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Mohler and Sue Ellen Johnson, editors Published by NRAES, July 2009 You can print copies of the PDF pages for personal use. If a complete copy is needed, we encourage you to purchase a copy as described below. Pages can be printed and copied for educational use. The book, editors, and NRAES should be acknowledged. No use of the PDF should diminish the marketability of the printed version of NRAES 177. If you have questions about fair use of this PDF, contact NRAES. Purchasing the Book You can purchase printed copies on NRAES secure web site, www.nraes.org, or by calling 607 255 7654. The list price is $24 plus shipping and handling. Quantity discounts are available. The book can also be purchased from SARE, visit www.sare.org. NRAES PO Box 4557 Ithaca, NY 14852-4557 Phone: (607) 255-7654 Fax: (607) 254-8770 Email: nraes@cornell.edu Web: www.nraes.org

NRAES–177

CROP ROTATION ON ORGANIC FARMS a planning manual
Charles L. Mohler
and

Sue Ellen Johnson,

editors

Natural Resource, Agriculture, and Engineering Service (NRAES) Cooperative Extension PO Box 4557 Ithaca, NY 14852-4557

In your request. manuals. S603. Requests to reprint parts of this publication should be sent to NRAES. 2. date II. Sue Ellen. and Engineering Service (NRAES) Cooperative Extension PO Box 4557. edu • Website: www . New York 14852-4557 Phone: (607) 255-7654 • Fax: (607) 254-8770 Email: nraes @ cornell . org ii . etc.NRAES–177 July 2009 © 2009 by NRAES (Natural Resource. Mohler. All rights reserved. contact: Natural Resource. 177. nraes . editors. and Engineering Service.C756 2009 631. I. Series: NRAES (Series) . cm. IV. please state which parts of the publication you would like to reprint and describe how you intend to use the material. Agriculture. or commercial firm in text or figures does not constitute an endorsement by the Cooperative Extension System or the publisher and does not imply approval to the exclusion of other suitable products or firms. manuals. Crop rotation--Handbooks.5’82--dc22 200901605 Disclaimer Mention of a trademark. Johnson. Cooperative Extension.(Cooperative Extension NRAES . Inquiries invited. Ithaca. Agriculture. etc. Organic farming--Handbooks. 177) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-933395-21-0 1. p. and Engineering Service). Mohler and Sue Ellen Johnson. Contact NRAES if you have any questions.. -. Agriculture. date III. To order additional copies. Natural Resource. ISBN 978-1-933395-21-0 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Crop rotation on organic farms : a planning manual / Charles L. Charles L. proprietary product.

…44 Charles L..…. Mohler Chapter 4: Crop Sequences from Expert Farmers’ Fields………………..…………………56 Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………57 iii ..……………………………6 The NEON “Managing a Crop Rotation System” Chart……………………………………………9 Key Responsibilities and Tasks in the Chart…………………………………………………………10 Chapter 3: Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation…………………21 What This Chapter Is About ………………………………………………………….CONTENTS Chapter 1: Introduction……………………………………………….…………………………………….………47 Sue Ellen Johnson Reading the “Real Fields on Real Farms” Tables……………………………………………………47 Observation on the Sample Sequences………………………………………….………………27 Anusuya Rangarajan Managing Plant Diseases with Crop Rotation………………………………………………………32 Margaret Tuttle McGrath Management of Insect Pests with Crop Rotation and Field Layout……………………………41 Kimberly A.…………………1 Charles L.…………2 How to Use This Manual……………………………………………………………………………………2 Chapter 2: How Expert Organic Farmers Manage Crop Rotations………………3 Sue Ellen Johnson and Eric Toensmeier Why Rotate Crops?…………………………………………………………………………………………3 Basics of Crop Rotation……………………………………………………………………………………5 Crop Rotation and Farm Management………………………………….. Mohler How This Manual Was Constructed……………………..…………………21 Charles L. Stoner The Role of Crop Rotation in Weed Management………………………………………….………………………23 Harold van Es Crop Rotation Effects on Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition………………………. Mohler Crop Rotation and Soil Tilth…………………………………………………….

Chapter 5: A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure……………………….…………58
Charles L. Mohler Tips for Sequencing Crops………………………………………………………………………….……59 A Complete, Step-by-Step Rotation Planning Guide………………………………………………69 A More Complex Example: Summer Acres Vegetable Farm……………………………………83

Chapter 6: Crop Rotation during the Transition from Conventional to Organic Agriculture………………………………………..………91
Charles L. Mohler Transition from Old Sod to Vegetable Production…………………………………………………91 Transition from Conventional Cropping on a Farm with Forages………………………………92 Transition to Cash Grain or Vegetables on a Farm without Forages…………….……….……93

Chapter 7: Guidelines for Intercropping……………………………………………95
Charles L. Mohler and Kimberly A. Stoner Interplanting Crops with Partially Overlapping Growing Seasons…………………………..…96 Intercropping Legumes with Nonlegumes………………………………………………………..…96 Using Tall Crops to Reduce Drought or Heat Stress of Shorter Crops………………….………96 Using Intercropping to Disrupt Host Finding by Some Host-Specific Insect Pests………..…98 How Intercrops Affect Populations of Beneficial Parasitoids and Pest Predators……….…99 Using Trap Crops to Reduce Pests……………………………………………………………….….…99 A Glossary of Intercropping Terms………………………………………………………………...…100

Appendix 1: Characteristics of Crops Commonly Grown in the Northeastern United States…………101 Charles L. Mohler and Anusuya Rangarajan Appendix 2: Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities…………………………………………………104 Charles L. Mohler Appendix 3: Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States………………124 Margaret Tuttle McGrath Appendix 4: Characteristics of Common Agricultural Weeds Relevant to Crop Rotation……………138 Charles L. Mohler Appendix 5: Crop Disease Pathogens Hosted by Common Agricultural Weeds………………….……142 Charles L. Mohler and Margaret Tuttle McGrath Appendix 6: Linking a Field Map and Spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel……………………………………148 Jody Bolluyt, Peter Lowy, and Charles L. Mohler

References…………………………………………………………..……………………150
About SARE……..……………………………………………………………………………………………………155 About NRAES……..………….………………………………………………………………………………………156

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Production of Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual was made possible with funding from Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE). See page 155 for more information about SARE.
This project was a collaboration between researchers, extension educators, and growers. The authors especially thank the twelve farmers who participated in the DACUM process, and whose efforts created the foundation for this project: Polly Amour, Four Winds Farm, Gardiner, NY; Paul Arnold, Pleasant Valley Farm, Argyle, NY; David Blyn, Riverbank Farm, Roxbury, CT; Roy Brubaker, Village Acres Farm, Mifflintown, PA; Jean-Paul Courtens, Roxbury Farm, Kinderhook, NY; Jim Gerritsen, Wood Prairie Farm, Bridgewater, ME; Brett Grohsgal, Even Star Organic Farm, Lexington Park, MD; Jack Gurley, Calvert’s Gift Farm, Sparks, MD; Don Kretschmann, Kretschmann Farm, Rochester, PA; Drew Norman, One Straw Farm, White Hall, MD; Eero Ruuttila, Nesenkeag Farm, Litchfield, NH; and Will Stevens, Golden Russet Farm, Shoreham, VT. Tina Overtoom, The Center on Education and Training for Employment, The Ohio State University, was the DACUM facilitator, and Eric Toensmeier, then with the New England Small Farm Institute, assisted her. Many additional growers reviewed and verified the DACUM chart: Frank Albani, Jay Armour, Mike and Terra Brownback, Judy Dornstreitch, Pam Flory, Darrell Frey, Les and Debbie Guile, Rick Hood, Jason Kafka, Dwain Livengood, Bryan O’Hara, Robin Ostfeld, L. Smith, Ed Stockman, Paul Volcklawen, and several anonymous reviewers. The authors also thank the following reviewers for the many improvements they suggested: Brian Caldwell, farm education coordinator, NOFA-NY; Kathryne L. Everts, associate professor, Plant Pathology, University of Maryland and University of Delaware; Caragh B. Fitzgerald, extension educator, Maryland Cooperative Extension; Eric Gallandt, assistant professor, Weed Ecology and Management, University of Maine; Vern Grubinger, vegetable and berry specialist, University of Vermont Extension and regional coordinator, Northeast SARE; Jerzy Nowak, professor, Horticulture Department, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Ginny Rozenkranz, extension educator, Maryland Cooperative Extension; Elsa Sanchez, assistant professor, Horticulture Systems Management, The Pennsylvania State University; Abby Seaman, senior extension associate, Cornell Cooperative Extension; Eric Sideman, organic crop specialist, Maine Organic Farmers & Gardeners Association; Eric Toensmeier; and growers Polly Amour; Kurt Forman, Clearview Farm, Palmyra, NY; Brett Grohsgal; Jack Gurley; Brett Kreher, Kreher’s Poultry Farms, Clarence, NY; Don Kreher, Kreher’s Poultry Farms, Clarence, NY; Will Stevens; and Jon Thorne, Anchor Run Farm, Wrightstown, PA. Additionally, the authors are grateful to Steve Gilman, Ruckytucks Farm, Saratoga, NY; Dave Colson, New Leaf Farm, Durham, ME; and Andy Caruso, Upper Forty Farm, Cromwell, CT for patiently working through early versions of the planning procedure. Steve Vanek, PhD candidate, Cornell University; Brian Caldwell; and Steve Gilman assembled the information for several of the crop rotation examples in Chapter 4. Klaas and Mary Howell Martens, Lakeview Organic Grains, Penn Yan, NY; John Myer, Myer Farm, Ovid, NY; Edwin Fry, Fair Hills Farm, Chestertown, MD; and Eric and Anne Nordell, Beech Grove Farm, Trout Run, PA assisted in the study of their farms. Cornell University students Jennifer Rodriguez, Hui Ouyong, Erin Finan, Danya Glabau, and Samuel Greenwood helped assemble information for the tables. Anusuya Rangarajan, senior extension associate, Cornell University, provided gentle and joyful guidance of the NEON project. The book was edited by Jill Mason, MasonEdit.com and designed by Yen Chiang, NRAES. Marty Sailus managed book production from manuscript peer review through printing. Holly Hyde provided production support. Additional production support was provided Violet Stone, Cornell University Department of Horticulture. Support for this project was provided through a grant from the USDA Initiative for Future Agriculture and Food Systems; and Hatch funds (Regional Project NE-1000, NY(C)–183458) from the Cornell Agricultural Experiment Station.

v

About the Authors
(listed in alphabetical order)

Jody Bolluyt, producer, Roxbury Farm, Kinderhook, New York Sue Ellen Johnson, research leader, New England Small Farm Institute, Belchertown, Massachusetts; currently assistant professor and forage specialist, Department of Crop Science, North Carolina State University Peter Lowy, intern, Roxbury Farm, Kinderhook, New York Margaret Tuttle McGrath, associate professor, Department of Plant Pathology, Long Island Horticultural Research Laboratory, Cornell University Charles L. Mohler, senior research associate, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University Anusuya Rangarajan, senior extension associate, Department of Horticulture, Cornell University Kimberly A. Stoner, associate agricultural scientist (entomology), The Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, New Haven, Connecticut Eric Toensmeier, program specialist, New England Small Farm Institute, Belchertown, Massachusetts; currently farm project director, Nuestras Raices, Holyoke, Massachusetts Harold van Es, professor and chair, Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Cornell University

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in which the same sequence of crops is repeated indefinitely on a field. Although rotating among a diversity of cash and cover crops has numerous advantages. and other factors. rotation problems usually do not develop until well after the transition to organic cropping. avoid crop rotation problems. Such practices can lead to costly problems that take many years “The purpose of this book is to help growers and farm advisors understand the management of crop rotations. it poses substantial management challenges. some sequences can be easily eliminated from the list of possibilities. labor supply.org or www. and develop profitable farms that support satisfied families. or call (607) 255 7654. these can be arranged in 90 two-year sequences. based on experience CHAPTER 1 | Introduction 1 . Such problems can result in an inability to meet the demands of a carefully cultivated market or in additional labor and expense. particularly on diversified vegetable farms and mixed vegetable-grain operations. Most farmers are greatly tempted to plant excessive acreage of the most profitable crop or to overuse certain fields for one type of crop. or imbalances in soil nutrients. avoid crop rotation problems. The same ten crops can be arranged in any of 5. Each field has its own rotation. and use crop rotation to build better soil. 1 INTRODUCTION Charles L. the organic transition itself often rotates away from the previous crops and their associated problems. Good crop rotation requires long-term strategic planning.” to correct. The purpose of this book is to help growers and farm advisors understand the management of crop rotations.nraes. Indeed. since each of the ten crops could be followed by any of the other nine. the buildup of a soilborne disease of a critical crop. For example. in which the sequence of crops varies irregularly to meet the evolving business and management goals of the farmer.040 unique four-year sequences! Of course. Since the crops grown by organic farmers are often different and more diverse than those grown in the preceding conventional system. Mohler C rop rotation is a critical feature of all organic cropping systems because it provides the principal mechanism for building healthy soils. and develop profitable farms that support satisfied families. changes in the market. this creates a huge number of potential crop sequences from which to choose. control pests. each farmer manages a set of rotations.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. and noncyclical rotations. However. and use crop rotation to build better soil. visit www. NRAES 177. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.org. can lead to serious problems—for example. Problems caused by faulty rotation often take several years to develop and can catch even experienced growers by surprise.sare. consequently. Lack of planning. and. planning does not necessarily involve identifying which crop will be grown on a field years in advance. such specificity may prove futile as plans become disrupted by weather. Crop rotation means changing the type of crop grown on a particular piece of land from year to year. The number of crops (and crop families) grown can be large. As used in this manual. a major way to control pests. Mathematically. control pests. however. if a farm produces ten different crops. and a variety of other benefits. To purchase the book. In fact. the term includes both cyclical rotations.

The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. the intent is to provide perspectives on how to approach the challenge of planning effective crop rotations and to provide current information on which to base decisions. the problem of choosing effective crop sequences and allotting them to particular fields becomes even more complex. Chapters 2 (pages 3–20) and 4 (pages 47–47) convey the practical experience of expert growers. and how they manage particular crop sequences on their farms. for market reasons. Moreover. How to Use This Manual This manual can be used in several ways. Step-by-step examples are provided. Consequently. Further complications arise because. since certain crops grow well only on particular fields due to soil type. financial resources. insects. but the number of possibilities is still enormous. but intercropping greatly affects crop rotation planning. Large-acreage crops necessarily occur in multiple sequences with different small acreage crops. Reading about what researchers have discovered about how crop rotation affects soil and pests will further increase one’s understanding of crop rotations. visit www. and weeds. These sample rotations are presented in chapter 4 (pages 47–57) and are supplemented with rotations from several farms that have been intensively studied by NEON. and diseases. Rather. one can check for possible pest or soil problems that may occur in a cropping sequence. Second. diseases. These procedures distill the wisdom derived from the panel of expert growers into a method that can be applied to any farm. These sample rotations may not work well on farms that have different soil conditions. however. assembled a panel of 12 expert organic farmers.org. on behalf of the Northeast Organic Network (NEON). weeds. etc. The idea behind the manual is not to provide a list of rigid dos and don’ts. This manual is most applicable for farms from Maryland to Ohio and north through southern Canada. or general rules of thumb. NRAES 177. or determine how long to leave a field out of a particular crop to avoid pest problems.sare. This manual is intended to assist growers in plotting a course through the maze of decisions involved in planning crop rotations. These data have been assembled from a variety of sources. In contrast. The panel met for three days and worked through a formal facilitated process that produced a detailed analysis of how experienced organic farmers plan their cropping sequences. or types of crops.. and farmer experience. Data tables on crops. like avoiding successive vegetable crops in the same plant family. but they are intended to provide inspiration and insight in planning crop sequences. Intercropping is not a necessary part of crop rotation. Most of the principles of crop rotation and methods for choosing among potential crop sequences are widely applicable beyond this region. as well as what it can do to solve various production problems. 2 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . climates. some crops are grown on a larger acreage than others. chapter 7 (pages 95–100) discusses the basic principles of intercropping and how these interact with other aspects of crop rotation. are likely to be inadequate in areas far from the northeastern US. To this end. First. topography.org or www. the manual provides a method for systematically planning the crop rotations on a farm. along with problems that sometimes occur with that rotation and how they meet such contingencies.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. This process is discussed in chapter 2 (pages 3–20). crop nutrition. extension publications. Each expert farmer also detailed a highly successful crop rotation that they use. the manual can be used to see how experienced growers think about crop rotations. Although this manual is primarily intended for organic farmers and the extension personnel who work with them. For example. or call (607) 255 7654. including management of soil health. An important aspect of these contributions is that they clarify what crop rotation cannot accomplish.nraes. Five researchers who have extensive experience with organic agriculture provide their views on what crop rotation contributes to particular biological and physical aspects of organic cropping systems. chapter 6 (pages 91–94) provides a brief discussion about crop sequences that can be used for transition from conventional to organic production. Finally. insects. the New England Small Farm Institute. including scientific literature. we hope it will also be useful to other growers. Finally. it can be used simply as a reference. chapter 3 (pages 21–46) emphasizes the theoretical underpinnings of crop rotation. a series of appendices provide biological data relevant to planning crop rotations. To purchase the book. How This Manual Was Constructed To ensure that this rotation planning manual reflects the realities of crop production on actual farms. availability of irrigation. Chapter 5 (pages 58–90) outlines procedures for sorting through the diverse types of data to arrive at decisions about crop rotation.

So how do successful farmers plan and execute crop rotations? We asked twelve expert organic farmers this question when they gathered at a farmhouse in upstate New York for three snowy days in 2002. and (2) the flexibility of their crop rotations. Organic farmers recognize that crop rotation is necessary to maintain field productivity.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. including crop rotation. Their rotation planning is an CHAPTER 2 | How Expert Organic Farmers Manage Crop Rotations 3 . shared many concepts and insights about crop rotation management. and Soil Life The expert farmers used many terms interchangeably as they discussed rotations and their farm goals. page 4). NRAES 177. 2 HOW EXPERT ORGANIC FARMERS MANAGE CROP ROTATIONS Sue Ellen Johnson & Eric Toensmeier C rop rotation is central to the success of organic farms. Their specific actions and decisions related to crop rotation are outlined in the chart “Managing a Crop Rotation System” on pages 12–13. Their cumulative knowledge and common practice are summarized in this chapter. Organic practices.nraes. and disease problems. specifically the absence of fixed. Farmers believe that a soil high in organic matter leads to a healthy. Many expert farmers do not have standardized. Expert farmers design their rotations to (1) earn income and (2) increase soil quality or build “soil capital” (sidebar 2. ongoing annual process that incorporates information and objectives for multiple years. they detailed how they plan and execute crop rotations on their farms. A basic tenet of organic agriculture is that biological diversity and soil organic matter are drivers of productive organic farming systems. Soil Health. are expected to enhance soil life and soil health. Farmers also use the term soil capital to express how soil building practices are an investment in longterm soil productivity. long-term crop rotations. pest. Between homemade organic meals. Sidebar 2. Soil Capital. yet our experts share an overall approach to designing. The contribution of our panel of expert farmers is interesting in (1) the emphasis they give to business management decisions in crop rotation planning. biologically active soil that will have fewer crop fertility. The chart delineates the key “responsibilities” and the necessary “tasks” that need to be executed to fulfill each key responsibility. Organic agriculture revolves around the concepts of soil life and soil biology.2. Crop rotation and a crop rotation plan and records are required for organic certification of a field or farm.org or www. The tools in chapter 5 (pages 58–90) are designed to help readers develop their own expertise. To purchase the book. implementing. Twenty other organic growers have since reviewed and added to the panel farmers’ conclusions. The expert farmers. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.sare. and adapting crop sequences on their farms.org. cyclical crop rotations for every field. Why Rotate Crops? Effective crop rotations are a foundation of organic cropping systems. who together have over 200 years of experience.1 The Concepts of Soil Quality. or call (607) 255 7654.1). Numerous books and articles outline the goals and benefits of crop rotations (see sidebar 2. visit www.

and how one crop can be seeded with another crop. for example). .” pp. From Cyclopedia of American Agriculture (1907. . When growing a wide mix of crops . Grow some crops that will leave a significant amount of residue. leaf). but a sampling of the advice is listed below. .This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. 8. chapter 11. . with a high nitrogen demanding crop. potential host crops should only occur in the rotation at appropriate time intervals. . g.org or www. Grow less nitrogen demanding crops . 3. NRAES 177. . .2 What Some Good Books Say about Crop Rotation Numerous books and articles do an excellent job of outlining rotation theory. . Crops which develop slowly and are therefore susceptible to weeds should follow weed suppressing crops. . Try to grow a deep-rooted crop . The size of the farm and whether land can be used for pasturage are also determinants. 6. Alternate between crops with high and low root biomass. 4 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Bailey. catch crops. Fred Magdoff and Harold van Es). The rotation must adapt itself to the farmers business. It must adapt itself to the soil and fertility problem. Where a risk of disease or soil borne pest problems exists.” pp. Many present crop-by-crop rotations. Don’t follow one crop with another closely related species. . The fertilizer question often modifies the rotation. The rotation must consider in what condition one crop will leave the soil for the succeeding crop. 10. The rotation must be planned with reference to the species of plants that will best serve one another. Use variety and crop mixtures when possible. climatic conditions. chapter 5. c. .” pp. “Crop Rotation. 9. “Rotation Design for Organic Systems. 131–32: “Usually a rotation contains at least one ‘money crop’ that finds a direct and ready market. . . . . . Use longer periods of perennial crops on sloping land. d. . . The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. ed. . one clean tilled crop. . one hay or straw crop. . . (all early season crops together. h.sare. 2. Use crop sequences that promote healthier crops. 85–88: a.” Basic guidelines: Deep rooting crops should follow shallow rooting crops. in the second or third year after a legume sod. L. visit www. To purchase the book. These may or may not reflect the real complexity of modern organic farming operations and successful farm management. The starting point for the design of a rotation should be the capabilities of the farm and the land in terms of soil type. 4. . . “Crop Management. . or crops with similar cultural practices. Nitrogen fixing crops should alternate with nitrogen demanding crops. 102–3: General Principles: 1. . The kind of soil and the climate may dictate the rotation. 7. and undersowing techniques should be used to keep the soil covered. 5. chapter 5. try grouping into blocks according to plant family. . . . . Sidebar 2. . Nicolas Lampkin). Use crop sequences that aid in controlling weeds.nraes. . The labor supply has an important bearing on the character of the rotation course. H. b.org. . as part of the rotation. fruit vs. or produce the best interrelationship possible. . Alternate between leaf and straw crops. . From Organic Farming (1990. . . and practice. . guidelines. green manures. . soil texture. Alternate between autumn and spring sown crops. timing of crops. . . or call (607) 255 7654. . type of crop (root vs. . Follow a legume crop . Also consider: suitability of individual crops with respect to climate and soil balance between cash and forage crops seasonal labour requirements and availability cultivation and tillage operations From Building Soils for Better Crops (2000.). Wherever possible. e. . . . Grow the same annual crop for only one year . . one leguminous crop. f.

with each crop rotating field to field around the entire farm. farmers must manage production across multiple fields and beds. and some crops are highly profitable but have limited markets. Labor. each field tends to have its own distinct sequence of crops. Cover crops are often used for building soil fertility and health but make no direct contribution to cash flow. Sometimes tillage.” • Will Stevens—“I’ve come to view crop rotation practices as a way to help me use nature’s ecological principles in the inherently non-natural world of agriculture.3). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. and amendments.3 Expert Farmers’ Definitions of Crop Rotation The NEON expert panel did not formally define crop rotation. variation in field characteristics.sare. “Model” rotations may suggest that every crop is grown on a fixed schedule on every field. Thus. Through this approach. but individual farmers provided their own working definitions: • Don Kretschmann—“Rotation is the practice of using the natural biological and physical properties of crops to benefit the growth. visit www. fixed rotation. In this process the soil and its life are also benefited. Farms with limited acreage may rely on compost or other soil amendments rather Sidebar 2. In every season. Through trial and error the managers of these farms have settled on a cyclical rotation that works well for a particular field (see chapter 4. equipment. Variation in the acreage of each crop. a few fields do follow an established.org or www. and can allow for bare fallow periods to break weed cycles and incorporate plant matter into the soil. The challenge of a good crop rotation system is to grow the type and quantity of crops needed to ensure the farm’s profitability while continually building soil quality for long-term productivity. each field tends to have a unique cropping history. NRAES 177.org. health. and competitive advantage of other crops.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Every crop is not equally profitable. Most vegetable farms grow many different crops and crop families. and shifting business decisions result in multiple rotations or crop sequences on most organic farms.” CHAPTER 2 | How Expert Organic Farmers Manage Crop Rotations 5 . by (1) interrupting pest life cycles. Expert farmers balance market options and field biology. the layout of beds and fields. “filler” or “break” crops. fields (or beds) may be deliberately rotated through a fallow to manage a weed or pest problem. Crop rotation is both a principle of production and a tool of management (see sidebar 2. tillage. pages 49–54 for examples). Alternatively. In reality. Expert farmers’ rotations include key cash crops. The desired result is a farm which is more productive and to a greater extent self-reliant in resources. pages 49–54 for real field examples). and (2) altering pest habitats. The rotation of botanical families of crops prevents the buildup of pest populations. the power and sustainability of natural systems can be expressed through the health and prosperity of the farm system. all influence how rotations are designed and executed. farmers manage numerous crop rotations on the same farm. Striving to have as much ‘green’ on the ground as possible throughout the year is one step in that direction.” • Jean-Paul Courtens—“Rotations balance soil building crops (soil improvement crops) and cash crops. The biological principles of crop rotation intersect with many other aspects of the farm operation and farm business. To purchase the book. the use of mulch. Consequently. Basics of Crop Rotation Rotations are one dimension of the art and science of farm management. (ideally) minimally managed. expert farmers in the northeast US rarely cycle every crop they grow through every field on any regular schedule. On some farms.” • Roy Brubaker—“[Rotation is] a planned succession of crops (cash and cover) chosen to sustain a farm’s economic and environmental health. or call (607) 255 7654.nraes. Instead. along with other logistics of planting and harvest. and cover crops. I view crop rotation as a series of ‘rapid succession’ cycles. or compost applications are also integrated into a field’s rotation plan (see chapter 4.

These cycles often run six to ten years or more. responsive process. experts are very conscious that such intensive cropping needs careful biological monitoring and management.4 Farm Size. To purchase the book.and farm-scale decisions (figure 2. Expert Brett Grohsgal advises that “smaller and more intensively managed farms don’t have nearly the cover crop dependence that [larger farms] do. fields cycle out of annual production and into perennial hay or green manure cover crops. long-term. a bed or field may be planted with a series of different short-season crops. Cover crops are often planted to follow or precede a cash crop and occupy a field only for the winter or a portion of the growing season. soil-restoring perennial cover or hay crops in their rotations. vigorous. Farmers with limited acreage (<5 acres) find that including cover crops and providing adequate rotation of crop families on a given field is challenging (see chapter 4. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Expert farmers are continually balancing annual and multiyear (short. Their understanding of biological principles sets the boundaries of their management practices.and long-term) decisions. compost. Expert growers indicate that in any given season. growers make multiple plantings of a crop in the same bed within a given growing season. Organic farmers plant cover crops to protect the soil. interacting factors as they implement crop rotations. Most expert farmers integrate cover crops into their fields at every opportunity. NRAES 177. Many smaller farms rely on mulch. improve soil physical properties.nraes. Cover crops may also provide habitat for beneficial insects or help crowd out weeds.org. market opportunities and logistical needs may override biological concerns.1). Many expert farmers push and test the 6 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . and accumulate nutrients. After a period of intensive cropping. fixed. visit www. due to the likelihood of pest and disease outbreaks.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Biological principles are the main determinants of these short sequences. however. rotation planning is a rolling. Crop Rotation and Farm Management Crop rotations require multidimensional thinking. The same crop or sequence is rarely replanted in the same bed or field the following year. or call (607) 255 7654. The perennial hay or cover crop is then expected to correct Sidebar 2. and Crop Rotations Farm size affects cover cropping and the management of the crop rotation. During a field season. Farmers with large land bases often include longerterm. which is more problematic biologically. Samples of short sequences are shown in the “Real Fields on Real Farms” chart in chapter 4 (pages 49–54). Cover Crops. On successful farms.or threeyear crop sequences. cyclical rotations are far less common than simple two. than cover crops (see sidebar 2. the season-to-season sequences vary with contingencies. Organic farmers rely on rotations and long-term soil quality to deal with problems and ensure the productivity of fields more than they rely on fertilizers and pest control products. and short-term winter cover crops in place of multiseason cover crops and hay rotations.” problems that may have built up during intensive cropping. Large farms often have rotations that include multiyear perennial cover crops or hay. detailed cyclical rotations. On many successful farms. Sometimes. Experts manage multiple. Rotation management requires understanding both the whole farm and each individual field and balancing field.4). experts use a suite of interchangeable short sequences to meet their farm’s goals for cash flow and soil quality. because of market demand or other farm practicalities. Instead of planning long. and profitable. pages 47–57). and biological principles may be neglected. In all cases. increase soil organic matter. Business decisions must be optimized for annual returns and cash flow. Expert farmers frequently rely on numerous “trusted” short sequences or crop couplets to achieve their crop rotation objectives. yet these small systems can be extremely efficient.org or www. Sometimes these opportunities come before or after a shortseason crop or during the months between fullseason summer crops. During the intensive cropping period. Many expert farmers use a full year of cover crops to restore the soil after intensive use.sare.

2002. expert farmers determine the CHAPTER 2 | How Expert Organic Farmers Manage Crop Rotations 7 . Paul Arnold (NY). Eero Ruuttila (NH). meeting market demands and maintaining cash flow are farm business issues that must be integrated with field decisions. vehicle access. They cross-check “what not to do” (see appendix 2.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Then expert farmers review whether there are biological reasons to go in a different direction. they must consider how to rotate equipment and labor efficiently across the entire farm operation. or call (607) 255 7654. pages 104–123) biologically with both their experience and their knowledge. and keeping crops like pumpkins or flowers secure from vandals. From upper left: Jean-Paul Courtens (NY). Each year the paramount challenge is to grow adequate quantities of profitable crops to keep the farm viable.org. Drew Norman (MD). Generally. these crop-to-field matches are first made based on market and logistical considerations (see sidebar 2. Polly Armour (NY). often by changing their crop mix and. avoid planting related crops in the same field year after year). biological principles of crop rotation to the limit to meet management and business demands. Jack Gurley (MD). Inevitably. Don Kretschmann (PA). Their annual plans are based on clear priorities.sare. Brett Grohsgal (MD). Will Stevens (VT). page 8). Figure 2. and wildlife— have to be managed across farm and field.1 Rotation planning balances the management of fieldand farm-level decisions on an annual and a multi-year basis. expert farmers also adapt to the weather conditions of specific years. Relying on their knowledge of their fields and the crops they grow. and some general principles (for example.5. consequently. To purchase the book. Multi-year decisions tend to prioritize and accommodate biological demands. Most farms have a few key cash crops that generate significant income. Farmers take special care to manage the production and soil capital of their best fields.nraes. Roy Brubaker (PA). At the same time farmers are deciding the rotational sequence on each field. Meanwhile. Not pictured: Jim Gerritsen (ME). ROTATION BALANCE Annual Multiyear B G LO IO Y Field Farm BU N SI ES S Figure 2.2 Expert organic vegetable farmer panel. seasonal. David Blyn (CT). Expert farmers plan and implement rotations on an annual. NRAES 177. convened January 30 to February 1. their rotations. Crop cultural and harvest characteristics—including the logistics of labor-intensive weeding or multiple harvests. and lastminute opportunistic basis. Annual farm-level decisions tend to prioritize business concerns. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. visit www. expert farmers focus on planting their key crops in the most suitable fields for those crops without compromising the soil health and long-term productivity of those fields. Year by year. thieves.org or www.

