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# Dr.

Neal, WKU

MATH 117

Angular Velocity vs. Linear Velocity

Given an object with a fixed speed that is moving in a circle with a fixed radius, we can define the angular velocity ! of the object. That is, we can determine how fast the radian measure of the angle is changing as the object moves on its circular path.

r

v

!

v = linear speed ! = angular speed v =!r r

We always use radians as the unit of measure when working with angular velocity. For instance, our angular velocities should be in units such as (rad ) / sec or (rad ) / hr . However sometimes we will give the result in other layman’s terms, such as revolutions per minute or degrees per second, so as to give a better understanding of how fast the angle is moving. But in order to do calculations with angular velocity, we always must use radians. (rad ) ! ft Note though that radians will be an “invisible” unit. For example the units sec will yield ft/sec. Relationship Between Angular Velocity ! and Linear Velocity v Given a fixed speed v and radius r , then

v = !r

!=

v r

!=

2" time of 1 rev.

Example 1. A cylinder with a 2.5 ft radius is rotating at 120 rpm. (a) Give the angular velocity in rad/sec and in degrees per second. (b) Find the linear velocity of a point on its rim in mph. Solution. (a) To convert rpm (revolutions per minute) to radians per second, we first note that there are 2 ! radians per revolution. We then have

but we must be in the correct units. Also express the result in revolutions per minute. Find the angular velocity of a point on its rim. " 2. So we write (rad ) / hr . but we must make sure that v and r have matching length units. (Note: One 360 rotation on the axis is not the same as the actual length of a day due to the planet’s orbital movement relative to the Sun. A tire with a 9 inch radius is rotating at 30 mph.200 ≈ 560. however.5 ft = 10 ! sec sec ft ft sec 1 mile = 10 ! " 3600 " ≈ 21. hr hr 2 ! rad 60 min Planetary Equatorial Velocities We also can find the angular velocity and the linear velocity at the equator of a planet given that we know the radius of the planet r and the time that it takes for the planet to ! ! make one ( 360 ) rotation on its axis. Solution. WKU 120 Them we have 4 ! rev rev rad 1 min rad .Dr. Note that the units actually come out as How many revolutions per minute are there with this spinning tire? Because one revolution is 2π radians. Thus. ! =v ! 1 % in 1 " miles ft ( rad) ' 30 ! ! 5280 =$ = 211. The angular velocity must use radians. Neal.42 mph. We simply use ! = v / r .200 ( rad) ( rad) 1 rev 1 hr ! ! = 211. we have 211. = 120 ! 2" ! = 4" min min rev 60 sec sec rad rad 180 deg = 4! " = 720º per sec . the linear velocity is then 4! Converting to mph. radians are a suppressed unit hr with regards to angular velocity. $ ' ! 12 hr 9 in & ft r # mile hr 1 .200 . sec sec ! rad (b) We use v = ! r .) . Here we shall use miles in order to put ! in (rad)/hr.225 rpm. sec sec hr 5280 ft Example 2. we obtain 10 ! rad ft .

