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Advance reading Mikael Parkvall.

(2008) Limits of Language: Almost everything you didn't know about language and languages. Battlebridge, London *Jean Aitchison (2011) The articulate mammal: an introduction to psycholinguistics, Routledge Classics, London *Steven Pinker (2007) The language instinct: [how the mind creates language], Penguin Science, London. Also in Kindle and Audio CD. General textbooks Martin Atkinson, David Kilby, Iggy Roca (1988), Foundations of general linguistics, Unwin Hyman, London Akmajian, Adrian, Richard Demers, Ann Farmer, Robert Harnish (2010), Linguistics: an introduction to language and communication, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman, Nina Hyams (2010), An introduction to language, Thomson/Heinle, Boston, Mass Radford, Andrew, Martin Atkinson, David Britain, Harald Clahsen, Andrew Spencer (2009), Linguistics: an introduction, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge More specific works **Mark Aronoff and Kirsten Fudeman (2011), What is morphology?, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford Jean Aitchison (2011), Words in the mind: an introduction to the mental lexicon, Blackwell, Oxford **Michael Ashby and John Maidment (2005), Introducing phonetic science, Cambridge introductions to language and linguistics Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Laurie Bauer (2003), Introducing linguistic morphology, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh David Caplan (1996), Language: structure, processing, and disorders, Issues in the biology of language and cognition MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass Andrew Carnie (2013), Syntax: a Generative Introduction, third edtion. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford; John Clark and Colin Yallop (2006), An introduction to phonetics and phonology, Blackwell textbooks in linguistics ; Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford Alan Cruse (2010), Meaning in language: an introduction to semantics and pragmatics, Oxford textbooks in linguistics Oxford University Press, Oxford

International Phonetic Association (1999), Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: a guide to the use of the international phonetic alphabet, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Haspelmath, Martin and Sims, Andrea (2010), Understanding Morphology (Second Edition). London: Hodder Education. Paul R. Kroeger (2004), Analyzing syntax: a lexical-functional approach. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Paul R. Kroeger (2005), Analyzing grammar: an introduction. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge John Lyons (1995), Linguistic semantics : an introduction, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge April M.S. McMahon (1994), Understanding language change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Miriam Meyerhoff (2011), Introducing sociolinguistics, Routledge, London Steven Pinker (2011), Words and rules: the ingredients of language, Harper Perennial, London Ishtla Singh (2000), Pidgins and Creoles: an introduction, Hodder Arnold, London **Maggie Tallerman (2011), Understanding syntax, Understanding language series Hodder Arnold, London Ronald Wardhaugh (2009), An introduction to sociolinguistics, Blackwell textbooks in linguistics, WileyBlackwell, Oxford George Yule (1996), Pragmatics, Oxford introductions to language study Oxford University Press, Oxford Useful reference David Crystal (1999), The Penguin dictionary of language, Penguin reference books, Penguin, London David Crystal (2003), The Cambridge encyclopedia of language, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge *P.H. Matthews (2007), The Concise Oxford dictionary of linguistics, Oxford paperback reference Oxford University Press, Oxford

A wide range of research is carried out within the Faculty. The major projects are listed below.

Subject/theme Research areas

Psycholinguistics Romance Linguistics

Language and Brain BabyLab (Department of Experimental Psychology) Autonomous Morphology in Diachrony: comparative evidence from Romance languages The Romance noun. A comparative-historical study of plural formation


Glue Semantics and LFG Resource-sensitive semantic composition Semantics and grammatical architecture Language and Music The Universal Language Internet Portal(TULIP) Lexical Functional Grammar Agreement and Coordination Differential object marking Large scale grammar development Language documentation Syntax-phonology interface Applied linguistics (Department of Education) Computational linguistics (Computing Laboratory) Japanese linguistics (Faculty of Oriental Studies)


Other research

Subject/theme Research areas

Comparative and Classical Philology and Historical Linguistics

Sound changes in Greek, Latin and Indo-European Mycenaean Greek Greek and Latin syntax Ancient Greek accentuation Ancient Greek literary languages Greek, Latin and Indo-European morphology Greek, Latin and Indo-European etymology Non-standard Latin Ancient Sociolinguistics Vedic Sanskrit Historical Germanic

1. Introductory texts

Meyerhoff, Miriam. 2011. Introducing Sociolinguistics. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.

2. More advanced reading

Eckert, P. 2000. Linguistic Variation as Social Practice. Oxford: Blackwell. Labov, W. 1972. Sociolinguistic Patterns. Philadelphia: U. Pennsylvania Press. Labov, W. 1994. Principles of Linguistic Change, Vol I: Internal Factors. Oxford: Blackwell. Labov, W. 2001. Principles of Linguistic Change, Vol II: Social Factors. Oxford: Blackwell. Labov, W. 2010. Principles of Linguistic Change, Vol III: Cognitive and Cultural Factors. Oxford: Blackwell. Milroy, L. 1987. Language and Social Networks. 2nd edition Oxford: Blackwell.

