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Moti Karpel Faculty of aerospace Engineering Technion – Israel Institute of Technology,

2

Introduction

Aeroelasticity deals with the interaction between aerodynamic, elastic and inertial forces acting on atmospheric flight vehicles. The aerodynamic and inertial loads deform the structure. The deformations affect the airloads, which closes the aeroelastic loop. Static aeroelasticity deals with the effects of structural deformations on steady aerodynamic load distributions and total force and moment coefficients, and with static instability (divergence). It is assumed that: •The 6 d.o.f. airplane maneuvers are slow compared to the structural dynamics. The structure deforms but structural vibrations have negligible effects. •The aerodynamic loads due to change in local angles of attack develop with no delays.

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Dynamic aeroelasticity deals with the interaction between structural dynamics and unsteady aerodynamics. Delays in the development of aerodynamic loads are important. The main topics are dynamic instability (flutter) and response to atmospheric gusts (deterministic and stochastic) Aeroservoelasticity (ASE) deals with the interaction between aeroelastic and control systems. The control system reads structural vibrations and activates aerodynamic control surfaces, which closes the aeroservoelastic loop. The models in this lecture series assume linearity of the aerodynamic, structural and control systems.

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**Note: how fast aerodynamic loads develop?
**

• • Consider an airfoil with semichord b in 2-D incompressible flow of velocity V The angle of attack changes at time t=0 from α=0 to α=α0 . The lift per unit span is:

L(S ) = 2πρV 2bα 0φ (S )

where φ(S) is Wagner's function for indicial lift where S=Vt/b. • The leading edge encounters at time t=0 a sharp-edged vertical gust of constant velocity wg= w0 . The lift per unit span is:

L(S ) = 2πρVbw0ψ (S ) where ψ(S) is Kussner's function.

•

Wagner's and Kussner's functions with V = 200 m/sec and b = 1 m: S=20 corresponds to t=0.1 sec.

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**ZAERO: A modern Aeroelasticity Package
**

Unsteady Aerodynamics Dynamic Loads

Wing/Body with External Stores Lifting Surface

ZONA7U

ZONA6

3D Spline

Geometric Fidelity

ZAERO/UAIC

ZAERO/UAIC

ZSAP at M = 1.0

ZONA51

DLM

Deformed FEM Model

NASTRAN NASTRAN

**• Maneuver Loads • Ejection Loads • Gust Loads • Nonlinear Flutter
**

1.6

ZONA7

Pilot Input

5

ZTAIC

Control Surface Deflection (deg)

4 3 2 1 0 -1 -2 -3 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

Time (sec)

**First Elastic Modal Acceleration Response Acceleration (g)
**

1.2 0.8 0.4 0 -0.4 -0.8 -1.2 -1.6 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2

MSC/NASTRAN ZAERO P-Transform

Subsonic

Transonic

Supersonic

Hypersonic

Deformed Aero Model

Mach Number Range

**g-Method Flutter Solution
**

0 .30

**ZONA Dynamic Memory & Data Management System
**

Aeroservoelasticity

ZDM

Time (sec)

**Trim/Flight Loads
**

Y

10.00

Mode 5 Mode 6 Mode 7 Mode 8

9 .00 8 .00 7 .00 6 .00 5 .00 0.00 5 .00 10.00 1 5.0 0 20.00 25 .00

Wind Tunnel Model ASTROS - LIFT TRIM AOA = 1 Deg., M=0.9 V=12053 in/sec

Dynamic Pressure (psi)

**Static Aeroelastic Deformation
**

6

-5605

.2

• True Damping • Matched-Point • Flutter Mode Tracking

0 .20 0 .10 0 .00 -0.10 -0.20 -0.30 0.00 5 .00 10.00 1 5.0 0 20.00 25 .00

Stress Distribution

ASTROS RESULT M = 1.2, q = 350 psf AOA = 5 Deg. VSS/ON

.1 30 -2 06

-20630.1

-25638.4

.1 -20630

4411.4

-5605.2

.1 30 06 -2

-2

063

0.

1

-25638.4

-25638.4

Course Outline

1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

**Structural vibrations and modal coordinates Static aeroelasticity Unsteady aerodynamics Flutter analysis
**

Dynamic response to gust excitation

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**I. Structural Vibrations and Modal Coordinates Structural Dynamic in Discrete Coordinates
**

• Equation of motion:

} + [ B ]{u } + [ K ]{u} [ M ]{u = { P (t )} (1.1)

**} , {u } - displacements, velocities and accelerations at discrete structural points {u} , {u
**

{P(t)} - external forces [K] - stiffness matrix, based on a detailed finite-element model with thousands grid point each having up to 6 discrete degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). • [M] - mass matrix, can be based on finite-element properties, but often based on a separate weight analysis with the masses lumped at a selected set of grid points. • [B] - damping matrix, usually not included in the discrete model. They will appear in the generalized-coordinate model.

