This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
, New York, NY 10017
The Society shall not be responsible for statements or opinions advanced in papers or discussion at meetings of the Society or its Divisions or Sections, or printed in its publications Discussion is printed only if the paper is published in an ASME Journal. Papers are available from ASME for 15 months after the meeting.
GAS TURBINE INLET AIR TREATMENT: A NEW TECHNOLOGY
David W. Donle, Robert C. Kiefer, and Thomas C. Wright Dow Chemical Company Freeport, Texas Ugo A. Bertolami and Denis G. Hill Pneumafil Corporation Charlotte, North Carolina
ABSTRACT This paper describes the development, application, and performance verification of a new patented technology for cleaning and cooling combustion air to a gas turbine. A two-year in-depth research program at Dow Chemical Company in Freeport, Texas resulted in the development of this technology. At the conclusion of the research and development program, full-scale application of the hardware was made on a 100 MW combined cycle gas turbine, and its performance monitored for two years. Application of the new technology resulted in increased power output, higher reliability, NOx emission reduction, reduced maintenance costs, and higher total system efficiency. Since the new technology has produced very large cost savings, Dow is using the new technology on three new combined cycle machines currently being installed, and further is exploring conversion of existing combined cycle gas turbines to this new technology.
Presented at the International Gas Turbine and Aeroengine Congress and Exposition Cincinnati, Ohio May 1993 This paper has been accepted for publication in the Transactions of the ASME
salt and other airborne contaminants of gas turbine performance and on the various air and gas path components in the gas turbines. pecan hulls. demisters. and maintenance losses associated with gas turbine air contaminant ingestion was recognized. and 1990 full scale implementation of a new inlet air cleaning system on one of these 100 MW units. Europe. which will include three new GE Frame 7EA units. operation. development. .. this was one of the largest operating gas turbines in the world. and will continue with the operation of a new cogeneration facility. this progression led to today’s current fleet of fourteen operating gas turbines. the significant opportunity to increase profits by reducing performance losses.. and the recovery of only a portion of the lost output following the off-line cleanings. and South America. down time. several new generations of industrial and aero-derivative gas turbines were installed in Freeport and other Dow sites throughout the U. At the time. built by Destec Engineering.) and the most recently developed inlet air cleaning technology. Inc. Canada. heat. capable of generating approximately 33 megawatts (MW) under base load conditions. etc. detergents. Three years later.and off-line compressor cleaning (water. water wash columns. which includes several GE Frame 7E and Westinghouse 501D5 gas turbines.I. As gas turbine operating experience has been gained. basically identical. and steam injection rates. The %MW factor on the Y-axis is the % of output of the turbine compared to a base period output. HISTORICAL EXPERIENCE The Dow Chemical Company’s experience with the installation. With this data in hand.S. a Westinghouse model 501A gas turbine was also placed in service and was one of the largest operating gas turbines in the world at 43 MW. This led to the research. so has experience with various techniques of conditioning the air entering the gas turbine compressors. and performance monitoring of industrial gas turbines utilized for power generation began in 1965 with the start-up of a Westinghouse model 301 gas turbine at a chemical research and manufacturing facility in Freeport. One significant challenge to operating these base loaded units on the Texas Gulf Coast has always been to find methods of effectively combating the effects of high humidity. (*) Data is for base load operation only and has been corrected to compensate for the effects of variation in ambient temperature. wetted media evaporative coolers. Texas. In Freeport. 100 MW gas turbine units in 1987 using “old technology” or what is considered today to be a relatively standard high efficiency filtration system and routine on-line and off-line cleanings. As these units and others proved the benefit of gas turbines with heat recovery units in the industrial cogeneration arena. The basic trend is a total output loss of between 1 and 3% per month between offline cleanings due to reduced compressor and turbine performance. This includes experience with inlet air conditioning and compressor cleaning systems which involve one or more techniques such as mechanical separators. maintenance. The corrected(*) data in Figure (1) shows the typical degradation experienced on three. barometric pressure. low and high efficiency filtration media. on. The base period data was accumulated 1 to 2 years after startup at times immediately after an off-line wash.