Even if soils are similar. For example. Market opportunities or weather may dictate a change in a rotation (sidebar 2. The experts build flexibility and responsiveness into their annual plans. 2. a field could be planted with a summer-harvested crop such as sweet corn in the current year. or labor availability). Expert farmers often need to make decisions for individual fields on the fly. Many farmers rely on their mental categorization of crops and fields (described in sidebar 2. even beds. and field biology. or call (607) 255 7654. equipment. They know the limits of their systems. Of course. page 15 ) which makes the quick substitution of crops easier. microclimates. based on their experience and knowledge of each field and the overall farm. A field may have weed problems or a pest outbreak that is best addressed by rotation. determine the suitability of a field for a particular crop. For example. Biological guidelines also enter into decisions when a problem becomes evident and must be addressed (for example. others have particular histories or problems that preclude certain crops or rotations. Frequently. plans don’t always go as expected. because they are the most critical in terms of both the business and the biology of the farm. a more diseaseresistant variety may be selected if taking advantage of the economic opportunity means that the rotation time between susceptible crops would be decreased. any one field (or bed) is usually not interchangeable with all the others on the farm. labor. but they are not repeatedly ignored on the same fields. they do not always distinguish farm planning from crop rotation planning. Feasibility assessment to determine whether the market can be met successfully. so that a hairy vetch cover crop has time to establish in the fall and supply nitrogen for a heavy-feeding cucurbit the following spring. Biological guidelines come into decisions at every convenient opportunity (for example.sare. In any given year. a soilborne disease such as Phytophthora).org. Recognition of a market opportunity or logistical contingency (such as a change in weather. crop for each field each year. field history. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. will the change increase the overall profitability of the farm operation? What is the cascade effect across the farm? 3. have unique attributes because of soil parent material and landscape position. in addition to meeting the current season’s production needs. expert farmers design crop sequences to set up for future key crops. NRAES 177. Considering the available land. for a successful early seeding of a small-seeded crop like carrot the rotation sequence must be planned so that the residue of the previous crop will be fully broken down— providing the proper seedbed for the next season’s crop. Highvalue crops that are difficult to grow are often pivotal in determining a rotation. and irrigation. they are continually reviewing the farm and its operational capabilities.5 Opportunistic Decisions: Business Overrides Biology Unexpected opportunities and circumstances often confront farmers. which is a biological and logistical decision. Biological “rules” may be stretched to meet the market. On many farms in the northeast US. along with the weather. Seed may not be available or viable. choosing the crop mix is a market-driven business decision. They monitor and manage crop rotation to limit negative impacts on any one field. A tool for crop categorization and allocation of crops to fields is introduced in chapter 5 (pages 58–90).nraes.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. which is coupled with the allocation of crops to fields.5). 8 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Fields. They know what can go wrong. Biological cross-check to determine the field or variety. Expert farmers go through the following steps as they manage these situations: 1. visit www. Expert farmers understand that each field’s biological management is central to the long-term success of the overall farm business. access to irrigation. Sidebar 2. farm management. equipment.org or www. and distance to roads or packing facilities cause some fields to be better suited for certain crops. Some fields are simply more productive. For example. Expert farmers balance the farm business.9. To purchase the book. Other sequences may be designed so that substantial spring growth of an overwintering cover crop precedes a heavy-feeding cash crop. For example. a field that was too wet for a planned early spring crop is now open for a cover crop). As business managers. Since they manage their systems intuitively.

These tasks must be completed to fulfill the responsibility. or DACUM (78a). Chapter 5 (pages 58–90) presents tools based on the experts’ recommendations that will help in executing several priority tasks on the chart.sare. How to Read the Chart The left hand column of the “Managing a Crop Rotation System” (pages 12–13) chart represents eight broad “key responsibilities” necessary for managing crop rotations.6 The NEON Expert Farmer Rotation Workshop The New England Small Farm Institute adapted a process called Develop a Curriculum. The DACUM process was first created at Ohio State University to develop training materials based on the knowledge of experienced workers in business and industry.org.6). The Expert Growers Twelve expert organic vegetable growers (figure 2. Together. The responsibilities and tasks outlined in the chart demonstrate how expert farmers integrate crop rotation decisions into the overall planning and operation of their farms.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. The chart reflects both their common practices and how they think about those practices. It was built around the idea that skilled individuals currently performing a job are better able than anyone else to describe the job and how they do it. Each key responsibility is associated with a set of necessary “tasks” described in the boxes that run across the page. The approach provided a structured forum for farmers to successfully communicate about management of their farms. and vegetables are the primary crops on all twelve farms.nraes. This is summarized in the chart “Managing a Crop Rotation System” (pages 12–13) The content and wording of the chart are those of the expert farmers.org or www. to understand and present the decision process followed by expert farmers in planning and implementing organic vegetable rotations. It gave scientists a unique perspective on how farmers manage their systems and how research is used by farmers. The NEON “Managing a Crop Rotation System” Chart Our panel of expert organic farmers participated in a structured.) Bear in mind the following when consulting the chart: • The word crop refers to both cash and cover crops unless otherwise specified. (Note that the tasks associated with a key responsibility sometimes take up more than one row. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. 2.9. Each of them had been farming for eight or more years.g. is neither a linear nor a cyclical Sidebar 2. The expert farmers created the chart “Managing a Crop Rotation System. The chart provides a general. lists in sidebars 2. facilitated process that was designed to elicit an outline of step-by-step decisions and actions related to their own management of crop rotation (sidebar 2. Managing a crop rotation. NRAES 177. • The responsibilities are listed more or less in the order in which they are performed. page 11 to page 18). however. They employ an array of marketing strategies.” which details the key responsibilities for management of successful rotations and the tasks associated with each responsibility.12.2. Their operations range in size from 5 acres to 200 acres. (Farmer profiles are presented in sidebar 4. from wholesale to communitysupported agriculture (CSA).7. The primary purpose of the chart is to provide insight into the decisions and actions followed by experienced organic growers as they manage crop rotations.8. and 2.2. 2. page 7) who farm from Maryland to Maine were nominated by sixteen organic farming organizations and organic certifiers in the northeastern US to participate in the three-day NEON Expert Farmer Rotation Workshop in 2002. or call (607) 255 7654. visit www. Twenty other growers with similar qualifications reviewed the chart and other materials produced by the workshop (e. page 48) CHAPTER 2 | How Expert Organic Farmers Manage Crop Rotations 9 . overall guide to all of the steps needed to manage crop rotations on an organic farm. To purchase the book. the expert farmers and the reviewers are representative of the best farms in the northeast US.

Labor Field. or call (607) 255 7654. When the weather or other uncontrollable event requires Some tasks require great attention every year. NRAES 177. careful field observations are critical. 12–13) and illustrates some of the important. farmers’ decisions and actions one year to the next (C-9. portions of the field season.org. A few keep all details in their This section discusses each of the key responsibilities heads. Some tasks Production options are mental “desk tasks” (for example. or • Many of the key responsibilities and tasks require less obvious tasks. Some tasks and key responsibilities relate to the entire farm and others to the rotation on a particular field. Some use computers. with examples from the operations of reflection and observation as well as information. others center on decision making (E-7. when production and marketing pressures are less intense and time is available to take MATCH FIELDS and CROPS stock and look to the growing seasons ahead. Crop. visit www. is undergoing major changes. expert farmers reevaluate while others require little effort unless the farm options and revise the plan. B-13.sare. “Plant crops”). Most of the panel farmers agreed that farmers in the “Managing a Crop Rotation System” chart (pages should write down their field records and plans. “Test soils”). To purchase the book.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Key Responsibilities and • Many expert farmers do extensive planning and record Related Tasks in the Chart keeping on paper. • The chart illustrates the central role of rotaLife and farm goals tion in the overall farming operation. “Determine crop quantities”).7). Climate Equipment Every responsibility listed on the chart Limits Characteristics Limits needs consideration each year. “Assess disease control”). process. following the most hectic Figure 2. and some carry over from chronological order. Expert farmers agree that frequent. “Categorize crops”).3 Schematic summary of crop rotation planning. 10 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . “Review regulations”). and responsibilities G and H intensify in fall and winter.org or www. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.3. Although the chart is organized in a quasi“Prepare work schedule”). Most have some form of field maps. expert farmers (see sidebar 2. move back and forth among many of the tasks and responsibilities listed.nraes. difficult. the rotation plan to be changed. responsibility F (the actual execution and implementation of the rotation) begins in early spring and continues throughout the growing Weather or other uncontrollable events season. Some tasks are executed only once each season (C-3. but responsibilities A through E primarily CROP MIX occur during the relatively quiet winter months. The chart does not cover all aspects of farm Income goals and income requirements management—only those that the farmers thought were most important in determining the rotation and that are linked to rotation Market opportunities management. some are repeatedly revisited (F-8. Some relate to inBALANCE formation processing (G-6. This back-and-forth process is schematically presented in figure 2. and some are physical (F-10. They do not necessarily have to be addressed in the order listed.

• Since Jim Gerritsen produces certified seed potatoes that must be disease free.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Adjust actions according to field and crop conditions. fallows. Analyze weather probabilities. Responsibility A: Identify Rotation Goals Rotations are a means to meet overall farm goals. Assess whether pest. and marketing strategies—define the parameters within which the rotation must be designed. and regulatory issues have to be reviewed (continued on page 14) Sidebar 2. Develop collaborations to verify successes and solve problems. Expert farmers manage their field rotations in the context of their whole farm systems. To purchase the book. Codes in parentheses correspond to the number of the task on the chart. Ten Most Important Tasks 1. Certain factors— including cropland available. equipment. parameters such as market demand. (H-4) CHAPTER 2 | How Expert Organic Farmers Manage Crop Rotations 11 . (F-12) 3. (H-2) 10. equipment. • One of Will Stevens’s goals is to design rotations to keep brassicas out of fields with a history of clubroot.org or www. projected labor availability. 5. cover crops. (F-6) 9. Examples of experts’ rotation goals include: • Jack Gurley’s goal is to maximize production on 100 percent of his small acreage without sacrificing soil health and tilth. (B-13) 7. Review overall farm operation. Review regulations. cash flow. Although they may not consciously review them.nraes. crop mix. Identify problems that can be addressed through rotation. Monitor soil and crop conditions. 3. (A-3) Ten Most Difficult Tasks 1. At the farm scale. each farmer has a set of farming goals that guide rotation planning for each field and for the whole farm. 2. Assess profitability on a whole-farm and crop-bycrop basis. (H-3) 5. (G-5) 2. others are unique to a particular farmer. (A-2) 7. (F-10) Walk fields regularly to observe crops and fields. This includes reviewing the production plan: the crops.8. Tasks are listed in order of most to least. Maintain crops. Investigate new market opportunities. Other expert farmers reviewed the chart and indicated the ten most important tasks and the ten tasks they considered most difficult to perform. (G-11) 9. Under responsibility A. Draft annual [rotation] plans. Responsibility B: Identify Resources and Constraints Identifying the possibilities and limits of the overall farm production plan and the rotation for each field is central to planning. Maintain crops. and weed pressures must be addressed. visit www. (F-9) Plant crops.org. (D-4) 4. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. page 14). (F-4) Prepare soils as soon as weather permits. (C-1) 6. (A-2) 6. Another important task is to identify which problems can be addressed by rotation. the goal of his entire rotation is to control potato diseases and increase organic matter.sare. (E-15) 8. Tweak the crop mix. (D-1) 8. disease. NRAES 177. or call (607) 255 7654. (F-13) 10. (F-12) Implement production plan. Determine if successes or failures were due to onfarm or regional factors. 4.7 Most Important and Most Difficult Tasks Expert farmers built the chart “Managing a Crop Rotation System” (pages 12–13) by reaching consensus on the key responsibilities and tasks involved in managing a crop rotation system. available land. and livestock that need to be allocated to particular field areas in the coming year. Review overall farm operation. the most important and most difficult task is reviewing the overall farm operation. Some goals are common to all farms (sidebar 2.

speculations) H-3 Investigate new market opportunities (“smell the niche”) G H Evaluate Rotation Execution G-3 Assess timing & sequencing (e. amendments.. simultaneous [overseed..g. capture planting windows. logistical issues) E-10 Schedule succession plantings of cash crops E-11 Determine cover crop types. production records.g.g. fertility) D-3 Compare crop cultural needs to field characteristics (e. cover crops. frost pockets. etc.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. temperature. experiment results. by crop. actual) G-2 Assess yields (e.. prepare equipment [including irrigation]. field locations.g. secondary... soil test results.g. disease. production. consult other farmers. see sidebar 2.g.. interseed... organic matter) C D E Gather Data C-1 Walk fields regularly to observe crop growth & field conditions C-8 Consult sales data & market trends C-2 Create field maps including acreage.. P. water availability) A-3 Identify problems that can be addressed through rotation Identify Resources & Constraints B-4 Identify markets for cash crops B-11 Assess labor strengths. maps.g.g. postharvest packaging) B-13 Review regulations (e.) Analyze Data D-1 Assess weather probabilities D-2 Assess soil conditions on a bed or field basis (e. raised beds or row crops.& micronutrients. weaknesses. The NEON “Managing a Crop Rotation System” Chart A B Identify Rotation Goals A-1 Review overall farm & personal goals (e. varieties. page 18) E-2 Consider field needs & conditions (e.. prepare fields when field conditions are right. successes & failures. marketing strategies. page 15) C-11 Maintain records (e. long & short term..g.12..g.9. suitability) B-3 Determine irrigation potential for each field (e. undersow] or sequential [one follows another]) F-2 Review rotation & production plans F Execute Rotation F-1 Organize rotation planning & management tools (e. soils (including NRCS soil map data)...g.g.. plot areas with known problems on map C. crop residues) E-3 Group crops according to maturity dates (e. compaction. moisture. consult external information sources.g.g. actual) G-11 Determine if successes or failures were due to internal/on-farm or macro/ regional issues (e. manure/ compost.org or www. weaknesses. trials & experiments) 12 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual ..sare.org.g.. last year’s mulch. likes & dislikes B-10 Inventory labor availability A-2 Review overall farm operation (e.nraes. likes & dislikes B-12 Identify input suppliers (e.. equipment. farm family/team. or call (607) 255 7654. order seeds & supplies) F-9 Prepare soils as soon as weather permits (using appropriate tillage. mission statement) B-1 Identify personal strengths.g. visit www. N. expected vs. page 15) C-10 Categorize fields (see sidebar 2. draw conclusions) Adjust Rotation Plan H-2 Develop collaborations with researchers & farmers to create solutions to problems or verify successes (e.. microclimates. To purchase the book. actual) G-13 Maintain records (e. equipment. residue. secure labor & train labor. new-to-this-farm rotations) Plan Crop Rotation E-1 Review recent cropping history (e. 3 or more years. avoiding compaction & allowing time for any cover crops or residue to adequately break down) G-1 Assess soil quality (e. air drainage. field or bed basis. expected vs. cropping materials. cation exchange capacity. planting charts. plants & seeds. production system [crop & livestock mix].g.g. review goals.g. actual) F-10 Plant crops (follow plan & planting calendar as conditions permit.g. information on crops & fields. organic certification.g.g. others) H-1 Identify successful combinations & repeat (set successful rotations on “automatic pilot”) G-12 Analyze success & failure of rotation plan (e. phosphorus regulations. adjust plan as needed based on contingency guidelines [see E-16]) G-4 Assess costs of production (e.. K.g. length of season. reference materials) F-3 Confirm markets for cash crops (change crops or quantities if price or demand requires) F-4 Implement production plan (e. “seize the moment”.. on-farm compost production) B-2 Determine available land (e. physical characteristics. quantity. land. NRAES 177. equipment booklets.g. by crop & sequence of botanical families. profitability. for simultaneous or sequential harvesting) E-13 Determine managed fallow field locations E-14 Plan crop/rotation experiments (e. up-todate maps. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. extension agents.. pH.. expected vs.9. new trials.g. performance.. other applicable relevant regulations) C-3 Test soils (e.9 Categorize crops (see sidebar 2.. expected vs. & quantities E-12 Integrate cash & cover crops (e. identify factors.

tractors. cultivate. replant if necessary. consider adding or abandoning crops or elements of rotation as necessary) H-5 Tweak field management (e. field plans and logistics..g. extension. compliance with regulations & organic certification) G-10 Measure performance against rotation goals (positive or negative outcomes) G-5 Assess profitability on a whole farm & crop-by-crop basis (e.g.. priorities to use to make on-the-spot decisions) F-6 Monitor soil & crop conditions (e. trellising. and “at-risk” crops E-9 Determine field locations of lowerpriority crops E-4 Consider harvest logistics (e. row width. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.8..org. observe condition of transplants relative to soil conditions. weather. expected vs. or call (607) 255 7654... page 14.g. crop locations. long term [need to change plan due to drought]) F-11 Keep unused soil covered (e. production plan. compost pile location.g. and “fallow” (e. microclimates. rotation plan. set custom goals) B-5 Review projected annual cash flow B-14 Determine available rotation management time A-5 Review annual production plan (e. cover crops. consider role of livestock in fertility and weed control) B-8 Assess crop cultural needs (e. The NEON “Managing a Crop Rotation System” Chart (continued) A-4 Set rotation goals (e. & other farmers’ experience E-5 Consider companion planting options D-6 Assess crop mix for whole farm (e. pollination.g. market data. irrigation) A-7 Update records (e.. irrigation) C-4 Network with farmers & others (e.g... NRAES 177. weeds) C-6 Consult field records (e. mulch.g.g. trellis. disease. minimum walking & box-carrying distance.. access to crops... visit www.g. walk fields and visualize rotation... irrigate.g.g.g.. plan for ease of loading onto trucks) E-15 Draft annual plans (e. field readiness for planting. permanent pasture. soil fertility plan) E-6 Group crops according to botanical families E-7 Determine crop quantities & area (e. field logistics. write down plan. spacing. determine likes. soil. assign crops to different fields or beds to adjust for wetness or other problems. actual) G-8 Assess insect & pest control (e. stale seed-bed. planting & harvest dates. manage insects.g. short term [best day for planting]. soils. based on market data & field performance. harvest) F-7 Monitor greenhouse conditions (e.g.g. cover crop. insects. site-specific & practice-related) C-5 Study existing research data (e. what was planted where in previous years...g. slow or accelerate growth if necessary to produce appropriate-sized transplants on-time) F-13 Adjust actions according to field & crop conditions (e. bare soil. extension.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. residue incorporation) E-17 Use senses & imagination to review plan (e.sare. successes & failures C-7 Consult meteorological data (e. expected vs. spraying.g. desired quantities) A-6 Balance acreage.g.g. or woodlot. use of harvest equipment. change planting or plowdown dates. livestock. rainfall) D-4 Assess whether pest... diseases. between cash crops. beneficial.g. actual) G-9 Interview work crew for suggestions. actual) G-6 Assess disease control (e. crop & cover crop species & varieties. spray. expected vs.g. at whole farm level. see sidebar 2.. disease.g. weed pressure.. crop height. scouts. To purchase the book. actual) F-14 Maintain records (e. postharvest handling areas) B-9 Identify cultural constraints based on equipment (e. helpers... soil tests) D-7 Maintain records (e. whole farm plan & farm mission.g. “farm it in your head”) E-18 Maintain records (e.. fertility.. expected vs. sod/hay. record annual production plan) B-6 Identify neighbor issues (e..g. add 10% for contingencies) E-16 Develop guidelines for contingencies in case rotation does not go as planned (e. dislikes H-4 Tweak crop mix (e. greenhouses. advice. successes & failures.g.nraes. cover crops. genetic pollution) B-15 Establish and maintain relationships with off-farm experts (e.org or www. weeds.. land grants. chemical drift.g. keep notes of actual changes implemented) CHAPTER 2 | How Expert Organic Farmers Manage Crop Rotations 13 .. written or mental guidelines for improvisation: principles. abandon crop or replace with a cover crop to cut losses) G-7 Assess weed control (e. cover crop maturity. record data analysis results & decisions made) E-8 Determine field locations of most profitable.. draw maps) F-8 Prepare work schedule F-5 Monitor weather (e.. talk to laborers) B-7 Inventory farm equipment & facilities (e. or weed pressures from previous season must be addressed D-5 Determine applicability of research data. others. what was actually planted where.g...g. field & row length. trap crops) F-12 Maintain crops (e.g..g.g. others. frost free dates...g. 500 row feet or 2 acres.g..g. shift crop families to different fields.g. put poorly performing fields into hay ahead of schedule ) H-6 Upgrade or improve equipment as necessary H-7 Start process over (return to A: Identify Rotation Goals) H-8 Maintain records (e.

6. fertility. Tasks C-9 and C-10.sare. for example: “Conserve and build organic matter in my light sandy soil. A new crop. nutrient cycling. and soil cover to prevent erosion).” 5. Farmers consider complying and keeping up with regulations to be among their most difficult tasks. and contacting suppliers. Crops with similar irrigation. must be figured into the rotation plan. staying current to take advantage of any advances in the understanding of the ecology of his system. or market arrangements may require that new data be considered. Bring the farmer to life. accessing information. Categorization of crops and fields helps guide the 14 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . cash flow. “Break the wilt cycle among crops in the tomato family. Minimize off-farm inputs. Unlock the living potential of the soil. 17. organic matter. Some information is collected on the farm. or call (607) 255 7654. 10. Crop cultural needs. humus. He reviews the scientific research annually. labor.7. Diversify tasks to keep labor happy and productive all season. Balance the needs of the farm with the needs of the farmer. page 11). Production and marketing information usually needs to be updated and cross-checked annually. Provide economic stability. and cultivation regimes or planting times are often managed as a block to simplify field operations. 12. Even in winter. are based on an impressive array of information. Control diseases. Have a diverse line of products to market. 14. Constraints may include field-specific limits like whether a field is ready for planting and harvest early or late in the season and how that relates to market timing. visit www. “Categorize crops” and “Categorize fields. All the expert farmers agreed that regularly walking the fields is a crucial way to gather data and monitor ongoing conditions for the current and coming seasons. Will Stevens interviews his workers throughout the season. NRAES 177. making labor arrangements. sometimes while cross-country skiing or walking the dog. such as spacing and trellising. research recommendations. 13. Maintain healthy soil (including chemical balance.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. and some is gathered from off-farm sources. 9. annually. This helps them review field conditions and logistics of previous seasons and organize their thinking for the season ahead. Maintain biotic diversity. seed potato grower Jim Gerritsen uses his rotation to interrupt potato disease life cycles and pest vectors. 21. 20. Balance economic viability and soil fertility. 8.org or www. because they are able to observe many field situations he does not have the opportunity to see. biological health.8 Expert Farmers’ Common Goals for Crop Rotation 1. Refine the aesthetic quality of fields and farm. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. for example. Capture solar energy wherever possible. For example. heavy weed pressure the previous season may preclude smallseeded crops. vitality. such as establishing market relationships. Constraints imposed by equipment. for example. Observing crops and fields is on the expert farmers’ list of the ten most important tasks (sidebar 2. 3. Responsibility C: Gather Data Rotation decisions. Sidebar 2. 7. 19. Reduce weed pressure. Add nitrogen and other nutrients in a way that is environmentally safe and conforms with regulations.” are among the most critical steps in data gathering. drainage.” 4. Have a holistic approach and a good rotation that leads to healthy crops. for each field and for the whole farm. Reduce labor costs. 18. especially soilborne diseases. “Manage the rotation to confuse the weeds. Manage the farm as a whole system. To purchase the book. tilth. For example. 15. This responsibility also includes numerous “communication” tasks. 11. also have to be accommodated. such as row width.nraes. fertility. Increase profitability. and profitability.” 2. Produce nutritious food. Control insects. expert farmers are observing their fields. develop a spiritual relationship with the land. Problems of specific fields in a particular year must be identified.org. 16.

org. row lengths) Proximity to similar fields • • • • • • • • • • • • CHAPTER 2 | How Expert Organic Farmers Manage Crop Rotations 15 . biennial. and land use Susceptibility to pests and diseases Cash vs. Farmers also characterize their fields. The first task is to characterize every cash and cover crop in the farm’s crop mix according to a range of important characteristics. perennial. irrigation) Preferred seedbed conditions Spacing requirements Income per acre Effect on cash flow Harvest timing Costs per acre Tolerance of mechanical cultivation Ability to trap nutrients Root vs. • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Botanical family Market demand Season of planting. many affect the type of equipment that can be used and the timing of operations.9). intolerant Pollination requirements Field Characteristics These relatively permanent characteristics of a field are difficult to change.9 Categorization of Crops and Fields Crop Characteristics The table below lists crop characteristics from most to least important. light feeders Cultural practices (for example. Sidebar 2. The variety of characteristics considered indicates the complexity of the issues farmers balance in crop rotation decisions. on the basis of the field’s permanent characteristics (such as slope and exposure) and shorter-term conditions (such as weed pressure). or call (607) 255 7654. small seeded Deep vs. shallow rooted Tolerance of poor drainage Shade tolerant vs. as ranked by expert farmers. NRAES 177. cultivation.sare. cover crop Ability to compete with weeds Annual.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.nraes. These tasks rely on the cumulative process of integrating information and experience over many growing seasons. from the number and timing of harvests to soil requirements (see sidebar 2. transplanted “Givers” vs. visit www. south. harvest. For example. spraying. or overwintering annual Direct-seeded vs. Categorizations provide a reference of “interchangeable crops” if a plan needs modification. labor. “takers” Heavy vs. west) Air drainage—frost pockets Size Cation-exchange capacity Proximity to barn or access roads Stoniness Shape (corners. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. To purchase the book. optimal allocation of particular crops to individual fields or beds each year. east. block planted Large vs.org or www. leaf and fruit Drought tolerance Row vs. Information about both crops and fields is necessary to effectively match them in a given year. it is useful to know what late crops or varieties can go into a field in a wet year. • • • • • • • Recent planting history (1–5 years) Within-field variability Proximity to water source Erosion potential Drainage Sunny or shady Known problems with ▷▷ weeds ▷▷ insects ▷▷ poor tilth or hardpan ▷▷ wildlife Slope Moisture-holding capacity pH Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) soil type Aspect (north.