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Use of Symmetry

• Flight vehicles normally have a plane of symmetry. • The structural model is constructed for one half only. • Boundary conditions at the plane of symmetry determine whether the model is symmetric or antisymmetric. • Symmetric and antisymmetric analyses are performed separately. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) model Advanced Fighter Aircraft (AFA)

Z 101

Y

X

9

**The Stiffness Matrix
**

• In static equilibrium, the displacement vector is related to the external force vector by

[ K ]{u}

= { P}

(1.2)

• A column {Kj} in [K] is the force vector required to obtain a unit displacement at the j-th d.o.f. and zero displacements elsewhere. • The stiffness matrix is symmetric. • A single finite element affects only the terms associated with the grid points to which the element connected. • A free-free structure can move as a rigid body with no external forces. • A rigid-body mode {φΡ} satisfies

[ K ]{φR }

= {0}

(1.3)

which implies that a free-free stiffness matrix is singular. • A stress model can be normally used for dynamic analysis. Parts which are not required to be very detailed in the aeroelastic analysis (i.e. fuselage) can be reduced to a beam-like model.

10

Ü Û ÔÒÐ ÐÝ Þ ÝÛ ÞÚ Ü Ò

º

x1 , y1, z1 , θx1 , θy1 , θz1 , x2 , ..., θz2

ÝØ

Þ

Ü

12

Ü

Ü

ÞÒ

Ü Û

ÔÒÐ

Ð

z

2

x

θx1 θz1 x1 L

z1

y1 θy1

1

y

Þ Ü Þ ÝÛ

x1 , x2 [K ] = EA 1 − 1 L −1 1

Þ

Ô ÐÜ ÝØ

Þ

Ü

Ð Þ ØÐ Þ

ÝÛ

θx1 , θx2 [K ] = GJ 1 −1 1 L −1 xy

Þ

Ô ÐÜ ÝØ

Þ

Ü

Ü Ý Ò

Ø Ø

Ð Þ

ÝÛ

**y1 , θz1 , y2 , θz2 12 EIz 6L [K ] = 3 L −12 6L
**

Þ

Ô ÐÜ ÝØ

Þ

Ü

6L 4L2 −6L 2L2

**−12 6L −6L 2L2 12 −6L −6L 4L2
**

½

x1 , y1 , z1 , θx1 , θy1 , θz1 , x2 , ..., θz2

ÝØ

Þ

Ü

12

Ð

Ð Þ ÐÐ

Þ

ÝÛ

ÞÚ Ü

Ò

EA L

[K ] =

0 0 0 0 0 EA − L 0 0 0 0

12EIz L3

12EIy L3

0 0 0

6EIz L2

sym

GJ L

0

y − 6EI L2

0

EIz − 12L 3

0 0 0

EIy − 12L 3 0 z − 6EI L2 0

0 0 0

6EIz L2

0

0 0 0 0 0 − GJ L 0 0

4EIy L

0 0 0

6EIy L2

4EIz L

0

z − 6EI L2

EA L

0

2EIy L

0 0 0

2EIz L

0

0 0 0 0 0

12EIz L3

0 0 0

z − 6EI L2

12EIy L3

0

6EIy L3

GJ L

0

0 0

4EIy L

0

4EIz L

¾

**The Mass Matrix
**

• With all stiffness and damping elements ignored,

} [ M ]{u = { P} (1.4)

• A column {Mj} in [M] is the force vector required to obtain a unit acceleration at the j-th d.o.f. and zero accelerations elsewhere. • unit acceleration at the j-th d.o.f. and zero accelerations elsewhere. • The mass matrix is symmetric. • A single mass element affects only the terms associated with the grid points to which the element is connected. • Example: a mass point rigidly connected to a 2 d.o.f. grid point • Mass matrix of a structural element:

– Lumped mass matrix: the mass is distributed to the translational d.o.f. – Consistent mass matrix: based on a consistent energy formulation

[ M e ] = ∫Vol ρ [ Ne ] [ Ne ] dVol

T

(1.5)

where [Ne] defines the assumed element inner displacements as function of the grid displacements (1.6) {uin } [ N e ]{ue } 13

**Natural Frequencies and Vibration Modes
**

• The free undamped equation of motion

} + [ K ]{u} = {0} [ M ]{u (1.7)

• Assume a solution • Eq. (1.7) becomes

**{u} = {φi } eiω t
**

i

(1.8)

i

( −ω [ M ] + [ K ]){φ } = {0}

2 i

(1.9)

