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Fourier Series
A periodic function, s(t), can be represented approximately
by Fourier series:

+ +

T
n
T
n
T
n
n n
tdt nf t s
T
b
tdt nf t s
T
a
dt t s
T
a
t nf b t nf a a t s
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0 0 0
2 sin ) (
2
2 cos ) (
2
) (
1
) 2 sin 2 cos ( ) (


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Fourier Series
T 2T -T -2T
s(t)
1
t
Example:
2
1
. 1
1
) (
1
0
2 /
0
0


T T
dt
T
dt t s
T
a

n
n
tdt f n t s
T
a
T
n
) 2 / sin( 2
2 cos ) (
2
0
0

0 2 sin ) (
2
0
0

tdt f n t s
T
b
T
n

0

,
_

+ + ... ) 10 cos(
5
1
) 6 cos(
3
1
) 2 cos(
2
2
1
) (
0 0 0
t f t f t f t s

T
f
1
0

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Fourier Series
Summation of dc term plus the first harmonic
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
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Fourier Series
Summation of dc term plus the first three harmonics
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
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Fourier Series
Summation of dc term plus the first 11 harmonics
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
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Fourier Series
Summation of dc term plus the first 50 harmonics
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
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Fourier Series
Line spectrum:

+ +
1
0 0 0
) 2 sin 2 cos ( ) (
n
n n
t nf b t nf a a t s
Amplitude of the component at the frequency f
n
is defined as
2 2
n n n
b a X +
The phase of the component at the frequency f
n
is defined as

,
_


n
n
n
a
b
1
tan
Therefore,

+ +
1
0 0
) 2 cos( ) (
n
n n
t nf X X t s
where X
0
= a
0
arg X
n
=
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Fourier Series
Line spectrum: Example

,
_

+ + ... ) 10 cos(
5
1
) 6 cos(
3
1
) 2 cos(
2
2
1
) (
0 0 0
t f t f t f t s

0.5

2
3
2
5
2
f
0
0
|X
n
|
f
3f
0
5f
0
f
0
0
f
3f
0
5f
0
arg X
n

180
7f
0
7
2
7f
0

180
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Fourier Series
A compact form of Fourier series:
dt e t s
T
c
e c t s
T
t nf j
n
n
t nf j
n

0
2
2
0
0
) (
1
) (

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Fourier Series
Line spectrum:
A plot of c
n
as function of n.
T 2T -T -2T
s(t)
1
t
Example:
0


+
T
T
t nf j
T
t nf j
T
t nf j
n
dt e
T
dt e
T
dt e t s
T
c
4 / 3
2
4 /
0
2
0
2
0 0 0
1 1
) (
1

[ ]
2 / 3 2 /
2
1

n j jn
e e
n j


T
f
1
0

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Fourier Series
[ ] [ ]

jn jn
e n
n
e n
n

) 2 / sin(
1
) 2 / sin( 2
2
1
[ ]
( )
1
]
1

jn
jn jn
jn jn jn jn
e
e e
j
n
e e e e
n
j
2
2
) (
.
2
1
. .
2
1
2 / 2 /
2 / 2 /
) 2 / sin(
1

n
n
c
n
c
0
= a
0
= 1/2
n
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
c
n
2
1

1
3
1

5
1
0 0

1
0 0
3
1

5
1
C
n
for -5 <= n <= 5
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Fourier Series
We can plot the line spectrum of s(t) as shown below:
0.5

1
3
1
5
1
5
1
f
0
-f
0
0
|c
n
|
f
3f
0
5f
0
-3f
0
-5f
0
3
1
f
0
-f
0
0
f
3f
0
5f
0
-3f
0
-5f
0
arg c
n

180 +

180
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Fourier Series
Sinc function
x
x
x c

) sin(
) ( sin
-5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
x
s
i
n
c
(
x
)
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Fourier Series
Rectangular pulse train
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Fourier Series
Spectrum of rectangular pulse train
with
0
= 1/4 (a) Amplitude (b) Phase
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Fourier Series
Fourier-series reconstruction of a rectangular pulse train
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Fourier Series
Fourier-series reconstruction of a rectangular pulse train
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Fourier Series
Note
[ ]
[ ]



sin cos
sin cos
2
1
sin
2
1
cos
j e
j e
e e j
e e
j
j
j j
j j

+

+

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Fourier Transform

dt e t s f S
ft j 2
) ( ) (
Fourier Transform:
Inverse Fourier Transform:


df e f S t s
ft j 2
) ( ) (
) ( )] ( [
1
t s f S F
S(f) F[s(t)]

Notation:
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Fourier Transform
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Fourier Transform
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Properties of Fourier Transform
) ( ) (
0
2
0
f S e t t s
ft j

Time Shift:
Frequency Shift:
) ( ) (
0
2
0
t s e f f S
t f j

Linearity:
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
2 1 2 1
f bS f aS t bs t as + +
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Properties of Fourier Transform
Time Scaling:
Frequency Scaling:
Modulation:

,
_

a
f
S
a
at s
1
) (

,
_

a
t
s
a
af S
1
) (
)] ( ) ( [
2
1
) 2 cos( ) (
0 0 0
f f S f f S t f t s + +
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Properties of Fourier Transform
Convolution:
Parsevals Theorem:


d t s r t s t r ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( f S f R t s t r
) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( f S f R t s t r
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Convolution


d t s r t s t r ) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
Example:
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Convolution
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Convolution
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Convolution
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Convolution
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Convolution
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Convolution
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Convolution
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Impulses and Transforms