3. Reference

Chambers, J. K., P. Trudgill, N. Schilling-Estes, (eds.) 2002. The Handbook of Linguistic Variation and Change. Oxford: Blackwell. Coulmas, F, (ed.) 1997. The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Blackwell. Coupland, N. and A. Jaworski, (eds.) 2009. The New Sociolinguistics Reader. Houndmills: Macmillan. Fishman, J. & O. Garca (eds.) 2010. The Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity . 2nd ed. Oxford: OUP Holmes, J. and M. Meyerhoff, (eds.) 2000. The Handbook of Language and Gender. New York: Blackwell.

4. Journals

@Language in Society. @Journal of Sociolinguistics. @Language Variation and Change. @Research on Language and Social Interaction. Langage et Socit Sociolinguistic Studies International journal of the Sociology of Language

I. History of Linguistics
1. General Overviews

Robins, R.H. 1997. A Short History of Linguistics. 4th edition. Longman Seuren, Pieter A.M. 1998. Western Linguistics: An Historical Introduction. Blackwell.

2. More specialized works divided by periods a) Ancient and Medieval

Lepschy, G. (ed.) 1994. History of Linguistics I: The Eastern Tradition of Linguistics . Longman. Chapters on Chinese, Indian, Ancient Near East, Hebrew, Arabic linguistics by G. Malmqvist, G. Cardona, E. Reiner, J.H. Johnson, R.Loewe, H. Fleisch.

Lepschy, G (ed.) 1994. History of Linguistics II. Classical and Medieval Linguistics. Longman. It includes a lengthy and important chapter by P. Matthews on Greek and Latin linguistics; also a chapter on Medieval linguistics by E. Vineis and A. Maicrii.

Law, V. 1997. Grammar and Grammarians in the Early Middle Ages . Longman. Pinborg, J. 1975. Classical Antiquity: Greece, in T. Sebeok (ed.) Current Trends in Linguistics, vol. 13 Historiography of Linguistics, 69-126. Mouton. Robins, R.H. 1993. The Byzantine Grammarians. Their Place in History. Mouton De Gruyter. Taylor, D.J. 1987. The History of Linguistics in the Classical Period. Benjamins. Law, V. 2002 The History of Linguistics in Europe. CUP.

b) From the Renaissance to the Eighteenth Century

Aarsleff, H. 1982. From Locke to Saussure. Essays on the Study of Language and Intellectual History. Athlone Press. Hymes, D. (ed.) 1974. Studies in the History of Linguistics. Traditions and Paradigms . Indiana University Press. Law, V. 1990. Language and its Students. The History of Linguistics, in N. E. Collinge (ed.) An Encyclopedia of Language. Routledge, 784-842. Lepschy, G. (ed.) 1998. History of Linguistics III. Renaissance and Early Modem Linguistics . Longman. (It includes chapters on Renaissance Linguistics by Mirko Tavoni et al. and on The Early Modern Period by R. Simone).

Salmon, V. 1988. The Study of Language in Seventeenth Century England. 2nd ed. Benjamins.

c) Nineteenth and twentieth centuries

Morpurgo Davies, A. 1998. Nineteenth-century Linguistics. (History of Linguistics, ed. Giulio Lepschy, Vol. IV) Longman. Matthews, P.H. 1993.Grammatical Theory in the United States from Bloomfield to Chomsky . CUP.

Matthews, P.H. 2001. A Short History of Structural Linguistics. CUP. Newmeyer, F. 1986. Linguistic Theory in America: The First Quarter-Century of Transformational Generative Grammar. 2nd edition. Academic Press.

3. Reference

Auroux, S. et al. 2000-2006. History of the Language Sciences. 3 vols. De Gruyter. Stammerjohann, H. et al. (eds.) 2009. Lexicon Grammaticorum: a Bio-Bibliographical Companion to the History of Linguistics. 2nd ed. Tbingen: Niemeyer.

4. Periodicals

Beitrge zur Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft. (The Journal of the German and Dutch Societies for the History of Linguistics). Bulletin of the Henry Sweet Society. (Journal of the British Society for the History of Linguistics). Histoire pistmologie Langage. (Journal of the Socit d'Histoire et d'pistmologie des Sciences du Langage). Historiographia Linguistica. (Benjamins). @Historiographia Linguistica

These are periodicals specialized in the history of linguistics; other articles in the subject appear in periodicals about linguistics or about the history of ideas.

H. Computational Linguistics
General textbooks

James Allen. 1994. Natural Language Understanding. 2nd edition. Addison-Wesley. Daniel Jurafsky and James H. Martin. 2008.Speech and Language Processing (2nd Edition). Prentice-Hall.