Even weather projections are considered. are prime locations for u-pick crops. High-priority crops include the most profitable crops. crops with frequent harvests or need for frequent care must be easily accessible. Responsibility E: Plan Crop Rotation This responsibility is the ultimate synthesis of information and results in a production plan and a rotation plan. they work through the sequence of field operations from tillage to harvest over the entire season for each crop and field. creating a cropping plan for the entire farm for the year. The data on market options. or have current problems that need to be addressed. For example. and any logistical issues relating to equipment use. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. NRAES 177. “Farm it in my head. Information is crossreferenced and. Information such as what crops to grow. He locates salad greens and braising greens in the same field due to the time of day they are harvested. any particular successes or failures. Expert farmers distinguish between these two types of plans. visit www. Long rides on bumpy roads can bruise delicate produce like tomatoes. For example. when necessary. and crops particularly vulnerable to pests.” That is. diseases. weed) and disease pressures from the previous season should be addressed. and sometimes pasturage for livestock.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Crops are also grouped based on the time of the season when they are harvested.sare. in what quantities. The crops and fields are tentatively matched. or call (607) 255 7654. in the words of one. They take this initial plan and. how well they performed. An example is provided in sidebar 2. weighted. The production plan specifies what needs to be grown (the crop mix) and how it will be grown. cover crops. fallow areas. To purchase the book.10. and options for each field are compared. Expert farmers first assign their highest-priority crops to fields (or beds). or labor. labor and seed availability. First.nraes. along with the overall farm and rotation goals are reviewed. those that have the highest fertility. irrigation. All these decisions are based on both business and biology. required equipment. Decisions are also based on high-priority fields— for example. Obviously. Final decisions about the crop mix and the allocation of crops to fields and fields to crops are pivotal to this responsibility.org or www. the size of the field and market needs (how much of each crop is required) are also considered. The allocation of crops to fields includes consideration of future cropping plans as well as the cropping history of a field. Several steps are involved.10 Grouping Crops by Their Need for Accessibility The logistics of harvesting affect rotations. This includes what crops and crop families were grown. the cropping history of each field or bed for the past three or more years is reviewed. Many experts plot this information on farm maps and notebooks. reviewing any possible logistical or biological conflicts like Sidebar 2. labor availability at various times in the season. and financial constraints. and desired harvest dates are integrated into the rotation plan for each field and for the entire farm. They think through why any sequence might not work. He prefers to allocate some crops to fields with close proximity to packing sheds. Various possible pairings of crop to field are outlined. The rotation plan must be responsive to weed pressures or other legacies from earlier years and must provide future crops with favorable conditions. Expert farmer Jean-Paul Courtens considers road access and produce characteristics. equipment.org. The experts assess soil conditions and determine how pest (animal. This is among the most difficult tasks. Crop cultural needs are compared to each field’s characteristics and conditions. Two questions bounce back and forth. Responsibility D: Analyze Data All of the decisions and information generated through previous tasks and responsibilities are pulled together for analysis at this key phase of the planning process. the field crew may be able to plant two fields to high-value crops but not also harvest an early crop the same week. One is what will be grown in each field? The other is where will each crop grow? These questions are answered based on observation and experience. 16 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Every possible crop mix is analyzed. insect. harvesting. Remaining fields (or parts of fields) are then assigned to the remaining crops. whereas the rotation plan determines where each crop will be planted. cover crops with the greatest benefits. or weather. Several expert farmers take their plans into the field and walk the farm for this task. Possible tradeoffs are considered.

and irrigation) as the most important task and the second most difficult task in crop rotation. they must wait for workable soil moisture conditions. thinning.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. crops may be abandoned. For example. as well. all the options are considered before finalizing a decision. Either decision had repercussions for the rotations on other fields because the farm’s CSA needed both spring and fall brassicas. cucurbit crops will never be planted in the same field two years in a row.sare. In early spring. Cover crops are monitored to determine maturity. page 18). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Many decisions and adjustments have to be made on the fly. thickness of stands. for example. While a change necessitated by weather or the conditions in one field can cause reassignment of crops around the farm. Although they generally want to till the soil as early as possible to accelerate soil warming and residue breakdown. Any of these factors can cause crops to be reassigned to different fields or beds.” As the season progresses. weed-free areas. or inadequately broken down cover crops and require shifts in the crop rotation (see sidebar 2. or call (607) 255 7654. Farmers also monitor the breakdown and incorporation of crop and cover crop residues. which are heavy feeders. Expert farmers attempt to plant priority fields or beds and their most important crops as scheduled in their plan. crop emergence. they still prioritize high-value or sensitive crops and fields. would get that part of the tomato acreage that had good cover crop growth. timing of operations or spread of pests between adjacent crops. or replaced with a cover crop or even a different cash crop. whereas lower-value and resilient winter squash would be assigned to the less fertile areas.org or www. In the event of crop failure. They identified maintaining crops (including activities such as weeding. Other critical steps in crop production and central to executing the crop rotation are soil preparation and planting. Even as the rota- CHAPTER 2 | How Expert Organic Farmers Manage Crop Rotations 17 . Responsibility F: Execute Rotation Farmers indicated that executing the rotation involves many of the most important and difficult tasks (see sidebar 2. page 19). Most expert farmers anticipate problems that might occur and have contingency plans ready (see sidebar 2. which would have had to be plowed down prior to planting fall brassicas.12. wet weather prevented expert farmer Roy Brubaker from fall-seeding a rye cover crop in a particular field. Expert farmer Paul Arnold suggested that this ability to make effective on-the-fly adjustments Sidebar 2. visit www. Alternatively. but it can change his crop mix or the selected varieties on a particular field.13.nraes. and weeds may cause farmers to alter their original plan.org. beefsteak tomatoes. Soil moisture conditions affect the timing of tillage and subsequent field operations (see sidebar 2. Problems related to weather. he might plant heavy-feeding and high-value watermelons on the most fertile. described this process as finding “a profitable punt. and cover crops are seeded or plowed under.7. short-season crops like salad greens are harvested. One option for the field might have been to plant oats and field peas in early spring. Scheduling tillage and planting for all the fields across an entire farm every season is also a challenge for most farmers. Drew Norman. replanted. At both farms. NRAES 177. If they have to alter the plan. He may subdivide the field and plant heavy feeders where the legume cover crop was most successful. They then adjust the plan as necessary. Another option would have been to plant the field to a spring crop of brassicas and then put in buckwheat or an early rye cover crop. Soil and air temperatures influence planting and transplanting decisions. farmers monitor the weather—sometimes hourly—as they implement and alter their rotation plan. general and farm-specific rotation goals and guidelines remain the basis of every decision. and optimal time for incorporation.11 Considering Options After harvesting late snap beans. Delays in soil preparation or planting may cause crop failures due to poor emergence. is an important factor in the success of his farm.11). whereas thrifty cherry tomatoes would get the remainder. subsequent crops are planted. To purchase the book. runaway weeds. another expert farmer. page 11). cover crop maturity. Nonuniform cover crop growth does not change Brett Grohsgal’s overall rotation.

even for experts. and the farm as a whole. At the end of the season. soil conditions. especially for their priority fields and key crops. analyzed. and evaluated. The factors they consider include yields. the process of crop-to-field allocation and prioritization continues. each crop. and how their rotation execution supported their biological and business goals. a bad disease year for all farms in the region. They record how their plans have worked and evolved. and monitor conditions in their own ways. Workers often have suggestions. weed suppression) • Ground cover • Cover crop nodulation and nitrogen fixation Soil fertility • Soil test results • Chemical balance (N. weather. visit www. Farmers note that assessing the profitability of crops. and profitability of each crop and of the whole farm. disease. Sidebar 2. observe. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Several said they interview their field crews at the end of the season. Conditions they monitor regularly include: Pests • Weed pressure • Insect emergence and pressure • Diseases Cover crop performance • Success of previous cover crops (e. crop losses. and collect ideas and data for future seasons.. they review the success of the production year. Mg. K. NRAES 177. especially on a field-byfield basis. regardless of rotation.org. and micronutrients) • Nutrient cycles • “Biological health” and vitality— earthworms. they are aware of.12 Field and Crop Conditions That Expert Farmers Monitor Fields and crops need continual monitoring during the season. for example. Expert farmers consider how closely they followed biological principles in their rotation. Rotation goals and rotation plans serve as benchmarks to measure the success of the cropping season and the rotation. To purchase the book. Ca. such as improving the farm layout. learn. By walking around the farm and by analyzing data at their desk. In-season observations also inform experts’ decisions for the next year’s rotation. P. that enhance the efficiency of operations. labor satisfaction and efficiency. production of organic matter. growers carefully assess what actually happened relative to what they expected based on the original rotation plan. and mistakes. is another difficult task. Assessing whether regional conditions or onfarm mistakes were the source of problems is among the most difficult tasks. costs of crop production. growers talk to other growers and extension agents to determine whether problems were the result of actions on their farm rather than. or call (607) 255 7654. The expert farmers emphasize the importance of recording actual cropping as it happens (particularly deviations from the plan) for later comparison with their initial rotation plan for the year. expert growers monitor the performance of their fields. tion plan is implemented. The results are recorded to assist in planning and management for future seasons. This is not just to solve problems in the current season.sare. • Soil organic matter Soil tilth • Crop residues and residue breakdown • Composted organic matter or “humus” in the soil • Soil aggregation • Soil moisture • Soil and air temperature • Soil compaction and porosity 18 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Experts often have contingency plans in mind to accommodate such situations. but also to observe.org or www. whether they met their production and market objectives. Biological and physical conditions can change relatively quickly due to management. Although most farmers do not measure all these parameters directly.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. etc.g. When attempting to analyze the causes of success or failure of various elements of the rotation. Expert farmers do this directly and through communicating with their crews. weed. timing of events and operations. Successes and failures are assessed. and pest levels and their control.nraes. They compare the results with those of previous years to detect any trends or patterns. Responsibility G: Evaluate Rotation Execution Throughout the season.

He often finds that the reason for failed germination was a poor seedbed. visit www. In the event of drought and limited water for irrigation. and transplanting.sare. CHAPTER 2 | How Expert Organic Farmers Manage Crop Rotations 19 . • Poor germination David Blyn replants crop failures with fast-growing. This is followed by a weed-suppressing cover crop of rye. allowing the wholesale portion of his crops to perish. Don Kretschmann irrigates only the portion of the crop destined for retail markets. He often pastures livestock on these fields to disrupt weeds and add fertility. When an oat and pea cover crop does not winterkill. NRAES 177. Crops with bad weed problems are often plowed down and planted to cover crops. or call (607) 255 7654. Expert farmers have developed many techniques to help them adapt to changing circumstances that typically influence their rotations. and on the second try the seedbed is usually better. which also produces a marketable crop of pea shoots. infestations of bindweed and Canada thistle are followed by a triple crop of lettuce. short-season crops like radishes. • Delayed planting due to wet fields A common reason to diverge from the rotation plan is wet fields in spring. Many expert farmers switch key crops to other fields when this happens. Contingency strategies include mulching instead of cultivation for weed control. He chooses sequences of cover crops based on ability to add organic matter. • Weather problems Drought can affect the germination of directseeded crops and shallow-rooted crops like garlic. Blyn also uses cover crops to “paint in” gaps caused by failed crops or early harvests. In that situation. fix nitrogen. He stocks extra seed for crops like sweet corn and carrots that can be planted on multiple occasions and replants when necessary. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. This can delay the plowdown of cover crops and.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. it delays planting of strawberries because of the time needed for the cover crop to break down. of residue decomposition. causing a cascading (somewhat preplanned) shift in the allocation of many crops.13 Contingency Planning Expert farmers have enough experience to know that their best plans can sometimes be derailed. relative to soil and weather conditions. Growers sometimes have to decide whether a cover crop stand that has a lot of weeds is worth keeping for the fertility benefits or should be plowed under early. For example. • Weed challenges Brett Grohsgal responds to heavy weed pressure by sowing cover crops at higher rates. One expert farmer uses intensively cultivated crops to control bad weed infestations. Transplants will also be “hardened off ” to prepare them for the shock of the particular season’s outside environment. To purchase the book. Eero Ruuttila uses a cover crop of oats and field peas for this purpose. • Severe pest and fertility problems Brett Grohsgal occasionally finds that a whole field needs to be temporarily removed from production to rebuild fertility or manage weed infestations. Roy Brubaker plants the strawberries close together so their runners will fill in the rows more quickly for good weed control. which is high value enough to justify the costs of frequent cultivation. Sidebar 2. Greenhouse environments are managed to speed or slow growth so that transplants are at the right developmental stage when field conditions are right for transplanting. and compete with weeds. and substituting largerseeded or transplanted crops. consequently. Knowing how to adapt or when to start over with a particular field or crop is essential to the success of the farm business. field preparation.nraes. The growth of transplants in greenhouses is monitored to determine whether transplants are on schedule for planting out. They weigh the potential benefits and investment in the cover crop against potential increases in the weed seed bank.org or www. survive drought.org.

To purchase the book. so they decided to open up new acreage to break up the life cycle of soilborne beet diseases. and (3) tweaking the crop mix. While the NEON chart makes rotation planning seem linear and quantifiable. They revisit the tasks associated with “Identify rotation goals” (Responsibility A). which continue to evolve. They may decide to shift crops to alternative fields. expert farmers begin the final phase of the annual rotation cycle in which they modify their rotations and plan for the coming year. try new crop sequences. intuitive. Responsibility H: Adjust Rotation Plan As the cropping season closes in late fall. as well as by field and crop performance and rotation imperatives.org or www. or call (607) 255 7654. They first consider altering the crop mix by adding or removing crops or changing the area planted to a crop. Adjusting the rotation plan presents three particularly challenging tasks: (1) developing collaborations to solve problems. and a sense of adventure in managing their rotations. Paul and Sandy Arnold found that highquality. They record notes for the next year’s rotation plan. Such decisions are affected by the market. or improve fer- tility of a field by planting it into a cover crop or hay ahead of schedule. Tweaking the crop mix requires balancing market opportunities with biological needs.sare. integrated. For example. 20 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Growers indicated that this is a core task in managing crop rotations. These expert growers agreed on the importance of making new and interesting mistakes each season. visit www. all of our farmer panelists felt that managing rotations is a continuous. Expert growers stress the importance of experimentation. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. This occurs concurrently with the evaluation of the past season. and results of experiments. and cyclical process developed through intensive information gathering and extensive experience. They then focus on the productivity and problems of each field and of the overall farm.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. play. Growers may also decide to change their field management by changing the order or dates of planting or plowdown of cover crops.nraes. disease-free beets were very important for sales at farmers’ markets. NRAES 177.org. new guidelines for contingencies. (2) investigating markets. They glean and incorporate new ideas into their rotations. The next year’s plan begins to take shape. The art of adjusting every aspect of the rotation was discussed as the core of successfully managing rotations. This resulted in adjustment of their entire rotation so that their fields spend a longer time in cover crops.

3 PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL PROCESSES IN CROP ROTATION What This Chapter Is About Charles L. More recently. of soil quality and management of pests. Legumes used as green manures supply nitrogen for succeeding crops.sare. Soil quality tends to improve with the percentage of time the land is in grass and legume sod and cover crops (figure 3. To ensure accuracy.or three-year rotation with continuous cropping. Consequently. The biological and physical benefits of crop rotation fall into two general. Conversely. Mohler T his chapter is about the ways biologists and soil scientists view crop rotation (see inset). Nevertheless.org. Since the organic farming community is already aware of the problems of continuous cropping. some relevant studies do exist. Unlike the farmer experts of the previous chapter. in the early nineteenth century. organic mulches. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Many legumes also have deep taproots that loosen the subsoil and recycle leached nutrients back into the plowed horizon.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Through extensive reading and discussion with others. interrelated categories: improvement All of the researchers who contributed to this chapter are knowledgeable about the organic production process and actively work to support organic agriculture.nraes. Many factors can modify these contrasting trends. the contrast between grass and legume sod and cover crops versus row crops makes a good starting point for understanding the relationship between crop rotation and soil quality. including the type and frequency of tillage and the degree to which the farmer uses soil amendments like compost. due to (1) the relatively low average density of roots per square foot and (2) the presence of bare soil between the rows that is exposed to the impact of traffic and raindrops. expert farmers come to understand and practice most of the principles presented here.1. who approach rotation as a holistic process. their roots decay slowly through various forms of soil organic matter that further tend to stabilize soil aggregates and supply a slow release of nutrients for crop growth. NRAES 177. and much can be inferred from work that did not explicitly compare different crop rotations. visit www. the scientists are specialists who delve deeply into particular aspects of organic production. Moreover. To ensure relevance and a writing style that speaks to farmers rather than other researchers. Understanding the concepts presented in this chapter can help resolve newly encountered problems and aid development of a rotation plan. researchers have begun to look at crop rotation on organic farms (125).org or www. They study in detail how crop rotation affects a particular aspect of the farm system. Nevertheless. Studying multiyear crop sequences. row crops tend to have opposite effects on soil. CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 21 . organic farmers also reviewed the researchers’ comments. To purchase the book. such studies often provide few data with any relevance to organic farmers. other researchers in their respective fields who support organic agriculture reviewed their comments. scientists have taken a renewed interest in crop rotation due to increasing problems associated with continuous cropping of single species. page 22). most studies have compared a two. In the past ten years. or call (607) 255 7654. Grasses produce dense systems of fine roots that secrete substances that foster aggregation of the soil into stable crumbs. however. requires extraordinary patience and a source of funding that lasts longer than typical government grants. Certain broad patterns appear in each of these. Researchers have studied crop rotation since the beginnings of agricultural science. and rock powders.

nraes.Pseudomona syringae .horsenettle Note that persistence and mobility often vary in opposite ways. spores. weeds.fusarium wilts .sare.tarnished plant bug . Figure 3. Source: Modified from reference 125. seeds. Although crop rotation is a key component in the management of diseases. NRAES 177.corn rootworm .crucifer flea beetle .Botrytis . with non-persistent species having high mobility and vice versa. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. it is not a panacea. in the case of weeds. Soil quality improves Percentage of time in row crops Percentage of time in grass and legume sod and cover crops Soil quality declines Figure 3.annual bluegrass Generalist . and survival of dormant states (eggs. and a grower must use management techniques in addition to rotation to keep them from reducing crop quality and productivity. Highly mobile pests can disperse into a field and cause problems even if the preceding crops have provided unsuitable habitats that caused the pest to die out. and some problems cannot be addressed by crop rotation at all. Additional key factors are the mobility of the pest and the persistence of dormant pest life stages (eggs. spores).1 Relation of soil quality to the types of crops that predominate in the rotation. visit www.cocklebur Non-mobile (or short persistence) increasing efficacy of crop rotation Mobile (or long persistence) . have seeds or . Many pest problems cannot be managed by crop rotation alone.org or www. To purchase the book.corn cockle Host specific .slugs . A key factor that governs the ability of crop rotation to manage pests is the host specificity of the pest (figure 3. 22 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Host-specific pests specialize on a particular species or family of crops.org. Mobility and persistence appear together in this diagram because they have similar effects on management choices. thrive in a wide range of cropping systems. Generalist pests are pest organisms that attack crops in diverse plant families or. Highly generalist pests can persist in the field through a variety of crops. particularly weeds and some fungi. and many types of animal pests. Other pests. seeds) on how well crop rotation controls pest organisms.2 The effect of host specificity. whereas generalist pests damage a wide range of crops.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. or call (607) 255 7654.Sclerotinia . dispersal ability.2).

Some notable interactions between soil and pest management that can be managed by crop rotation are addressed in the following sections. or crumb. To purchase the book. Good soil tilth is usually equated with aggregation (presence of soil crumbs). and a soil that is well aggregated also has a range of pore sizes. and the large pores are compressed into small ones. Denitrification results in rapid and significant loss of soil nitrogen and generates nitrous oxide. Denitrification (conversion of nitrogen to gaseous forms) is another concern with oxygen-deficient waterlogged soil. At the other extreme. Used with permission.org. Soil management and pest management interact in many ways. dense. There are thus a number of approaches to improving the physical quality of the soil. and often a combined approach produces the greatest improvement. NRAES 177. poorly dispersing pests that are dependent on a narrow range of crops are relatively easy to control through rotation to other types of crops.3 shows a soil aggregate. T large pore small pore intermediate pore Soil Tilth and Aggregation Figure 3. All of these interactions. which benefit both crop and environment. such aggregates may in turn be made up of smaller ones that are clumped together.3 A soil aggregate or “crumb” with good tilth. either through long-term intensive cultivation and erosion or through compaction from traffic. suitable cropping conditions) than are species that do not persist well in the soil. Also. Crop Rotation and Soil Tilth H arold van Es less important than the spaces (or pores) between them. Favorable tilth implies good conditions for seed germination and root proliferation. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Such species are less likely to be eliminated by a short period without a suitable host crop (or for weeds. For example.sare. depend heavily on aggregates for good physical structure and tilth and. This prevents oxygen deficiency in the soil. crop nutrition affects plant disease resistance. The aggregates themselves are perhaps Figure 3. and many others. Additional ways to improve soil tilth include reducing tillage and using cover crops. spores that can remain dormant in the soil for many years. found in a soil of good tilth. which stresses most crop types. however. and therefore are less dependent on aggregation to provide good tilth and aeration. a potent greenhouse gas. Other sections in this chapter discuss many examples of pests that are and are not effectively managed by crop rotation. and hard.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. such as water infiltration and aeration. With finer-textured soils. because stable aggregates promote these favorable processes. Large pores drain rapidly and are needed for good air exchange during wet periods. Each pore size plays a critical role in the physical functioning of the soil.nraes. are influenced by crop rotation. once degraded. Sandy and gravelly ilth generally refers to the physical condition of the soil as it relates to plant growth. become structureless. Finer-textured soils. When soil becomes degraded. A mix of large and small pores is desirable. visit www. sometimes to the point of death.org or www. it loses its aggregation. nonpersistent. Source: From reference 68. Small pores are critical for water retention and help a crop go through dry periods with minimal yield loss. a soil with good tilth facilitates other processes. depending on the crops that are being alternated. CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 23 . or call (607) 255 7654. and high soil physical quality improves the effectiveness of mechanical weed management. Crop rotations can have a positive impact on soil tilth. Oxygen deficiency also increases pest problems. Coarse-textured sands and gravels naturally have large pores. allowing crops to thrive. some cover crops can reduce certain types of soilborne diseases but promote others.

When soils become degraded and comroot growth deep into the profile. Aggregates in such soils will readily fall apart compaction is the practice of plowing with a set of wheels during subsequent rains. Deep roots allow a plant pacted. or call (607) 255 7654. earthworms. causing the soil to settle and bein the open furrow. organic matter breakdown from intensive tillage. Good soil management and rotations can increase crop water availability if they increase the soil’s organic Aggregation in the Subsoil matter content. This way the subsoil is directly loaded come dense and hard. soils are naturally deficient in small pores and are therefore logical degradation. the layer dent on aggregation. The main cause for this is heavy however. of compaction is transferred deep into the soil. hard. which is an important contributor to water retention. so there needs to be a continual effort drought prone. To purchase the book. but from good management. because the aggregation is equipment loads on wet soil (figure 3. weakly aggregated soil. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. These organic materials dry soils.to 6-inch) and biological manipulation of the soil.4). as opposed depth of tillage to unstable. which helps it through to establish a good crop.org or www. This then generates a vicious cycle by the tractor tires. Source: From reference 68.). including primary tillage (moldThese aggregates are less impacted by biological activity board or chisel plowing) followed by secondary tillage of microbes. have the aim of producing a the surface layer. which in turn makes the problem worse.” The preferred scenario is for the aggregates and good tilth to be the result of natural soil building processes.org. The tilth created by tillage.nraes. Coarse-textured soils can thus also benefit People tend to focus on soil tilth in the plow layer. Such a soil may be considered “addicted to tillage.sare. Also. stable aggregates are held together by organic bonding madry soil wet soil terials that resist breakdown during soil saturation and heavy Figure 3. because the soil would otherwise drought periods. even though they are less depengood aggregation is also important in the subsoil. which tills up cloddy. and to minimize thus supply crops with more water. beyond which is short lived. etc. and roots than the crumbs in (disking. whereas loams and clays can retain and to “feed the soil” with organic material. can also be compacted. Another significant source of subsoil sive tillage. Mechanical soil blocks of soil that are more angular and not as distinctive. and other beneficial organisms. Such stable aggregates will break apart during tillage or planting and therefore readily provide good tilth. Used with permission. below the regular depth of tillage. visit www. are themselves subject to bio- 24 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . such as the activity of plant roots. earthworms.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. cultivation practices. Subsurface aggregates are important for good seedbed. in which the soil needs to be intensively tilled each year to provide good seedbed conditions. where the force obtained through the physical manipulation of the soil. or cloddy. NRAES 177. Aggregates below the surface layer be too dense.4 Compactive forces are transferred deeper in wet soils than in rainfall. tends to be unstable. especially after many years of intenthe plow layer. such tillage practices are often deemed necessary greater access to soil moisture. harrowing. Such aggregates are Good soil tilth can be obtained through mechanical generally not crumb-like but involve larger (2.

. If a short rotation is used. A scenario that is often observed is the hardsetting of poorly aggregated (low organic matter) soil when tillage is followed by large amounts of rainfall. There are two processes that contribute to this gain. does not see significant root growth until the late spring.. “ Effects of Rotation Crops Rotation crops can help build soils. This benefit. “Rotation with cover crops that grow aggressively in the early and late growing season are. of course. CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 25 . a summer annual. Hardness above 300 psi restricts root growth. and good tilth will be preserved. Sod crops appear to be the most effective in building good soil tilth in the surface layer. because the soil is then moist and sufficiently soft for root penetration. Soil Hardness Soils generally become harder when they dry. There is a difference. when compacted soils may already have become dry and hard. able to penetrate plow pans and hard subsoil. however. fibrous. If the aggregates are stable as a result of good management and adequate organic matter. and they deposit the digested materials on soil aggregates and thereby stabilize them. compacted subsoils become hard and impenetrable to roots when they dry. Compacted soil Soil hardness 300 psi critical level Well-structured soil Soil water content Figure 3. the rapid rate of organic matter decomposition from tillage is stopped under the sod crop. Similarly. or call (607) 255 7654. Studies have shown that organic matter losses from intensively tilled row crops can be regained when the field is rotated into a perennial sod crop. as illustrated in figure 3. Compacted soils harden more rapidly than well-structured soils when drying. To purchase the book. First. visit www. like corn. Rotation with cover crops that grow aggressively in the early and late growing season are thus better able to penetrate plow pans and hard subsoil. The aggregates forming the loose tilth after tillage are not stable and fall apart when the soil becomes saturated. and reduced plant growth. Grass and legume sod crops therefore return more organic matter to the soil than most other crops.6 (page 26).5 The effect of soil water content on soil hardness of a well-structured and a compacted soil.nraes. is also gained when a no-tillage cropping system is employed. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. The dead roots supply a source of fresh. between well-aggregated and compacted soil.sare. In contrast. in that the latter becomes hard more readily upon drying (figure 3.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. active organic matter to the soil. grass and legume sods develop extensive root systems that continually grow and die off.org. Earthworms and many other beneficial organisms need continual supplies of organic matter to sustain themselves. The dense. mycorrhizal fungi) can exude organic materials that nourish soil organisms and help with aggregation.5). This causes problems with crop emergence. because the soil is then moist and sufficiently soft for root penetration. and tillage is minimized.org or www. The soil then settles and becomes hard. Also. which feeds soil organisms that are involved in building soil aggregation. root restriction. rooting system of perennial grasses and shallow-rooted legumes creates a very active biological zone near the surface. Second. NRAES 177. they will hold up against the rain. the living roots and symbiotic microorganisms (for example.

org or www. This provides longer periods of soil cover. tion. pea. tive growth occurs only 32 percent of the time. Also. fibrous. oat. The strong. red clover A grower should consider a field assessment to idenseeded into winter wheat provides additional roots and a tify problems and better tailor the rotation to the needs more protein-rich source of organic matter. and cool-season grasses grow actively in the late 2 fall and early spring and thereby can Corn. visit http://soilhealth. Some crops such as rye.cals. This may include an assessment of soil tilth in Other rotation crops are less effective in building tilth the surface layer.6 Loss and gain of soil organic matter under tilled corn followed tion is reduced. especially during wet periods when the soil is provide an integrated assessment of soil quality through soft. For example.sare. of the soil. They are Grass sod plowing beneficial both as rotation and cover crops. but the positive effects may be negated if intensive tillage is used to establish them. rotations provide 0 25 50 75 100 opportunities for improving soil Years physical quality. see references 14. while a deep-rooted fields can be established with minimal tillage if a good crop helps address problems with subsoil compaction. Some perennial crops. Soil organic matter content (%) 26 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . 72 percent (14). deep. Source: From reference 68. barley. NRAES 177. Some annual many cases. With careful selecby grass sod. This inplant roots. In no-till drill is used and weed pressure is low. have different rooting systems. have digging with a shovel is perhaps the most instructive. 68.nraes. penetrating tap roots that can push through Cornell Soil Health Test has recently been developed to hard layers. it provides longer periods in which active roots feed the soil. the rotation should include a mixture of crop rotation crops such as buckwheat also have dense. biological. Used with permission. an indicator of soil tilth. this period is For further reading. These deep roots make pathways for water and future chemical. and 107. wheat. in a corn-soybean rotation. accornell. types to increase the diversity of organic matter that suproot systems and can improve soil tilth. rotation crops can be targeted to help alleviate certain soil quality problems.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. and bring organic matter into the subsoil. To purchase the book. help build stable soil tilth. For Crops can be beneficial in a rotation if they extend further information on the test and management practices the period of active growth compared to conventional that promote soil health. but dense subsoils. and soil hardness in the in the surface layer but are more valuable for improving subsoil. cludes aggregate stability. In summary.edu. row crops. especially if the active growth period is expanded and the amount of tillage in the rotaFigure 3. A soil penetrometer is a useful tool for this. or call (607) 255 7654. rooting depth. A densely rooted sod crop the benefits of the sod crop are enhanced. visit www. such as alfalfa.org. and physical indicators. Hay or pasture helps build tilth in the plow layer. For example. thereby reducing erosion potential and loss 4 of good topsoil. and to address multiple soil compatible mixtures of crops are beneficial because they quality objectives. ports soil-building organisms. while in a dry bean–winter wheat–corn rotation. Sometimes.

Some of these nutrients leave the farm as harvested products. Crop roots and residues improve soil fertility by stimulating soil microbial communities and improving soil aggregation. and. manures. Soil microorganisms release these nutrients when they consume organic matter and subsequently die. can supplement nutrients at targeted times during a rotation. While organic matter is a relatively small fraction of the soil. or call (607) 255 7654. types and numbers of soil organisms. Understanding the basics of how nutrients are added to and released from soil organic matter will help the farmer in choosing crop sequences and amendments to optimize organic crop fertility. soil moisture. These reservoirs. Each of these topics is discussed in the sections below.org. The rate of this nutrient release is affected by the availability of carbon sources (energy for the soil microbes). estimates of phosphorus range from 100 to 300 pounds per acre. A portion (10–20 percent) of the total soil organic matter has been termed the “active” fraction and is most easily decomposed by soil organisms. water holding. Crop Rotation Effects on Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition Anusuya Rangarajan oil organic matter and clay particles hold large stores of plant nutrients. Legume crops. such as compost and manures or approved mineral fertilizers. This improved soil physical environment facilitates water infiltration. compost). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. however. Cash crops themselves vary in their nutrient demands (see appendix 1. The Basics: How Nutrients Are Released from Soil Organic Matter Levels of soil organic matter range from about 0.sare. which make up another 10–20 percent of soil organic matter.4 percent to 10 percent in mineral soils in temperate regions. Soil organic matter contains an estimated 95 percent of soil nitrogen (N) and 40 percent of soil phosphorus (P). using cover crops. cycling among crops with different nutrient needs. Finally.000 to 4. other types of organic amendments. Certain fractions of soil organic matter contribute to plant nutrition more than other fractions. The humus is more slowly digested by soil organisms and “Understanding the basics of how nutrients are added to and released from soil organic matter will help the farmer in choosing crop sequences and amendments to optimize organic crop fertility.nraes. it has large effects on soil structure and soil fertility. Upon death.” CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 27 . root growth and plant nutrient foraging. To purchase the book. Estimates of total nitrogen in a soil with 3 percent organic matter range from 2. these organisms release their nutrients to plants. and adding organic soil amendments. and the rest return to the soil as crop residues. tillage. and quality of the soil organic matter. crop residues. The remaining soil organic matter is humus.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.000 pounds per acre. Soil organisms. are not all available to the crop. Most crops deplete soil nutrients during their growth cycle. visit www. NRAES 177. which capture atmospheric nitrogen and “fix” it into forms available to plants. considering their needs helps S make the most efficient use of the available soil nutrients in a rotation. pages 101–103). In an organic crop rotation. can be used strategically in rotations to meet the needs of nitrogen-demanding crops. and with the right levels and conditions it may provide all of the N and P needs of a crop. This section will review different ways that crop rotations affect soil fertility.org or www. The nutrients in residues may or may not be available to the next crop. several factors should be considered. soil temperature. the grower manages soil organic matter and nutrient availability by incorporating different crop residues. To effectively plan organic crop rotations to meet crop nutrient needs. This active fraction is replenished primarily by additions of organic matter (cover crops. aeration. decompose this active organic matter. Cover crops used after a cash crop capture surplus plantavailable nutrients and conserve these for following crops. ultimately.

Once incorporated in the following spring. which hold nutrients in the soil and thus maintain their availability to plants. soil type. In the northeastern US. Legumes are of special interest in organic crop rotations because of their ability to add nitrogen to the system. In this situation. Organic matter amendments to soil decompose at different rates. Thus. Several factors affect the rate of decomposition of organic amendments. hairy vetch with cereal rye) can reduce N immobilization by providing additional N to microorganisms during decomposition of residues.) associated with the roots of legumes convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2 gas) into plant-available nitrogen. In the future. such information may help identify crop varieties well adapted to organic systems. Seeding a legume cover crop with small grains (for example. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. 28 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . and the crop being grown. however. stimulating growth of microorganisms in this zone. whether the entire plant or only the root system remains in the field. In some cases. which are part of the more active organic matter fraction. resulting in nutrient release to the crop. these cover crops will release captured N and other nutrients to subsequent crops. and vitamins. such as when heavy crop or cover crop residues with high carbon-to-nitrogen ratios (30:1 or higher) are tilled into the soil. vetch or clover). the short-term depletion of soil water in the early spring can reduce yields of subsequent cash crops in dry springs.nraes. soil type. their residues increase soil organic matter. Green manures. and this affects how quickly nutrients become available to crops. the maturity of the legume when it is killed or incorporated into the soil. and the environmental conditions that govern the rate of decomposition. The amount of N that a legume crop contributes to following crops depends on the amount of N fixed. As a result. One important consideration when using overwintering cover crops is their potential to deplete soil water. crop management. When cover crops are regularly part of a rotation. decompose readily.org. To purchase the book. Very little research has been done to determine which plant varieties or species best support these nutrient-releasing microorganisms. liberating nutrients relatively quickly. Alternatively. Composts have more stable. amino acids. including the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of the amendment. temperature and moisture conditions. Incorporating nonlegume cover crops while they are still young and leafy also reduces problems with N immobilization. The amount of N fixed by this association between bacteria and legumes varies with plant species and variety. therefore is not a large source of available nutrients. Specialized bacteria (Rhizobium spp. Roots release organic compounds. The organic matter feeds the growth of microbes. humic organic matter. small grains (rye and wheat) are the most common winter-hardy cover crops used by vegetable growers. alfalfa) or as a green manure (for example. visit www. integrating cover crops into a crop rotation at specific points can help enhance nutrient cycling and conservation. thereby reducing late fall and winter leaching of nitrogen (75). or call (607) 255 7654. NRAES 177. As a result. legumes provide N to the subsequent crop. Nitrogen Scavenging and Conservation by Nonlegume Winter Cover Crops Winter-hardy grains and grasses have extensive root systems that are more efficient than legumes at scavenging soil nitrates in the fall. pages 101–103). since harvests of cash crops often extend into late summer and fall. soil N may become unavailable to plants (immobilized) in the short run because it is taken up by soil microorganisms as they feed on the carbon-rich residues. delaying the planting of a cash crop for about two weeks after incorporation of residues generally allows sufficient time for the cycling of N through microorganisms and then back into the soil. most composts release nutrients to crops more slowly than green manures. and length of time the crop is grown. estimates of the amount of N contributions by legumes to subsequent crops range from 50 to over 200 pounds per acre (see appendix 1. into the soil. Although cover crops can improve water infiltration and soil water-holding capacity. which increases the release of N as they die and decompose. but at a slower rate than from legume cover crops because of the slower decomposition of grain residues. Many of these organisms decompose organic matter. When used strategically in a rotation. Organic matter decomposition is enhanced in the area immediately around roots (the rhizosphere).sare.org or www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. and decompose more slowly. cover Nitrogen Contributions from Legume Cover and Cash Crops Legumes may be present in a rotation as a harvested crop (for example. climate. because it provides cation exchange sites. Humus is very important. such as carbohydrates.

