Bloom's Taxonomy

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Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies. Competence
Knowledge

Skills Demonstrated
x x x x x observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas mastery of subject matter Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.

Comprehension

x x x x x x x

understanding information grasp meaning translate knowledge into new context interpret facts, compare, contrast order, group, infer causes predict consequences Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend

Application

x x x x

use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situations solve problems using required skills or knowledge Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover

Analysis

x

seeing patterns

1

Green. separate. modify. cognitive domain. arrange. rewrite Evaluation x x x x x x compare and discriminate between ideas assess value of theories. select. 2 . compose. plan. conclude. select. create. invent.) (1956) Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals: Handbook I. summarize * Adapted from: Bloom. grade. connect. presentations make choices based on reasoned argument verify value of evidence recognize subjectivity Question Cues assess.x x x x organization of parts recognition of hidden meanings identification of components Question Cues: analyze. convince. divide. order. explain. discriminate. compare. B.S. design. explain. classify. infer Synthesis x x x x x use old ideas to create new ones generalize from given facts relate knowledge from several areas predict. Toronto: Longmans. compare. decide. generalize. support. formulate. New York . rank. judge. draw conclusions Question Cues: combine. explain. rearrange. recommend. test. integrate. measure. prepare. (Ed. what if?. substitute.

x KNOWLEDGE o o o o o remembering.. what.. These questions require much more "brain power" and a more extensive and elaborate answer. These questions are not bad. but using them all the time is...related to. when. recalling identification and recall of information ƒ Who..according to. rules and principles ƒ How is. applying information to produce some result. finding the underlying structure of a communication..As teachers we tend to ask questions in the "knowledge" catagory 80% to 90% of the time..? ƒ How is... memorizing. 3 .? ƒ Describe x COMPREHENSION o o o o interpreting. identifying motives.? ƒ Why is. separation of a whole into component parts ƒ What are the parts or features of. ƒ Outline/diagram. recognizing. how .... x APPLICATION o o o problem solving.an example of... Try to utilize higher order level of questions.. Below are the six question categories as defined by Bloom... where. use of facts.significant? x ANALYSIS o o o o subdividing something to show how it is put together.? ƒ Classify. translating from one medium to another... organization and selection of facts and ideas ƒ Retell... describing in one's own words..

compare/contrast with. combination of ideas to form a new whole ƒ What would you predict/infer from.? x SYNTHESIS o o creating a unique....? ƒ What do you think about.. judgements or decisions ƒ Do you agree.. development of opinions.....ƒ How does.? ƒ How would you create/design a new. resolving controversies or differences of opinion. ƒ How would you decide about.? ƒ What criteria would you use to assess...? ƒ What evidence can you list for....? ƒ What solutions would you suggest for......? ƒ What might happen if you combined..? ƒ Place the following in order of priority....? ƒ What is the most important....? x EVALUATION o o o making value decisions about issues...? ƒ What ideas can you add to. original product that may be in verbal form or may be a physical object.? 4 .

interpreting and extrapolating) state in your own words what does this mean give an example condense this paragraph state in one word what part doesn't fit what expectations are there what are they saying what seems to be what seems likely which statements support what restrictions would you add classify judge infer show indicate tell translate select match explain represent which are facts is this the same as select the best definition what would happen if explain what is happening explain what is meant read the graph. where.Bloom's Taxonomy's Model Questions and Key Words Based on Bloom's Taxonomy. forms) distinguish identify what assumptions what is the function of what's fact. table this represents is it valid that show in a graph. when. testing recall and recognition) who what why when where how match select describe define choose omit which one what is the best one how much what does it mean II. why explain identify the results of select tell what would happen tell how much change there would be IV. table demonstrate III. KNOWLEDGE (drawing out factual answers. COMPREHENSION (translating. APPLICATION (to situations that are new. Developed and Expanded by John Maynard I. ANALYSIS (breaking down into parts. unfamiliar or have a new slant for students) predict what would happen if choose the best statements that apply judge the effects what would result tell how. opinion what statement is relevant 5 .

fallacies what persuasive technique V. appropriate find the errors compare 6 . logical. EVALUATION (according to some set of criteria. and state why) appraise judge criticize defend what fallacies. theme what literary form is used implicit in the statement is related to. consistencies. inconsistencies appear which is more important. SYNTHESIS (combining elements into a pattern not clearly there before) create tell make do choose develop how would you test propose an alternative solve the following plan design make up compose formulate how else would you state a rule VI. better. moral. extraneous to. assume state the point of view of state the point of view of what ideas justify conclusion the least essential statements are what inconsistencies. not applicable what does author believe. valid.what motive is there what conclusions make a distinction what is the premise what ideas apply what's the relationship between what's the main idea.

