Aircraft Refueling.

Servicing aircraft with fuel and defueling aircraft requires the utmost precaution due to the highly flammable characteristics of fuel. Personnel performing fueling and defueling operations must be thoroughly familiar with FM 10-68, Aircraft Fueling, and FM 10-69, Petroleum Supply Point Equipment and Operations. Personnel must also be completely familiar with the aircraft being serviced. NOTE : Aircraft shall have all fuel cells fully serviced prior to being parked or stored in a hangar. All fuel cells should be full in order to minimize the presence of flammable vapors within fuel cell (for safety purposes) and additionally to minimize water condensation and subse- quent microbiological growth which results in contamination of the fuel. This procedure should be adhered to at all times; except when impending mission requirements shall necessitate a reduced fuel load or when an aircraft shall require mainte- nance to the fuel system.

a. Open-Port Refueling. Open-port refueling is refueling by inserting an automotive-type nozzle into a fill port of larger diameter. Most of the Army fueling nozzles are designed for open-port refueling and must be used until enough FARE systems are deployed to make open- port aircraft refueling an obsolete practice. Because the port is larger than the nozzle, fuel vapors can escape through the fill port during open-port refueling opera- tions. Airborne dust and dirt, as well as rain, snow, and ice can get into the fill port during refueling, thus lowering the quality of the fuel in the tanks and endangering the aircraft. Spills from overflowing tanks are possible in open-port refueling. Spills can also be caused by the sudden pressure surge that comes when pumping from another nozzle in the system is completed, throwing the whole pressure of the pump to the operating nozzle. Because of these dangers, hot refueling by the open-port method is restricted to combat or vital training or testing use. Refer to FM 10-68.

b.

Open-Port Hot Refueling. In combat operations, the open-port method of hot refueling may be used for helicopters when, in the judgment of the aviation com- mander, the

When the FARE system is used for hot refueling in a training situation. If rapid (hot) refueling is required (prescribed in FM 10-68). NOTE : Nozzles of the open-port type must be held open by hand throughout use. Fuel Truck Operations. WARNING : Only emergency radio transmissions should be made during rapid (hot) refueling. . Refer to FM 10-68. c. aviation commanders may decide that hot refueling must be done for purposes of training. For example. In noncombat situations. helicopters may be refueled by this method only when there are compelling reasons to do so. weapons system on with safety covers/ guards/switches in safe position. See the applicable aircraft operator’s manu. ground the aircraft properly. No exceptions to this rule are allowed in aircraft refueling.als (-10 and -CL) for detailed instructions. a firewall should be built around 500-gallon drums whenever it is possible. If any auto. they must be filed off. Rapid Hot Refueling. and with any computer systems operating that would require reprogramming if shut down. electrical power on. radios on. Aircraft may be rapid (hot) refueled (with engines running). It is also recommended that the aircraft be in a revetment type shelter or separated from fuel storage by a fire wall. the device must be removed.matic device has been added to the nozzle to hold it open. or for field testing or combat testing for development.requirements of the tactical mission and the benefits of reducing ground time outweigh the inherent risks of this method of refueling. if notches have been made to hold open. Radio switches may electrically arc when being keyed d.

The follow.ing procedures are for all aircraft: (a) Check the interior of the aircraft. (d) Park the refueler so that it has a clear and open path to drive away from the aircraft in an emer. (b) Drive the tank vehicle into position in front of the aircraft.Fuel truck operations are covered in the following paragraphs. the tractor must be ready to pull the trailer away from the aircraft if the need arises. Use the sort of approach route shown in figure 3-3. There must be at least 10 feet between the refueler and rotor blades of a helicopter.500 gallon stainless steel tank. Fuel truck types.200 gallon stainless steel tank. and the M857 semitrailer with a 5. Do not detach a tank semitrailer from its tractor when refueling an aircraft. and armaments are set on SAFE. No one should be aboard during refueling unless the pilot or copilot are on board to monitor the quantity of fuel to be loaded. The M49A2C tank truck with a 1. (c) Keep a distance of at least 10 feet between the refueler and the aircraft. bring the truck to a full stop when it is 20 to 25 feet away from the aircraft or its rotor blades. Do not drive the refueler directly at the aircraft because brake failure could cause a serious accident.000 gallon tank are used to fuel Army aircraft General operation. do so. the only way of knowing when to stop flow is for the pilot or copilot to watch the fuel gauges in the aircraft. the sequence of the refueling operation can start. After the aircraft parks and its engine or engines are shut down. When the D-1 nozzle is used. If it must be backed toward the aircraft. Keep a distance of at least 20 feet between the exhaust pipe of the pump engine (or truck engine) and the aircraft fill port and tank vent as shown in figure 3-4.out backing.gency. Have another person . NOTE : If the refueler can be driven into position with. the M559 tank truck with a 2. the rotor blades are secured.