This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. These categories do not account for differences among varieties. the fall-planted. or high nutrient requirements. or irrigation may be required. Green manures and soil fertility amendments have the most benefit when they target the crops with high nutrient demands. all Beet Carrot Herbs Peas Radish Medium Brassica greens Cucumber Eggplant Pepper Pumpkin Spinach. medium. or call (607) 255 7654. Hanson.nraes. including rooting depth and breadth. A. Researchers observed that Brassica cover crops grew more in the fall and.sare. Generally. NRAES 177. Those crops with a high nutrient demand (predominately N) require higher levels of those nutrients to be present in the soil solution. On inherently fertile soils. visit www. LLC 1990). This high demand could be related to large vegetative plant growth prior to fruit set (in the case of corn and tomatoes) or due to poor foraging ability of the crop’s roots (in the case of lettuce). chard Squash Sweet potato Watermelon Winter squash High Broccoli Cabbage Cauliflower Corn Lettuce Potato Tomato Crop Oat Turnip Soybean Barley Alfalfa Pea Rye Potato Sorghum Wheat Field corn Note: Vegetables are classified as having low. Thus. the time of planting. FL: Taylor & Francis Group. Note that while Brassica cover crops are good at capturing nutrients. crops may need to be incorporated early to conserve soil water. however. crops may be characterized as having low. To purchase the book. The opposite is also true—cover crops can help dry up wet fields in the spring. Differences in Crop Nutrient Uptake Crop nutrient uptake varies due to many factors.org. and the total growth of the cover crop prior to being killed. Winter-killed cover crops (species vary by climate) also capture significant amounts of soil nitrogen (up to 50–90 lbs/acre) in the fall (102) prior to being killed by low temperatures. Practical Handbook of Agricultural Science (Boca Raton. or high nutrient demands based on their nutrient uptake efficiency (table 3. CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 29 . crops with low nutrient requirements often achieve good yields from residual soil fertility alone. variety. Table 3.org or www. Source: Adapted from reference 42: A. and environmental factors. Across species. as a result. excess soil nitrogen from the end of one season was captured and conserved for the following season’s crop.2 Rooting depth and lateral spread of roots for several crops Estimated rooting depth (inches) 60 60 80 55 120 35 60 35 70 60 70 Lateral root spread (inches) 10 30 20 10 5 25 10 15 25 5 40 Low Beans. Different varieties within any crop may be more or less efficient at taking up nutrients.1 Ranking of annual vegetables based on relative nutrient requirements Table 3. captured more N than an oat cover crop (102). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.1). they may host diseases (clubroot) and insects (flea beetle) that attack other Brassica species in the rotation. compared to soil left bare over the winter. The amount of soil N captured is related to the N that is available. including soil tilth. winter-killed cover crops reduced soil nitrate levels in the fall and increased levels in the spring. medium.

The cumulative balances are based on the difference between the export and the input of nutrients. starter fertilizer Manure Alfalfa Alfalfa. the data are also relevant to vegetable producers. since grain and forage crops are integrated into vegetable rotations as cover crops. Compost.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. they should be applied strategically within a rotation. In some cases.org. and ac = acres 30 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . bu = bushels. Deep-rooted crops also create channels into the soil that later can improve water infiltration. To purchase the book. As crop residues are returned to the surface soil. visit www. plant and animal meals. The deep-rooted crops listed in table 3. starter fertilizer Manure Manure Starter fertilizer Manure Phosphorus Budget (lbs P/acre) P input source Manure P input 18 0 18 15 18 0 18 0 33 Cumulative P balance -3 -29 -42 -51 -42 -63 -71 -97 -86 10 Barley 60 bu/ac 46 0 185 12 0 -98 Note: Ten tons of manure were applied every other year. soils are naturally low in nutrients. 1 t= tons. and rock powders can be used to meet some of these needs.nraes. Crop rotations that integrate deep-rooting crops with less nutrient-efficient crops can help cycle nutrients in the soil profile. manure Alfalfa Alfalfa. manure Alfalfa. or call (607) 255 7654. in some cases application to the previous cover crop improves availability to the cash crop. these newly “mined” nutrients are potentially available to future crops. and Rock Powder Applications for Crop Nutrition Soil tests may suggest the need for additional inputs of particular nutrients. Although most of the listed crops are typical of grain rotations. export of nutrients in crops has led to soil depletion. Since some of these amendments can be expensive. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. trace element mixes. Crop rooting depth can have important implications for nutrient availability as well as soil physical characteristics.org or www. Micronutrient.2 (page 29) absorb nutrients from deep in the soil and move them to the plant’s top growth. NRAES 177. Organic soil amendments such as composts.3 A sample nutrient budget for nitrogen and phosphorus from a dairy farm rotation Nitrogen Budget (lbs N/acre) Year 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Crop Alfalfa Alfalfa Alfalfa Corn Barley Alfalfa Alfalfa Alfalfa Corn Yield1 4 t/ac 5 t/ac 6 t/ac 110 bu/ac 50 bu/ac 4 t/ac 5 t/ac 5 t/ac 90 bu/ac N export 224 280 336 92 38 224 280 280 84 N input source Alfalfa. starter fertilizer N input 234 269 414 45 100 224 369 269 145 Cumulative N balance 10 -1 77 30 92 92 181 170 231 P export 21 26 31 24 9 21 26 26 22 Manure. Not all of the nutrient inputs are available in the first year. manure Alfalfa Alfalfa. Many organic soil amendments become available only slowly.sare. in other cases. manure. Prior to Table 3.

the application of any of these materials. Foliar fertilizing must be managed carefully. Depending on application rates. Accumulation of excess P can damage neighboring bodies of water and stimulate weed growth (see “The Role of Crop Rotation in Weed Management. Most composts contain relatively stable forms of organic matter and low levels of readily available nutrients.4 A sample nutrient budget for nitrogen and phosphorus from an organic vegetable rotation Nitrogen Budget (lbs N/acre) Year 1 2 3 4 5 Crop Tomato Lettuce. bu = bushels. magnesium. Like composts. and iron. boron.000 8. rock powders cannot be used to provide immediate crop needs. adjust soil pH to the desired range for the majority of crops within the rotation (generally 6. meeting the complete nitrogen needs of a crop by using only compost is difficult without also adding excessive phosphorus.000 20. NRAES 177. High or low pH will reduce the availability of phosphorus and many micronutrients.nraes. Good composts applied at specific points in a rotation can improve soil fertility in the long term by enhancing soil structure and tilth. spinach Winter squash Lettuce. zinc. depending Table 3. the sooner the minerals will be available to the crop due to a greater surface area of the powder available for microbial digestion and physical weathering. Build-up of excessively high phosphorus levels can occur when composts based on animal manures are used at high rates (greater than 10 tons/acre) once or twice per year. http://www. Rock powders (ground limestone.sare.org or www. foliar feeding can sometimes result in burning of leaves.000.000 Note: The grower applied 20 or 10 tons of mushroom compost each year. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. The more finely ground the powder. but not compared to commercial fertilizers. Usually. calcium. gypsum. including seaweed extracts and borax (consult the Organic Materials Research Institute’s approved materials list for organically acceptable formulations.8).php). They should be used as long-term sources of crop nutrients.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.org/OMRI_products_list.000 40. 30. 1 t= tons. Some types. since effectiveness depends on uptake of the micronutrients through the plant cuticle. visit www. Nutrients from the compost are not all available in the first year. rock phosphate) and trace element mixes slowly release nutrients to plants.000 8. improving soil water movement.” page 44).000. such as poultry compost. The cumulative balances are based on the difference between the export and the input of nutrients. or call (607) 255 7654. A nutrient budget can be complex or fairly simple. Putting It All Together: Nutrient Budgets During Crop Rotation One strategy for reviewing the effects of a crop rotation on soil nutrients is to construct a nutrient budget. may contain high levels of nutrients compared to other organic fertility amendments.org. pepper Cabbage Yield1 (lb/ac) Phosphorus Budget (lbs P/acre) Cumulative N balance 251 373 636 726 957 P export 17 4 16 8 12 P input source Compost Compost Compost Compost Compost P input 80 40 80 40 80 Cumulative P balance 63 99 163 195 263 N export 49 28 37 60 69 N input source Compost Compost Compost Compost Compost N input 300 150 300 150 300 45. 5. and plant maturity. granite dust. environmental conditions. and ac = acres CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 31 . These can provide low levels of nitrogen. To purchase the book.omri. Micronutrients can be supplemented using foliar-type fertilizers.2 to 6. and providing a slow-release fertility source.

composts. visit www. about 50 pounds of P was exported off the farm. This approach will not account for losses through leaching or soil erosion. It also does not include an estimate of the “starting” reserves of soil nutrients. or contribute essential plant nutrients. Such high levels are not environmentally sound and may be prohibited in some states. inputs. and (5) methods for managing other pathogen sources. By reviewing the inputs and outputs of a rotation. As crops are removed. a farmer can make general estimates of the increase or decrease in potentially available nutrients and change his or her management accordingly. alternative rotations or different crops (including cover crops and green manures) may be considered to strategically capture. “Generally.sare. or call (607) 255 7654. and native soil organic matter levels in each field will all contribute to the starting reserve. In the first example (table 3. (2) which additional plant species (including weeds and cover crops) it can infect or survive on. Future crops may require an additional source of P. (4) how it can be spread or reintroduced into a field. Assuming a soil is relatively fertile. see references 24.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Consider the examples in tables 3.4). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Appendix 3 (pages 124–137) lists sources of pathogen inoculum and recommended rotation periods for diseases of vegetable and field crops in the greater northeastern US R 32 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . however. periodic applications of manure to a long-term rotation resulted in moderate increases in soil nitrogen but did not help maintain soil phosphorous levels. one needs to know (1) how long the pathogen can survive in the soil. consider just soil N and P. the technique of using crop rotation for disease management is to grow non-host plants until the pathogen in the soil dies or its population is reduced to a level that will result in negligible crop damage. As legumes. manures. History of management. compared with the agronomic crops (table 3. But a portion of the account is available for withdrawal.4 (pages 30 and 31). For further reading. To manage a disease successfully with rotation. With this information on the general trends of nutrient accumulation within a field.3 and 3. these values and budgets will still point to potential problems in nutrient management within a crop rotation.” on its purpose.org or www. Through each cycle of the fiveyear rotation. in the form of organic matter. Generally. Managing Plant Diseases with Crop Rotation Margaret Tuttle McGrath otating land out of susceptible crops can be an effective and relatively inexpensive means for managing some diseases. Excess nutrients in the vegetable rotation may leach out of or run off from the system eventually. Also notable in the vegetable rotation is the low level of nutrient export via these crops. (3) other ways it can survive between susceptible crops. pages 101–103). rather than to increase or decrease nutrient storage. 92. By examining rotations through time. To purchase the book. 102.3). 42. and 107. nutrients are withdrawn or exported from the system. For example. the long-term goal is to maintain an approximately constant balance in the account. or other amendments are added to the soil.nraes. 75. export.org. yearly compost additions led to a rapid buildup of soil nitrogen and phosphorous. To successfully use crop rotation for disease management. Think of them as deposits in a soil fertility bank account. For simplicity. general trends of nutrient accumulation or depletion can be detected. Although nutrient exports by crops or nutrient inputs via cover crops and other amendments can only be estimated (appendix 1. requires understanding the life cycle of the disease-causing organism (pathogen). depending on nutrient management regulations. Most of these nutrients are tied up in long-term investments. a pathogen that can survive in the soil but can also disperse by wind may not be successfully managed by rotation if an infected planting occurs nearby or the spores can disperse long distances. even if cover crops or other cultural practices are used to minimize losses.3). NRAES 177. the nutrient bank balance increases. In the vegetable rotation (table 3. the technique of using crop rotation for disease management is to grow nonhost plants until the pathogen in the soil dies or its population is reduced to a level that will result in negligible crop damage.

Because the same disease name is often applied to diseases caused by several different pathogens. and fusarium wilt are usually caused by different pathogens in different crops. Knowing whether the pathogen exists as specialized strains that limit the host range is critical for designing disease-controlling rotations. These dictate whether rotation is a potentially viable option for managing a particular pathogen and the disease it causes. Strains of some fungi are called formae speciales (f. These abbreviations occur in some of the pathogen scientific names listed in appendix 3 (pages 124–137). However. followed by some examples of diseases that cannot be controlled by rotation.org or www. sp. which occurs in several crops. as well as knowledge of pathogen biology. such as an incorporated cover crop. Knowing which weeds can host a disease is important. the impact of cover crops and incorporated green manures on diseases is considered. bacterial blight. scientific names are used frequently in the following sections to avoid ambiguity (see sidebar 3. grass weeds do not play as important a role as alternate hosts for anthracnose in corn as was originally thought. the required rotation period might be shorter.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. more organic matter. but general guidelines have been developed from research and farm observations. Some fungal and bacterial pathogens can survive in soil only in crop debris.1). Although the focus here is on diseases of vegetable and field crops in the northeastern US. For example. For example. however. Pathogen Characteristics that Determine the Success of Rotation and Length of the Rotation Period Rotation can effectively suppress a crop disease when the target pathogen is capable of surviving in the soil or on crop debris for no more than a few years. Third. they are generally applicable to organic systems because pathogen biology doesn’t change.1 Importance of Scientific Names in Disease Management When designing a rotational sequence for managing a particular disease. and these are the most suitable pathogens to target for management with crop rotation because they cannot survive once the debris has decomposed. Second. The sections below describe the biological basis for managing plant diseases with crop rotation. is caused by the same fungus that causes lettuce drop. if Sidebar 3. white mold.nraes. how the characteristics of certain rotation crops affect pathogens is considered: Good rotations do more than simply provide an unsuitable host. CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 33 . Avoiding reintroduction of the pathogen when the crop is planted again is also critical. downy mildew.sare. others are called pathovar (pv. if the activity of beneficial soil microorganisms that suppress a pathogen is much higher in an organic field than in a conventional field. some selected diseases that can be managed successfully with rotation are discussed. Fourth. visit www. powdery mildew. pages 124–137 and pages 142–147). To purchase the book. or soil on farm machinery can reintroduce a pathogen to a clean field. because common names can be misleading. focus should be on the pathogen’s scientific name.). NRAES 177. is present in an organic system. or call (607) 255 7654. On the other hand. These short-term residents of the soil are called soil invaders or soil transients. Consequently. The number of years needed to suppress a disease cannot be stated precisely for many diseases because of the impact of other factors and lack of extensive research.org. and many of the specific diseases discussed occur in other regions as well. First. those pathogens that can survive on decomposing organic matter may be more difficult to manage. several critical aspects of pathogen biology are discussed. These examples help explain the factors that affect rotation success. infested seed. various environmental and management factors that affect the success of crop rotation for disease suppression are discussed. the principles are broadly applicable. as these weeds will need to be controlled during the rotation (see appendices 3 and 5. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Finally. On the other hand. For example. (including the mid-Atlantic region). all grasses get anthracnose. Pathogens that survive on soil organic matter but for only a few years can also be managed with crop rotation. While these periods are based on research and observations from conventional production systems.). transplants. host specialization was recently found to occur in the fungal pathogen causing this disease.

Thus. Rotation is only one aspect of a good control program. Rhizomonas. “Wind. Pythium species also cause fruit rot in cucurbits. are additional sources of these pathogens that need to be managed to ensure successful control through rotation. is homothallic. and the pathogen can persist in soil as oospores. existed in the US. whereas speck and spot are restricted to rapidly decomposing leaves and fruit. which causes anthracnose and black dot in tomato. the barley scald pathogen primarily infects leaves and leaf sheaths. and they can also grow as saprophytes on plant debris and other partly decomposed organic matter. Some fungal pathogens produce specialized structures that. only one mating type occurs in the US. Thus. This is important because presence or absence of the different mating types can determine whether the pathogen persists in the soil. Several species of Pythium and Rhizoctonia are commonly found in most soils as part of the normal soil flora. which causes pink rot in potato. Such organisms are referred to as saprophytes. NRAES 177. Infected seed. and they can survive four to five years in soil. The situation can change. the net blotch pathogen also infects barley stems. survive at least eight years. managing the bacterial canker disease that affects tomatoes requires a longer rotation than is needed to manage bacterial speck and bacterial spot.org or www. The cankercausing bacteria get inside tomato stems. and thus in the length of rotation needed. such as leaves or incompletely decomposed compost. is potentially capable of producing oospores. which decompose fairly rapidly. which means they produce the dormant structure only when individuals of opposite mating types (the fungal equivalent of male and female) interact. which are more resistant to decay. Phytophthora infestans. irrigation water. and that prevents it from surviving winter in the northeast US. Recognizing that these terms refer to resting structures is helpful when reading about plant diseases because they indicate that a pathogen can potentially persist in soil. In contrast. Since these saprophytes can also use fresh plant residues. Rhizoctonia. and head rot in crucifers. The maximum survival time varies among types of structures and species of pathogen. Sclerotia produced by Colletotrichum coccodes. thus. Survival time partly reflects the type of plant host tissue infected. like seeds. although the cucurbit downy mildew fungus. and also wind-dispersed spores for the net blotch pathogen. This is covered in detail in the section on specific diseases below. For example. and cleistothecia. To purchase the book. chlamydospores. In contrast. reducing the pathogen population by rotating with small grains can reduce losses in subsequent crops. Other types of organic matter. incorporating large amounts of organic matter will stimulate their growth. able to grow on organic matter in the soil. For example. These structures help the pathogen survive periods when host plants are absent. visit www. and Rhizoctonia solani causes wirestem. Although crop rotations will not completely control these fungi. sclerotia. including the nodes. bottom rot. Peronospora destructor. the onion downy mildew fungus. crops planted too soon after incorporating a cover crop could be severely affected by these fungi. could have a similar effect. or call (607) 255 7654. however: Until recently only one mating type of the late blight fungus. and Fusarium and the bacteria Erwinia. A few fungal and bacterial pathogens are true soil inhabitants. These are hard to manage with rotation.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Fungal structures capable of dormancy include oospores. Similarly. All three pathogens can be seed-borne. Examples of soil inhabitants are the fungi Pythium.sare. enable them to persist in a state of dormancy. and Streptomyces. it cannot produce oospores. Now two mating types are present. Consequently. Similarly. some pathogenic nematodes produce cysts. or insects can spread the pathogen from infected crops and re-infest the field after rotation. Some fungi that cause fusarium wilts can survive in or on roots of plants that do not develop symptoms (“symptomless carriers”). it can produce oospores when just one mating type is present. Sclerotia and chlamydospores are structures that can be produced without interaction between fungi of opposite mating types.org. a longer rotation is needed to manage net blotch than to manage scald. These fungi attack seeds and the roots and stems of tender seedlings.” Pathogens in this group vary in the length of time they can survive. does produce oospores in the northeast US. as well as cold winter temperatures and other adverse conditions. Managing other sources of bacterial pathogens is critical for success. Those formed by Sclerotinia 34 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. causing seed decay and dampingoff. Phytophthora erythroseptica. Pseudoperonospora cubensis.nraes. Some pathogens are heterothallic.

Recently this pathogen was found on new hosts (lima bean. Clearly. rarely entering soil. Powdery mildew and downy mildew fungi produce spores that can disperse great distances. Septoria. which causes verticillium wilt. In contrast. Bacteria are also dispersed by splashing water and in windblown water droplets. small grains. Only a few nematodes attack just leaves. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. The target pathogen should have a narrow host range for rotation to be successful. helped by the sequential planting of these crops from south Florida to Maine as conditions become favorable. Cercospora. NRAES 177. sp. it may be able to move between fields more easily than anticipated. which may explain why short rotations have not been effective. tomato. and eggplant. visit www. In addition. irrigation water. purslane. pepper. partly because the crop is not grown as extensively. or insects can spread the pathogen from infected crops and re-infest the field after rotation. Additionally. early blight may not be more severe in tomatoes that follow early blight–affected potatoes than in tomatoes that follow other crops.org or www. a short rotation was initially thought to be adequate for Phytophthora capsici. Corn and cereals are among the few non-host crops that can be used in rotation to decrease abundance of this pathogen.” CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 35 . including Alternaria. New findings or changes in the pathogen can affect rotation guidelines. possibly accounting for its occurrence in fields where susceptible crops had not been grown. In contrast. To purchase the book.org. None of the few soilborne viruses that affect vegetable or grain crops occur in the northeastern US. “Corn. They disperse only short distances by wind. some viruses can persist between crops in weeds—for example. Peronospora farinose f. Other fungal pathogens. can infect more than 360 plant species. However. pages 142–147). it is critical to know how far the spores can travel. rotation out of susceptible crops for at least five years is needed because this fungus produces long-lived sclerotia. However. such as Colletotrichum. and few viruses are vectored by nematodes or soilborne fungi. These cucurbit pathogens can move up the entire eastern coast of the US each year. and other grasses are usually good crops to rotate with vegetable crops. produce spores on leaves and fruit that disperse by splashing water. Thus. Several other fungal pathogens that attack leaves. causes white rust in spinach and in some species of lambsquarters and goosefoot. sclerotiorum. and a few other weeds). Most viruses cannot persist in soil between crops because they survive only in living host tissue or vectors. or call (607) 255 7654. Recently. Another spinach pathogen. the strains of fungi that attack the different species are specialists. can survive up to ten years.nraes. also produce sclerotia. which causes blight in cucurbits. Verticillium dahliae. which causes white mold. produces tiny sclerotia (microsclerotia) that can survive up to 13 years. plant-pathogenic nematodes are more difficult to manage with rotation than fungi and bacteria because almost all exist for part of their lives in the soil. for this rotation to be successful. most cases of early blight in tomatoes have been shown to be caused by a different species of Alternaria than the species causing early blight in potato. Rhizoctonia spp. however. white rust may occur only on spinach or only on weeds in a field. the white mold fungus. the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. and this host specificity can prevent cross infection. pathogens like these would be difficult to control with rotation. spinacia causes downy mildew only in spinach. and none of these infect vegetable or grain crops. Weeds must be managed carefully. For example.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Albugo occidentalis. downy mildew of onion can be controlled with rotation. Fungi causing fusarium wilts can persist for many years as chlamydospores. Effectiveness of a rotation can be compromised when nearby plantings have white mold. although they can leave the field on equipment. and Stemphylium. Wind.sare. When considering rotation to manage a fungal pathogen that produces wind-dispersed spores. are more effectively controlled by rotation because they produce large spores. snap bean. As a group. cucumber mosaic in chickweed and potato virus Y in dandelion (appendix 5. Consequently.

but in other systems disease suppression evidently is due to another mechanism. however. Quantity of isothiocyanates produced can vary with soil type. as described earlier. Research has been done in California with mustard seeded in fall and incorporated in spring.sare. The degree of disease control has been related to the quantity of isothiocyanates in some systems. and they also stimulate beneficial microorganisms. These plants suppress pathogens by stimulating beneficial organisms in the soil and by producing toxic chemicals. Members of the mustard plant family (crucifers) release substances while decomposing that are toxic to some fungi. mustard would be seeded in early spring. Amending the soil with crucifer seed meal can similarly suppress disease. visit www. and rapeseed have especially high concentrations. Legumes stimulate the growth and activity of soil microbes. thus. IdaGold is a yellow mustard variety bred for high glucosinolate content. nematodes. One group of chemical breakdown by-products from these plants is the volatile isothiocyanates. Glucoraphanin is a glucosinolate found at much higher levels in broccoli than in other cruciferous plants. a product used by conventional farmers. Corn. as well as variety of crucifer. Note that although a mustard or legume crop can suppress some pathogens. In the northeast US. and other grasses are usually good crops to rotate with vegetable crops. but some pathogens attack crops in two or more families. which are themselves harmless. Including diseasesuppressive species in a rotation sometimes reduces the time needed before a particular cash crop can again be produced successfully. Also. Hairy vetch residue incorporated into soil reduces fusarium wilt in watermelon and enhances crop growth. Soil temperature should be 59° to 77°F. and even weeds.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Including legumes such as clover. pea. Suppression can vary with how well the pathogen is established in a field. and lima beans. in addition to increasing soil nitrogen and organic matter.nraes. then incorporated several weeks later when it is in full flower and organic matter is at a maximum. and lupine in crop rotations has been recognized as beneficial for disease management since ancient times. Isothiocyanates are thought to be less damaging to beneficial soil organisms than conventional chemical fumigants. vetch. as well as cash crops. To purchase the book. planting should be delayed about a month after incorporation. Using these plants to manage pests is called biofumigation. Beneficial microorganisms stimulated include myxobacteria and Streptomyces. On the other hand. to achieve success. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. has been more common in pumpkin following corn. such crops may also promote pathogens that attack plants in those families. hairy vetch is a good host for root-knot nematodes. Beneficial Plants to Include in Rotations The typical focus in designing a rotation for disease management is to alternate among crops that are susceptible to different pathogens. the beneficial effect can disappear shortly after incorporation or last for years. White mustard.org or www. Depending on the mechanism. brown mustard. Some plants suppress pathogens in addition to being unsuitable hosts. It is important to remember that incorporating large quantities of biomass in the form of green manure stimulates general microbial activity. peppers. These include some cover and green manure crops. small grains. “The degree of control was better than that achieved by fumigating with chloropicrin. These compounds can also be toxic to crops. Examples include some legumes and crucifers. The specific mechanisms involved appear to vary with the crop and the pathogen. Fusarium fruit rot.” 36 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Glucosinolate content varies among plants of the mustard family. For example. bean. or call (607) 255 7654. Alternating crops in different families is a good starting point. These originate from glucosinolates. beneficial crops may need to be grown more than once before a susceptible cash crop is replanted. NRAES 177.org. which can include pathogens like Pythium. Phytophthora capsici causes blight in cucurbits.

or call (607) 255 7654. is a host of the clubroot pathogen and root-knot nematodes. The soilborne fungi Pythium spp. NRAES 177. A study in California showed that when carrots were grown after alfalfa.sare. and incidence of drop was higher where lettuce was grown after these cover crops were incorporated than in plots that had been left fallow. When farm equipment is used throughout the field. Broccoli produces more of a specific glucosinolate and stimulates myxobacteria that reduce survival of Verticillium microsclerotia. phacelia. The degree of control was better than that achieved by fumigating with chloropicrin. peppermint. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Similar results were obtained in California when two consecutive crops of broccoli in one year were followed by two consecutive crops of lettuce the next year.org or www. Phacelia and purple vetch are also hosts of root-knot nematodes.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. however.” alfalfa was grown the previous year rather than potato.org. The roots of mustard family crops that are attacked by the slime mold fungus Plasmodiophora brassicae become greatly swollen. In contrast. infested soil or crop debris CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 37 . Verticillium wilt diseases of other crops in California were also suppressed by broccoli. however. Oilseed radish. causing them to become forked or stubby. a product used by conventional farmers. The greatest reductions in pathogen microsclerotia occurred when soil temperatures were above 68°F. Examples of Specific Diseases Influenced by Crop Rotation • Carrot root dieback. and buckwheat were grown. Pythium violae. • Lettuce drop and white mold. growing broccoli immediately before cauliflower resulted in a reduction in verticillium wilt. This pathogen also caused disease on purple vetch but not on oilseed radish. The study also revealed more misshapen carrots and a higher population of Pythium when barley preceded carrots. Broccoli is also a good crop to grow in rotation with lettuce and crops susceptible to white mold. Fresh broccoli residue is more effective than dry residue. Clubroot has declined more quickly when tomato.nraes. This pathogen can survive in soil for seven years in the absence of mustard family crops or weeds. Carrots and pathogen populations were normal when onions or a fallow period preceded the carrot crop. cover crops of Lana woollypod vetch. Verticillium wilt severity also was lower when a buckwheat green manure preceded potato than when canola or a fallow preceded potato. Rotating among crop families is generally recommended. and fewer marketable carrots were produced. cucumber. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. To purchase the book. Density of sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor was lower following broccoli than where broccoli was not grown. Another reason not to grow alfalfa before carrots is that alfalfa is a host for the fungus causing cavity spot of carrot. In severe cases. and broccoli was associated with lower incidence of white mold in subsequent crops. and Rhizoctonia solani can infect and kill the tip of carrot tap roots. Clubroot was effectively controlled by growing summer savory. • Clubroot. minor. because crops within a family are typically susceptible to the same diseases. This resulted in reduced incidence of lettuce drop in a fall lettuce crop. Other Factors Affecting Success of Rotation in Managing Disease Rotation is more likely to be effective if the entire field is rotated out of susceptible crops rather than just the section previously planted to the crop. and Austrian winter pea in California hosted S. barley. or fava bean. The number of sclerotia of the lettuce drop fungus. even though these plants are closely related. they kill the plants. populations of Pythium and Rhizoctonia were larger. Both these diseases were reduced when corn or “Rotation that includes a fallow period can be the key for controlling some pathogens that have a wide host range. • Verticillium wilt. visit www. decreased after residue from a spring broccoli crop was incorporated during the summer. • Verticillium wilt and scab of potato. or other aromatic perennial herb crops for two or three consecutive years. but the barley residue may not have decomposed sufficiently before the carrots were planted. garden thyme. snap bean.