• Eigensolution yields natural frequencies [ωn] and vibration mode shapes [φ] that satisfy 2 K φ = M φ ω (1.10) [ ][ ] [ ][ ][ n ] • Generalized mass and stiffness matrices:

[ M hh ] = [φ ]T [ M ][φ ] , [ K hh ] = [φ ]T [ K ][φ ] = [ M hh ][ω n ]2

(1.11)

• The maximum number of eigenvectors (mode shapes) that can be calculated is equal to the rank of [M]. • Orthogonality: any two different eigenvectors (columns of [φ] ) satisfy

**{φi } [ M ]{φ j } = {φi } [ K ]{φ j } = 0 which implies that [ M hh ] and [ K hh ] are diagonal.
**

T T

(1.12)

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Modal Reduction

• Assumption: the displacement vector is a linear combination of a subset of nh low-frequency vibration modes, namely

{u (t )}

= [φ ]{ξ (t )}

(1.13)

**• The assumption reduces the number of d.o.f. to nh • Substitution in Eq. (1.1) and premultiplication by [φ ]T yields
**

} + [ B ]{ξ } + [ K ]{ξ } [ M hh ]{ξ hh hh = { Ph (t )} (1.14)

**• where the generalized damping matrix and the generalized force vector are
**

T T [ Bhh ] = [φ ] [ B ][φ ] , {Ph (t )} = [φ ] {P(t )}

(1.15)

**• If [B] is proportional to [M] and/or [K], [Bhh] is diagonal. • In many cases [Bhh] is replaced by a diagonal matrix where
**

Bhhi = 2ζ i M hhi ωi (1.16)

• where the ζi values are determined from previous experience or from resonance tests. Typical values for flight vehicles are 0.01 - 0.04. • The equation of motion can be solved for {ξ(t)}. {u(t)} can then be recovered by Eq. (1.13).

15

Generalized Coordinates

• Any linearly independent set of displacement vectors that satisfy the boundary conditions can be used as generalized coordinates. • The natural vibration modes [φ ] are a natural choice because:

– they yield a set of uncoupled equations (when the excitation is not a function of the response); – they can be (carefully) selected according to the frequency range of interest; – their dynamic properties can be verified in vibration tests.

• Do we have to change the generalized coordinates when structural properties change?

16

**Structural Variations in Generalized Coordinates
**

• Natural modes of a nominal structure can be used as generalized coordinates in the analysis of a modified structure. • The equation of motion in discrete coordinates

} + [ B + ∆B ]{u } + [ K + ∆K ]{u} = { P(t )} (1.17) [ M + ∆M ]{u • Assume {u (t )} = [φ ]{ξ (t )} where [φ ] contains natural modes of the nominal structure.

• Equation of motion in generalized coordinates:

{ξ } = { P (t )} h M hh ξ + Bhh ξ + K hh

{}

{}

(1.18)

where

= [ M ] + [φ ]T [ ∆M ][φ ] , B = [ B ] + [φ ]T [ ∆B ][φ ] , K = [ K ] + [φ ]T [ ∆K ][φ ] M hh hh hh hh hh hh

• The generalized forces do not change. • The discrete-coordinate recovery process do not change. • A larger number of modes might be required.

17

**Natural Properties of a Modified Structure
**

• The approximate undamped free equation of motion in generalized coordinates:

{ξ } = {0} M hh ξ + K hh

{}

(1.19)

**• Assume n ] and a square eigenvector matrix [ψ]. • Eigensolution yields nh natural frequencies [ω • New generalized masses:
**

T [ψ ] = M ψ [ ] hh M hh

{ξ } = {ψ i } eiω t

i

(1.20)

(1.21)

**• New mode shapes in discrete coordinates:
**

φ hh = [φ ][ψ ] (1.22)

• Comparison of the new frequencies and modes with those obtained directly from the finite-element model is used for checking the adequacy of the structural variations in generalized coordinates.

18

**UAV Symmetric Modes
**

Mode 4: 3.88 Hz, 1st wing bending Mode 5: 10.47 Hz, wing for & aft Mode 6: 15.71 Hz, 2nd wing bending

Z Y 3 X Z 101 X Y

Z

Z

Y 3 X Z 101 X Y

3 X Z 101 X Y Y

Z

Z

Z

Mode 7: 21.06 Hz, 1st wing torsion

Mode 8: 22.76 Hz, 1st fuselage bending

Mode 9: 29.44 Hz, aileron rotation

Z

Z

Z

Y

Y 3 X Z 101 X Y

3 X Z 101 X Y

Y 3 X Z 101 X Y

Z

Z

19

Z

**AFA Anti-Symmetric Normal Modes
**

Mode 2: missile pitch, 7.37Hz Mode 3: wing bending, 8.96Hz

20

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