Programming resources

William Clocksin and Chris Mellish. Programming in Prolog. 4th edition. Springer Verlag, 1994. ISBN 0-38-75835-0. There are also various web-based Prolog courses. A good one oriented to computational linguistics is that by Blackburn, Bos, and Striegnitz:

A classic book giving many useful programming examples is: Femando C.N. Pereira and Stuart M. Shieber 1987. Prolog and Natural-Language Analysis. CSLI Publications, University of Chicago Press. Available on-line:


@Computational Linguistics

G. Historical Linguistics
1. Introductory texts

Aitchison, J. 2001. Language change: Progress or decay? 3rd edition. CUP Anttila, R. 1972. An Introduction to Historical and comparative linguistics. Macmillan. Antilla, R. 1989. Historical and comparative linguistics. 2nd edition. John Benjamins. Bynon, T. 1983. Historical linguistics. 2nd edition. CUP. Campbell, L. 2004. Historical Linguistics. An Introduction. 2nd edition. Edinburgh University Press. Crowley, T. 2010. An Introduction to Historical Linguistics, 4th edition, OUP. Hock, H.H. 1991. Principles of Historical Linguistics,. 2nd edition, Mouton de Gruyter. Hock, H.H. and B.D. Joseph 2009.Language History, Language Change, and Language Relationship: An Introduction to Historical and Comparative Linguistics. 2nd ed. Mouton de Gruyter.

McMahon, A.M.S. 1994. Understanding Language Change. CUP. Trask, R.L. 2007. Trask's Historical Linguistics. 2nd edition, revised by Robert McColl Millar. Hodder Arnold.

2. More advanced work

Bloomfield, L. 1933. Language. Chicago. A classic; the second part is dedicated to historical linguistics and though outdated is still important. Croft, W. 2000. Explaining Language Change. CUP. Dixon, R. 1997. The Rise and Fall of Languages. CUP. Durie, M. and M. Ross (eds). 1996. The Comparative Method Reviewed. OUP. Fox, A. 1995. Linguistic Reconstruction. An Introduction to Theory and Method. OUP. Harris, A., and L. Campbell. 1995. Historical syntax in cross-linguistic perspective. CUP. Heine, B., U. Claudi, and F. Hnnemeyer. 1991. Grammaticalization: A conceptual framework. Chicago University Press. Hopper, P. J., and E. Closs Traugott. 2003. Grammaticalization. 2nd edition. CUP. Joseph, B.D. and R.D. Janda (eds). 2003. The Handbook of Historical Linguistics. Blackwell. Kemenade, A. van and N. Vincent, 1997. Parameters of Morphosyntactic Change. CUP. Labov, W. 1994-2010 Principles of Linguistic Change. Vol. I. Internal Factors; Vol. II. Social Factors. Vol. III. Cognitive and Cultural Factors. Blackwell. Lass, R. 1997. Historical Linguistics and Language Change. CUP. Lightfoot, D. 1991. How to Set Parameters: Arguments from Language Change. MITP. Lightfoot, D. 1999. The Development of Language: Acquisition, Change and Evolution . Blackwell. Milroy, J. 1992. Linguistic Variation and Change: on the Historical Sociolinguistics of English . Blackwell. Thomason, S.G. and T. Kaufmann, 1988.Language Contact, Creolization and Genetic Linguistics . California University Press.



Some of the best work in historical linguistics is published either in general linguistics journals or in the journals dedicated to specific languages or language groups. The old periodicals tend to be dedicated mainly to Indo-European studies (Indogermanische Forschungen and also @Historische Sprachforschung which has replaced the old Zeitschrift fr Vergleichende Sprachwissenschaft). Two more modern journals concentrate on historical linguistics: Folia linguistica historica and @Diachronica; historical articles also appear frequently in the @Transactions of the Philological Society.

A. Syntax
1. Introductory texts

Borsley, R. 1999. Syntactic Theory: a Unified Approach. 2nd ed. Hodder Arnold. A basic text including comparison of alternative syntactic approaches. Carnie, A. 2007. Syntax. A Generative Introduction (second edition). Wiley-Blackwell. Clearly-written, mainly focusing on transformational theory but also containing some discussion of nontransformational theories.

Falk, Yehuda. 2001. Lexical Functional Grammar: An Introduction to Parallel Constraint-Based Syntax. CSLI. Introduces Lexical Functional Grammar; targeted at readers with some background in transformational (especially GB) theory.

Haegeman, L. 1994. Introduction to Government and Binding Theory . 2nd ed. Wiley-Blackwell. A classic introduction to GB theory. Kroeger, P. 2005. Analyzing syntax: A lexical-functional approach. CUP. Presents the fundamentals of Lexical Functional Grammar in a clear and engaging manner, but in an unusual (and nonstandard) formal format.

Sag, I., Wasow, T. and Bender, E. 2003.

Syntactic Theory: A Formal Introduction. 2nd ed.