such as building wire (type TW. If the refueler does not have a Y-cable that will ground both the refueler and the aircraft to one ground rod. a separate ground cable is required to ground the aircraft. Attaching this clip grounds the aircraft and bonds the refueler to the aircraft. (h) Unreel the ground cable and attach its ground-rod clip to the nearest ground rod. If the aircraft has a receiver . A wire. but do not clip the ground cable to the propeller or the radio antenna.ers the pump) and set the brake. (f) Check the fuel in the tank to make sure it is the right type for the aircraft. (j) Bond the nozzle to the aircraft before taking the dust cap off the nozzle and the cap off the fill port.act as a ground guide. size number 14 or larger. number 14 AWG or larger. NOTE : Use the axle of the landing gear or some other unpainted metal part. Follow signals to guide the final backing approach until signaled to stop at the proper distance from the aircraft and its fill port and vent. as shown in figure 3-5. solid copper) or any other solid copper wire. may be used. place the extinguishers near the pump and nozzle operators. (e) Stop the refueler engine (unless it pow. drive the refueler ground rod into the earth to the required depth and attach the clip to the rod. Place a fire extinguisher provided at the refueling point by the aircraft fill port.If there are no people available to man the fire extinguishers. NOTE : Figure 1Fuel Truck Backing Approach Have members of the ground crew or the air crew man these two fire extinguishers. but position them so that they will not be in the operators way and where they are not likely to be engulfed if a fire should start at either the pump or the nozzle. (i) Ground the aircraft by attaching one end of a ground cable to the ground rod (either the rod that grounds the refueler or a separate ground rod) and the other end to a bare metal part of the aircraft. Check the sight glass of the filter/separator to make sure all water has been drained out (g) Place the truck fire extinguisher by the pump. Chock the tires of the refueler and of the aircraft if appropriate. If refueling where no ground rod is installed.

(l) Refuel using procedures outlined in FM 10-68. look for dirt in the fill port or on the nozzle. (k) Open the aircraft fill port and remove the nozzle dust cap. Wipe the fill port out and clean the nozzle. put the nozzle well down into the port. then mate the two together. Do not drag the cable clips across the ground. pull the rod up and stow it in the refueler. mate the nozzle into the fill port. if not. (m) Replace the cap on the fill port and then replace the nozzle dust cap before disconnecting the nozzle bond. (n) Remove the nozzle bond plug or undo the alligator clip Reel up the hose and nozzle Do not drag the nozzle across the ground. Do not open the nozzle until it is inside the fill port When using the CCR nozzle. clip the alligator clip to a bare metal part of the aircraft. NOTE When using an open-port nozzle or the CCR nozzle adapter. If they will not latch together. use the plug. If the refueling operation is over and the refueler ground rod was used. Safety requirements. (p) Release the clip on the ground rod and reel up the grounding cable. . (o) Undo the clip that grounds the aircraft Replace the fire extinguisher used at the nozzle. Replace the fire extinguisher in the refueler.for the bond plug.

· Do not allow any open flame. welding or cutting torches. . Use of exposed-flame heaters.The following safety requirements must be followed when refueling Army aircraft. the fire that may follow a static discharge from clothes may be. or lighted smoking materials within 50 feet of an aircraft refueling operation NOTE Personnel who refuel aircraft may not carry lighters or matches on their persons and must not allow anyone else to carry a lighter or matches within 50 feet of an aircraft that is being refueled. bond yourself to the container by taking hold of it. A skin irritation from fuel is not fatal. Although this bonding will not completely discharge the static electricity. NOTE If fuel gets on clothing.soaked clothes. except as provided in hot refueling. · Do not use flashlights within 50 feet of the refueling operation unless the lights are of the approved explosion-proof type. If it is an aircraft or piece of metal equipment. · Do not allow any metalworking tools to be used within 50 feet of an aircraft being refueled. and flare pots is forbidden within 50 feet of refueling operations. open-flame device. ground yourself to a piece of grounded equipment by taking hold of it with both hands before taking off the fuel. Wait at least 10 minutes before carrying the garment into such atmosphere. · Do not allow electrically powered tools to be used in the refueling area. · Do not enter a flammable atmosphere right after removing a garment. · Do not refuel an aircraft until its engines are shut down. an NOTE Before opening an aircraft fuel port or doing anything else that would let fuel vapors escape into the air. Wet the clothes with water before taking them off if there is not enough water at the site to wet the clothes thoroughly. it will equalize the charge with the charge on the piece of equipment. leave the refueling area as soon as refueling is completed. · Do not remove any piece of clothing while within 50 feet of a refueling operation or in an area where a flammable vapor-air mixture may exist. take hold of a bare metal part with both hands for a few seconds. · Do not allow flashbulbs or electronic flash devices to be used within 10 feet of refueling equipment or the fill port or fuel tank vents of aircraft.