a 6’ by 6’ frame to hold a range of fog removal devices. the less severe the problem. All components were designed to facilitate direct scale-up to a gas turbine inlet system. neither system would completely eliminate moisture entering the filter section. Using both artificial fog from spray nozzles and actual ambient fog when available. Filter performances cited herein refer to test procedures as defined in the ASHRAE Equipment Handbook. 0. see Figure (3). It was quickly learned that the smallest particle size range of our analyzer. During a heavy and long lasting fog. The standard efficiency of filters in the industry is about 90% on an average ASHRAE rating system. Downstream of the scrubber module was flow tube and blower driven by a variable speed motor so that a range of air flows could be simulated. the pad system had lower pressure drop. TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Due to the history of performance degradation of Dow’s gas turbine fleet and its economic impact. a coalescing pad section. instrument. As Dow was using a filter of this rating and having turbine performance loss. 3. a frame system to hold nine 2’ x 2’ high efficiency filter elements. Major components included from left to right a fog nozzle spray system. a disengagement section. however. The pilot plant was constructed and installed adjacent to one of Dow’s large gas turbine inlets so that the quality of air entering the pilot plant would be essentially the same as that entering the gas turbine. the filters will get wet and eventually unload their dirt— but the higher the efficiency of the pad. the soluble component of dirt in the filter is dissolved. Dow assembled a project team and launched a research project in early 1988. re-enters the air stream and is deposited on the compressor blades. The 90% ASHRAE filter does very little to remove particles in this range.II. performance was related to the density and mesh size of the pad. The plant was fully instrumented with both commercially available instruments and some specially developed instruments to measure all relevant process variables and air and water quality at each stage in the process. Using laser beam particle counting technology. Within the pad style system. The ability of the two types of systems to remove fog was similar. A drawing of the pilot plant is shown on Figure (2). A water tank and pump system was used to circulate water through the nozzles to absorb contaminants. it was decided that the research effort would concentrate on higher efficiency filters. and a stainless steel scrubber module consisting of air straightening blades. A pilot plant facility was built with three major objectives: 1. Build. evaluate all major filter designs and efficiencies on the market at that time. If a fog is dense enough and last long enough. Eight different filters with efficiencies from 90% . However. 1983 Chapter 10. One brand of a blade style fog removal system and several brands of a mesh pad style fog removal system were evaluated. 2 stages of high intensity spray nozzles. FOG REMOVAL Fog removal is desired due to the impact of heavy fogs on turbine output. and operate a high intensity water scrubber system to determine the optimum operating and design parameters and effectiveness to humidify and clean the air leaving a filter system. 2. Once this happens. the inlet filters to the turbine become saturated with moisture. evaluate a range of fog removal techniques. and blade moisture separators.19 to 0. HIGH EFFICIENCY FILTERS A laser beam particle counter was used to measure filter performance. A process computer controller was used to control the plant and monitor and store the data.3 microns was the best range to differentiate filter performance.
the penetration increased within the 90% ASHRAE filter allowing over 2. . Third. First. Sodium levels after a 24 hour run were elevated by as much as 20 times the initial levels before the run. Finally. the adhesive system used to attach the gasket to the filter element is very import ant. And fourth is the gasket system to seal the element to the mounting frame in the filter house. The scrubber is picking up particulate and ionics which penetrate the filter element. More extensive tests of this filter and two brands of 95% DOP filters showed several differences. If the gasket is not thick enough and not made from a rubber which is soft and also has good recoverability. Figure (5) shows the impact on ambient air for a 95% DOP filter and the water scrubber system.5 million particles penetration in five cubic feet of air.97% DOP filter essentially removed all particles as shown on the standard zero line. the lower the conductivity. Second. allowing it to go through the combustion turbine. the 99. the cleaner the air. the square footage of media in the 2‘ x 2‘ x 1‘ thick frame affects the pressure drop and the dirt collection capacity and life of the element. the filter cuts the conductivity in about half. As shown. the gasket comes off completely. leakage may occur. The bottom line is that all 95% DOP rated filter elements are not created equal.5 million particles penetration. Figure (4) shows a particle count penetration comparison of five of these filters. allowing about 0. Elements which were sealed with just a compression seal of fiberglass showed edge leakage. The 95% DOP filters were quite good in comparison. such as 95%.ASHRAE up to 99. Media surface areas of over 300 square feet are possible. the sealing system for the edges of the media in the filter element frame were different. Pressure drop tests showed the best filter. Figure (6) shows on two different runs what happens to the water basin during the same period of time. where the other vendor specified 97% media. Needless to say. Their performance is affected by the media specification and the edge sealing system. In some cases. In addition. the element holding devices must also be positively sealed to prevent bypass of contaminated air. Placing the particle counter nearer the edges of the elements showed differences in performance. However.2 inches of water. WATER SCRUBBING The effectiveness of the water scrubbing section of the pilot plant was determined by several different techniques. penetration tests with the particle counter located directly behind the center of the element showed better results from the 97% media element.97% DOP to be excessive at about 1. even though a filter may be rated for a certain removal percent.97% DOP were studied. As shown. As the efficiency dropped. the scrubber cuts the conductivity in about half again. the water is absorbing the contaminants and the conductivity in the water increases. A special analytical instrumentation system was developed which measured the conductivity of the air. Sulfates and chlorides were also absorbed in the scrubbing water. Filters which were ”potted” with a urethane foam material had zero leakage. or about twice that of the 95% DOP element. As the air is being cleaned up. One of our filter element vendors had specified 94% media. the 99. Figure (8) shows on two different 24 hour runs very significant increases in these components in the basin water. Figure (7) shows seven runs of data in which the sodium levels in the basin were measured. the actual efficiency depends on the specifications the filter vendor puts on the manufacturer of the media.