646 days 243. (b) Find the linear velocity at 50º N latitude.3824 0.041º per hour.01 days 23h 56m 4.07 0.532036 11.407131 4. 1 Earth Day ≈ 24 hours Conversions: 1 mile 1.1074 317.1653 0.8 1.80665 m/s2 ≈ 32.140 km = 6.379 2.1 $ + # 23 + & hr " 60 3600 % ! (Note that it takes just under 24 hours to rotate 360 .01 Rotation 58.609344 km 1000 m 3. so every hour the Earth must ! rotate a little more than 1/24 th of a circle.17 14.272399 0.002 Grav/Earth's 0.54 1.140 m ≈ 3963.28084 ft . (a) We now shall use ! = We also could say ! = 360! ≈ 15.894 1 0.262516 . 2" .174 ft/s2.8826366 0.2 miles ≈ 1040. . It takes 23h 56m 4. " 56 4. WKU Planetary Data Planet Mercury Venus Earth (Moon) Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto Rad /Earth's 0. (a) Find the angular velocity and linear velocity at the equator. ! 56 4.32166 days 24h 37m 22.2 miles.262516 (rad ) ! 3963.2 miles Mass of Earth ≈ 5.0875553 3. . or just over 15 .1 % hr + $ 23 + ' hr # 60 3600 & Solution.Dr.0553 0.974383 ! 1024 kg (Average) Gravity on Earth ≈ 9.0123 0.9489 1 0. (rad ) 2! is then given by ! = ≈ 0.1s for the Earth to rotate once on its axis.4 mph. The radius of Earth is approximately 3963.8150 1 0.1s 27.662s 9h 50m 10h 39.56 17. hr .15 0.378.89 95.) The linear velocity of Earth’ spin at the equator is about v = ! r ≈ 0.194173 9.378 0. The angular velocity of Earth’s spin time of 1 rev.1803 Mass/Earth's 0.9m 17h 14m 16h 3m 6d 9h 17m Radius of Earth ≈ 6378. Neal.2 0. 1 km 1 m 5280 ft 1 mile Example 3.

2 cos(50º ) at 50º N). (b) Find the linear speed on the rim in mph. One rotation on its axis takes about 24 hr. The radius of Mars is 0.65 mph. 76! 08! E and 28! 15! N. 53! 44 ! E. (Recall: r = 3963. Find the linear speed of its equatorial spin. find the angular velocity in rpm of a point on its rim. If a cylinder with a 6 in. 22.532036 times that of Earth. radius is spinning at 24 mph. 3.2 miles) ≈ 28. We again use v = ! r to obtain v=!r = 2! ! (11. (a) Find its angular velocity in degrees per sec. 4.662 sec. A cylinder with a 2 ft radius is spinning at 450 rpm.262516 (rad ) ! 3963. hr Example 4. 37 min. Jupiter rotates in approximately 9h 50m. Solution.194173 ! 3963.2 cos(50º ) miles ≈ 668. Neal.194173 times that of Earth’s.347. the angular velocity is the same. 2. (9 + 50 / 60) hr Exercises 1. .76 mph.Dr. Find the linear velocity at the equator of Jupiter. (a) What is the radius of the circle at 28! 15! N latitude? (b) Find the linear velocity of the Earth’s rotation at 28! 15! N. Its radius is 11. (c) Find the distance between points at the following coordinates: 28! 15! N. but the radius is smaller. WKU (b) At 50º N latitude. So the linear velocity at 50º N is now only 0.

" 37 22. ! = 450 rev 2 # ( rad ) rad .5 r # % ft ( rad) ' = 253. ' ! 5280 ft & mile hr ( rad) 1 rev 1 hr ! ! ≈ 672.05 mph.2 cos(28. Converting to deg per sec. v = ! r = .25! ) ≈ 3491. " 56 4.Dr. (b) The linear velocity is v = ! r = 2! ! 3491. we have " = 900 # min rev min rad 1 min 180 deg ! = 900 " # # = 2700º per sec .8766 miles.48 mph.5 feet. WKU Solutions 1. we have ! =v ! Then 253.146 ≈ 1364.662 % 24 + + hr $ ' # 60 3600 & 4.26 mph.27 rpm. min 60 sec " rad 1 mile rad min ! 2 ft ! 60 ! ≈ 64. 5280 ft min hr (b) v = ! r = 900 ! 2.440 1 1 " miles ! =$ $ 24 hr 0. The distance between the points is then s = ! r = " 22. 180 2! ( rad) ( 0.146 miles.2 miles ≈ 538. Neal.440 . (a) The radius is r ≈ 3963. (a) First. = 0.532036 ( 3963. hr 2 ! rad 60 min 3.146 miles ≈ 916.4 . Because 6 in.4! ! ! 3491.1 % 23 + + $ ' # 60 3600 & (c) We first find the angle between 76! 08! E and 53! 44 ! E which is given by 75! 68! – ! 53! 44 ! = 22! 24! = 22.