CSLI. A well-organized introduction to Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Tallerman, M. 2011. Understanding Syntax. 3rd ed. Hodder Education. Very basic, useful for students with no syntactic background at all. Van Valin, Robert. 2001. An introduction to syntax. CUP. Includes examples from a wide variety of languages. 2. Specialized texts and research works

Adger, D. 2003. Core Syntax. A minimalist approach. OUP. An introduction to Minimalism. Bresnan, J. 2001. (New edition 2012) Lexical-Functional Syntax. Wiley-Blackwell. High-level introduction to Lexical Functional Grammar. Chomsky, N. 1957. Syntactic Structures. Mouton. The founding volume for generative syntax.

Chomsky, N. 1993. Lectures on Government and Binding. 7th ed. Mouton de Gruyter. The inaugural volume of GB theory. Chomsky, N. 1995. The Minimalist Program. MITP. Chomsky's lecture notes from 1993-95. Croft, William. 2001. Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective. OUP. A typologically oriented approach to syntactic theory.

Dalrymple, M. 2001. Lexical Functional Grammar. Academic Press. A comprehensive overview of Lexical Functional theory, including syntax and semantics. Culicover, Peter W. and Ray Jackendoff. 2005. Simpler Syntax. OUP. An introduction to the Simpler Syntax hypothesis, a nontransformational approach to grammatical theory.

Lasnik, H. and Uriaguareka, J. 2005. A Course in Minimalist Syntax: Foundations and Prospects. Wiley-Blackwell. Pollard, C. and I. Sag. 1994. Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. CSLI. A thorough (but now somewhat dated) overview of HPSG. Riemsdijk, H. van and Williams, E. 1986. Introduction to the Theory of Grammar. MIT Press. Features a useful historical approach to the development of selected issues in syntax, tracing developments and alternatives from 1960 or so to 1985.

Steedman, M. 2001. The syntactic process. MIT Press. Overview and introduction to Combinatory Categorial Grammar. Webelhuth, G. ed. 1995. Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program. WileyBlackwell. Advanced introductions to issues in transformational theory, subdivided by syntactic module.

3. Reference Handbooks:

Cinque, G. and R. Kayne. 2004. Oxford Handbook of Comparative Syntax. Oxford. Baltin, M. and C. Collins. 2000. Handbook of Contemporary Syntactic Theory. Blackwell.

Reference grammars for English:

Biber, D., S. Johansson, G. Leech, S. Conrad and E. Finegan. 1999. Grammar of Spoken and Written English. Longman. Huddleston, R. and Pullum, G. 2002. Cambridge Grammar of the English Language. CUP. Quirk, R. et al. 1972. A Grammar of Contemporary English. Longman. Quirk, R. and Greenbaum, S. 1973. A University Grammar of English. Longman. Short version of the above.



@ Linguistic Inquiry. Syntax and Phonology, MIT style. @Natural Language and Linguistic Theory. Syntax, including novel descriptive work. Some phonology. The Linguistic Review. Syntax and Phonology.

Rivista di Linguistica. Thematic issues. Syntax, phonology, phonetics and occasionally other. Theoretical Linguistics. Syntax and Phonology. Linguistic Analysis. Syntax and Phonology. Cahiers Linguistiques d'Ottawa. Syntax and Phonology. @The Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics. Generative syntax and phonology. @Journal of East Asian Linguistics. Generative syntax and phonology. @Word Structure. Syntax and Morphology.

5. Working Papers and Conference Proceedings General conferences and working papers series always include papers in both syntax and phonology, almost always some in semantics, and often contain papers in mathematical linguistics, computational linguistics, pragmatics, and language acquisition. Those listed below are useful, therefore, outside syntax proper. Only specialized conferences are listed in subsequent sections of this bibliography. Besides working papers, many institutions distribute bound copies of their doctoral dissertations at low prices. Some of these, and some of the works listed below, are available in the Centre for Linguistics and Philology.

MIT Working Papers in Linguistics (MITWPL) University of Massachusetts Occasional Papers in Linguistics (UMOP) Proceedings of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS). Proceedings of the Chicago Linguistics Society (CLS) Proceedings of the West Coast Conference in Formal Linguistics (WCCFL) Proceedings of the North East Linguistic Society (NELS) Proceedings of the Formal Linguistics Society of Mid-America (FLSM) Proceedings of the Eastern States Conference on Linguistics (ESCOL) On-Line Proceedings of the LFG and HPSG Conferences MIT Lexicon Project Working Papers MIT Occasional Papers in Linguistics CSLI Occasional Papers, Stanford University Proceedings of the Conference of Generative Linguists of the Old World (GLOW) University College London Working Papers in Linguistics and Phonetics York Papers in Linguistics School of Oriental and African Studies Working Papers in Linguistics Cornell University Occasional Papers in Linguistics Rutgers University Occasional Papers in Cognitive Science Catalan Working Papers in Linguistics UCLA Occasional Papers in Linguistics Oxford University Working Papers in Linguistics, Philology and Phonetics

B. Semantics and Pragmatics

1. Introductory


Aitchison, J. 2003. Words in the Mind: An Introduction to the Mental Lexicon . 3rd edition. Blackwell. Blakemore, D. 1992. Understanding Utterances. Blackwell. An Introduction to Pragmatics. Cann, R. 1993. Formal Semantics. CUP. Elementary logic, including modal logic, standardly employed in semantic theory. Cruse, D.A. 1986. Lexical Semantics. CUP. Cruse, D.A. 2011. Meaning in Language. An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics. 3rd ed. OUP. Jaszczolt, K. 2002. Semantics and Pragmatics: Meaning in Language and Discourse. Longman. Levinson, S.C. 1983. Pragmatics. CUP. A standard, balanced textbook. Lyons, J. 1995. Linguistic Semantics: An Introduction. CUP. Saeed, J. 2009 Semantics. 3rd edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Higher-level texts and research works.