. Fuel contamination. Sediment. no regular Army uniform (suitable for everyday field wear) has been developed for personnel who handle aviation fuels. · Do not fuel an aircraft or store aviation fuel within 300 feet of the antenna of an airfield approach and traffic control radar. · Stop refueling operations when there are lightning discharges in the immediate area. · Airborne surveillance units must be shut down before the aircraft approaches within 300 feet of a refueling or fuel storage area. Because combat uniforms and flight suits are not impervious to petroleum. To date. and battery chargers should not be connected. allow only those vehicles actually involved in servicing aircraft to come within 50 feet of the refueling operation. water. used. Protective clothing. · Radio transmission from the aircraft being refueled is not allowed because of the danger of arcing. and mixed fuels can cause fuel contamination and danger for aircraft operations. Care shall be taken when refueling to prevent fuel contamination.detection radar. NOTE Restrict vehicle access to the refueling area. use great care in refueling operations to avoid spilling fuel on your clothing. microbiological growth. Air crewmembers should wear the nylon fire-retardant uniform but should know that it loses its protective properties if it is saturated with a petroleum product. or disconnected during refueling. · Do not fuel an aircraft or store aviation fuel within 100 feet of the antenna of an airfield surface. Vehicles used in and around refueling areas must be maintained to a high standard of performance to prevent the fire hazards of backfires and sparks.· Do not allow any work to be done on an aircraft's batteries while the aircraft is being refueled. The electrical circuits of vehicles used in refueling operations must be maintained in top condition to prevent short circuits around defects. · A weather-mapping radar unit mounted in an aircraft must be shut down before and during refueling of the aircraft. NOTE The batteries should not be raised or lowered. Therefore. wear the standard combat uniform.

eler/defueler to make sure there is adequate room to hold the fuel being defueled. Fuel is considered suspect if the aircraft has malfunctioned and the fuel is believed to have contributed to the problem or the fuel is thought to be of the wrong type. take sam. These conditions are specified in the general information and servicing volume of the applicable MIM. remember . All shop doors leading into the hangar should be closed.questing the defueling operation will confirm that the fuel is or is not suspect. removal of external fuel tanks.ples of the fuel to be defueled from the aircraft’s drains and visually inspect them for contamination (qualified squadron personnel under the observation of the driver/operator). the doors should be open to provide ventilation through the hangar. Some older aircraft have one or more defueling valves. No work should be done on or around the aircraft during the defueling operation. Defueling Procedures Aircraft defuelings are to be performed in the following sequence: 1. All sources of ignition should be prohibited in the area. some of which are fuel cell repairs.Defueling Defueling may be necessary for many reasons. Again. defueler for suspect product or refueler/defueler for nonsuspect fuel (FMO and station operator). that is. and changing fuel loads. NAVAIR 00-80T-109. suspect or nonsuspect (defuel truck operator). This allows the entire system to be defueled from a single point. Normally. The person re. A special adapter and appropriate container are used to catch the fuel. that is. Usually. residual fuel can be emptied or drained through the fuel cell water drain valves. Determine the status of the fuel. Select the defueling equipment to be used. Some residual fuel will often be left in the bottom of the fuel cell following defueling. 2. the squadron personnel requesting the defueling operation will provide this estimate as part of the official request. it maybe necessary to insert the defueling hose in the filler port. When external fuel tanks are defueled. Determine the amount of fuel to be removed from the aircraft (defuel truck operator). failure of fuel system components. 3. 4. defueling operations are done outside the hangar and under controlled conditions. When it is absolutely necessary to defuel an aircraft in the hangar. Aircraft that use pressure fueling are normally defueled from the pressure fueling adapter. Always check the remaining capacity of the defueler or refu. Additional information on fueling and defueling aircraft can be found in the appropriate aircraft MIMs and the Aircraft Refueling NATOPS Manual. Prior to starting the defuel operation. In addition.

Unload. se. Figure 2Aircraft Defueling Certificate . When nearing completion of the defuel process. 11. Position the defueler (defuel truck operator).that sufficient fuel must be in the defueling tank to maintain a flooded suction above the anti-vortex splash plate.cure all equipment and CHECK THE AREA FOR FOD (all personnel). 8. 9. 5. Connect the bonding wire from the defueler to the aircraft (defuel truck operator). Maximum defuel rate gpm (defuel truck operator). position. Upon completion of the defuel operation. 12. and connect the defuel hose to the aircraft and the defueling stub on the defueler (plane captain).sonnel). very close attention should be paid to the defuel rate to prevent pump cavitation and/or loss of prime.sponds to the instructions from the dispatcher (defuel truck operator). Verify that the aircraft is spotted properly (all personnel). 10. 6. Check for possible sources of ignition (all per. 13. Start defueling upon signal from the nozzle operator (defuel truck operator). Verify that the defueling request chit corre. 7. Adjust the valve downstream of the pump to optimize the defuel rate. Discontinue defueling of an aircraft if pump cavitation is a persistent problem.