This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. the residue must be buried deeply enough that it is not pulled back up during seedbed preparation and cultivation. including chrysanthemum. Additionally.sare. with flail chopping or repeated disking—can hasten decomposition of the debris. full inversion plowing decreases soil health by burying beneficial organisms that live in the top few inches of the soil profile. Rotation that includes a fallow period can be the key for controlling some pathogens that have a wide host range. To purchase the book. Erwinia. this fungus is pathogenic on roots of other plants in the nightshade and cucurbit families. Tillage can spread disease throughout a field from an initial few infested areas. visit www. If a field is divided into management units. For this to work. Time required for rotation to be effective can vary with disease severity and environmental conditions. thereby reducing survival time for those pathogens that cannot survive in soil without debris. does not survive well in a field that is fallow and repeatedly tilled. which causes southern blight. NRAES 177. An indepth study on survival of Colletotrichum coccodes.org. in particular gray leaf spot. 38 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . are adapted to warm conditions and do not survive low soil temperatures. While several pathogens are more likely to cause disease in subsequent crops when infested crop debris is left on the soil surface. however. Some pathogens. Tomato roots in several fields were found to be infected and to have sclerotia when there were no symptoms on aboveground parts of the plants. When a disease has been severe. This could account for C. Potato and onion cull piles can be sources of pathogen inoculum and thus need to be destroyed before planting the next crop. However. Burying diseased material is especially useful against pathogens that produce sclerotia and those that infect only aboveground plant tissue. overlooked source of this pathogen. that are more common and more severe under no-till production. just one year without wheat resulted in a similar reduction in disease severity when environmental conditions were less favorable for this disease. However.” can be moved from the contaminated section to other parts of the field. after rotating land out of tomatoes to reduce pathogen populations. Sclerotia can be sensitive to drying. rotation can be effective within a unit if cultivators and other farm equipment are cleaned before working in another unit and water does not flow between units during heavy rainstorms. revealed that its sclerotia survive longer when buried shallowly in the soil than when on the soil surface. which causes anthracnose and black dot in tomato. coccodes occurring on tomato roots in fields with no previous history of tomato or other crops in the nightshade family. Roots are an important. cabbage. Bacteria causing soft rot are generally not considered amenable to management by rotation because they are common soil inhabitants with a wide host range. Diseases caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia solani can be enhanced when undecomposed crop residue is present at planting. pages 124 –137). Breaking up infested crop debris immediately after harvest—for example. A two-year period between wheat crops is generally needed to reduce Septoria leaf spot. Some cultural practices can also negate the benefit of rotation. such as Sclerotium rolfsii. one of the common bacteria causing soft rot. staking and mulching the subsequent tomato crop minimizes the potential for pathogen propagules remaining in the soil to disperse up onto the tomato plants. white mustard. including several weeds (see appendix 3. Using other cultural practices with rotation can be the key to successfully controlling some pathogens. a longer rotation may be needed to reduce the pathogen’s inoculum level sufficiently to avoid economic loss. The value of incorporating debris is illustrated by corn diseases.nraes. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. likely because the skin tissue of tomato fruits becomes colonized by beneficial fungi that can parasitize the sclerotia. For example. deeply burying infested crop debris and pathogen survival structures by moldboard plowing reduces disease incidence. there are exceptions. and lettuce. The sclerotia of this species also appear to survive longer when not associated with plant tissue. It can also survive on the roots of numerous other non-host plants (symptomless carriers). “Rotations of at least five or seven years often prevent the pathogen population from building up to a level that can cause economic damage.org or www. probably because temperature and moisture vary more on the surface. Incidence of scurf (Monilochaetes infuscans) in sweet potato can be increased when animal manure is applied. deep. For a similar reason. That is why southern blight does not occur in most of the northeastern US. cress. or call (607) 255 7654.

Thus. A minimum of two years without a host crop is recommended. NRAES 177. even seven years may not be enough. These are the major ways they are brought onto a farm.htm. tomato) can survive on roots and leaves of taxonomically diverse weeds. bacterial fruit blotch of watermelon. This section discusses some diseases that can be successfully managed by crop rotation. knowing what races have occurred in an area is important when selecting resistant varieties. as well as Clavibacter michiganensis subs. but resistant pepper varieties are available. Thus.org. cornell. These diseases are difficult to manage with rotation because the pathogens can persist for many years in soil in the absence of their crop host. although northern root-knot nematode also occurs there.org or www. small grains.edu/NewsArticles/PepperLeafSpot. Growing sorghum. spinach. mechanical damage. visit www. can occur on seeds. The seed should also be hot water treated. common bean. and other stress factors can predispose plants to infection by fusarium wilt fungi. cowpea.ppath. are good hosts for these nematodes. Northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is the most common species of root-knot nematode in the northeastern US and the only one found during a recent study of vegetable soils in New York. Fusarium wilt fungi also can be seed-borne and are easily moved on infected transplants. because bacteria could be present at a low. michiganensis. Volunteer tomato and pepper plants could grow from infested seed left in the field from a previous crop. Fortunately. Bacterial pathogens of tomato can also survive on tomato stakes and planting supplies. soil compaction. or grasses or leaving a clean summer fallow between crops can reduce the nematode population to a tolerable level. so these materials need to be replaced or disinfected before reuse. The predominant species in the mid-Atlantic region is southern root-knot nematode (M. Bacteria causing spot and speck. notably nutsedges. and tomato are available with resistance to certain root-knot nematode species. Selecting resistant varieties is a more effective and practical means of controlling fusarium wilt. Some Diseases That Can Be Managed with Crop Rotation Understanding the mechanisms that allow or prevent management of specific diseases by rotation can improve success and avoid wasted effort. They can also be easily moved between fields in soil on equipment. volunteers need to be destroyed during rotation to ensure successful suppression of bacterial diseases. They persist as dormant chlamydospores and on roots of some non-host plants (symptomless carriers). undetectable level. so they should be routinely incorporated into the cropping sequence. These tomato diseases also affect peppers. peppers. vesicatoria) can be effectively controlled with rotation because this pathogen cannot survive in the soil once diseased plant debris decomposes. Multiple races have been identified for many of its host-specific forms. soybean. success requires good control of weeds and volunteer tomatoes during the rotation period.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. because some. if the disease has been severe in a field.nraes. Therefore. • Bacterial speck of tomato. However. Rotations of at least five or seven years often prevent the pathogen population from building up to a level that can cause economic damage. To purchase the book. the fusarium wilts in various crops are caused by different strains of the fungus CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 39 . low soil pH. This disease is more difficult to control with rotation than bacterial spot because the pathogen (Pseudomonas syringae pv. or call (607) 255 7654. Varieties of alfalfa. The bacterium causing spot (Xanthomonas campestris pv. Therefore. pea. Destroying volunteer crop plants is also important for other seedborne bacterial diseases. and tomato. A description of how to treat seed with hot water is at http://vegetablemdonline. Some Diseases That Cannot Be Easily Managed with Crop Rotation • Fusarium wilts of crucifers. Drought. which causes bacterial canker in tomato. subsequent crops should be planted with seed lots that have been tested and shown to have no detectable pathogen to avoid reintroducing the pathogen into the field. A study on survival of this bacterium showed that it lived up to 30 weeks on crop debris but less than 30 days just in soil. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Weeds need to be controlled during the rotation to grasses.sare. • Root-knot nematodes. incognita). in particular. • Bacterial spot of pepper and tomato. notably hairy vetch. These nematodes have a large range of hosts that includes most vegetables. The effect of these crops on root-knot nematodes is short lived. Some commonly used cover crops. are good hosts of root-knot nematodes. the next section discusses some diseases that cannot. Other diseases for which rotation is or is not effective are listed in appendix 3 (pages 124–137). cucurbits.

) Highly wirewormsusceptible crops (e. Potatoes. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. It has a wide host range. reusable plastic troughs.org or www. Symptoms produced on a host can vary with the time of infection. in crucifers it causes damping-off of seedlings. and causes emergence of most summer adults to be too late to produce a 2nd generation in Massachusetts. Japanese beetles. tomato.org. crop rotation is not an effective control for them. also spend the winter as larvae and may be confused with Phyllophaga.) Practice to be avoided Corn following corn Overwintering stage and location Eggs in soil in the field Notes on biology and cultural management In the northeast US. visit www. However. rye. For example.. page 33). Late summer or early fall plowing kills grubs through physical damage and by exposing them to predation.nraes. or high densities of horse nettle Adult beetles in soil or on the edges of the field Fusarium oxysporum (see sidebar 3. This fungus is subdivided into several strains. a distance of 0. beans. cucumber.5 Insect pests managed by crop rotation Insect Pest Corn rootworms (Diabrotica spp. Phyllophaga grubs remain in soil as larvae for 3–4 years. but rootworms in the Midwest are adapting to defeat repeated corn-soybean rotations. Thus.1. since some species remain in the larval stage for 3–6 years.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Wireworms can continue to be damaging in a particular field for many years. pepper. and cabbage are among the most important hosts. potatoes. Plowing in late summer or fall exposes the larvae to predation. Planting as little as 200 meters (~650 feet) from previous solanaceous host crops delays infestation by 1–2 weeks.8 km (½ mile) or major barriers to movement may be needed for adequate control. Annual white grub species. NRAES 177. Straw mulch can also delay host finding by the beetles and reduce their survival. corn. and sweet potato. kale. Because the annual species are short lived and highly mobile as adults. Western corn rootworm strains have adapted by laying more eggs in soybean fields. Baiting can be used to detect wireworm infestations before planting. 40 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . or dense plantings of wheat. Other hosts include broccoli. and a small percentage of northern corn rootworms have adapted by extending egg diapause to two years. radish. for example. or other cover crops. When environmental conditions are favorable (warm and wet). melons) following grassy sod or small grain crops Highly grub-susceptible crops (e.g. oriental beetles. Wireworms (Melanotus communis. turnip. tomatoes. tomatoes.sare. which further complicates management. To purchase the book. Limonius spp. or eggplant following potatoes. root crops. a common fungus in most soils worldwide. eggplant. • Rhizoctonia diseases. such as European chafer. and Asiatic garden beetles. cress. strawberries) following grassy sod Larvae in soil in the field White grubs (Phyllophaga spp.g. all of which are pests of turf.) Larvae in soil in the field Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) Potatoes. carrot. Barriers include plastic-lined trenches.. Rhizoctonia solani. corn. lettuce. healthy muskmelons can be grown in a field where fusarium wilt previously affected watermelon. Table 3. or call (607) 255 7654. can become a serious pathogen on susceptible crops. a single-year rotation with a nonhost should be adequate. reduces initial population density. eggplant. wirestem in young plants.

Not many insect pests fit this pattern. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. 98.5). root crops and corn should not be planted in the field. Thus. for further reading on field crops. The challenge can be met by knowing which diseases can be managed with rotation and understanding the aspects of a pathogen’s biology that make it amenable to such control. cereals are an especially good choice for rotation crops. When monitoring indicates a problem. Often this highly mobile stage comes when insects are emerging from their overwintering stage in the spring. Length of time needed in rotation to decrease disease occurrence may be shorter where beneficial organisms that affect the pathogen are more active. and potato leafhoppers. However. Elateridae) and Phyllophaga grubs tend to be localized pests that can build up in a field following sod or small grains and then remain for multiple years. For further general reading on this topic. or call (607) 255 7654. and by using various kinds of barriers (plastic-lined trenches. Spring infestations can be delayed or reduced by moving potatoes to a new field distant from the previous year’s potatoes. so crop rotation from one year to the next will not affect them. including cucurbit flowers) in August and September and lay their eggs in soil at the base of corn plants. 21. 18. Most have a period during the adult stage when they can travel easily across at least a single farm. 66. and then newly hatched larvae feed on corn roots in the spring. they travel hundreds of miles to re-infest host crops each year. and some diseases cannot be managed with rotation. CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 41 . but rotation is an effective way to avoid earlyseason damage. some key pests can be managed through crop rotation (table 3. The eggs overwinter. these two beetle species have relied on widespread planting of continuous corn for their survival and became major pests only when continuous planting of corn became a common practice in the Midwest.org or www. etc.sare. 115. bottom rot in midseason.) to interfere with their ability to walk to the new field. Incorporating residue of host plants can help. dense plantings of grain crops. Western corn rootworm and northern corn rootworm are important examples. Understanding the reasons that some pathogens are not affected by rotation can allow a farmer to focus on more appropriate measures for managing these diseases. the insect must spend the period from the end of one crop to the beginning of the next in a stage with low mobility and must have a restricted range of host plants. but achieving success can be challenging. Summary Crop rotation can be an effective and relatively inexpensive means to manage some diseases. and 114. The life cycle includes a long-distance flying stage—in first-generation adults. They do not survive on small grains. Stoner T he effectiveness of crop rotation as a tool for insect management depends on the life cycle of the target insect. see 4. The beetles emerge in late summer (August in Massachusetts) and spend the winter as adults. mainly along the field edges but also in the soil. and there is a delay before they can regenerate their flight muscles. 72. 53. To purchase the book. 94. see references 20. The adult beetles feed on corn silks (and on many flowers. For crop rotation to control an insect pest well. 97. and 124. sorghum. in addition to not being a host. particularly in the northeast US. In the same way. Wireworms (larvae of click beetles. decrease pathogen survival by producing chemicals toxic to pathogens or stimulating beneficial organisms in the soil. 23. NRAES 177. cabbage loopers.org. 43. Although difficult to manage. Effectiveness can be improved by designing a rotation with crops that. and head rot as heads mature. Rather. including corn earworms. do not even overwinter in the northeast US. rotating away from the most susceptible crops for at least three years can be helpful.nraes. including use of resistant varieties and preventing introduction of the pathogen to a farm. Colorado potato beetle became a major pest of potatoes because of the practice of continuous potato planting. or broadleaf crops or weeds. which emerge in midsummer—that can hit fields far from the previous year’s potatoes. visit www. and survive only at a very low level on grassy weeds. for further reading on vegetables. if any are in the area. Management of Insect Pests with Crop Rotation and Field Layout Kimberly A. in the same field where they developed. Many pests. they prefer to walk to hosts. because the larvae are long lived. see 3 and 118. When they emerge from overwintering the following spring. 105.

and also for the overwintering stages of parasitoids of insect pests such as European corn borer. or cucurbit seeds or tunnel into stems of new transplants.nraes. Some pests with low mobility. and the crop residues in which they reside. strips of undisturbed vegetation around field edges are critical refuges for these predators. The scientific literature. The larvae hatch out and feed on germinating corn. The caterpillars begin development on the weeds or on a cover crop. indicates that no-till farming has a mixed effect on various species of insect pests within a single field. poorly drained. crop rotation planning must account for the whole range of field requirements and operations. are also favored by the same conditions within a field. and cabbage maggots.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Freshly plowed residues. have taken advantage of this preference by planting early trap crops of attractive host plants (snap beans) and releasing the wasps in these heavily infested early plantings. European corn borer. unless enough time (10–14 days) has been allowed to starve them out before planting. Cruciferous weeds. The flea beetles overwinter as adults and are active and feeding from the first warm days in early spring. NRAES 177. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. can be destroyed by plowing. A rule developed from research in New York State to avoid cabbage maggot damage is to wait to transplant seedlings of cole crops until after the peak bloom of yellow rocket. before other host plants are present. and the lack of soil disturbance in no-till farming. especially yellow rocket. “ No-Till Farming. also attract crucifer flea beetles (Phyllotreta cruciferae) into the field early in the season. and thus plowing and breaking down this residue will reduce their survival. In landscapes consisting of large fields tilled at least annually. including corn flea beetles. Early-Season Weeds. However. successive plantings of the same crop within a field increase the opportunity for building up high populations. spiders. Timing to avoid flea beetle damage in cole crops may push the planting even later—until mid-June in Connecticut. weedy fields. Biological control programs using the parasite Pediobius foveolatus. a small beneficial wasp. notably black cutworms. still breaking down at the time of planting. Damage can be avoided by delaying planting or protecting early plantings with row covers. striped flea beetles. “For many specialist pests with multiple generations per year (such as crucifer flea beetles). and wireworms. such as Mexican bean beetle. Because these species are all mobile adults when they emerge in the spring. crucifer flea beetles. bean. including ground beetles. Planting Time and Insect Pests Some pests. do most of their damage early in the season on small seedlings. which are often the earliest plantings. Movement between Crops during the Growing Season A good crop rotation plan includes not only the cropto-crop sequences but also how the crops will be laid out 42 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . armyworms. Other pests. many predators of soil pests. come out of their overwintering sites later (late June in Connecticut) but prefer to lay eggs on the largest and most vigorous plantings. cooler and wetter soil conditions. To purchase the book. white grubs. and cereal leaf beetle. or call (607) 255 7654. When those host plants are plowed and replaced with a cash crop. attract seedcorn maggot flies to lay eggs. but timely plowing across a region could reduce the size of the local population. the caterpillars attack the stems of the new crop. slugs.org.org or www. Mobile insect pests may overwinter in crop residue in the field. the effect of increased mortality may not be apparent in a single field or farm. mostly written about corn and other field crops. true armyworm. Plowing also destroys winter annual or biennial weeds that can have a role in drawing insect pests to a field at the beginning of the season. and predatory mites. onion maggot. squash vine borer. Field management practices can influence insect pest problems. visit www.sare. Black cutworm moths lay their eggs early in the spring and prefer low-lying. and spinach leaf miner are examples of insects whose overwintering stages. and the overall rotation plan should take this into account. and Crop Residue Effects on Insect Pests As explained in chapter 2 (pages 3–20). are favored by the presence of crop residue.

Suppresses weeds by competition when cash crops are not present. The new adults then move out when the plants are mowed or when the seeds become more mature and less suitable. Favor crops over faster-growing weeds due to slow release of nutrients. allows earlier cultivation. see references 33. or roadside vegetation. successive plantings of the same crop within a field increase the opportunity for building up high populations. or call (607) 255 7654.org. and 127. on the farm over the entire season. While adult insects generally have a dispersal stage that easily travels long distances. Improves competitive ability of the crop against weeds. 71. how to manage spring weeds. when to plant. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. which increases effectiveness of cultivation. visit www. straw) Transplanting smallseeded crops Planting competitive cultivars Increased density and more uniform arrangement of crop plants Rapid cleanup after harvest Planting cover crops Summary A few major insect pests can be managed directly by crop rotation on a single farm. preferring to feed on flowers and developing seeds. Because insects are so diverse in their overwintering. 103.sare. Post-planting cultivation Stale seedbed Organic fertility sources Drip irrigation Mulch (plastic. buries seeds too deeply to emerge. 122. but many more are influenced by farm management choices of whether and when to till. and host-finding strategies. For many specialist pests with multiple generations per year (such as crucifer flea beetles). weeds such as pigweed or lambsquarters. 101. interfere with movement. 86. Prevents seed set by residual weeds. 50. The best approach is to identify the most important pests that have historically damaged major crops on a particular farm. tarnished plant bugs feed on hundreds of different species of broadleaf host plants. For further reading. Table 3. 47. Strawberry growers trying to reduce damage can substitute straight rye (a poor host for tarnished plant bug) for a mixture of rye with hairy vetch (a favorable host) adjacent to and upwind from strawberry fields. damages perennial roots and rhizomes. To purchase the book. allowing the weeds to germinate and killing them without further soil disturbance. improves soil tilth. Flushes weeds from the soil before planting. In organic systems killing the weeds is usually accomplished with a flame weeder. CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 43 . Removes weeds from the crop. The nymphs may develop on cover crops such as hairy vetch. Directs water to the crop rather than to weeds. 34. The crop is then planted into the weed free bed with as little disturbance as possible. Strawberry growers who include alfalfa or clovers in their crop rotations can also avoid mowing these legumes during the time the strawberries are flowering and developing fruit to avoid mass movement of tarnished plant bug adults. then move to another.org or www. 57. NRAES 177. 104. or otherwise limit the numbers of pests or damage from those pests. and find cultural methods that interrupt the life cycle. Tend to suppress weeds by early shading. and whether to put successive plantings of a crop in the same field.6 Organic weed management practices Practice Tillage Effect Kills growing weeds. For example. 55.nraes. An awareness of these possibilities can help a grower avoid a potential problem. Other pest insects feed on many different host plants and may build up in large numbers on one host. Note: Stale seedbed is the practice of preparing a seedbed. Increases the competitive ability of the crop. Smothers weeds: delays those that do emerge. brings weed seeds to surface. it is hard to identify cultural practices that will prevent problems across a range of crops and pests. having multiple plantings adjacent to each other helps the insects to find new food plants even in life stages that normally travel only a few yards. dispersal. 93.

they have greatly shortened the fallow periods as weeds have become less problematic. or call (607) 255 7654. tillage tends to stimulate the germination of seeds of most weed species (73). • Include clean fallow periods in the rotation to deplete perennial roots and rhizomes and to flush out and destroy annual weeds. and most have looked at crop rotation in conventional agricultural systems with herbicides. 44 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . visit www. Weed control is inherently more difficult in some crops than others. Few studies have examined the role of crop rotation in weed suppression. Thus. winter squash and pumpkins tend to become weedy because cultivation and hand weeding are essentially impossible after the vines have run out of the row.sare. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. they are further weakened. • Follow weed-prone crops with crops in which weeds can easily be prevented from going to seed. weed management in an organic cropping system involves the integration of a broad range of cultural practices. A few such cycles once every two to three years can greatly suppress or eliminate most perennial weeds whose roots are within the plow layer and help keep deeper-rooted perennials in check. crop sequences that take advantage of multiple opportunities to suppress and remove weeds from the field will improve weed management on the farm (61). Following such crops with a rapid I deally. page 43). and subsequent cultivation will kill the seedlings so they will not compete with future crops.org or www. If these plants are again cultivated into the soil. since the variation in cultural practices during the rotation will tend to disrupt the life cycle of each particular weed species but create niches for a greater variety of species. This is reasonable. a variety of other factors make important contributions to weed control on organic farms (table 3. but for weed management the identity of the crop species is less critical than the type of soil preparation and cultural weed control practices used with each crop. 62). Similarly. “Experimenting on small areas to find the right balance between seed cost of cover crops and weed control is often worthwhile. In northern Pennsylvania. Mohler The usefulness of the principles outlined below has been documented by practicing farmers in many cases. Although the sparse literature offers only general insights into the design of weed suppressive crop rotations. but each shoot is weakened due to less belowground food storage. The identities of the crops are critical for disease and insect management. Most perennial weed species will resprout after their roots and rhizomes have been cut into small pieces by tillage implements (40). The few rotation studies without herbicides have generally found that more diverse systems had a lower density of problem weeds but a greater diversity of weed species (60. Such studies primarily indicate the impact of varying the type of herbicide used rather than other factors associated with crop rotation.org.nraes.” The Role of Crop Rotation in Weed Management Charles L.6. many new shoots are produced. In general. To purchase the book. Although cultivation after planting is usually a key component.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. This is an important approach to reducing the density of weed seeds stored in the soil. the ecology of weeds offers clues to the sort of crop sequences that are most likely to minimize weed problems. unless mulches are used. Eric and Anne Nordell have nearly eliminated weeds from their vegetable farm by alternating between a year with a cash crop and a year with weedsuppressing cover crops and a cultivated summer fallow (39). NRAES 177. All of these practices occur within the context of a sequence of crops that are planted on a field—the crop rotation. For example. Moreover. Over the years. weeds have usually set seed by the time these full-season crops have matured.

or call (607) 255 7654. This reduces weed problems in subsequent crops. henbit and shepherd’s purse are typically fallgerminating species and are likely to be found in winter wheat and spelt. Rotations that include both springplanted and fall-planted crops tend to suppress both sorts of species. vine crops often contribute to the weed seed bank because they become difficult to cultivate or hand weed late in the season. mulched vine crops may be used as a weed “cleaning” crop because the combination of mulch and a dense canopy effectively suppresses weeds. Consequently. competitive spring-planted crops tend to suppress midsummer germinating species like purslane. whereas without mulch. particularly if the cover crop is broadcast. fall-germinating species tend to be destroyed before they can set seed when soil is tilled for a spring crop. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. crops grown with weed-suppressing mulch. and. • Rotate between crops that are planted in different seasons. visit www.nraes. When weed populations have declined substantially. and highly competitive crops that are intensively cultivated (for example. cover crops compete with any weeds that do emerge. potato). and the same principle applies when these species are used as cover crops. If weeds proliferate in the direct-seeded crop. Increasing seeding rates by 50 to 100 percent relative to recommended rates for grain or forage production usually produces noticeably improved weed control. The long-term consequences of this seed production can be reduced by following the small grain with an easily cultivated. weeds often go to seed before harvest. In contrast. planting winter rye or mustard cover crops following plow-down of pasture reduced spring weed cover from 52 percent to 9 percent with rye and to 4 percent with mustard (70). succession of short-season crops like spinach and lettuce that are harvested before weeds can set seed will kill off many of the seeds produced in the vine crop. In addition. whereas summer tillage for midseason planted vegetables will kill most spring-germinating weed species before they can set seeds. Very high-density sowings CHAPTER 3 | Physical and Biological Processes in Crop Rotation 45 .sare. Weed species have characteristic times of the year during which they emerge.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. If weeds become a serious barrier to the production of noncompetitive crops. Plant canopies suppress seed germination of many weed species by reducing the amount of light and the relative amount of red-wavelength light reaching the soil surface (5). shortcycle cover crops alternating with clean fallow periods. growing poor competitors in a special crop rotation in which they alternate only with cleaning crops may prove worthwhile. • Plant crops in which weed seed production can be prevented before crops that are poor competitors. The crop types that prevent seed production will vary depending on the practices of the farmer. To purchase the book. Weeds establish most easily when the ground is bare. it is usually advisable to follow it with an easily cultivated species that is transplanted or has a large seed. Although some weeds establish from the longterm seed bank in the soil. Similarly. many of the weeds encountered in a given year establish from seeds shed in the previous year or two. Thus. Many studies have shown that grain and legume crops are more competitive against weeds when planted at high density and uniformity (74. Direct-seeded species like carrot and spinach that have small seeds are more of a problem in this regard than are large-seeded crops like snap beans and sweet corn. for example. • Work cover crops into the rotation between cash crops at times when the soil would otherwise be bare. Weed control is often more difficult in direct-seeded vegetables than transplanted vegetables because the directseeded crops have a prolonged early period when the crop competes poorly and cultivation is difficult. NRAES 177. Similarly. For example. especially in spring-sown grain. the rotation can be broadened to include occasional crops in which seed production is more difficult to prevent. highly competitive crop like soybean or potato.org. Weed control is often difficult in crops like onion and carrot because they are slow growing and cast relatively little shade. Conversely. 121).org or www. growing a crop in which weed seed production can be prevented before planting a poor competitor can reduce the amount of precision cultivation and hand weeding required for successful production of the poor competitor. Common ragweed emerges most readily in early spring and is often a problem in spring-sown organic small grains like barley and oat. Cropping strategies in which management prevents weed seed production include successive plantings of short-season crops. small grains cannot be effectively harrowed after the stems begin to elongate. The spring-germinating weeds tend to be competitively suppressed by fall-sown grain because it is already well established and growing vigorously by the time they germinate.

as discussed in previous sections of this chapter. or call (607) 255 7654. Weed seed production can be minimized by using a grain nurse crop that competes with the annual weeds. greatly decrease weed density. 39. and soil health. substantial decreases in populations of most annual weeds occur when sod crops are left in the ground for a few years (79). To purchase the book. and many growers choose to avoid red clover and sweet clover before most vegetable crops. 27. 60. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. • Rotate between annual crops and perennial sod crops. Even if the hairy vetch cover crop is not allowed to go to seed. soil nutrients. see references 5. Because they remain in the ground most of a year or more. The problem is greatest when the cover crop stand is light or spotty. when alternating sod crops with annual crops. annual weeds have time to set seeds. Although weed seed populations decline more rapidly when the soil is tilled. 40. Another strategy to reduce weed seed production during sod establishment is to plant the sod crop in late summer or early fall. insects. Hairy vetch should be avoided on any farm that grows winter grain. Interseeding of cover crops is discussed more fully in chapter 7 (pages 95–100). and 121. Even with a nurse crop. annual weeds may set many seeds during establishment of the sod crop. NRAES 177. One study found that 83 percent of farmers surveyed in Saskatchewan and Manitoba noticed decreased weed problems following sod crops. over several years. 9. and grain rye can completely smother even many perennial weeds. because they are fastgrowing. 79. and subsequent mowing of the sod during the establishment year. 96. Even hairy vetch or a winter grain like rye may allow seed production by winter annuals like chickweed and shepherd’s purse if the cover crop is not incorporated promptly in the spring. some of the hard seeds from the original sowing will germinate in subsequent winter grain crops and can severely reduce both yield and grain quality. or they will likely increase during the sod phase of the rotation. 62. 46 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual .nraes. Cover crops interseeded into standing cash crops during the last cultivation can help suppress late-emerging weeds but may also compete with the crop (9). Buckwheat and winter grains are particularly prone to cause problems if allowed to seed. 74. Precautions are required. early harvest of the nurse crop for forage or straw before annuals go to seed. and most indicated that the effect lasted more than one year (27). but also to diseases. 70. Also. Many cover crops can behave as weeds if allowed to go to seed due to a delay in mowing or incorporation. The problem can be avoided. soybean. the cumulative affect of a well-planned rotation strategy can. Experimenting on small areas to find the right balance between seed cost of cover crops and weed control is often worthwhile. many of these farmers indicated a reduction in Canada thistle. by incorporating the cover crop at the first sign of capsule formation on the weeds. Perennial grass weeds like quackgrass should be well controlled prior to planting the sod. of competitive cover crops like buckwheat. but they are relatively uncompetitive early in their development and can become weed infested. 61. Long-season cover crops like red clover and sweet clover are useful for supplying nitrogen and improving soil structure. Some portion of any hairy vetch seed lot will be “hard” seeds (seeds that are dormant due to a seed coat that does not allow absorption of water). Such cover crops thus work best when sown with or interseeded into a grain “nurse” crop that can suppress weeds while the legume cover crop develops.org.sare. The few annuals that do establish are usually prevented from setting seeds by repeated mowing or grazing. 73. • Avoid cover crop species and cover crop management that promote weeds. thereby negating the expected decline in the weed seed bank. however. weeds can be a problem in the following crop. For further reading. however.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. This principle applies not just to weeds. visit www. probably because mowing several times each year depleted food storage in the thistle’s roots. This occurs by natural dieoff of seeds in the soil and because annuals that germinate in a perennial sod are competitively suppressed by the already well-established perennial legumes and grasses. competitive species. Although the impact of crop rotation on weeds will not be seen as quickly as the impact of tillage or cultivation.org or www. Rotation planning is a key way organic growers can substitute brain power for labor and purchased inputs. In addition to reducing annual weeds. and perennials have plenty of time to increase by growth of roots and rhizomes (underground stems). however.

the market goals and farm logistics guiding them may be different in each case. pages 3–20). Although a few sequences may occur on multiple farms.2. The farmers emphasized that these sample sequences may not be (and probably are not) directly transferable to other farms. and labor availability set the priorities that guided the development of these sequences.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. equipment. Cropping sequences used by four additional expert farmers are also included to better represent the range of crops and farm types in the northeastern US.) The examples in this chapter are illustrations. the natural question is. To purchase the book. This chapter presents crop sequences for actual fields. Although whole-farm requirements of cash flow. and trial and error under real farm. field. • Alternate cover crops with cash crops. page 48.or five-year cropping history of one real field on their own farms at a 2002 workshop (see chapter 2. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. as implemented by expert organic farmers on their own farms. The farmers developed these couplets and short sequences using observation. 4 CROP SEQUENCES FROM EXPERT FARMERS’ FIELDS Sue Ellen Johnson M ost experienced organic farmers have a good grasp of the biological principles of crop rotation (see sidebar 4. These tables are color coded to show each crop’s (continued on page 55) Sidebar 4. visit www. • Avoid following a root crop with another root crop.1 Examples of Conventional Rotation Wisdom • Avoid planting the same crop family in the same field too often. CHAPTER 4 | Crop Sequences from Expert Farmers’ Fields 47 . fine-rooted crops. Considering an organic farm field with a healthy.nraes.sare. not recommendations.1). and the sequence of crops is presented in one column for each farm’s sample field.org. page 6).3. Many sequences continue to evolve as the farms themselves do.org or www. Reading the “Real Fields on Real Farms” Tables On the next several pages of tables. or call (607) 255 7654. All of the farms whose field sequences are presented in this chapter were nominated as exemplary by organic certifiers or other organizations that work with organic farmers. (The farmers are described in sidebar 4. high-yielding crop. These cropping histories illustrate the use of rules-ofthumb (sidebar 4.4. and seasonal conditions. Twelve expert farmers each recounted the four. the year and season are noted in the left-hand columns. the rationale underlying each sequence is based on the needs of each particular field. cumulative knowledge. judgment. • Precede heavy feeders with nitrogenfixing cover crops. NRAES 177. Another major element influencing each rotation is the total land area that the farm has available for cropping (see sidebar 2. • Alternate deep-rooted crops with shallow. market demands. what cropping history (or crop rotation) contributed to its vigor and productivity? Chapter 2 (pages 3–20) reviewed the multiple interacting factors that experts balance as they manage crop rotations. Several farms achieve similar biological goals with different sequences of crop families. page 55) and the prevalence of crop couplets and short sequences.