? Can you write a brief outline... Illustrate what you think the main idea was......? Can you name the.. Make a timeline of events. Make a colouring book..... Recite a poem. Retell the story in your words.Knowledge Useful Verbs tell list describe relate locate write find state name Sample Question Stems What happened after. Prepare a flow chart to illustrate the sequence of events.? Can you provide a definition for.? Describe what happened at...? Find the meaning of. Make an acrostic. in the story.? Who spoke to. Comprehension Useful Verbs explain interpret outline discuss distinguish predict restate translate compare describe Sample Question Stems Can you write in your own words......? Potential activities and products Make a list of the main events.? Which is true or false.? Potential activities and products Cut out or draw pictures to show a particular event.. Paint a picture of some aspect you like... Application Useful Verbs Sample Question Stems Potential activities and products 7 ...? What was the main idea.? Who do you think...? How many.. Write and perform a play based on the story. Write a list of any pieces of information you can remember.? Who was the key character...? Who was it that..? Can you distinguish between.. Make a facts chart.? What differences exist between...? Can you tell why. Make a cartoon strip showing the sequence of events...? Can you provide an example of what you mean. Make a chart showing... Write a summary report of an event.? What is....? What do you think could of happened next..... List all the ...

happened... Make a clay model of an item in the material.. Take a collection of photographs to demonstrate a particular point.? Can you distinguish between.........? What are some of the problems of. colour and 8 .? Can you group by characteristics such as... with that presented in.... Write a textbook about. Dress a doll in national costume...? Can you apply the method used to some experience of your own..? Can you explain what must have happened when..... can you develop a set of instructions about. Prepare a report about the area of study. Conduct an investigation to produce information to support a view. Paint a mural using the same materials.? Could this have happened in. Design a market strategy for your product using a known strategy as a model..solve show use illustrate construct complete examine classify Do you know another instance where.? From the information given.? Construct a model to demonstrate how it will work.? Would this information be useful if you had a .. Review a work of art in terms of form. Make a scrapbook about the areas of study.....? What were some of the motives behind... similar to .. Analysis Useful Verbs analyse distinguish examine compare contrast investigate categorise identify explain separate advertise Sample Question Stems Which events could have happened..? How is . Write a biography of the study person... changes occur? Can you compare your .? What questions would you ask of....? What was the turning point in the game? What was the problem Potential activities and products Design a questionnaire to gather information. Make a family tree showing relationships..... Arrange a party.. Make a flow chart to show the critical stages.? What factors would you change if. Make all the arrangements and record the steps needed. for others. Make a diorama to illustrate an important event. Make a paper-mache map to include relevant information about an event. Construct a graph to illustrate selected information. what might the ending have been? How was this similar to. Make up a puzzle game suing the ideas from the study area. Make a jigsaw puzzle.? I . Put on a play about the study area. Write a commercial to sell a new product.? What do you see as other possible outcomes? Why did .? What was the underlying theme of..

. Evaluation Useful Verbs judge select choose decide justify debate verify argue recommend assess discuss rate prioritise Sample Question Stems Is there a better solution to.... Design a building to house your study.? Do you think ... Write about your feelings in relation to...... Make a booklet about 5 rules you see as important..? Design a record. Create a new product. Potential activities and products Invent a machine to do a specific task.. 9 .with. puppet show. Sell an idea.? What would happen if.. Give it a name and plan a marketing campaign. is a good or a bad thing? How would you have handled.. Judge the value of.. Synthesis Useful Verbs create invent compose predict plan construct design imagine propose devise formulate Sample Question Stems Can you design a .. Conduct a debate about an issue of special interest. role play.? How many ways can you.? texture.. eg "Learning at School..? Why not compose a song about........? If you had access to all resources how would you deal with..? Can you write a new recipe for a tasty dish? can you develop a proposal which would... Devise a way to..? What changes to . Can you defend your position about.. to .? Make up a new language code and write material suing it.? Can you create new and unusual uses for.. play.. Write a half yearly report. Convince others..." Write a letter to .. Write a TV show. show. book.. Compose a rhythm or put new words to a known melody. Potential activities and products Prepare a list of criteria to judge a .... or magazine cover for.... Form a panel to discuss views..? Why don't you devise your own way to deal with. song or pantomime about... Indicate priority and ratings..? Can you see a possible solution to.. advising on changes needed at.

... person? How would you feel if.? How effective are. Do you believe? Are you a .determine would you Prepare a case to present your recommend? view about......? What do you think about...? 10 .

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