dition of the smoking lamp. and the smoking lamp put out. floodlights) is per. the OOD should be notified. The petty officer in charge of the fueling crew checks with the plane captain or other authorized rep.mitted in or near the aircraft. Care should be exercised to prevent sparks from striking in locations where fuel is being handled. All personnel directly involved in fueling or defu. JP-5 becomes highly flammable if spraying (such as a ruptured hose or gasket) or wicking (such as a fuel-soaked rag or clothing). and connections. They also must know and follow all precautions and proper procedures. but the OOD should be notified about the recommended con. only approved flashlights are used. NO electrical apparatus supplied by outside power (electrical cords. gloves. and requesting permission from the OOD to fuel and defuel is not necessary. The supervision of fueling and defueling operations should always be done by a qualified petty officer to ensure that all safety precautions are earned out and that the opera.defueling of aircraft is done only by members of an aviation fuels crew. For night refueling or defueling. loading/downloading of weapons is authorized only as specified in CV and Aircraft Refueling NATOPS Manuals. hose. Leaks in aircraft.tion is done properly. fueling and defueling are expected. jersey.eling evolutions must wear the proper safety gear. Cranial. Extreme caution should be observed if these conditions occur. droplights.SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Before fueling or defueling is started. goggles. the OOD should be notified and the smoking lamp lighted. no electrical equip. Simultaneous fueling. even when the ship is not at flight quarters. unless it is required in the fueling (or defueling) operation or in the quantity gauging system check. During planned flight quarters. At the end of the operation. and life vest must be worn during fueling/defueling operations. No aircraft will be fueled while on jacks. The fueling or defueling of aircraft is handled by the aviation fuels crew under the direction of the officer who is responsible for this procedure.resentative of the aircraft crew to ensure that.ment in the aircraft is energized or being worked on. permission received to commence. In addition. All personnel involved in handling aviation fuels must be fully aware of the constant danger of fire and thoroughly trained in firefighting. or trouble with fueling equipment should be reported immediately to the aviation fuels flight deck supervisor .

A cockpit advisory panel transit light goes out whenever the probe is locked in the extended or retracted position. ensure that all personnel and equipment are clear of the area of probe travel. which illuminates the probe tip for visual contact with the refueling drogue at night. . the hydraulic system must be pressurized to 3. and removal and installation of components. external electrical power applied. The floodlight goes out when the refueling probe switch is placed in RETRACT or OFF. The refueling probe extension and retraction system shown in figure 12-62 consists of the refueling probe. The complete extension cycle should be from 5 to 7 seconds. rigging and adjusting. A probe floodlight. and the in-flight refueling circuit breaker engaged.000 psi. a selector valve. a lock swivel joint. with the retraction cycle taking from 9 to 11 seconds. The check valve prevents pressure surges in the hydraulic return system from unlocking the probe-actuating cylinder during flight. twoposition probe actuating cylinder. To perform an operational check of the air refueling probe system. With the engines operating or external electrical and hydraulic power applied. If operation of the probe is not smooth. Organizational maintenance of the air refueling probe system normally consists of operational checks. and associated electrical switches and relays. and all other maintenance should be in accordance with the procedures and safety precautions outlined in the MIM. troubleshooting. is on whenever the refueling probe switch is in EXTEND and exterior lights are on. Position the fuel probe switch to RETRACT and check for proper probe retraction. hold the air refueling switch in RETRACT to actuate the solenoid selector valve to supply pressure to the retract port of the probe actuating cylinder. check for air in the system. The restrictor valves control the rate of cylinder extension and retraction. This electrically actuates the solenoid selector valve to supply restricted hydraulic flow to the extend port of the probe-actuating cylinder. causing it to retract and lock the probe into place. a self-locking.IN-FLIGHT REFUELING SYSTEMS Air refueling systems permit complete in-flight or on the ground refueling of the aircraft fuel system. component removal and installation. Troubleshooting of the system should include a thorough knowledge of the malfunction compared to proper system operation and referral to system schematics and troubleshooting tables provided in the MIM. Position the fuel probe switch to EXTEND. Before actuating the system. After disengaging the probe nozzle from the tanker drogue. The extension cycle rotates the probe from its stored locked position to an extend locked position. the probe is extended by placing the refueling probe switch in the EXTEND position. two restrictor valves. System rigging. refueling nozzle. Check for proper probe extension and probe locking.

Intermediate maintenance of faulty components consists of cure-date kit installation and testing in accordance with the "Intermediate Maintenance" section of the MIM or the applicable (03) overhaul manual . .