For 13 years. • In Penn-Yan. wholesalers. wheat. New Jersey. sells vegetables through its CSA to restaurants. They run a small CSA and also market to restaurants. His farm. through a CSA. Pennsylvania. One hundred acres are in vegetables and another hundred in hay at any given time. spelt. and flowers for 20 years through farmers’ markets. wholesale outlets. four grocery stores. To purchase the book. He sells organic feed in addition to operating a 150-cow dairy. He runs a 650-member CSA. • Anne and Eric Nordell grow vegetables on seven acres of Beech Grove Farm in northern Pennsylvania. and at farmers’ markets. along with beef cattle. Paul Arnold owns Pleasant Valley Farm. is farmed by Brett Grohsgal. and.sare. Vermont. is a 30acre farm owned by Roy Brubaker. • In Argyle. more recently. spans 82 acres and has 10 acres in vegetables in any given year. New York. and processing vegetables. when the information on the sample sequences was collected. have raised vegetable crops on five acres. New Hampshire. corn. including the NEON rotation workshop. For 14 years. farmers’ markets. as well as running the CSA. • Golden Russet Farm in Shoreham. Sidebar 4. Jim understands the challenges of rotation on a farm with only one important cash crop. Sandy. and wholesale outlets. He markets to restaurants. Jim Gerritsen has been raising seed potatoes that are available by mail order and through wholesale markets. raising grain. New York.org or www. berries. food banks. • In Bridgewater. for nine years. NRAES 177. • Village Acres Farm in Miflintown. • Kretschmann Farm is a 650-member CSA in Rochester. on-farm sales. The Arnolds have graciously hosted many organic farming events. 48 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Jay. his operation has sold vegetables at farmers’ markets. restaurant wholesalers. Pennsylvania. He cultivates 10 acres and manages 100.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.org. a university. One Straw Farm supplies vegetables for a CSA. Klaas and Mary-Howell Martens farm approximately 1. New York. Maryland. Connecticut. they operate an organic feed mill and seed processing facility for local producers. farmers’ markets. for 13 years. visit www. and local restaurants. and clover seed. A dairy farmer for 42 years. For over 22 years. In addition. dry beans. and a newly formed multifarm CSA. but the general character of the sequences and the farmers remains unchanged: • On Four Winds Farm in Gardiner.200 acres. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. New York. Of course. or call (607) 255 7654. • John Myer is one of the pioneers of certified organic grain production in New York. he and his wife. and with other organic growers through a cooperative. on 550 rented acres. on three acres for 15 years. has been growing vegetables on 40 acres for 16 years. on 880 acres in Ovid. Maryland. and through a CSA. Calvert’s Gift Farm. Don Kretschmann has been farming for 28 years and sells his produce wholesale. alfalfa. Will Stevens has been farming for 21 years and sells his crops through a CSA. farms (and faces) have evolved since the 2002 workshop. Drew Norman has been growing vegetables for 18 years. he has marketed vegetables. food cooperatives. Farming with his family. • Even Star Organic Farm in Lexington. New York. he began organic grain and hay production in 1997. the Tuscarora Organic Growers Cooperative. A former chef. He has been farming organically since 1982 and raises soybeans. Brett sells to ten restaurants. They market almost exclusively through local farmers’ markets. • Eero Ruuttila of Nesenkeag Farm in Litchfield. soybeans. They began farming organically in 1992. Maine. they have relied on horses and their own labor to supply several farmers’ markets. and at two farmers’ markets. at farmers’ markets. They use the rest of their land for grazing poultry and cattle. Polly Armour has been growing vegetables with her husband. • Jean-Paul Courtens farmed 150 acres with 30 acres in cash crops in Kinderhook.nraes. • David Blyn farms on 12 acres in Roxbury. • Ed Fry operates Fair Hills Farm in Chestertown. Wood Prairie Farm spans 45 acres and has been in business for 26 years. on the farm.2 Expert Farmer Profiles These profiles reflect the status of the farms and farmers in 2002. • On One Straw Farm in Maryland. • Jack Gurley has been farming on five acres in Spark.

The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Oats Red Clover Winter Brassicas Red Clover Lettuce (strip crop) Straw mulch Garlic (in alternate beds)b Straw mulch Straw mulch Fava Beans Cucurbits Beans Lettuce (strip crop) Winter Brassicas Compost Direct-Seeded Quick Crops / Small-Seeded Greens / Radishes Cucumbers (mulched with straw) Lettuce Vetch Red Clover Return to Year One KEY • “Fallow” indicates a deliberate period of bare soil.nraes.and Five-Year Vegetable Crop Rotations Calvert’s Gift Farm Jack Gurley. Md. Md. Crimson Clover Four Winds Farm Polly & Jay Armour.org or www. often with frequent cultivation to kill weeds. • Intercrops with crops from more than one family are represented by a dark gray background. spinach – Chenopodiaceae Grass-legume mix This rotation switches between potatoes and tomatoes in alternate cycles. • Split boxes indicate strip crops or split beds. Mulch Intercrop Cash Crop Cover Crop a CHAPTER 4 | Crop Sequences from Expert Farmers’ Fields 49 . N.sare. To purchase the book.Y. The boxes below show the color codes for plant families in the rotation diagrams. b This rotation is designed around alternate beds. Grasses– Poaceae Lettuce – Asteraceae Legumes – Fabaceae Alliums – Liliaceae Brassicas – Brassicaceae Carrot– Apiaceae Nightshades– Solanaceae Miscellaneous Cucurbits – Cucurbitaceae Fallow Beets. Winter Spring Y1 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y2 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y3 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y4 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y5 Summer Fall Return to Year One Return to Year One Tomatoes Garlic Red Clover Winter Brassicas Lettuce (strip crop) Brassicas Crimson Clover Oats Soybeans Winter Brassicas Vetch Vetch Lettuce (strip crop) Okra – Flowers – Basil Winter Squash (in alternate beds) Spinach Winter Squash Tomatoes OR Peppers Potatoes OR Tomatoesa Garlic Even Star Organic Farm Brett Grohsgal. NRAES 177. visit www. • Cash crops are indicated by black text.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.org. or call (607) 255 7654. Real Fields on Real Farms: Sample Four. cover crops and fallows by white text.

The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. and other “oddballs. NRAES 177. often with frequent cultivation to kill weeds. Pa. visit www. • Split boxes indicate strip crops or split beds.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Rye – Vetch Wheat OR Oats Tomatoes Brassicas Winter Squash Rye – Vetch Oats Lettuce (triple crop) Potatoes Spinach Turnips Rye – Vetch Potatoes Wheat (overseed) Rye – Vetch Beets Winter Squash Summer Vetch Sudangrass Late Brassicas with Underseeded Rye OR Oats Oats – Field Peas Spinach / Chard / Beet Greens Lettuce Wheat Lettuce Sweet Corn / Summer “Smalls”c Arugula / Mustard / Brassicas Rye – Vetch Alfalfa Return to Year One KEY • “Fallow” indicates a deliberate period of bare soil.org or www. such as scallions.org.nraes. • Intercrops with crops from more than one family are represented by a dark gray background. or call (607) 255 7654. Vt. spinach – Chenopodiaceae Grass-legume mix “Smalls” indicates any crop grown in small quantities.” Mulch Intercrop Cash Crop Cover Crop 50 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual .sare. Real Fields on Real Farms: Sample Four. Winter Spring Y1 Summer Fall Rye – Vetch Winter Spring Y2 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y3 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y4 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y5 Summer Fall Oats (and compost) Spring “Smalls”c Summer Fallow Wheat OR Oats c Kretschmann Farm Don Kretschmann. green beans. • Cash crops are indicated by black text.H. To purchase the book. N. Alfalfa Nesenkeag Farm Eero Ruuttila. Grasses – Poaceae Lettuce – Asteraceae Legumes – Fabaceae Alliums – Liliaceae Brassicas – Brassicaceae Carrot– Apiaceae Nightshades– Solanaceae Miscellaneous Cucurbits – Cucurbitaceae Fallow Beets.and Five-Year Vegetable Crop Rotations (continued) Golden Russet Farm Will Stevens. cover crops and fallows by white text. The boxes below show the color codes for plant families in the rotation diagrams.

Mulch Intercrop Cash Crop Cover Crop d Mulch KEY • “Fallow” indicates a deliberate period of bare soil. N. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. • Split boxes indicate strip crops or split beds. visit www. Mulch Lettuce Riverbank Farm Davida Blyn.org or www. The boxes below show the color codes for plant families in the rotation diagrams. or call (607) 255 7654.sare. Grasses – Poaceae Lettuce – Asteraceae Legumes – Fabaceae Alliums – Liliaceae Brassicas – Brassicaceae Carrot– Apiaceae Nightshades– Solanaceae Miscellaneous Cucurbits – Cucurbitaceae Fallow Beets.and Five-Year Vegetable Crop Rotations (continued) One Straw Farm Drew Norman. Winter Orchardgrass – Alfalfa Hay Spring Y1 Summer Fall Crimson Clover – Vetch Winter Spring Y2 Summer Fall Rye – Vetch Winter Spring Y3 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y4 Summer Fall Winter d Pleasant Valley Farm Paul & Sandy Arnold.nraes. • Intercrops with crops from more than one family are represented by a dark gray background. Hay Plow-down – Fallow Beans Radish Winter Rye Carrots Buckwheat Oats – Field Peas Tomatoes Beans Multiple Crops in Strips: Onions/ Spinach/ Beets/Radish/Salad Mix/ Lettuce/Peas Turnips Carrots Beets Lettuce Rye Lettuce Winter Squash (with hay mulch) Mulch Rye Plow-down – Fallow Brassicas Tomato / Pepper OR Cucumber/ Zucchini / Melon / Eggplant on on plastic plastic Winter Rye Oats – Field Peas Brassica Greens d Lettuce Buckwheat Spinach Arugula and Radish Beets Radishes Winter Rye Lettuce Rye Garlic Spring Y5 Summer Fall Summer squash Hay Tomatoes (with hay mulch) Flowers Lettuce Rye Harvest of brassica and fall cool-season crops extends into winter. Clovers may be interseeded at the last cultivation. NRAES 177.Y.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. To purchase the book. often with frequent cultivation to kill weeds. Real Fields on Real Farms: Sample Four. • Cash crops are indicated by black text. cover crops and fallows by white text. Conn. spinach – Chenopodiaceae Grass-legume mix CHAPTER 4 | Crop Sequences from Expert Farmers’ Fields 51 . Md.org.

Winter Spring Y1 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y2 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y3 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y4 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y5 Summer Fall Rye Clover (mowed two or three times) Forage Millet and Soybeans OR Grass-Clover Mix grazed by poultry Return to Year One Sweet Corn (overseeded with clover) Fallow Wheat (frost seed grass and clover into wheat in spring) Timothy – Clover Broccoli Buckwheat White Clover between crop rows Pepper / Eggplant on plastic Fallow – July Oats – Field Peas Strawberries 1st harvest Fallow Wheat OR Oats (undersown with clover) Strawberries 2nd harveste Clover Seed Potatoes Clover Village Acres Farm Roy Brubaker. To purchase the book. • Split boxes indicate strip crops or split beds. • Cash crops are indicated by black text. The boxes below show the color codes for plant families in the rotation diagrams. Me. Rye Wood Prairie Farm Jim Gerritsen.and Five-Year Vegetable Crop Rotations (continued) Roxbury Farm Jean-Paul Courtens.org.sare. or call (607) 255 7654.Y. Plow-down – Fallow Interseeded Rye Spring Mustard Plow-down Buckwheat Plow-down KEY • “Fallow” indicates a deliberate period of bare soil. Real Fields on Real Farms: Sample Four.org or www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. e Mulch Intercrop Cash Crop Cover Crop 52 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . often with frequent cultivation to kill weeds. NRAES 177. Grasses – Poaceae Lettuce – Asteraceae Legumes – Fabaceae Alliums – Liliaceae Brassicas – Brassicaceae Carrot– Apiaceae Nightshades– Solanaceae Miscellaneous Cucurbits – Cucurbitaceae Fallow Beets. Pa. cover crops and fallows by white text. spinach – Chenopodiaceae Grass-legume mix This strawberry rotation is followed by cycling into a vegetable rotation sequence. visit www. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. N.nraes. • Intercrops with crops from more than one family are represented by a dark gray background.

cover crops and fallows by white text. • Intercrops with crops from more than one family are represented by a dark gray background. or call (607) 255 7654. Winter Spring Y1 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y2 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y3 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y4 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y5 Summer Fall Return to Year One Lettuce Lettuce Fallow Oats Cultivated Fallow Field Peas Onion Rye Cultivated Fallow Rye – Vetch Carrot Carrot Spinach Spinach Rye (interseeded) KEY • “Fallow” indicates a deliberate period of bare soil. spinach – Chenopodiaceae Grass-legume mix Mulch Intercrop Cash Crop Cover Crop CHAPTER 4 | Crop Sequences from Expert Farmers’ Fields 53 . The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. • Cash crops are indicated by black text.org or www.and Five-Year Vegetable Crop Rotations (continued) Beech Grove Farm Anne and Eric Nordell. often with frequent cultivation to kill weeds. • Split boxes indicate strip crops or split beds. NRAES 177. visit www. To purchase the book. Pa.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.sare.org. Real Fields on Real Farms: Sample Four.nraes. Grasses – Poaceae Lettuce – Asteraceae Legumes – Fabaceae Alliums – Liliaceae Brassicas – Brassicaceae Carrot– Apiaceae Nightshades– Solanaceae Miscellaneous Cucurbits – Cucurbitaceae Fallow Beets. The boxes below show the color codes for plant families in the rotation diagrams.

NRAES 177. Real Fields on Real Farms: Sample Four.and Five-Year Grain Crop Rotations Martens Farm Klaas & Mary-H Martens. NY Fair Hills Farm Ed Fry. NY Winter Spring Y1 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y2 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y3 Summer Fall Winter Spring Y4 Summer Fall Return to Year One Winter Spring Y5 Summer Fall Red clover Alfalfa Winter wheat Red clover (overseeded) Winter wheat Winter wheat Red clover (overseeded) Soybean Red clover Winter wheat Corn (silage) Fallow Rye (silage) Soybean Corn Corn (silage) Fallow Rye (silage) Corn Alfalfa (fourth year) Corn (grain) Rye (overseeded) Red clover (plowdown) Myer Farm John Myer. To purchase the book.org. The boxes below show the color codes for plant families in the rotation diagrams.nraes. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. • Intercrops with crops from more than one family are represented by a dark gray background. Grasses – Poaceae Lettuce – Asteraceae Legumes – Fabaceae Alliums – Liliaceae Brassicas – Brassicaceae Carrot– Apiaceae Nightshades– Solanaceae Miscellaneous Cucurbits – Cucurbitaceae Fallow Beets.org or www. visit www.sare.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. • Cash crops are indicated by black text. often with frequent cultivation to kill weeds. or call (607) 255 7654. spinach – Chenopodiaceae Grass-legume mix Mulch Intercrop Cash Crop Cover Crop 54 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . cover crops and fallows by white text. MD Rye (silage) Fallow KEY • “Fallow” indicates a deliberate period of bare soil. • Split boxes indicate strip crops or split beds.

• Grow a root crop like beets after lettuce or cabbage. • Never grow any crop after itself.org or www. perhaps because it is prone to problems that can be managed by crop rotation. • Grow lettuce before potatoes. eggplants): • Grow tomatoes after peas. because potato production involves aggressive cultivation and further working of the soil during harvest. and other factors. because tomatoes take a lot out of the soil. All farmers do not use the same couplets because of variation between farms in cropping practices. • Grow potatoes before crops that are poor competitors. botanical family. • Grow winter-killed cover crops (oat-pea) before earlyseason crops. Below is a sampling of some of their recommended crop “couplets. • Be cautious when growing bell pepper before another vegetable crop. • Avoid planting potatoes after corn. • Avoid growing potatoes before corn. marketing strategies. Also notice that some fields or beds are subdivided among different crops at certain points in the rotation sequence. because it is a light feeder and an aboveground crop. but most of the plans do not indicate other aspects of production such as compost applications and tillage operations.sare. Alliums: • Use a summer fallow after onions.org. both of which reduce weed pressure. because there is time for double cropping. • Grow legume cover crops before potatoes or corn. Sidebar 4. so the seedbed will be easy to prepare. CHAPTER 4 | Crop Sequences from Expert Farmers’ Fields 55 . Corn. or call (607) 255 7654. because of wireworm problems. pest and weed pressures. and others have not. lettuce. To purchase the book.3 Northeast Growers’ Rules of Thumb We asked numerous organic growers to share their crop sequencing “rules of thumb. (4) double cropping. which many of the farmers indicated were integral to their rotation management. expertly managed organic vegetable and field crop farms. Growers’ rationales for these couplets include (1) disease and pest management. Lettuce and Crops in the Beet and Spinach Family: • Grow peas before fall greens. (2) fertility management. At the next planting they are cycled back and managed as single field units. and fall greens benefit from the nitrogen fixed by the peas. peppers. NRAES 177. because both are heavy feeders. • Avoid growing legumes before small grains to prevent lodging. Grasses. Many rules relate to the nightshade family. potatoes. because usually there are many weeds. visit www.” These are simply rules of thumb that individual farmers use in their own rotation planning. or spinach. so that they can feed the crops. Some sequences have been scientifically tested. A few of the sequences include mulch applications. (3) weed management.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. because of diseases. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. The differences between the rotations are striking. Note that no one pattern characterizes the rotations on these successful. climate. length of season. General Rules: • Grow winter cover crops before late-planted crops to accumulate organic matter and nitrogen. and (5) seedbed preparation.” These illustrate the common practices of many organic growers.nraes. and Grains: • Grow beans after corn to rebuild nitrogen. Nightshades (tomatoes.

On two farms nightshades are preceded by fallow.org or www. The farmers explained that some cropping practices relate to the immediately preceding or following cash crop. sudan grass. Tomatoes. only 6 of the strips are planted with vegetables.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. possibly because the application of manure supplies nutrients and harvest and removal of the entire aboveground portion of the rye and corn plants for silage keeps pest populations in check. potatoes. The strips that are out of production are cover cropped over the winter and produce substantial biomass. or hay. Cucurbits tend to follow a cover crop or an early salad crop—spinach. crop rotation follows a fixed four-year cycle with prescheduled cultivated fallows and cover crops. For example. • At Beech Grove Farm. five years was inadequate to capture the full sequence of crops. Fair Hills Farm operations are based around its dairy and feed sales to organic dairies. • A series of cover crops is grown in sequence on Nesenkeag Farm (rye-vetch intercrop. • On those farms and on Golden Russet Farm. Notably. Winter-killed covers like oats and field pea are used in strips that will be planted to early vegetable crops. • Both cultivated fallows and mulching are important steps in sequences on some farms. As a result. The system is designed to minimize weeding and distribute labor. Alternating cash crops with bare fallow and cover crops appears to have exhausted the weed seed bank and built high soil quality. a winterkilled cover crop of oats and field peas tends to precede spring plantings of high-value direct-seeded crops with small seeds. oat-pea intercrop). For six weeks during midsummer they are shallowly tilled several times. and peppers (nightshades) are often preceded by a legume like clover. vetch. Observations on the Sample Sequences The sample rotation sequences vary from farm to farm. in part to improve weed control and in part to increase available soil nitrogen through breakdown of a cover crop. (2) early vegetables followed by cover crops. 3 strips are used for springplanted vegetables and 3 strips for summer-planted vegetables.nraes. then planted to another cover crop in early August. 56 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual .sare. Both are used for weed control. In these cases. lettuce. weed control needs and weed competition are minimal even when weather interferes with timely cultivation. grasses are grown continuously (corn-rye-corn) for several years before rotation into alfalfa or mixed hay. (3) cover crops and fallow. fields on Village Acres. • • • • Each growing season. Careful examination of the crop sequences reveals several interesting points. The remaining 6 strips are taken out of production. visit www. Some farms are exceptions. The vegetable production field is divided into 12 half-acre strips. and a cover crop is needed to rebuild the soil and provide quick soil cover. This creates a four-year rotation cycle of (1) cover crops and fallow. Farmers indicated that this is because brassicas are nutrient-demanding crops. they try to move the crops from bed to bed to avoid repeating on the same area of the field. Winter-hardy cover crops like rye and hairy vetch are used in strips where vegetable crops will be planted the following summer. to allow double cropping of the same ground in a single season. the two farms with the smallest acreage rely on compost to supply nitrogen and soil-building organic matter. Wood Prairie Farm. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. or call (607) 255 7654. • For some fields. This limits the buildup of soilborne pests and diseases. As on many dairies in the northeast US. Planting cucurbits is delayed until early summer. Brassicas are often followed by a grass cover crop (with or without a legume). the crop sequences may show only two or three crops. In both cases. and (4) summer vegetables. Couplets of cover crops and cash crops are common. • Most of the farms use a diversity of cover crops and plant a cover crop in most years. When they do. the sequence of cover crops is used to prepare the seedbed for highvalue small-seeded crops.org. In any particular year. To purchase the book. Riverbank Farm also follows rye with an oat-pea intercrop. however. • Most of the farms rarely repeat a planting of the same crop family in the same field from one season to the next. Harvest and planting efforts are spread across the season. and Myers Farm are cycling through a longer period of cropping and have longer rotations due to the inclusion of perennial crops like hay and strawberries. NRAES 177. Predominance of grasses in the rotation seems to cause few problems. or brassica greens. and some relate to crops two or three seasons apart.

Cover crops fulfill diverse and multiple roles on these fields. several farmers have reported that they continue to modify the sequences on the fields depicted as new lessons are learned or to deal with changing conditions and opportunities (see chapter 2. but also for their farm businesses.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. some farmers plant winter-killed cover crops where early spring crops will be planted. visit www. white clover into tomatoes). In her no-till bed system. For example. A diversified cropping approach produces both resilience and flexibility.nraes.org or www. To purchase the book. Several farmers offered specific reasons particular crop sequences work for them. Expert farmers’ crop sequences make sense for individual fields. Polly Armour follows potatoes with winter squash that she mulches heavily. or call (607) 255 7654. Consequently. CHAPTER 4 | Crop Sequences from Expert Farmers’ Fields 57 . Jack Gurley believes he needs to maximize use of cover crops without losing growing space.org. Note that cash crops rotate among members of different crop families.sare. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. since crops differ in their ability to tolerate cover crop residues. for optimal ecological and business management of a farming system. pages 3–20). NRAES 177. he looks for opportunities to interseed cover crops into cash crops (for example. hairy vetch into broccoli. The farmers stressed the importance of matching the cover crop to the following crop. Since the sequences were described. thereby controlling weeds arising from seeds that get stirred to the soil surface during potato harvest. Summary Keep in mind that these sequences describe the cropping history of only one field or bed on farms that have many fields and beds (sometimes several hundred).

For the sake of simplicity.” how you manage it. working through the procedure will likely give you new insights into your farm and “The rewards of systematic crop rotation planning increase. however.nraes.edu/croprotation. the instructions are written as if the person doing the planning is the manager of the farm.org. The procedure is based on methods used by the panel of expert farmers (chapter 2. You need to know your fields and your crop mix to use this planner. The rewards of systematic crop rotation planning increase. it is not complicated. For any farm. if you double or triple crop fields. but it is most useful for farms with complex operations. Examples of farms with relatively simple rotation problems include most grain farms and some wholesale vegetable operations. These can be downloaded from http://www. with the number of crops and the complexity of the fields. Although the planning procedure described below is divided into many steps. a long-term problem can develop without the farmer realizing that the rotation practices are suboptimal. It distills what experienced growers do. The crop rotation planning process becomes more complex if the crop mix is highly diverse.sare.cornell. Mohler T his chapter provides a step-by-step procedure for planning crop rotations on an individual farm. It can also serve as a new baseline and record system for your farm. The procedure is easiest for a farm that produces only a few crops and has uniform field conditions. NRAES 177. (3) construct a crop rotation planning map. It will not tell you which crop should follow another— for example. using Microsoft Excel spreadsheets instead of paper worktables is advised. and (5) refine your crop sequence plan. to precede a crop with hairy vetch or follow it with potato. however. based on experience.org or www. knowledge. The site also contains a modified version of this chapter in which the instructions are adapted to worksheets rather than paper tables. but the process is time consuming.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. For farms that require a complex cropping plan. however. and opportunities of your farm opera- 58 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . and you will end up with a plan. the procedure will help you organize diverse data on the management and biology of the crops you want to grow to define rotations that work for your particular farm. The crop rotation planning procedure works through a series of steps. (2) develop a general rotation plan (optional). Rather. with the number of crops and the complexity of the fields. or if the fields vary in their ability to grow various crops. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. The procedure described here is not a cookbook recipe. (4) plan future crop sequences for each section of the farm. Only you know the particular goals. To purchase the book. Simply proceed one step at a time. reasonable rotations can be maintained using a few rules of thumb. if you plant the same crop multiple times each season. or call (607) 255 7654. On farms that grow only a few crops. and intuition. into a systematic method. Besides helping you develop a plan. The procedure can be used to plan rotations with more crops and multiple soil types. visit www. supplemented with other sources. the computer worksheets will simplify data entry and sorting. pages 3–20).neon. problems. 5 A CROP ROTATION PLANNING PROCEDURE Charles L. You will (1) organize your information. where all of the crops can be grown on all of the fields. With a complex operation.

detailed record keeping and careful placement of crops become the keys to avoiding rotation problems. for example. Sidebar 5. tion.” Tips for Sequencing Crops Because the planning procedure presented below is lengthy and detailed. for each field and for the entire farm. For crops grown in succession plantings. however. compare. The general rotation plan might specify. and prompt you to make them in a logical order. or call (607) 255 7654. NRAES 177.nraes. CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 59 .1) but rather summarize the ad hoc sequencing introduced in chapter 2 (pages 3–20). Write down your crop mix. The procedure can help you recognize the critical decisions that need to be made. fall broccoli). The relative importance of rotation planning versus crop sequencing in overall crop planning depends on the farm. Note that the simplified steps presented here do not cover development of a flexible generalized rotation plan (see sidebar 5. list each planting as a separate crop (for example. and finally cucurbits. Identify and prioritize goals. “Expert growers simplify their planning by building their rotations around short sequences of two or three crops or cover crops. page 14 for rotation goals of expert farmers). however.sare. To purchase the book.8.1 Rotation Planning vs. rotation planning becomes less possible and careful crop sequencing becomes more critical (figure 5. some of the most useful steps are summarized briefly in this section. B. developing a plan will greatly simplify your crop sequencing.1. The rotation plan needs to be general enough to allow flexibility in sequencing. In general.2. In that case. Write down what you want your crop rotation to accomplish (see sidebar 2. A. your operation is highly complex. The sequencing plan is necessarily tentative and ideally leaves room for alternative crops in case weather or markets force last-minute changes. visit www. page 60). spring broccoli. C to distinguish them from the numbered steps in the systematic planning procedure.org or www. The worksheets (tables 5. and 5. since the crops and cover crops that precede and follow will differ with the season of the planting.3. following a general plan is likely to prove futile.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. To avoid confusion.1. that nightshade crops will be followed by mustard family crops. the sequencing plan provides the details of what crop goes where in succeeding years. Growers who do not wish to go through the detailed planning procedure will still find this summary useful in planning crop sequences. and sort the information you need to plan a good crop rotation. then salad greens other than mustards.org. Crop Sequencing Cropping plans have two aspects: the development of a general rotation plan and the sequencing of particular crops. This will help with planning. or that fullseason crops will be followed by a year of cover crops and then early-planted short-season crops. as the complexity of the farm operation increases. If your farm operation is suited to rotation planning. pages 61–67) will help you enter. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. The rotation plan provides the framework. the steps in this simple summary section are labeled A. If. 5. List the crops you plan to grow next season and the amount of land you will devote to each crop. B. Decide which goals take precedence this year if not all goals can be met simultaneously.

G. management units are often long strips across the field.org or www. Make a map of your farm showing every management unit. Make a crop rotation planning map. or call (607) 255 7654. pages 148–149). Creating a computer version of your map reduces the labor of writing crop names onto management units.sare.org. assign each crop to as many management units as you need to meet the area specified by your crop mix (see step B above). if soil conditions. Expert growers simplify their planning by building their rotations around short sequences of two or three crops or cover crops. E. On one copy of the map.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. consider increasing the diversity or balance of your crop mix. they may be individual beds. managing the farm in small units allows systematic matching of crops to conditions for site-specific management. and appendix 3. Write the family name next to each crop and add up the acreage of each family (family names of crops are given in appendix 1. Although these lists are long. and table 5. Many additional short sequences can be gathered by talking with other farmers or gleaned from the sample rotations in chapter 4 (pages 49–54)and from appendix 2 (pages 104–123). This can lead to problems with soilborne diseases (see “Managing Plant Diseases with Crop Rotation. F. Having the farm divided into relatively small units allows you to keep track of exactly what you planted on a particular piece of ground one. May lettuce / buckwheat cover / fall spinach). Give each unit a number. C. Think about what has worked on your farm in the past. Make the map large enough so that information can be written in each management unit (this may take more than one sheet of paper). On another copy of your map. note that many of the field characteristics probably do not vary across your farm and thus are of no interest to you. 60 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . and makes producing copies of the map easy (see appendix 6. On vegetable farms. two. On grain farms. Some locations may be wet. If a management unit will be double or triple cropped.” page 32. The management units should be no larger than the area you ever manage as an independent unit. make multiple (six or more) copies. or other factors that affect management vary across a field. topography etc. NRAES 177. Plan next summer. If you find that any one family (other than grasses) would be grown on more than 25 percent of your land. Focus on crop sequencing Figure 5. visit www. D. Thoughtfully dividing your farm into relatively small management units of approximately equal size greatly simplifies planning and record keeping. Placing crops in the following order often works well: (continued on page 68) Simple operation Few crops Little variation in acreage among crops Rest years No multiple cropping Minor variation in soils. In addition. note any difficult or desirable characteristics that influence what crops you may want to plant there. Check for excessive acreage of one family. Identify conditions that affect what crops can be grown on each management unit.5 (page 74–75) provides abbreviations that fit easily onto a map. topography etc. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. When you are satisfied with your map.9 (page 15) lists field properties that expert growers take into account when placing crops. Focus on rotation planning Complex operation Many crops Much variation in acreage among crops All land cash cropped each year Multiple cash crops in a year Much variation in soils.1 The complexity of your farm determines how you plan. weed problems.nraes. simplifies revising plans. Sidebar 2. others may warm earlier in the spring. or five years later. Identify crop couplets and short sequences that work well on your farm. A high proportion of land in one family necessarily means that most locations will rotate back to that family quickly. pages 124–137). separate the crop names with slashes (for example. To purchase the book. A single crop will often be planted on several adjacent management units if that is convenient. pages 101–103).

org. To purchase the book. visit www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Table 5.org or www. or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.nraes.sare. NRAES 177.1 Crop characteristics worktable Crop Area/ Year MUs/ Year Family Planting Time Harvest Ends Net $/ Acre CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 61 .

or call (607) 255 7654.org or www.sare. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.2 Field conditions worktable — Part A 62 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual Field Name Field Type Mgmt Unit Crop Three Summers Ago Crop Two Winters Ago Crop Two Summers Ago Crop Last Winter Crop Last Summer .org.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. NRAES 177.nraes. To purchase the book. Table 5. visit www.

nraes.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. To purchase the book.org. visit www.sare. Table 5. NRAES 177.2 Field conditions worktable — Part B Current Winter Field Type Mgmt Unit Crop Plant Harv CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 63 .org or www.

or call (607) 255 7654. Two Summers from Now Next Winter Table 5.org.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. NRAES 177.nraes.sare.3 Field futures worktable — Part A Next Summer 64 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual Field name Crop Mgmt Unit Field Type Crop Harv Plant Crop Harv Plant Harv Plant . visit www.org or www. To purchase the book. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

nraes. or call (607) 255 7654. visit www.sare.org. Four Summers from Now Three Winters from Now Three Summers from Now Table 5.3 Field futures worktable — Part B Two Winters from Now Crop Mgmt Unit Field Type Crop Harv Plant Crop Harv Plant Crop Harv Plant Harv Plant CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 65 .This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. To purchase the book. NRAES 177.org or www.

