audience.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 are motivated to use what they have learned from you. Avoid figures of speech or idiomatic expressions. how your message can best tailored to their interests. age. culture . economy and education backgrounds.g. be careful of words which may have difficult meanings in different cultures or nationalities and avoid using of slang. diplomacy and on the internet. don’t use fancy. The art of speaking. It is not only the English language that has been a major concern nowadays.centered means considering who your listeners are. and forceful human being to the degree that one has learned and practiced speech making skills and oral communication skills.

to learn to communicate effectively. By doing this you will slowly notice the change in yourself. make your point diplomatically but firmly. Just think what a relief it would be to be able to meet people on an equal footing. Successful speakers are born from hard work and a knowledge of effective communication strategies. REFERENCES 15 . which will allow you then. and happier in yourself. and leave knowing you have not been ‘brow beaten’. more decisive. Attend courses like Toastmasters’ gives you that opportunity to obtain speech training. The primary purpose need for speech training is to gain confidence. There are no “born-speakers”.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 While it is not easy to participate at the beginning – with time and perseverance it will become second nature to you to stand up and give your opinion voluntarily. This is a good feeling. You will feel more confident. to perform to your optimum.

Oxford. (eds.. s. Homewood. Brown & s. Stereotypes: content. & gaertner. Devito. 9. J.pertinent. 5.). A systems approach to small group interaction.cw/index. J. (2009) Human Communication : The basic course.E (1998). (1984). Lee. 101 ways to better communication.prenhall. processes. uk: blackwell. Verderber. s.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 1.htm [2011. Intergroup processes. USA :Pearson Education ► Relevant Web Sites 1. New york: mcgraw-hill. (2000). Chapter 9: Small Group Communication (1995 – 2010) Pearson Education {Online}Availaible: http://wps.Jun 26] 3.. (1992).). & fiske. Boston: allyn & bacon. Brown. Gaertner (eds). and context. Communication and Communication Systems.wikipedia.lib. 3. a. Wood. Resources about interpersonal communication {Online} Avalaible : http: www. Wikipedia(n.com/hss_alberts_human_1/59/15124/3871944.Operrario.html 16 . m.d.com/articles/communication/index. Jun 26] 2.T (2009) Communication in our lives.asp – 5. In r. 10.htm 6. d. Ausrtralia : Wadsworth Cengage Learning.. Sellnow The Challenge of Effective Speaking(14th edition) 8. r. & jensen.com/communicationskills/principles-of-effective-communication [ 2011.aresearchguide. Articles about interpersonal communication{Online} Avalaible : http: www. s. Knapp.edu/gateway/bib/interpersonal.leonlion. (1968).A. London:Kogan Page. Kathleen S. Leon's Self-Development Blog(2011) Basic Principles of Effective Communication{Online}. Tubbs.org [ 2011. Oxford. 2001). 6. Trenhold. Interpersonal communication (4Th ed. Belmont ca: wadsworth. s. uk: blackwell. Verderber. Rudolph F. (2001). structures.ohio-state. Presentation Tips for Public Speaking {online} Avalaible:http://www.Jun 28] 4. 7. Chapter 3. Deanna D. Intergroup processes.) Available : http://en. Tierney. Interpersonal communication and human relationships.l. 2.com/3tips. Boston. 4. Available: http://www.Thayer. IL: Irwin.

June 30] Attachment 17 . Essentials of Human Communication.html [ 2011.OUMH 1303 ENGLISH FOR ORAL COMMUNICATION 680915106906001 [2011.Jun 28] 7. DeVito.sa/auto/English101New/topic7/101-0701.June 27] 8. {Online}. 9. 2004)Models of the Communication Process .ac.html [ 2011.foulger. 264–265).htm [ 2011. (November 2000) Oral Presentation Skills {Online} Available : http://dagda.uk/study/oral. Available : http://davis.June 28] 10.shef.info/research/unifiedModelOfCommunication.elc. Richard Proctor. Group Interaction Skills {Online}Available :http://www. Davis Foulger (Draft: February 25.edu.) Members in small group communication( pp. (4th ed.



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