Carston, R. 2002. Thoughts and Utterances: The Pragmantics of Explicit Communication . Blackwell. Chierchia, G. and McConnell-Ginet, S. 2000. Meaning and Grammar. 2nd edition. MITP. An introduction to intensional logic as a tool for semantic description, together with extended discussions of general topics in semantics and pragmatics.

Heim, I. and Kratzer, A. 1998. Semantics in Generative Grammar. Blackwell. Kadmon, N. 2001. Formal Pragmatics: Semantics, Pragmatics, Presupposition, and Focus. Blackwell. Kamp, H. and Reyle, U. 1993. From Discourse to Logic. Kluwer. Introduction to Discourse Representation Theory. Lappin, S. 1995. Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory. Blackwell. Advanced introductory essays on semantics in generative grammar. Larson, R. and Segal, 1995.Knowledge of Meaning. MITP. An introduction to and defence of truth-theoretic semantics as a theory of semantic competence. Levinson, S.C. 2000. Presumptive Meanings. The Theory of Generalized Conversational Implicature. MITP. Portner, P. and B. Partee (eds). 2002. Formal Semantics: The essential readings. Blackwell Sperber, D. and Wilson, D. 1995. Relevance: Communication and Cognition. 2nd edition. Blackwell. A theory of pragmatic implication, with criticisms of other approaches.



Benthem, J. van and Meulen, A. ter (eds.) 1996. Handbook of Logic and Language. Elsevier. Davis, S. (ed.) 1990. Pragmatics. OUP. A collection of influential and (mostly) recent articles. Lyons, J, 1977. Semantics. 2 vols. OUP. General introductory sections in volume 1 can still be recommended for straight reading. Martinich, P. 2008. The Philosophy of Language. 3rd edition. 5th ed. OUP. Classical and contemporary background. Peacocke, C. 1993. The International Research Library of Philosophy, vol. 7. Understanding and Sense. 2 volumes. Dartmouth. Recent philosophical articles, culled from journals.


Relevance Theory Online Bibliographic Service Turner, Ken. (ed) 1999. The Semantics/Pragmatics Interface from Different Points of View. Elsevier. Ward, G. and L. Horn (eds) 2003. Handbook of Pragmatics. Blackwell.



@Linguistics and Philosophy.Formal semantics, some philosophical and formal logic, some philosophy. @Natural Language Semantics @Cognition A leading journal of cognitive science, with articles on linguistics and psycholinguistics. @Computational Linguistics. As it says, but much is applied syntax and semantics. Journal of Semantics. Semantics. @Journal of Pragmatics. Wide range of articles, including developmental; some issues on special topics. @Pragmatics and Cognition. Eclectic, with papers verging toward philosophy and psychology as well as semantics and pragmatics. @Journal of Logic, Language and Information. Mostly mathematical work on formalization of grammars and semantics. @Journal of historical Pragmatics. @International Review of Pragmatics. @Pragmatics.

Working Papers and Conference Proceedings

Proceedings of the Conference on Semantics and Linguistic Theory (SALT) Proceedings of the Amsterdam Colloquium

C. Phonetics
Those marked with * are especially recommended for purchase. 1. Introductory Texts

Abercrombie, D. 1967. Elements of General Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press. Brief and excellent, without technicalities. Raphael, L. J., G. Borden & K. Harris. 2007. Speech Science Primer. 5th ed. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins. For many years a standard introduction to speech acoustics and physiology. Catford, J.C. 2001. A Practical Introduction to Phonetics. 2nd ed. OUP. A shorter volume than Catford 1977 (see below), giving similar but less detailed coverage of the articulatory questions.

Clark, J, C. Yallop & J. Fletcher. 2007. An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology. 3rd edition. Blackwell. Basic phonetics with modern phonology in one volume. Comprehensive, broad coverage.

Davenport, M. and S.J. Hannahs. 2010. Introducing Phonetics and Phonology. 3rd ed. Arnold. Fry, D. 1979. The Physics of Speech. CUP. A gentle introduction to basic acoustics for phoneticians. *International Phonetic Association. 1999.Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. CUP. Johnson, K. 2003. Acoustic and Auditory Phonetics. 2nd ed. Blackwell. Rather more up-to-date than Fry, with a very clear, elementary approach to digital signal processing.