III.100 MEGAWATT TURBINE SCALE UP PROJECT The positive results of this research project were shown to Dow management and an authorization request was made to fund a full scale project to take all the information learned in the pilot plant and implement it on a 100 MW combustion turbine. primarily rain. A series of free moisture elimination devices and techniques were used. performance testing began. Figure (9) shows a plan view sketch of the system. After three months of debugging and optimizing of all operating variables. This “New Technology” inlet air cleaning system was operational in January 1990. it is of prime importance to ensure that no free moisture is drawn into the inlet system and conveyed to the turbine compressor inlet. TECHNOLOGY AND HARDWARE DESCRIPTION OF 100 MEGAWATT GAS TURBINE INLET SYSTEM FOG/RAIN REMOVAL Since the location of the gas turbine is coastal Texas. A pad type fog removal system. and a water scrubbing system were designed. Therefore. . but it has been so successful that Dow is looking at retrofitting this technology to at least four other large turbine units in its Freeport facility. First. The Texas coastal area experiences high annual rainfall and is also accustomed to fogs which manifest themselves primarily in the early morning hours. a low velocity weather hood was utilized to deny ingress of larger water droplets. the application of full scale hardware designed to eliminate free moisture from these fogs was deemed important. The results of this test will be described later. and retrofitted to an existing operating turbine unit during a scheduled maintenance outage. built. a two stage filtration system.
reduced maintenance requirements. The increased performance is characterized by reduced degradation of power output. thus making these elements a unique filter for gas turbine intake systems. These pads are synthetic material and are mounted in the inlet system complete with holding frames. this non-recoverable component of the data must be subtracted out to perform a true comparison of the technologies. predict that the “old technology” inlet air systems create recoverable heatrate increases of approximately 0. A proprietary scrubber system. Figure (15) shows the total and non-recoverable component of the “new technology” power degradation for the first year after a major overhaul. and instrumentation to monitor water quality. Finally.e. Due to these ambient conditions and typical local power demands. BENEFITS/RESULTS OF A 100 MW GAS TURBINE APPLICATION Once the full scale “New Technology” inlet air conditioning system had been installed and atwo year performance study completed. efficiency. A second benefit of the scrubber system is the ability to provide an 80% humidifying efficiency and thus on hot days allows the increase of output from the gas turbine itself. was included to remove the majority of these contaminants. consists of a high-efficiency barrier air filter element. reduced NOx emissions. including increased performance. sulphates. the increased power output associated with the “new technology’s” CIT reduction (which is a result of increased mass flow through the gas turbine compressor) peaks during the time of year and the time of day when power demands are highest and pricing is usually the most attractive. Figures (1a) and (11b) show the ambient wet bulb/dry bulb temperatures and relative humidity profiles. Texas. i. for a typical July day in Freeport. which should be compared to the 1. Utilizing “old technology’s” heat rate data and applying the reduced output data to expected heatrate degradation relationships. SCRUBBER Contained in the atmosphere around Freeport are various other gaseous contaminants including chlorides. and sodium. complete with tanks. primarily fog. to utilize a prefilter to extend the life of the more costly high-efficiency element and for this task a disposable prefilter element was selected.25%/month. Figure (10) shows a typical degradation in output with the “New Technology” system of approximately 0. The benefits of evaporative cooling have been amply demonstrated in the gas turbine industry.080%/month. reduced increases in heatrate. The overall packaging of the above system components was accomplished in utilizing corrosion resistant materials to ensure a long life of the air filter housing as well as permanent internal structures and components. and minimal pressure drop. respectively.05% per month. in this “New Technology” system. The features mentioned in Section II were specified. calculations were done to IV.Then following the hoods are a set of low velocity demister/coalescer pads to remove the smaller droplet sizes. while Figure (11c) compares the compressor inlet temperature (CIT) associated with the two technologies. especially during hot and/or dry weather conditions. These aerosols being both sub-micron particulates and ionic vapors cannot be totally removed by particulate air filters. and higher total system efficiency and reliability. etc. dust holding capacity. flowrate. . The filter element has a 95% DOP efficiency rating and thus represents a dramatic departure from current industry particulate filter selection. pumps.004%/month. drain troughs and downspouts so that any coalesced or separated free moisture is conveyed immediately to the exterior of the inlet system. As this data includes degradation due to compressor wear which may not be completely removed with a better inlet cleaning system. The prefilter was chosen after several tests to provide an optimum balance of three criteria.0% to 3. of course. With the final filter element in the 95% DOP efficiency range it became necessary. The distance between the plots is the recoverable degradation of 0.0%/month shown of the “old technology” rates in Figure (1). while the “New Technology” system reduces that amount to approximately 0. This is the component which can be recovered during an off-line wash of the compressor. the benefits of the new system were verified in several areas. PARTICULATE FILTERS Of critical importance to the operation of the gas turbine is the particulate removal capability which. this new system has displayed an 80% evaporative cooling effectiveness to provide even more gas turbine output. and increased overall output due to evaporative cooling effects.