To purchase the book. visit www.nraes.sare.3 Field futures worktable — Part C Four Winters from Now 66 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual Crop Mgmt Unit Field Type Crop Harv Plant Crop Harv Plant Crop Harv Plant Harv Plant .This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. or call (607) 255 7654. Six Summers from Now Five Winters from Now Five Summers from Now Table 5. NRAES 177.org or www.org.

nraes. or call (607) 255 7654. NRAES 177.3 Field futures worktable — Part D Crop Mgmt Unit Field Type Crop Harv Plant Crop Harv Plant Crop Harv Plant Harv Plant CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 67 . visit www.org.sare. Table 5. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. To purchase the book.org or www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.

Lower-value crops that can be grown anywhere. and they sow an oat cover crop to protect the soil over the winter. since they rarely foster soilborne diseases. they have followed a six-year rotation: oat/clover/spelt → spelt/hay → hay → hay → corn → soybean and then back to oat/clover/ spelt. Develop contingency plans. visit www. Other high-value crops. 3. avoid units that have had the same family in the past few years. For each group of management units assigned to a crop.sare. K. especially if one family will cover more than a fourth of your acreage.2 Small Valley Farm: An Example to Illustrate the Procedures Small Valley Farm is a cash grain and beef operation (figure 5. additional hints. by obtaining extra crop or cover crop seed to fill in locations that could not be planted as planned). The steps above capture the essence of the planning procedure. and harvest of the crops to see if the proposed crop sequence makes sense for that location. Crops in your major crop family. planting. The following sections include a method for developing a general rotation plan. When placing a crop onto a management unit. To limit buildup of pests and disease.2. Think ahead to see what problems might arise with growing the proposed crops in the planned management units. 240 acres are sufficiently steep that erosion is a potential problem when they grow row crops. J. an explanation of why these steps are sensible. For the moment. The farm has 720 tillable acres. Crops that are already planted. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Note any changes you decide to make. Plan fall-planted crops and cover crops. To plan the next seasons. if labor for transplanting is unavailable at a critical time.nraes. H. 5.org. Place your fall cover crops and overwintering cash crops on another copy of the map by the same process used for G and H. Plan the following year. High-value crops that do best in particular field conditions. A desire to avoid row crops on their steep land has motivated them to undertake rotation planning.4 (page 70). They establish alfalfa-grass hay by overseeding it into spelt in the spring. examples. Sidebar 5. To purchase the book. Although the farmers can grow all crops successfully on all of the tillable land. I. Consider tillage.org or www. or if you experience some other problem that could affect where various crops can be planted? Write action plans for coping with various potential problems and make provisions for possible problems (for example. 68 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . avoid placing succession plantings of a crop species in adjacent management units. They plant red clover with oat to provide a boost of N for the following spelt crop. Take your plans to the field. refer to your list of crop couplets. page 72). and check appendix 2 (pages 104–123) for potential problems. repeat the same process you used in step G.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. or call (607) 255 7654. 1. (You do not want to plow them up!) 2. They plow hay in the fall before corn to allow the sod to break down. 4. The farmers grow grain and soybeans for human consumption and alfalfa-grass hay for winter feed for their herd of beef cattle. Do these early in the process so that you can avoid locations that have had that family recently. NRAES 177. This does not apply to grasses. Note that the cover crop on each management unit needs to work well with both the preceding and the following crops. maintenance. In the past. and a means of checking for errors to ensure that your plans do not contain contradictions. imagine farming that piece of land through the coming years. 6. ignore winter cover crops. Their crop mix is summarized in table 5. How might the plans need to shift if the spring is too wet for early-planted crops. Take your maps with the crops written on them and walk your fields. Lower-value crops that do best in particular locations.

This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual, NRAES 177. To purchase the book, visit www.nraes.org or www.sare.org, or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

A Complete, Step-by-Step Rotation Planning Guide
Before You Begin . . .
Before you begin, please read through the instructions to see where you are headed with each step. This will also tell you whether the effort involved is worthwhile for your farm. Earlier chapters in this manual provide many suggestions as to how to think about the problem of developing general crop rotation plans and specific crop sequences. Tables in the appendices provide a wealth of factual information to help you avoid problems and take advantage of opportunities related to particular cropping sequences. Becoming familiar and consulting with that information will help you work through the steps that follow. The procedure may prompt you to rethink your farming operation and crop mix, as you order the sequence of crops on particular fields.

how far forward you want to plan. Cut your copies of the Field Conditions Worktable, part B, along the vertical line between “Manage unit” and “Current winter.” Now tape each part B sheet to each part A sheet to make one extra-wide sheet. “Current winter” should now be next to “Crop last summer” on Part A. Discard the scrap with “Zone” and “Manage unit.” Place a long piece of tape on the back where the two sheets meet, as eventually you will need to cut the sheets lengthwise to sort the lines. Repeat the cutting and taping for the Field Futures Worktable. The column for “Two winters from now” on part B should end up adjacent to “Two summers from now” on part A. Again, discard the scrap. Depending on how far forward you are planning, add parts C and D to the strip. 2. Set rotation goals. Identify what you would like your crop rotation to accomplish. Sidebar 2.8 (page 14) provides a list of potential rotation goals developed by experienced organic farmers. The fictional example of Small Valley Farm will be used to illustrate various steps in the planning process (sidebar 5.2). Their rotation goals are as follows: • Avoid growing the same crop in the same location two years in a row (except hay, of course). • Ensure that all crops have sufficient nitrogen, especially corn. • Avoid planting row crops and spring grains on sloping land. 3. Prioritize your goals. Order your goals. This is particularly useful if you have a long list of goals, since you may find it impossible to meet all of the goals completely every year. Some goals may be so easily met that, although they are critical, they need little attention in the rotation planning process. For Small Valley Farm, providing N for the crops is economically important, but since one third of the land is in nitrogenbuilding grass-alfalfa hay each year and a clover cover crop can be interseeded into either oat or spelt, providing sufficient N is easy to accomplish. Consequently, the farm’s goals are prioritized as follows: a) Avoid growing the same crop in the same location two years in a row. b) Avoid planting row crops and spring grains on sloping land. c) Ensure that all crops have sufficient nitrogen, especially corn.

Initial Steps
1. Copy tables from this manual. If you are using the Excel worksheets mentioned above, skip this step. Otherwise, make several copies of table 5.1 (Crop Characteristics Worktable, page 61). You will need enough copies so that each planting of every crop during a typical year can have one line. You may find a few extra copies useful, as well. Make several copies of table 5.2 (Field Conditions Worktable, pages 62–63). Note that the table consists of two separate sheets (parts A and B), and you will need multiple copies of each sheet. How many copies you make to start with depends on how accessible the nearest copier is. The exact number of copies you will need cannot be determined at the outset, but you can determine the approximate number of copies as follows: Divide the cropped area of the farm by the acreage of your smallestacreage crop. You probably will not need more than that number of copies. You probably will need at least a fourth of that number. Make copies of table 5.3 (Field Futures Worktable, pages 64–67). Make as many copies of this table as you made of table 5.2. Note that the Field Futures Worktable consists of four sheets (parts A–D), and you will need multiple copies of at least the first two sheets. Whether you need to copy the third and fourth sheets depends on

CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure

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Filling Out Your Crop Characteristics Worktable
Sidebar 5.3 Codes for Recording Planting and Harvest Times
Generally, attempting to target particular planting and harvest dates too carefully will prove futile due to the unpredictability of the weather. The following codes may be useful for tracking when you plant and harvest. If you have a long growing season, you may want to divide spring and fall into three categories instead of two. You can also create your own codes, but be sure to record them somewhere!
Time Early spring Late spring Early summer Midsummer Late summer Early fall Late fall Code espr lspr esum msum lsum efall lfall

4. Write down your desired crop mix for the coming year. Make a list of the crops you grow and how many acres, beds, or square feet you want to grow of each crop to meet your market requirements. Use your copy of the Crop Characteristics Worktable to organize the list by families. (Look up the family of your crops in appendix 1, pages 101–103, if necessary.) Next, for each crop family, group crops that you grow using similar practices and planting and harvest times. Members of these crop groups are functionally equivalent with respect to many aspects of crop rotation. Fill in the name of each crop you plant down the lefthand column. If you plan to make multiple plantings of a crop, enter each planting on a separate line with a unique name (for example, lettuce 1, lettuce 2, etc.). Separating plantings is useful because each has different planting and harvest times and therefore has different cash and cover crops that can precede or follow it. For crops that remain in the ground for several years, you may find listing each crop year useful (for example, strawberry yr 1, strawberry yr 2, etc.). Table 5.4 shows the crop mix for Small Valley Farm. 5. Add crop characteristics to the Crop Characteristics Worktable. Now look at your Crop Characteristics Worktable, and going across the page add column titles in spaces to the right of “Net $/acre” that you think will be useful in deciding either the sequence in which you order crops or where the crops will be placed on the farm. Crop
Table 5.4 Crop mix for Small Valley Farm
Crop Tofu soybean Corn Oat/clover/spelt Spelt/hay (1st year) Hay (2nd year) Hay (3rd year)/oat cc

Sidebar 5.4 Minimum Return Time
A minimum return time of four to five years will prevent most soilborne diseases (appendix 3, pages 124–137), provided you practice good sanitation measures (see “Managing Plant Diseases with Crop Rotation,” page 32). A shorter return time can be used for grass family crops, particularly if the rotation includes some alternation of corn, small grains, and forage grasses. Although these different grass family crops share a few diseases (see appendix 2, pages 104–123), avoiding rapid return to a particular grass species is usually sufficient to avoid disease problems.

Acres/year 120 120 120 120 120 120

70 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual

This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual, NRAES 177. To purchase the book, visit www.nraes.org or www.sare.org, or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

characteristics that expert farmers take into account when planning their rotations are listed in sidebar 2.9 (page 15). Including columns for target planting and harvest times will be useful if you plant some crops multiple times during the season or if you grow many different crops. Next, fill in the appropriate information for each crop in the various columns. For now, ignore the column headed MUs/year—you will use that later. For crops that are harvested repeatedly, the final harvest is the critical time relative to crop rotation, since that is when the field becomes available for planting the next cash or cover crop. Sidebar 5.3 provides codes for planting and harvest times that fit easily on the worksheet. Enter the net income per acre (or other unit of land area). This information will be used to help prioritize where crops go. Approximate numbers are good enough—you just need to be able to tell the ranking of values for the various crops. Copy from appendix 1 (pages 101–103) any information you think is useful for sequencing crops on your farm. 6. Check for lack of diversity in your crop mix. Scan your worktable and determine which plant family will have the greatest area. For this computation, ignore the grass family (see sidebar 5.4). Add up the area for the most widely planted, non-grass family. Now divide the total cropped area of the farm by the area of that family. This number represents the average rotation return time for the most common non-grass crop family you grow. For example, if the average rotation return time is 4, the most prevalent non-grass plant family will occur on a given location once in every four years, provided you are careful to ensure a maximum lag between planting members of that family throughout the farm. Of course, many factors, including field-to-field variation in soil conditions, production of perennial crops, and changes in cropping plans due to weather will lead to shorter return times at some locations. If the average rotation return time for the most prevalent family is less than 4, check appendix 3 (pages 124–137), and consider renting additional land or changing your crop mix so that a smaller percentage of the farm is planted with that family. Sidebar 5.5 shows an example of return time calculation.

Sidebar 5.5 Computation of Average Return Time for the Most Prevalent Crop Family: An Example
Suppose a farm has the crop mix shown below:
Crop Lettuce Onion Leek Garlic Tomato Potato Pepper Green bean Pea Carrot Summer squash Total Family Lettuce Lily Lily Lily Nightshade Nightshade Nightshade Legume Legume Carrot Cucurbit Number of Beds 6 6 3 3 6 6 4 4 4 2 4 48

The most prevalent crop family is the nightshades, with 16 of the 48 beds. Average return time for nightshades is 48/16 = 3 years. That is, a given piece of ground will have a nightshade crop every third year, even if the sequencing is ideal. This may be too frequent for long-term prevention of soilborne diseases of nightshade crops (see appendix 3, page 124–137). The secondmost prevalent group are the alliums in the lily family, with an average return time of 48/12 = 4 years. Consequently, shifting from nightshades to an increase in alliums will not help diversify the crop mix appreciably. With such rapid return times for two major families, the farmer should consider either expanding his land base or developing markets for crops in other families.

CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure

71

the main problem area is the east side of fields A and B. particularly if you are producing many crops. visit www. Choose a few of these field characteristics that you think are most critical for planning your rotations. Excessive slopes occur east of the dashed line.sare. NRAES 177. For Small Valley Farm. The “Real Fields on Real Farms” color plates in chapter 4 (pages 49–54) provides many examples of sequences that farmers use successfully. The oat cover crop protects the soil after incorporation of the hay sod but winterkills so that corn can be planted as soon as the weather permits. which slopes too steeply for safe production of row crops (figure 5. Therefore. Note what each sequence is doing to facilitate your operation.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.2). • oat/clover/spelt: There is plenty of time for planting spelt after oat harvest. 72 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Table 5. Identify fields and parts of fields that grow certain of your crops particularly well or pose production problems for particular crops. choose the most important field characteristics on which to focus. For Small Valley Farm.2 General map of Small Valley Farm. SMALL VALLEY FARM N C A 80 a 240 acres Pasture Identifying Critical Variations in Field Conditions 8. Field D is flat. These form the backbone around which you will build your rotation plan. Identifying Good Sequences in Your Planning 7. Realize that you will probably need a separate rotation plan for each type of field.5 (page 74–75) provides a list of field characteristics that experienced growers take into account when planning crop rotations.org or www. fertile bottomland that can support intensive row crop production.nraes. or call (607) 255 7654. and the decomposing roots maintain good soil structure during the row crop portion of the rotation. and based on them. To purchase the book. sequences and notes might look like this: • spelt/hay—hay—hay: Hay can be established by overseeding into spelt. categorize the fields into a few basic types.org. Consequently. Meshing many separate rotations to get your desired crop mix each year will become hopelessly complex. if you have B 160 acres D 240 acres Black Creek Figure 5. Identify crop sequences that you use repeatedly.and 3-year crop sequences that you have found work well on your farm. Appendix 2 (pages 104– 123) shows problems and opportunities associated with various crop sequences. You will probably find that these reliable sequences meet certain rotation goals or make your operation run smoothly. The spelt provides a good nurse crop and can be harvested before most springgerminating weeds go to seed. Identify areas of your land that offer special opportunities or pose problems. Note these areas on a map of your farm. This will allow you to explore alternative sequences that provide the same benefits. whereas the window of opportunity is narrow after soybean and nonexistent after corn. Look at your planting records and list all the 2. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. • hay/oat cover crop—corn: Alfalfa in the hay provides a source of nitrogen for the corn. Sowing red clover with oat provides N for the spelt.

page 77). meshing the rotations to achieve your desired crop mix each year will be difficult. 10. This map may need to be more detailed than the map you use for organic certification. Placing these crop sequences on particular plots of land to achieve the desired crop mix in each year. many critically different types of fields or if you grow many crops and all land is cash-cropped each year. Small Valley Farm has the following field types: I. alternates spring-planted crops with a year of fallow and cover crops and then summer-planted crops. you will probably benefit from development of a general rotation plan. However. if you rest at least a third of your land each year without planting cash crops on it. skip to step 11. Oat/clover—corn—soybean—oat/ clover—corn—soybean. you may need to make additional provisions to ensure that botanically similar crops are not grown too closely in the sequence. consider developing a general rotation plan.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Over the course of the six-year cycle. All land with a particular field type should be suitable for growing the same set of crops. Divide the farm into field types. the mix of cash crops has not changed at all. Making and Using a Crop Rotation Planning Map 11. Instead. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. This is a three-year rotation. Field C and the west sides of fields A and B— suitable for all crops. Developing a General Rotation Plan (optional) 9. if your rotation plan is based on crops grouped by planting time. Basing the rotation plan on planting time can simplify field operations by synchronizing them over substantial blocks of land. On the other hand. if you grow fewer than eight types of cash crops (the crop groups discussed in step 4) and have only one to three types of fields. • Field type III. The Small Valley farmers decided on the following rotations: • Field type I. however. II. shape. block the farm into field types.1 (page 60). This is the six-year rotation they have used previously.org or www. For example. • Field type II. Note that if all areas of the farm are reasonably suitable for all crops. See figure 5.6.sare. CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 73 . for example. This is an intensive rotation with row crops two years out of three. 2. Crops will move from one block of MUs to another between years. the Nordells’ rotation plan. III. Spelt/hay—hay—hay/spelt—spelt/ hay—hay—hay/spelt. Field D—particularly good land suitable for intensive row crop production. you are lucky to have only a single field type to deal with. Spelt/hay—hay—hay/oat cover crop— corn—soybean—oat/clover/spelt. To purchase the book. and other important characteristics. do not bother developing a general rotation plan.or 3-year sequences and other short sequences you think might work. In this step you will subdivide fields into small management units (MUs) of approximately equal size across the whole farm. by repeating the basic planting time sequence with different families in each repetition. Although the Small Valley rotation plan discussed below focuses on particular crops. repeated twice in a six-year period. Areas of a particular field type do not have to be adjacent. This could be accomplished. Only one crop will be grown on any particular MU at a time.org. Based on your map and notes from the previous step. the areas in the three field types were made equal to simplify the illustration). Dividing the farm into management units allows accurate record keeping and helps you to stay organized when moving crops between fields that vary in size. Otherwise. It avoids row crops and spring tillage on the steep land. Essentially. develop a preliminary rotation for each of the field types on your farm. East side of fields A and B—unsuitable for row crops and spring grains due to excessive slope. NRAES 177. still requires some additional planning. Using your short. visit www. Begin by noting the dimensions of each field on the map. many farmers prefer to focus on crop types. Draw a crop rotation planning map. These crop types could be botanical families or relate to the season when the crop is in the ground. leaving only erosion-resistant sod and winter grain crops on the erosion-prone land of field type II. Propose reasonable crop rotations for each field type. or call (607) 255 7654. Similarly. and field types do not have to cover equal areas of the farm (in the Small Valley Farm example (table 5. and usually several MUs will be required to grow the full acreage of a crop in any given season. Make the crop rotations in each of the field types have the same number of years (cycle length) in the rotation or an exact multiple of the shortest rotation length. the Small Valley farmers moved the row crops and spring grain from field type II to field type III. presented in chapter 4’s “Real Fields” chart (pages 49–54).nraes.

Field Characteristics that can be entered in the blank columns of the Field Conditions Worktable Soil series Texture Drainage Slope Aspect Irrig? Shaded? Air drain. NRAES 177. III. SaL (sandy loam). P (poor).org or www. matter Name of the soil series from your county soil survey. hold. E (excessive—droughty). and experiments that may fail where they cannot be seen. Air drainage. Names of crops (and cover crops) two summers ago.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Number of this MU. SiL (silt loam). near farmstead). Is irrigation available? Y (yes). F for flat. Column title Field name Field type Mgmt. S (sheltered). CL (clay loam).. the other side of the woodlot).org. etc. Planting time of the current cover crop or crop.g. or call (607) 255 7654.g. I (intermediate). IV. Exposed fields may be susceptible to wind damage. upper creek. I (intermediate).g. C for complex slopes. SW. Field history Crop 3 summers ago Crop 2 winters ago Crop 2 summers ago Crop last winter Crop last summer Current winter—crop Current winter—plant Current winter—harv. Enter range if it varies. VV (very visible) . N (no). I (intermediate). SP (somewhat poor). Access Visibility Neighbors Moist. P (poor). etc. Air drainage affects tendency toward late spring and early fall frosts. unit Explanation Your name for the field—e. W (well). Parts of the farm that share a common rotation plan—I. The usefulness of dividing the farm into uniformly sized management units is discussed in step 11. 74 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual ..sare. Obtain this from your county soil survey but temper it with your judgment. E (exposed). Name of the current cover crop or crop. Names of last summer’s crops (and cover crops). Org. G (good).2. P (poor—e. Management units (MUs) are pieces of land of uniform size. pages 62–63) in steps 17 through 19. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. pollen drift from conventional growers. H (hidden). P (poor). Enter range of recent percent organic matter values. The table is laid out to show column title codes and abbreviations that are useful when filling out the Field Conditions Worktable (table 5. G (good). each of which is farmed as a block. Is the MU shaded by trees or steep hills? Y (yes). Each unit should have a unique number. N (no). E. You may prefer to put crops that attract customers near the road. Names of crops (and cover crops) three summers ago. visit www. I (intermediate). G (good—e. sheltered fields may be more susceptible to spread of disease. See optional steps 9–10.5 An explanation of data that can be entered in the field conditions worktable (table 5. Air circ. Name of cover crop or crop two winters ago. Expected harvest or incorporation time of the current cash crop or cover crop. Number adjacent units sequentially. Name of last winter’s cover crop or crop. cap.. II. To purchase the book.2. pages 62–63) Experienced growers have identified the factors listed here as factors they note when planning crop sequences. MW (moderately well). etc. Moisture holding capacity. V (visible).g. NE. Table 5. Percent slope of the MU. Direction the land slopes: N. Note issues with neighbors—e.nraes. may not want to spray next to homes..

P (poor—tilled soil is cloddy. List the worst annual weed species. Peren. List the worst perennial weed species. qual. on Small Valley Farm. Deer or other animal pressure. page 76). G (good—soil has good crumb structure).sare. imbal? Erosion Deer pres. Names of the diseases of the crops just listed.g. • Choose an MU size that allows areas of each crop on your Crop Characteristics Worktable to convert to a whole number of MUs. I (intermediate). weeds Worst peren. If you skipped steps 8 and 9 due to high farm complexity. spp. • If you use permanent beds. Your judgment of the tilth of the soil. Perennial weed pressure. spp.3. use separate pages for various fields or groups of fields. I (intermediate). If some crops that are grown on small acreage (for example.org or www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. they thus grow three MUs of each crop per year. you can ignore this consideration. since the longest rotation sequence is six years (in field type I). tends to crust). the several species could be considered as one “crop” for rotation purposes. mat. If necessary. Consider the following points when determining the size and arrangement of your management units: • MUs should be no larger than the area planted to your smallest acreage crop. or is a lot of coarse fiber and wood present? G (good). it has a total of 18 MUs. • On grain farms and large wholesale vegetable farms. • If you did steps 8 and 9 (rotation planning). G (good—tilled soil is loose. On Small Valley Farm. with little tendency to crust). or call (607) 255 7654. Explanation Your judgment of the quality of the organic matter. Table 5. L (low—little history of perennial weed problems).5 An explanation of data that can be entered in the field conditions worktable (continued) Column title Org. NRAES 177. the number of MUs in a field type should be some multiple of the number of years in the longest rotation sequence for any field type. each field type should have six MUs. Dis. For example. Tilth Aggregation Nut. Appendix 6 (pages 148–149) provides easy instructions for making rotation planning maps using Microsoft Excel. L (low— little history of annual weed problems). visit www. I (intermediate). Tendency toward erosion if soil is left uncovered. weeds Worst ann. compacted. To purchase the book.. Figure 5. If fields vary in length. Since the farm has a total of 720 tillable acres. I (intermediate). • Make the map at a scale that allows writing information onto the area representing each MU. H (high).nraes. P (poor). P (poor—soil is massive and blocky or loose sand with few crumbs). P (poor). subdivide long beds at cross alleys as necessary to ensure that the MUs are approximately equal in area.3 (page 76) shows how Small Valley Farm laid out its 40-acre MUs across the farm. H (high—many annual weeds if not controlled). Annual weed pressure.org. L (low). Is it well decomposed to humus. I (intermediate). each bed should be a separate MU. poor Ca:Mg or Ca:K ratios. since 1 MU = 40 acres. G (good). I (intermediate). release Nut. annual herbs) are rotated as a block. and keep the MUs large enough so that you can perform field operations like tillage or cultivation on a single unit. I (intermediate). vary the length and width of management strips for your convenience. CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 75 . H (high). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. or some multiple of six. crops Diseases Ann. H (high—perennial weeds have posed problems recently). List crops that in this MU have had a recent history of soilborne diseases. Ability of soil to release nutrients to the crop. Note any nutrient imbalances—e. I (intermediate). L (low). They chose to keep things simple and use six MUs per field type (figure 5.

the conversion of area to MUs may result in some crops being grown on fractions of an MU. Make several copies of the maps. and many others (see table 5. Record your crop mix in terms of management units. slope or drainage characteristics that allow early planting.org. To purchase the book. Now divide the fields into management units on your map. and note on that copy management units with problems that restrict the types SMALL VALLEY FARM C 1 2 A 3 4 5 6 7 8 N I I I I II II II II Pasture B 9 I 10 I 11 II 12 II D 13 14 15 16 17 18 III III III III III III Black Creek Figure 5. page 74). On your Crop Characteristics Worktable. Writing something for each MU would be time consuming and is not necessary. NRAES 177. visit www. 14. 15. square feet. Record problem MUs on another copy of the map. 76 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Management units are numbered and field type is indicated by Roman numerals. If you made an error in the previous step. or some other unit. or call (607) 255 7654. You noted the most important field characteristics in a general way in step 8. 13. but converting these to MUs will simplify thinking about how you sequence the crops on particular MUs. Now it is time to characterize each MU in detail. Record especially valuable MUs on one copy of the map. Put the number of each MU in the upper left corner of each management unit on the map. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Note that small variations in the size of MUs due to irregularities in field shape are unavoidable but probably will not matter much since most crops will be grown on several to many MUs. And be sure to label each map as you complete steps 15–16. Note only exceptional properties on the map. access to irrigation if irrigation is limited. Blocks of land that you commonly manage together should be numbered sequentially. 12.5 if you are cramped for space.3 Map of Small Valley Farm showing location of management units. In this case. so that all crops will be grown on a round number of MUs. You will need at least eight copies of the maps. Number each management unit. Be sure to save the original map in a safe place for making future copies. Use the abbreviations in table 5. Label another copy of the map. and a few more may be useful later. Excessive slopes occur east of the dashed line. record how many management units you want to grow of each crop. You already have the amount of each crop recorded in acres.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. adjust your crop mix slightly. Note MUs that have especially useful properties on one copy of the map.org or www.sare. 16. Make the numbers sufficiently large and legible that they will photocopy well.5.nraes. Favorable properties may include proximity to the farmstead.

Number MUs on your Field Conditions Worktable. fill in the column titled “Field type. frost pockets. Then record information about each MU in the appropriate box. Arrange the strips so that. pages 62–63). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.” also.sare. spelt/hay).nraes.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. and (2) within those groups. MUs with similar crop Table 5. Put the field name and number of each MU on a line in the Field Conditions Worktable (your copy of tabl e 5. visit www. (Hint: If you commonly plant several crops and cover crops on individual MUs within a single season. If you did steps 9 and 10. If you skipped steps 9 and 10. leave this column blank. Sort the management units.2. Write the actual year above “Crop 3 summers ago. adjacent management units are in numerical order.org or www.6 for an example.6). See the first three columns of table 5. NRAES 177.5 (pages 74–75) for a list of characteristics assembled by experienced growers.) 18.org. of crops you can grow. within each field type.” This planning procedure assumes that you are doing your planning in the winter and thus begins with the current winter’s cover or cash crops. Write in the names of current crops and their planting and expected harvest times. 20. unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Erosion potential low low low low high high high high low low high high very low very low very low very low very low very low Soil quality good good good good fair fair fair fair good good fair fair very good very good very good very good very good very good Filling Out the Field Conditions Worktable 17. Fill in your map data. Using your maps of valuable fields and problem fields. leave a blank line between units so you will have enough room to include them all when you fill in the crops later.2. Cut your completed Field Conditions Worktable into strips to separate the management units. Record your recent cropping history. Table 5. If you did steps 9 and 10 above (general rotation planning). Now work backward from the present to preceding years as you go from right to left.” “soil quality”. CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 77 .6 Example of the field characteristics portion of the Field Conditions worktable (table 5. If two crops were grown on different parts of an MU in some past year. just enter the name of the crop that covered the largest portion of the MU. This puts the map data in a form that allows you to sort management units on the basis of their characteristics. shadiness. To purchase the book. (2) within those groups. Copy the information you noted on the maps into the blank columns of the Field Conditions Worktable. see table 5. See table 5. pages 62–63) for Small Valley Farm Field name C C A A A A A A B B B B D D D D D D Field type I I I I II II II II I I II II III III III III III III Mgmt. enter both names into the cell in the order they will be grown using a slash (/) as a separator (for example. group the strips by field type. If more than one cash or cover crop was grown during a given period. “erosion potential. and slope characteristics that lead to slow warming in the spring. Number the MUs sequentially. severe animal pressure. (1) units with similar crop histories are together. or call (607) 255 7654. arrange the strips so that (1) MUs with similar critical field conditions are together.7 (page 78) shows the cropping history of Small Valley Farm. Management units with similar histories often do not need to be separated. label a blank column for each different type of characteristic you noted (for example. otherwise. 19. for the sake of simplicity. Fill out the columns in the Field Conditions Worktable describing the cropping history for each management unit for the past three years. Such problems include poor soil drainage.