Ladefoged, P. & K. Johnson. 2011. A Course in Phonetics. 6th ed. Cengage. A standard textbook, with numerous practical exercises *Ladefoged, P. 2005. Vowels and Consonants. 2nd ed. Blackwell. Laver, J. 1994. Principles of Phonetics. CUP. Lieberman, P. and S.E. Blumstein 1988. Speech Physiology, Speech Perception, and Acoustic Phonetics. CUP.


Advanced Texts

Abercrombie, D. 1965. Studies in Phonetics and Linguistics. OUP. Abercrombie, D. 1991. Fifty Years in Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press. Baken, R. & R. F. Orlikoff. 2000. Clinical Measurement of Speech and Voice. 2nd ed. Thompson Learning. Very detailed description of acoustics and workings of a wide range of instruments. Catford, J.C. 1977. Fundamental Problems in Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press. Detailed, carefully argued, but idiosyncratic discussions of major areas of phonetics. Hardcastle, W. 1976. Physiology of Speech Production. Academic Press. Henderson, E.J.A. 1971. The Indispensable Foundation: A Selection From the Writings of Henry Sweet. OUP.

Ladefoged, P. 1967. Three Areas of Experimental Phonetics. OUP. Accounts of elegant experiments, each still seminal, in three contrasting fields; an object lesson in how to do research.


*Lass, N.J., ed. 1996. Principles of Experimental Phonetics. Mosby. A very informative course, with each chapter by a leader in the field. Excellent value for money. Jones, W.E & J. Laver 1973. Phonetics in Linguistics: a Book of Readings. Longman.


Gimson, A. 2008. Gimson's Pronunciation of English. 7th edition, revised by A. Cruttenden. Hodder. The standard description of RP [Received Pronunciation], with much information on variation. Not too technical.

Hardcastle, W.J. and J. Laver, eds. 2010. The Handbook of Phonetic Sciences. 2nd ed. Blackwell. A compendious collection of overview papers, each of which is consequently rather brief. Lass (1996) is rather better value.

Kent, R.D., B.S. Atal and J.L. Miller (eds.) (1991). Papers in Speech Communication: Speech Production. Acoustical Society of America. Definitive collection of many important research papers in speech production.


Ladefoged, P. and I. Maddieson 1995. The Sounds of the World's Languages . Blackwell. A very broad and accurate survey. Olive, J. P., A. Greenwood and J.Coleman 1993. Acoustics of American English Speech. Springer Verlag. Stevens, K.N. 1998. Acoustic Phonetics. MITP. An excellent and comprehensive work. Wells, J.C. 2008. Longman Pronunciation Dictionary. 3rd ed. Pearson Education.

Journals on Phonetics

Location key: PL Bod RSL T Psych. Phonetics Laboratory Bodleian Library Radcliffe Science Library Taylor Institution Library Experimental Psychology Library

@Journal of Phonetics. PL, Bod. T @Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. RSL, some in PL. @Phonetica. PL (1988-). Bod. @Speech Communication. PL (1988-). @Journal of the International Phonetic Association. PL (1987-) @ IEEE Transactions on Speech and Audio Processing. RSL. @Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. RSL @Language and Speech.Bod.

The journals Language, @Phonologyand @Journal of Linguistics may also have important papers in phonetics from time to time. (Language on OU e-journals until 2004)


Working Papers

Important work is very often disseminated first through working papers, only being published in refereed journals much later. The Phonetics Laboratory has an extensive collection of Working Papers from other institutions.

D. Phonology
Those marked with * are especially recommended for purchase. 1. Introductory Texts

*Roca, I. and W. Johnson, 1999. A Course in Phonology. Blackwell. Main coursebook for the first term of phonology lectures. A gentle introduction to phonological theory, presupposing no prior knowledge of phonetics or phonology.

Carr, P. 1993. Phonology. Macmillan. A gently-paced introduction to generative phonology, with plenty of practical exercises. Durand, J. 1990. Generative and Non-Linear Phonology. Longman. A clear but concise introduction to the most recent theories and issues in phonology. Goldsmith, J.A. 1990. Autosegmental and Metrical Phonology. Blackwell. A first full-length introduction to non-linear phonology. Fudge, E. 1973. Phonology. Penguin. Classic readings in mainly pre-generative phonology. Good for historical perspective. Lass, R. 1984. Phonology. CUP. A more advanced introduction to phonological theory, stopping short of the most recent developments. Written in a challenging and argumentative style, it is not for the complete beginner, nor for reading in large chunks. Very valuable for a critical view of principles and developments, and for a wide range of references and linguistic data.

*Gussenhoven, C. & Jacobs, H. (2011). Understanding phonology. 3rd ed. London: Hodder Arnold.

2. Advanced Texts

Anderson, S. 1985. Phonology in the Twentieth Century. University of Chicago Press. A comprehensive survey of the development of phonology, from a generative perspective. Bird, S. 1995. Computational Phonology : A constraint-based approach. CUP. Chomsky, N. & M. Halle 1968. The Sound Pattern of English (usually abbreviated to SPE). Harper and Row. Reissued in paperback by MIT Press. The classic exposition of generative phonology. Necessary reading for an understanding of the foundations of generative phonology, though many of its central proposals have been superseded by work of the 70s and 80s.