which reduces thermal cycling and extends part life. an additional benefit gained during operation of the new system was a net annual reduction in the gas turbine’s overall NOx production calculated to be approximately 8%. heat recovery unit. . which help to minimize the possibility of unstable operation or rotating blade and other component failures. which also results in additional steam production in the heat recovery unit. This is supported by the increased gas turbine output. As the gas turbine output changes due to ambient conditions or compressor fouling. a higher total system efficiency and reliability of the gas turbine. ECONOMICS To accurately calculate the dollar savings from the “New Technology”. Though it was not a driving force in the original development of the new inlet air cleaning technology. The “old technology” plant gas turbine shuts down every six months for an off-line wash. This reduction is primarily a result of increasing the relative humidity of the air entering the compressor. Calculations are based on measured NOx emission data at various relative humidities. and through the reduced corrosion and erosion effects associated with removing contaminants from the air before it enters the compressor. Otherwise. the HRU output and steam turbine power generation also change. so that decreases in generation result in higher purchases and vice versa. regular manufacturer’s recommended maintenance intervals are assumed. Figure (12) provides a comparison of output degradation plotting old technology versus “New Technology” over a five year period.A reduction in overall maintenance costs is also expected with the application of the new inlet air cleaning technology. The plant is always in the power purchase mode from the utility. V. where in the “new technology” cycle this is unnecessary. Comparison of visual inspections of the turbine and compressor sections one and two years after installation of the new system to past visual inspections and photographs of the same and other Dow Freeport gas turbines. a rather complex computer model was developed. The model is calculated every hour of the day for a five year maintenance cycle which is repeated two times for an assumed project life of 15 years. and the reduced fouling. and associated processes using the steam and power they produce can be expected with the new system. A somewhat “generic” power plant was modeled consisting of a 100 MW gas turbine with a three drum HRU. The actual data from Figures (1) and (10) were used to plot Figure (12) and the program subtracts the same non-recoverable curve of Figure (15) from both sets of data. revealed the cleanest and least eroded compressor and turbine components ever experienced in more than two decades of gas turbine maintenance activities. and a 1250 psig throttle condensing steam turbine. This is due to the virtual elimination of the need to shut down specifically for off-line washes. Finally. corrosion and erosion effects. which ultimately reduces the flame temperature in the combustion zone. the reduced need for off-line washes and associated maintenance outages.
but varies with time of day per Figure (13). .2. and one with a power price of $35. one with a relative humidity of 50%. Purchased power price for energy averages $30. 4. “Old Technology” recoverable power degradation rate is 1% per month. An assumed 1992 fuel gas price of $1. relative humidity. The results of these runs are shown on Figure (14). fuel price. The actual savings for a user of this technology would have to be calculated by the prospective user based on their actual cycle configuration and existing degradation rates.248. These economics are for illustrative purposes only. Besides the base case described above.00 per MWH in 1992. Ambient relative humidity varies each hour per actual data for the Texas Gulf Coast. the project midlife savings in 1992 dollars for the base case is $856. 043 to $1. SPECIFIC BASES 1. As shown. power purchase contract. etc. 3. with the sensitivities showing savings from $627. three sensitivities were run.013. and the “New Technology” rate is . one with a fuel price of $2.00 per MMBTU.00 per MWH.70 per MMBTU was used for these economics.05% per month.877 per year. normalized to an average of 60 percent for the base case. Evaporative cooling effectiveness of “New Technology” is 80%. 6. maintenance history.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS L. formerly a Research Engineer with The Dow Chemical Co. John A.A Process Associate with The Dow Chemical Co.. and was responsible for the pilot plant research and development program for the “New Technology”.A Senior Research Technician with The Dow Chemical Co.. was responsible for the computer analysis of the data from the pilot plant and the full scale installation. . Bajer . Melton .With Destec Energy Inc. Debbie Lind . and was responsible for the operation and data collection for the pilot plant.L. in the Hydrocarbons and Energy Research Department..
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.