# Lecture #5

Translational Equilibrium (2D Coplaner Force Systems, Reference Chapter 3, section 3)

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R. Michael PE 8/14/2012

Newton’s First Law of Motion
A body at rest will stay at rest and a body in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.  Therefore, sum of all forces must be zero:

F=0
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Newton’s Second Law of Motion

The acceleration a body undergoes when experiencing an unbalanced force is proportional to the magnitude of the unbalanced force, in the direction of the unbalanced force, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object – Basis of Dynamics

 F = ma
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Motion in a straight line.Motion Definitions Rectilinear Motion .  Translational Motion . this is studied in dynamics!  4 .Motion where the body does not rotate  Again.

5 . for a particle in equilibrium. Coplanar Force Systems) When a body is in this state there are no unbalanced forces acting on it. They can be used to solve for up to two unknowns.  In general.e.2D Particle Static Equilibrium (i. Section 2.3.  F = 0 or  Fx i +  Fy j = 0 = 0 i + 0 j (a vector equation) Or. Fx = 0 and  Fy = 0 These are two scalar equations of equilibrium (E-of-E). written in a scalar form.  The Resultant Force has a magnitude of zero.

the following situation occurs ΣFx = 0  ΣFy = 0  ΣFz = 0  6 .3D Particle Static Equilibrium  Because the resultant force is balanced.

 F x   Using Components: y  0.Summary: 2D Static Equilibrium: F  0  F  0. F z 0 F2 F1 Graphically: F  0  F  F  F 7 1 2 3 F3 .

so can solve for 2 unknowns Find magnitudes of two forces with known directions  Find magnitude and direction of one force. knowing magnitude and direction of other force(s)   In 3D have 3 equations.Static Equilibrium Problems  In 2D. so can solve for 3 unknowns Do simple 2D 8 . have 2 equations.

then particle A is also in equilibrium. 9 . you need to learn how to draw a free body diagram and apply equations of equilibrium.2D COPLANAR FORCE SYSTEMS (Section 3. If the whole assembly is in equilibrium. To determine the tensions in the cables for a given weight of the cylinder.3) This is an example of a 2-D or coplanar force system.

Why ? .It is a drawing that shows all external forces acting on the particle. 10 . What ? . WHY AND HOW OF A FREE BODY DIAGRAM (FBD) Free Body Diagrams are one of the most important things for you to know how to draw and use.It is key to being able to write the equations of equilibrium— which are used to solve for the unknowns (usually forces or angles).THE WHAT.

Active forces: They want to move the particle. Show all unknown magnitudes and / or directions as variables . 3.4 N (What is this?) . Reactive forces: They tend to resist the motion. Imagine the particle to be isolated or cut free from its surroundings.How ? 1. Show all the forces that act on the particle. 2. y FBD at A FD A A FB 30˚ x Note : Cylinder mass = 40 Kg 11 FC = 392. Identify each force and show all known magnitudes and directions.

EQUATIONS OF 2-D EQUILIBRIUM FBD at A y FB 30˚ x Since particle A is in equilibrium. They can be used to solve for up to two unknowns. for a particle in equilibrium.4 N In general. So FB + FC + FD = 0 FD A A or  F = 0 A FC = 392. FBD at A  F = 0 or  Fx i +  Fy j = 0 = 0 i + 0 j (a vector equation) Or. the net force at A is zero. Fx = 0 and  Fy = 0 These are two scalar equations of equilibrium (E-of-E). written in a scalar form. 12 .

4 N = 0 Solving the second equation gives: FB = 785 N → From the first equation. we get: FD = 680 N ← 13 .EXAMPLE y FBD at A 30˚ x FB FD A A FC = 392.4 N Note : Cylinder mass = 40 Kg Write the scalar E-of-E: +   Fx = FB cos 30º – FD = 0 +   Fy = FB sin 30º – 392.

SPRINGS. CABLES. AND PULLEYS T1 T1 T2 Spring Force = spring constant * deformation. T 1 = T 2= T 14 See HO . or F=k*s With a frictionless pulley.

Plan: 1. Draw a FBD for Point C. 2. Knowing FCB . 15 . Apply E-of-E at Point C to solve for the unknowns (FCB & FCD). repeat this process at point B.EXAMPLE Given: Cylinder E weighs 30 lb and the geometry is as shown. Find: Forces in the cables and weight of cylinder F. 3.

4 lb FCD = 112.EXAMPLE (continued) y FCD 30 x 15 A FBD at C should look like the one at the left.0 lb 16 . Note the assumed directions for the two cable tensions. FBC 30 lb The scalar E-of-E are: +   Fx = FBC cos 15º – FCD cos 30º = 0 +  Fy = FCD sin 30º – FBC sin 15º – 30 = 0 Solving these two simultaneous equations for the two unknowns FBC and FCD yields: FBC = 100.

EXAMPLE (continued) y FBC =100.4 cos 15 = 0    Fy = FBA sin 45 + 100. A FBD for B should look like the one to the left.4 sin 15 – WF = 0 Solving the first equation and then the second yields FBA = 137 lb 17 and WF = 123 lb . WF The scalar E-of-E are:    Fx = FBA cos 45 – 100.4 lb 15 FBA 45 x Now move on to ring B.

GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING Given: The box weighs 550 lb and geometry is as shown. 2. Find: The forces in the ropes AB and AC. Plan: 1. Draw a FBD for point A. Apply the E-of-E to solve for the forces in ropes AB and AC. 18 .

550 lb = 0 Solving the above equations. +   F x = FB cos 30° – FC (4/5) = 0 +   F y = FB sin 30° + FC (3/5) . we get.GROUP PROBLEM SOLVING (continued) y FB 30 ˚ A 5 4 3 FC FBD at point A x FD = 550 lb Applying the scalar E-of-E at A. FB = 478 lb and FC = 518 lb 19 . we get.

Select the correct FBD of particle A.ATTENTION QUIZ 1. 30 A 40 100 lb F1 F2 30 A D) A A 100 lb 20 A) A 100 lb F B) 40° C) 30° F1 30° F2 40° 100 lb .

the sum of forces in the x-direction ( FX) is ___ . A) F2 sin 50° – 20 = 0 B) F2 cos 50° – 20 = 0 C) F2 sin 50° – F1 = 0 D) F2 cos 50° + 20 = 0 20 lb 50° F2 C F1 21 . Using this FBD of Point C. Use a sign convention of +  .ATTENTION QUIZ 2.

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READING QUIZ 1) When a particle is in equilibrium. (Choose the most appropriate answer) A) A constant D) A negative number B) A positive number E) An integer C) Zero 2) For a frictionless pulley and cable. the sum of forces acting on it equals ___ . tensions in the cable (T1 and T2) are related as _____ . A) T1 > T2 B) T1 = T2 C) T1 < T2 D) T1 = T2 sin  T1 T2 .

Take F = 300 N and d = 1 m Practice Problem 1 Reference 3-18/19.Determine the forces in cables AC and AB needed to hold the 20-kg ball D in equilibrium. 29 .

30 .Determine the tensions developed in wires CD. CB and BA and the angle  required for equilibrium of the 30 lb cylinder E and 60 lb cylinder F. Practice Problem 2 Reference 3-26.

Practice Problem 3 Reference 3-14.Determine the stretch in springs AC and AB for equilibrium of the 2kg block. 31 . The springs are shown in the equilibrium position.

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