Coleman, J. S. 1998. Phonological Representations: Their names, forms and powers. CUP. Goldsmith, J.A., 1999. ed. Phonological theory: The Essential Readings. Blackwell. Hayes, B. 1995. Metrical Stress Theory. University of Chicago. Kelly, J. and J. Local 1989. Doing Phonology. University of Manchester Press. A personal and idiosyncratic view of the practise of phonetic observation leading to phonological analysis. A valuable complement to theoretical textbooks.

Kenstowicz, M. 1994. Phonology in Generative Grammar. Blackwell. A comprehensive introduction to 1990s phonology. A fundamental text for the Hilary Term lecture course.

Lass, R. 1984. Phonology. CUP. A more advanced introduction to concepts in phonological theory, stopping short of the most recent developments. Written in a challenging and argumentative style, it is not for the complete beginner, nor for reading in large chunks. Very valuable for a critical view of principles and developments, and for a wide range of references and linguistic data.

Roca, I. 1994. Generative Phonology. Routledge. Sommerstein, A. 1977. Modern Phonology. Edward Amold. Broad-ranging and critical, without the idiosyncrasies of Lass. Excellent coverage of nongenerative approaches. Trubetzkoy, N. 1969. Principles of Phonology (trans. C. Baltaxe). University of Chicago Press. Original Grundzge der Phonologie, 1939; French translation Principes de Phonologie, 1964. The first major work to conceive of a phonology distinct from phonetics. Source of many of the fundamental concepts of phonology.

3. Reference

Fischer-Jrgensen, E. 1995. Trends in Phonological Theory until 1975: a Historical Introduction. 2nd ed. Copenhagen: C.A. Reitzel. A survey of mainly pre-generative phonology. Goldsmith, J.A., J. Riggle & A.C. Yu. 2011. The Handbook of Phonological Theory. 2nd ed. Blackwell. Maddieson, I. 1984. Patterns of Sounds. CUP. A wide-scale survey of the phoneme inventories of hundreds of the world's languages.

4. Phonology Workbooks The following are useful collections of phonology exercises, similar (or even identical!) to those used in problem classes, and with practical advice on phonological analysis and rule-writing.

Halle, M. & G. N. Clements 1983. Problem Book in Phonology. MITP. Roca, I, and W. Johnson, 1999. A Workbook in Phonology. Whitley, W.S. 1978. Generative Phonology Workbook. University of Wisconsin Press.

5. Journals on Phonology Phonology articles are spread over the major linguistics journals (see above), and are frequently highlevel research documents. Serials devoted mainly to phonology are:

@Phonology Phonetics and Phonology (a series of thematic volumes) Phonology (1984-; initially called Phonology Yearbook). PL,T.

E. Morphology
1. Introductory texts

Aronoff, Mark and Fuderman, Kirsten. 2011. What is Morphology? 2nd ed. Oxford: WileyBlackwell. Booij, Geert. 2007 The Grammar of Words. An Introduction to linguistic Morphology. 2nd ed. OUP. Carstairs-McCarthy, A. 1992. Current Morphology. Routledge. Katamba, F. & J.T. Stonham. 2006. Morphology. Palgrave Macmillan. Matthews, P. 1991. Morphology. 2nd edition. CUP. Spencer, A. 1991. Morphological Theory. Blackwell. Haspelmath, M. 2010. Understanding Morphology. 2nd ed. Hodder Education.

2. Higher level texts and research works

Anderson, S. 1992. A-Morphous Morphology. CUP. Aronoff, M. 1993 Morphology By Itself. MITP. Baker, M. 1988. Incorporation. Chicago University Press. Bazell, C. 1949 On the problem of the morpheme in E. Hamp, F. Householder and R. Austerlitz. 1966. Readings in Linguistics Vol.2, pp. 216-226, University of Chicago Press. Beard, Robert. 1995 Lexeme Morpheme Base Morphology. SUNY. Bybee, J. 1985. Morphology: a study of the relation between meaning and form. 1995. Benjamins. Carstairs, A. 1987. Allomorphy in Inflexion. Croom Helm. Dressler, W. 1985. Morphonology: the dynamics of derivation. Karoma. Hammond, M. and Noonan, M. (eds). 1988. Theoretical Morphology: approaches in modern linguistics. Academic Press. Hockett, C. 1954. Two models of grammatical description. Word 10, pp. 210-31. Lieber, R. 1992. Deconstructing Morphology. Chicago. Matthews, P. 1993. Grammatical Theory in the United States. CUP. [for an overview of Bloomfieldian and post-Bloomfieldian morphological theory] Matthews, P. 1972. Inflectional Morphology. CUP. Plank, F. (ed.) 1991. Paradigms: the economy of inflection. Mouton De Gruyter. Stump, G. 2001. Inflectional Morphology. A theory of paradigm structure. CUP. Wurzel, W. 1989. System-dependent morphological naturalness in inflection, in Dressler, W., Mayerthaler, W., Panagl, 0. and Wurzel, U. (eds.) 1989. Leitmotifs in Natural Morphology. Benjamins, pp.59-96.


Wurzel, W. 1989. Inflectional Morphology and Naturalness. Kluwer.



Spencer, A. and Zwicky, A. 1998. The Handbook of Morphology. Blackwell.


A journal dealing exclusively with morphology is the Morphology (formerly Yearbook of Morphology / Morphology Yearbook) [Bod.l. All the major linguistics journals (e.g., Language, Lingua, Linguistics, Journal of Linguistics) regularly carry articles on morphology.

The schedule for the examinations to be offered for the M.Phil. and M.St. comprises:

one general examination as indicated in A two or three examinations from those listed in B, C or D.



1. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Linguistic Theory Phonetics and Phonology Syntax Semantics Historical and Comparative Linguistics Psycholinguistics and Neurolinguistics History and Structure of a Language Experimental Phonetics Sociolinguistics Computational Linguistics Any one option from those offered as C options for the M. St. in English Language (e.g. Lexicography, Language and Gender, or English as a World Language).

11. Any other subject which from time to time the Faculty Board at its own discretion may consider suitable. C 1. 2. 3. D 1. 2. 3. The comparative grammar of two Indo-European languages or language-groups The historical grammar of the languages or language-groups selected Translation from, and linguistic comment upon, texts in the languages selected The history of one or two languages The structure of the language or languages selected Either a) Translation from, and/or linguistic comment upon, texts in the language or languages selected Or b) Any examination from B above, except for History and Structure of Language.

Some of the papers listed under B require background knowledge that is difficult to acquire in a single year, and M.St. students are advised to choose these papers only if they already have substantial previous training in relevant background subjects: these include Experimental Phonetics, Computational Linguistics, and the thesis option in Sociolinguistics. The language or languages selected by candidates who wish to offer the papers listed under C should normally be ancient Indo-European languages, whilst for those listed under D the languages may be

ancient (e.g. Ancient Greek, Latin, Sanskrit, Akkadian) or Modern (e.g. French, Italian, German, English, Turkish).Only languages for which teaching is available at the time may be offered. Examinations are regularly taken at the end of the third term for the M.St., and at the end of the sixth term for the M.Phil. though the M.Phil. thesis must be submitted at the beginning of that term, The examinations are not classified (that is, they are graded pass or fail only) though for exceptionally good results it is possible to obtain a distinction. For the M.Phil. the thesis is an integral part of the examination. Students who have taken the written papers for their degrees must present themselves for an oral (viva voce) examination. By Oxford convention, the results of a viva can only improve, not worsen, the candidate's chances of success.

D.Phil. degree
The D.Phil. is an advanced research degree for qualified students who are ready to begin thesis work in General Linguistics (including Phonetics but not Applied Linguistics), in Historical and Comparative Philology and Linguistics, or in the linguistics of a specific language. Though the degree does not have a coursework requirement, D.Phil. candidates are encouraged to attend lectures and seminars in the Faculty. Successful applicants for the D.Phil. degree who have completed an M.Phil. under the Faculty of Linguistics, Philology, and Phonetics may be admitted directly into the D.Phil. programme; they are required to spend one additional year in residence in Oxford. Candidates without an Oxford M.Phil. are expected to have a background in Linguistics comparable to the M.Phil, and successful applicants are admitted as Probationer Research Students. Probationer Research Students normally transfer to D.Phil. status in the third term of their first year at Oxford. Examiners for the D.Phil. thesis must certify that the thesis makes a significant and substantial contribution to knowledge or understanding in the field of learning within which the subject of the thesis falls, that it demonstrates a good general knowledge of the field of learning within which the subject of the thesis falls, and that it is presented in a lucid and scholarly manner. The examiners are required to bear in mind what may reasonably be expected of a capable and diligent student after full-time study for three or at the most four years. The thesis for the D.Phil. shall not exceed 100,000 words in length.

Recognised Students
Recognised Student status is a special status for visiting postgraduate research students. Recognised Student status can be held from one to three terms. You must be registered with another university, and can then be admitted by a University faculty or department at Oxford to undertake research under the guidance of an Oxford academic. If admitted, you will be allocated an Academic Advisor, who will give general advice about the research topic, but not systematic instruction, such as reading and commenting on written work, as you are

expected to be sufficiently well advanced in your studies to undertake research largely unsupervised. The Advisor would normally expect to see you only two or three times each term, and would discuss the work as a colleague rather than as a teacher. More information is available at

Additional information
The Graduate Handbook provides basic guidance for graduate students of linguistics, philology and phonetics at Oxford. It explains the procedures with which students may become involved and indicates the scope of the work required for the various degrees. It is available on the graduate web pages (, along with other information about our graduate programmes.