If more than one crop will be grown on an MU. and hay. tape the strips to a piece of paper with clear tape. After the Small Valley farmers sorted their MUs.org or www. if you did steps 9 and 10. Everyone: For this purpose “similar crop histories” means similar in how the history affects what crops you will grow in the future. winter grains. the steep MUs (units 5–8. Use coins or other weights to hold the strips in place while you sort them.8. 78 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . write them all in the cell in the sequence they will be grown (for example. if one management unit had broccoli and another had cauliflower two summers ago but otherwise their histories do not differ. Number the MUs on the Field Futures Worktable (your copy of table 5. MU 9 appears on line 5 of both the sorted Field ConTable 5.1. Also fill in the field name and. and 12) were grouped together (table 5. strawberries. name C C A A A A A A B B B B D D D D D D type I I I I II II II II I I II II III III III III III III unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 3 years ago corn corn soybean soybean soybean oat/clover/spelt oat/clover/spelt oat/clover/spelt corn spelt/hay spelt/hay spelt/hay hay2 hay2 hay2 hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc 2 years ago soybean soybean oat/clover/spelt oat/clover/spelt oat/clover/spelt spelt/hay spelt/hay spelt/hay soybean hay2 hay2 hay2 hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc corn corn corn Last year oat/clover/spelt oat/clover/spelt spelt/hay spelt/hay spelt/hay hay2 hay2 hay2 oat/clover/spelt hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc corn corn corn soybean soybean soybean 22.nraes. or call (607) 255 7654. page 80). page 80). pages 64–65) in the sequence in which they appear on your sorted Field Conditions Worktable. Place crops in the following order. Similarly. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. visit www. histories are together. For example. Examples include garlic. and (3) within each crop history group. For example. units 9 and 10 were grouped with the other flat. “lettuce/buckwheat cc/fall broccoli”). the zone. Field Field Mgmt.sare. To purchase the book. Planning Future Crop Sequences 21.8.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. NRAES 177. adjacent management units are in numerical order. ordinary MUs (units 1–4). referring to your field conditions maps as needed: a) Begin by writing in cash crops that are already planted but will not be harvested until next summer or later. so that you have a permanent record of the cropping history of the farm in terms of your newly defined management units. 11.7 Cropping history of Small Valley Farm (part of their Field Conditions ditions Worktable and the worktable) Field Futures Worktable for Small Valley (table 5.org. page 61) and note how many management units of each crop you plan to grow. Plan the next growing season. When you are satisfied with your sorting. Look at your completed crop worktable (your version of table 5. Fill in the names of the crops you will grow on each MU next summer. you may decide that they are not sufficiently different to warrant separating them into different groups for planning future crop sequences.3. Number the management units on the Field Futures Worktable.

and remember that a longer separation is a good preventative measure. Alternating strips of different crop types with similar planting and harvest times (for example. To get MU 4 on track. The key for placing crops next season is to begin converting from the previous cropping history to the general rotation plan. or call (607) 255 7654. Consider the example of Small Valley Farm in table 5. Consult appendix 3 (pages 124–137) to see how particular diseases are spread. early-season greens. where they would ultimately like to have it. Instead of overseeding hay into the spelt in MU 2. NRAES 177. Work through all crops in families (other than grasses) with average return times of less than four years. c) Next. Similar slight departures from their desired sequences are necessary in the other two field types.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. • Refer to appendix 2 (pages 104–123) as you work to check for problems and opportunities in the crop sequences you are choosing. e) Place less profitable and low-acreage crops that require special MU characteristics. Then go back through and place the specific crops within each category. b) Now place high-value crops that require special field conditions. others skip to step 23: Most of the considerations discussed above are essentially covered by your general rotation plan. Most notably.org or www. Even then. If your general rotation plan is based on crop categories (for example. place crops that have the shortest family return times. melons may produce a large net income per acre. • Separate the locations of early and later plantings of the same crop to avoid disease buildup through the season.sare. Getting each MU on track requires some imagination and a lot of trial and error (on paper). the intervening strips must be wide enough to act as an effective barrier to dispersal of diseases and insects. f) Place any remaining crops. as computed in step 6 (but ignore grass-family crops). To be effective. try to use a minimum separation of at least one year between similar crops. Growing the same crop in close succession may be an acceptable practice if you then rotate the MU into other crops for many years. try to plant it with a crop that takes advantage of them. If you have noticed such disease in the past. but remember that that may not be possible every year. 3. they have one of each of the six crop-years on one MU of field type I. In field type I last year they planted three management units of oat/clover/spelt. however.8 (page 80). Ultimately. instead of overseeding hay into the spelt in MU 9 they overseed red clover. This is especially important if you have noticed symptoms of soilborne disease. For those developing a general rotation plan (you did steps 9 and 10 above). check appendix 3 (pages 124–137) to see how many years to wait before repeating a crop with similar susceptibility. place other crops that produce a large net income per acre but can be grown almost anywhere. Note also CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 79 . lettuce and mustard greens) is a way to stay organized while still separating succession plantings of a given crop type. Similarly. but you can grow them well on only one field. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. and then plant corn the following year. they would like to get one MU of field type I into each of the six cropyears of the six-year rotation. and the rotation plan is in place for that field type of the farm. use the proven crop sequences you identified in step 7. and they are loath to plow it under. This results in three MUs of spelt in field type I next spring and none in field type II. however. In MUs 1. Note that most of the sample rotations used by experienced farmers shown in chapter 4 (pages 49–54) have return times for crops in a family of four years or longer. is already planted. by two years from now. and 10 they simply proceed into the planned next crop. Points to take into account when placing crops: • When possible. ” page 32). This requires looking forward more than just one year. If you have not noticed soilborne diseases. they treat the overseeded hay as a cover crop and plant oat followed by spelt next summer. • If an MU has special characteristics. however. For example. Be careful not to repeat crops of the same family too soon. place the crop categories on the MUs first. Except for the substitution of oat hay for their usual grass-alfalfa hay. To purchase the book. visit www. note that they grow the desired crop mix in each future year. however. that once you have the desired crop mix within a field type. growing at least one cash or cover crop in between will help minimize direct transmission of diseases on crop residue (see “Managing Plant Diseases with Crop Rotation. they overseed with clover next spring and then plant oat followed by spelt two years from now. So place melons or other high-value crops with special needs onto MUs first.org. full-season nightshades) rather than specific crops. The spelt. Begin with the most valuable crop in the family with the shortest average rotation return time. d) Next.nraes. Thus. Remember. in field type II they grow oat as a hay crop on MU 11 next year and on MU 12 two years from now to make up for the shortage of grass-alfalfa hay. future crops can follow more or less automatically.

NRAES 177. visit www. as indicated on your Crop Characteristics Worktable. The planting and harvest times are most useful when you plant the same crop multiple times during the season (for example.org. Check next growing season’s crop mix.8 Recent crop history and future crop sequences for Small Valley Farm (continues on next page) Field name A A B B C C B B B B C C D D D D D D Field type I I I I I I II II II II II II III III III III III III 2 years from now hay2 oat/clover/spelt hay3/oat cc spelt/hay corn soybean hay3/spelt hay4/spelt spelt/hay spelt/hay hay2 oat hay/hay oat/clover cc oat/clover cc corn corn soybean soybean MU 1 2 3 4 9 10 5 6 7 8 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 3 years ago corn corn soybean soybean corn spelt/hay soybean oat/clover/spelt oat/clover/spelt oat/clover/spelt spelt/hay spelt/hay hay2 hay2 hay2 hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc 2 years ago soybean soybean oat/clover/spelt oat/clover/spelt soybean hay2 oat/clover/spelt spelt/hay spelt/hay spelt/hay hay2 hay2 hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc corn corn corn Last year oat/clover/spelt oat/clover/spelt spelt/hay spelt/hay oat/clover/spelt hay3/oat cc spelt/hay hay2 hay2 hay2 hay3/oat cc hay3/oat cc corn corn corn soybean soybean soybean Next year spelt/hay spelt/clover cc hay2 oat/clover/spelt spelt/clover corn hay2 hay3 hay3/spelt hay3/spelt oat hay/hay soybean soybean soybean oat/clover cc oat/clover cc corn/ryegrass corn/ryegrass 80 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . that they meet their explicit goal of avoiding the same crop immediately in succession. Table 5. If the two numbers do not agree. 23. enter the planting and harvest times for next summer’s crops.nraes. Compare these with the number of MUs you intended to grow. See sidebar 5.When making decisions.3 (page 70) for a simple system of codes for recording planting and harvest times. After you have assigned crops to all MUs. either assign some MUs to other crops or change the planned number of units on the Crop Characteristics Worktable. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Three years from their planning exercise. succession plantings of lettuce or spring and fall broccoli crops). the rotation plan has been implemented for the whole farm.sare. as well as the special properties of the MU. add the number of MUs of each crop. Plan next winter and two growing seasons from now. Fill in cash and cover crops for two summers from now as you did for next summer (see step 22). garlic. If you think it will be helpful.org or www. Refer to appendix 2 (pages 104–123) to check for potential problems and opportunities.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. or call (607) 255 7654. spelt). Do not assign winter cover crops yet. Fill in any cash crops that will be present next winter (for example. always look back over the whole cropping history of the management unit up to this point. To purchase the book. 24.

nraes.). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. To purchase the book. Now fill in cover crops for next winter that make sense given the crops that precede and follow them. Recheck your crop mix. Make further adjustments on the Crop Characteristics Worktable or the Field Futures Worktable if necessary. Compare the maps with your feel for the various management units and how they have performed in the past. etc. This is an important consideration. Think about what will happen if rain delays timely incorporation of a cover crop or timely planting of a cash crop. visit www. 29. or call (607) 255 7654.. Take these maps and walk through your fields. Return to your office (or kitchen table) and lay out your maps and notes. Put the crops for next summer on one map. Put your plans on maps. Plan future years. etc. soybean hay2 hay3/oat cc spelt/hay spelt/hay hay2 hay2 hay3 hay3 corn corn soybean soybean corn corn 28. as in step 23. as indicated on the Crop Characteristics Worktable. 25. Realize that your plans may need to change due to weather events and market conditions.sare. Copy the information from the Field Futures Worktable onto blank maps. Write down what you could do if problems arise. and (3) the needs of the following crop (N demand. modify the planned sequences where necessary on the Field Futures Worktable. as in step 23. however. What will you do if cultivation is 6 years delayed and the crop becomes excesfrom now sively weedy? Consider other potential oat/clover/spelt problems and whether they may require corn a change in the planned sequence. Make notes on potential alternative strategies to spelt/hay meet circumstances you may encounter. for as many seasons as you have planned ahead.org. Based on insights gained from walking the fields. Modify planned sequences. When you have a reasonable plan. Remember. Take the maps to the field. Refining Your Plan 26. the crops for next winter on another. Plan as far ahead as you feel will be useful. farm the cropping sequence through in your head. Consider especially (1) the harvest time of the preceding crop. CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 81 . add up the numberof MUs of each crop in each year and check this against your intended production.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. NRAES 177. to be sure that the field plan provides the correct amount of each crop. ability to incorporate cover crop before planting. Repeat. Check your crop mix. (2) the planting time of the following crop. 3 years from now hay3/oat cc spelt/hay corn hay2 soybean oat/clover/spelt spelt/hay spelt/hay hay2 hay2 hay3/spelt hay2/spelt corn corn soybean soybean oat/clover cc oat/clover cc 4 years from now corn hay2 soybean hay3/oat cc oat/clover/spelt spelt/hay hay2 hay2 hay3/spelt hay3/spelt spelt/hay spelt/hay soybean soybean oat/clover cc oat/clover cc corn corn 5 years from now soybean hay3/oat cc oat/clover/spelt corn spelt/hay hay2 hay3/spelt hay3/spelt spelt/hay spelt/hay hay2 hay2 oat/clover cc oat/clover cc corn corn soybean soybean 27. for each succeeding year. Take notes on what seems right and what may not work. For each cluster of adjacent MUs.org or www. that year-to-year variation in productivity may swamp out slight variation in the number of MUs grown for major crops.

The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Each of these essentially moves the rotation ahead one year.48 0. 30.3 (page 70).16 0.32 0.24 0.24 0. the hay can be left for an extra year. so that they stay together. add notes indicating your contingency plans (see your field notes from step 27).08 0.16 0.16 0.16 0.org or www.16 0. soybean can be substituted if planting corn is not feasible. If necessary create a separate page to show the contingency plans for a given group of MUs.16 0. or call (607) 255 7654.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.16 0.nraes. If plowing down the hay or planting spelt proves impossible. Small Valley has multiple possibilities for meeting contingencies.08 0.16 0. For example. visit www. which is 82 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual .32 0. Enter these either in the margins if they are few or on a separate piece of paper if there are many. the farmer can substitute corn.sare.16 0. Abbreviations for planting time and the end of harvest are given in Sidebar 5.org.9 Crop characteristics worktable for Summer Acres Vegetable Farm Acres/ year 0.16 0.08 4. Note your contingency plans. Similarly.48 0.16 0. NRAES 177. To purchase the book. Table 5. Staple the contingency plans to the Field Futures Worktable.08 MUs/ year 2 4 2 2 2 2 2 4 6 3 2 1 2 3 6 2 2 2 1 1 51 Plant Time2 lfall espr espr esum msum msum lsum lspr lspr lspr espr espr lspr esum lspr espr lsum lsum lspr msum Harvest Ends2 msum msum esum msum lsum efall lfall lsum efall efall efall msum lsum efall efall esum efall lfall msum lfall Harvested Part root fruit leaf leaf leaf leaf leaf root fruit fruit root leaf flower bud fruit fruit leaf leaf leaf root root Cold Tolerance very hardy hardy half-hardy half-hardy half-hardy half-hardy half-hardy half-hardy tender tender half-hardy hardy hardy tender tender hardy hardy hardy half-hardy half-hardy Crop1 Garlic Pea Lettuce 5 Lettuce 6 Lettuce 7e Lettuce 7l Lettuce 8 Potato Tomato Pepper Carrot Kohlrabi Broccoli Summer squash Winter squash Spinach 5 Spinach 8e Spinach 8l Beet 5 Beet 7 Total 1 2 Family Lily Legume Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Nightshade Nightshade Nightshade Carrot Mustard Mustard Cucurbit Cucurbit Beet Beet Beet Beet Beet The number after the names of some crops refers to the planting month. When you have the Field Futures Worktable adjusted the way you want it. if weather hopelessly delays planting of oat. e and l refer to early and late in the month.

the farmers’ primary rotation goal is to maximize the time between crops in the same or similar families. visit www. The Small Valley example also illustrates potential for adjusting the crop mix to meet market demand without significant modification of the basic rotation plan. so some double cropping is necessary. all of these circumstances result in a crop mix that is different from the original plan. they choose sequences that supply cover crop nitrogen whenever possible.9 shows the Crop Characteristics Worktable for Summer Acres Farm. dry bean or snap bean for soybean. Because of the land area constraint. and figure 5. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. The farmers grow 51 management units of cash crops on 50 MUs of land. Finally. 31.org or www. This sample farm is sufficiently land limited to constrain the cropping sequences but not so land limited as to force a serious departure from good rotation practices. a different spring grain could be substituted for oat. especially before heavy-feeding crops.4 shows a map of the farm divided into management units. Within this constraint.4 Map of Summer Acres Farm showing division into management units. The farmers attempt to keep the ground covered with a cash or cover crop throughout the year to prevent erosion (continued on page 89) CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 83 . or a heavy-feeding vegetable crop like cabbage or pumpkin for corn. NRAES 177. Congratulations! You have created a complete cropping plan for your farm. For example. Make several copies of these maps so that you can take them into the field when you are preparing seedbeds and planting while still retaining a clean copy for your records. Ro ad fairly easy to compensate for in the future. Make your crop placement maps match your revised Field Futures Worktable.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.nraes.sare. Obviously.org. The example is fictitious. or call (607) 255 7654. A More Complex Example: Summer Acres Vegetable Farm Table 5. Be prepared to modify it as you gain knowledge and experience. Early 1 3 5 7 9 2 4 6 8 10 Far 39 41 43 45 47 49 40 42 44 46 48 50 Pasture Long 11 18 25 32 12 19 26 33 13 20 27 34 14 21 28 35 15 22 29 36 16 23 30 37 17 24 31 38 Figure 5. but that is necessarily the case when a crop cannot be planted. modify the maps for each year so that they match the Field Futures Worktable. but it is based on a sample crop mix and planting and harvest times provided by a New York vegetable grower. Table 5. To purchase the book.10 (pages 84–88) gives completed Field Conditions and Field Futures Worktables. Continue to grow with your farm.

NRAES 177.nraes. To purchase the book. visit www.org or www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.10 Field history and future for Summer Acres Farm Field Name Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Mgmt Unit 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Crop 3 Summers Ago Lettuce5/beet7 Lettuce5/cowpea Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Carrot Carrot Kohlrabi/buckwheat Beet5/buckwheat Pepper Pepper Pepper Spinach5/cowpea Spinach5/cowpea Lettuce6/fallow/spinach8e Lettuce6/fallow/spinach8e Lettuce7e/fallow/spinach8l Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato Lettuce7e/fallow/spinach8l Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Summer squash Summer squash Summer squash Potato Potato Potato Potato Broccoli/fallow/lettuce8 Broccoli/fallow/lettuce8 Lettuce7l-interseeded HV Lettuce7l-interseeded HV Garlic/fallow Garlic/fallow Oat-red clover Oat-red clover Oat-red clover Oat-red clover Oat-red clover Oat-red clover Crop 2 Winters Ago Bare Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Garlic Garlic Oat Oat Bare Rye Rye Oat Oat Rye Rye Bare Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat & HV Oat & HV Oat & HV Oat & HV Bare Bare HV HV Oat & HV Oat & HV Red clover Red clover Red clover Red clover Red clover Red clover Crop 2 Summers Ago Carrot Carrot Kohlrabi/cowpeaw Beet5/buckwheat Spinach5/cowpea Spinach5/cowpea Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Summer squash Summer squash Summer squash Garlic/field pea-oat Garlic/field pea-oat Oat-red clover Oat-red clover Oat-red clover Lettuce6/fallow/spinach8e Lettuce6/fallow/spinach8e Broccoli/fallow/lettuce8 Broccoli/fallow/lettuce8 Fallow/lettuce7e/fallow/spinach8l Fallow/lettuce7e/fallow/spinach8l Oat-red clover Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato Pepper Pepper Pepper Lettuce5/fallow Lettuce5/fallow Sorgh/lettuce7l Sorgh/lettuce7l Oat/beet7 Oat-red clover Potato/oat Potato/oat Potato Potato Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Crop Last Winter Oat Oat Oat & HV Oat & HV Oat & HV Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Red clover Red clover Red clover Rye Rye Bare/field pea Bare Bare Bare Red clover Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye & HV Rye & HV Bare Bare Rye Red clover Garlic Garlic Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat 84 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Table 5.org. or call (607) 255 7654.sare.

10 Field history and future for Summer Acres Farm (continued) Field Mgmt Name Unit Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Current Winter Crop Last Summer Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Pepper Pepper Pepper Kohlrabi/buckwheat Spinach5/cowpea Spinach5/cowpea Carrot Carrot Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Fallow/spinach8l Oat-red clover Oat-red clover Potato Potato Potato Summer squash Summer squash Summer squash Lettuce7e Oat-red clover Oat-red clover Potato Lettuce6/fallow/spinach8e Lettuce6/fallow/spinach8e Fallow/spinach8l Broccoli/lettuce8 Broccoli/lettuce8 Lettuce7e Cowpea/lettuce7l Cowpea/lettuce7l Beet5/buckwheat Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Garlic/field pea-oat Garlic/field pea-oat Lettuce5/fallow/cowpea Lettuce5/beet7 Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato Crop Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat & HV Rye Rye Rye Red clover Red clover Rye & HV Rye & HV Rye & HV Oat Oat Oat Rye & HV Red clover Red clover Oat & HV Garlic Garlic Bare Bare Bare Oat & HV Rye Rye Rye Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat CC residue CC residue CC residue Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Plant efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall lsum efall efall efall — — lsum lsum lsum efall efall efall lsum — — lsum lfall lfall — — — efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall — — — efall efall efall efall efall efall efall Harv. or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.nraes. To purchase the book.org or www. visit www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. NRAES 177.org. Table 5. espr espr espr espr espr espr espr espr espr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr espr espr espr espr lspr lspr lspr lspr — — — — — esum lspr lspr lspr espr espr espr espr espr espr — — — espr lspr lspr lspr lspr esum esum CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 85 .sare.

org.org or www. NRAES 177.sare. visit www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. esum/efall esum/efall msum/efall msum/efall msum/efall msum/efall efall efall msum/efall msum/lsum msum/efall lsum lsum lsum lsum lsum/lfall lsum/lfall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall msum msum esum/lsum/efall esum/lsum/efall mow esum lfall lsum lsum msum/efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall msum msum lsum/lfall lsum/lfall lsum lsum Next Winter Crop Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Rye Rye & HV Rye & HV Rye & HV Rye & HV Bare Bare Rye Oat & HV Oat & HV Rye Oat & HV Oat & HV Oat & HV Rye CC residue CC residue Rye Rye Red clover Rye Oat & HV Oat & HV Rye Rye & HV Rye & HV Rye & HV Rye & HV Rye Rye & HV Rye Rye Rye Rye CC residue CC residue Bare Bare Garlic Garlic Plant efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall lsum lsum lsum lsum — — lfall efall efall efall efall efall efall lfall Harv. espr espr espr espr espr espr espr espr espr espr lspr esum esum esum lspr — — lspr lspr lspr lspr espr lspr lspr lspr efall efall efall lsum lsum efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall — — — — lfall lfall lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr esum esum esum esum espr esum espr espr espr espr — — — — — — 86 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual .nraes.10 Field history and future for Summer Acres Farm (continued) Field Mgmt Name Unit Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Next Summer Crop Spinach5/cowpea Spinach5/cowpea Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Carrot Carrot Kohlrabi/buckwheat Beet5/buckwheat Cowpea/Lettuce7l Potato Potato Potato Potato Cowpea/lettuce8 Cowpea/lettuce8 Winter squash Pepper Pepper Pepper Summer squash Summer squash Summer squash Winter squash Garlic/field pea&oat Garlic/field pea&oat Field pea/buckwheat/spinach8e Field pea/buckwheat/spinach8e Oat-red clover Fallow/Beet7 Broccoli Broccoli Cowpea/lettuce7l Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato Tomato&Lettuce5 Tomato&Lettuce5 Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Lettuce6/cowpea&oat Lettuce6/cowpea&oat Cowpea/spinach8l Cowpea/spinach8l Fallow/Lettuce7e Fallow/Lettuce7e Plant espr/esum espr/esum espr/msum espr/msum espr/msum espr/msum espr espr espr/msum lspr/msum esum/msum lspr lspr lspr lspr esum/lsum esum/lsum lspr lspr lspr lspr esum esum esum lspr —/lsum —/lsum espr/msum/lsum espr/msum/lsum espr msum lspr lspr esum/msum lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr esum/msum esum/msum esum/lsum esum/lsum msum msum Harv. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Table 5. To purchase the book. or call (607) 255 7654.

To purchase the book.sare.10 Field history and future for Summer Acres Farm (continued) Field Mgmt Name Unit Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Two Summers from Now Crop Kohlrabi/buckwheat Pepper Spinach5/cowpea Spinach5/cowpea Carrot Carrot Pea/fallow Pea/fallow Pea/fallow Pea/fallow Pepper Lettuce6/buckwheat Lettuce6/buckwheat Cowpea/spinach8l Summer squash Summer squash Summer squash Cowpea/lettuce8 Broccoli Broccoli Cowpea/spinach8l Pepper Potato Potato Cowpea/lettuce8 Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Potato Potato Beet5/buckwheat Tomato Tomato Fallow/Buckwheat/spinach8e Fallow/Buckwheat/spinach8e Fallow/Lettuce7e Fallow/Lettuce7e Oat-red clover Fallow/beet7 Tomato&Lettuce5 Tomato&Lettuce5 Tomato Tomato Winter squash Winter squash Cowpea/lettuce7l Cowpea/lettuce7l Garlic/field pea&oat Garlic/field pea&oat Plant espr/msum lspr espr/esum espr/esum espr espr espr espr espr espr lspr esum/msum esum/msum esum/lsum esum esum esum esum/lsum lspr lspr esum/lsum lspr lspr lspr esum/lsum lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr/msum lspr lspr msum/lsum msum/lsum msum msum espr msum lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr esum/msum esum/msum —/lsum —/lsum Harv. msum/lsum efall esum/efall esum/efall efall efall msum msum msum msum efall msum/lsum msum/lsum lsum/lfall efall efall efall lsum/lfall lsum lsum lsum/lfall efall lsum lsum lsum/lfall efall efall efall efall lsum lsum msum/lsum efall efall lsum/efall lsum/efall lsum lsum mow esum lfall esum&efall esum&efall efall efall efall efall msum/efall msum/efall msum msum Two Winters from Now Crop Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat Oat & HV Oat & HV Oat & HV Oat Oat Oat Oat Bare Rye Rye Rye Bare Oat & HV Oat & HV Bare Bare Rye Rye Bare Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye & HV Rye & HV Rye & HV Rye Rye Rye & HV Bare Rye Rye Garlic Garlic Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye Rye CC residue CC residue Plant efall efall efall efall efall efall lsum lsum lsum efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall — lsum lsum — — efall efall — efall efall efall efall lsum lsum lsum efall efall lsum — lsum lsum lfall lfall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall efall — — Harv.nraes. Table 5. NRAES 177. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. or call (607) 255 7654. visit www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.org or www.org. espr espr espr espr espr espr espr espr espr espr espr espr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr — espr espr — — lspr lspr — lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr — esum esum — — lspr lspr lspr lspr espr espr espr espr — — CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 87 .

or for cover crops.sare. 88 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Table 5. msum/efall msum/efall efall efall esum&efall esum&efall efall efall efall msum/lsum msum/efall esum/lsum efall efall msum/lsum efall efall efall esum/lsum esum/lsum esum/lsum esum/lsum lsum/lfall lsum/lfall esum/lfall lsum lsum lsum lsum msum/efall msum/efall efall efall efall efall mow esum lsum/efall lsum/efall msum msum lsum/lfall lsum/lfall msum/efall msum/efall lsum lsum efall efall efall efall Abbreviations: Plant Harv Planting time End of harvest. or call (607) 255 7654. the time of incorporation Sorghum-sudan grass hybrid Hairy vetch Winter-killed cover crop residue Sorgh HV CC residue Abbreviations for planting and harvest times are given in sidebar 5.nraes. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.10 Field history and future for Summer Acres Farm (continued) Field Mgmt Name Unit Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Early Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Long Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far Far 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 Three Summers from Now Crop Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Carrot Carrot Tomato & spinach5 Tomato&spinach5 Pepper Pepper Pepper Kohlrabi/cowpea Pea/sorgh Pea/sorgh Winter squash Winter squash Beet5/buckwheat Tomato Tomato Tomato Lettuce5/cowpea Lettuce5/cowpea Field pea/lettuce7e Field pea/lettuce7e Cowpea/lettuce8 Cowpea/lettuce8 Field pea/beet7 Potato Potato Potato Potato Lettuce6/cowpea Lettuce6/cowpea Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Winter squash Oat-red clover Fallow/Buckwheat/spinach8e Fallow/Buckwheat/spinach8e Garlic/field pea&oat Garlic/field pea&oat Cowpea/spinach8l Cowpea/spinach8l Cowpea/lettuce7l Cowpea/lettuce7l Broccoli Broccoli Tomato Summer squash Summer squash Summer squash Plant espr/msum espr/msum espr espr lspr lspr lspr lspr lspr espr/msum espr/msum espr/msum lspr lspr lspr/msum lspr lspr lspr espr/esum espr/esum espr/msum espr/msum esum/lsum esum/lsum espr/msum lspr lspr lspr lspr esum/msum esum/msum lspr lspr lspr lspr espr msum/lsum msum/lsum —/lsum —/lsum esum/lsum esum/lsum esum/msum esum/msum lspr lspr lspr esum esum esum Harv. To purchase the book.3 (page 70). NRAES 177.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. visit www.org.org or www.

they try to plant pairs of MUs that are side by side. or kohlrabi. The only MUs with special properties are in the field called “Early. Even with their precautions. they also like to grow peppers on the field. the spring cash crops on field Early are followed by summer cover crops. When successive plantings are forced onto adjacent MUs by other considerations. which is the crop most dependent on field Early. they attempt to separate successive plantings of lettuce and spinach with one or more MUs of other crops. These crops include pea. To purchase the book. pages 95–100). pages 84–88). CHAPTER 5 | A Crop Rotation Planning Procedure 89 .4 (page 83). in some years they plant two MUs of peas on MU 11 and 12 of the field Long.. This reduces time spent planting and managing the crop.org or www. the configuration of the “Long” field in figure 5. thereby requiring substantial use of compost to meet N needs.. they began intercropping early lettuce or spinach with tomato (see chapter 7. Since nitrogen-fixing cover crops are limited by these decisions. or call (607) 255 7654. The exception is that they include a one-month fallow period in late spring or early summer for weed control whenever this is convenient. tomato. Similarly. if necessary. carrot. and early plantings of lettuce and spinach. they also mean that more different crop families are grown within a given number of years on those MUs. poses a problem. This allowed them to produce 51 MUs of crops on 50 MUs of land. In order to continue to grow more MUs of crops than they have land. the farmers attempt to grow their earliest crops on this field whenever possible. pages 104–123). they try to provide a time lag within the season. shares diseases with peas (see appendix 2. however.nraes. Since kohlrabi requires only one MU. Although double-cropping and intercropping allow intensive use of the land.sare. summer squash. adequately long lags between beet family crops would be difficult to obtain. To meet the first of these decisions. to supply N needs.” That field is well drained and has a southfacing slope that warms early in the spring. if late-season plantings of these same crops are grown after peas. Consequently. However. this practice was discontinued. they also decide to use a purchased amendment. NRAES 177.10. since they grow most crops in even numbers of MUs. the frequency of peas and pea relatives may eventually lead to disease problems for this crop. The rotation on this field is complicated. If they cannot manage to plant the same crop in a long strip. which also requires only one MU. the farmers sometimes use the first planting of beet (beet5 in tables 5. and winter squash are less bothersome to have in multiple locations since the farmers grow several varieties of each of these crops. Pepper. visit www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.” and improve soil quality.9. To minimize problems. even when the opportunity for biomass production by a cover crop is limited. and to avoid preceding them with a cowpea cover crop during summer the year before. Consequently. kohlrabi.org. The lettuce or spinach is planted at the same time as the tomato in an adjacent row on the same bed and is harvested in early summer before the tomatoes crowd it. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Lettuce. However. so that insect pests and diseases cannot easily spread from one planting to the next. Many of the early-season crops grown on field Early are harvested in time for a late planting of lettuce. Mostly. since peppers are a high-value crop that takes advantage of the warm temperatures provided by the field’s southerly aspect. since the farmers want to grow early-season crops of spinach and beet on field Early. This can increase the difficulty of separating families in time. with its strips of seven MUs. “The farmers attempt to keep the ground covered with a cash or cover crop throughout the year to prevent erosion and improve soil quality. To the extent possible. or beet. whereas the other early crops use two or four MUs. they decide to plant peas on a given MU only one year out of three. When possible. the growers often doublecropped short-season crops (for example. Consequently. an early lettuce planting with a late spinach planting). however. it made including shorter-season legume cover crops like cowpea and field pea difficult on an even greater number of MUs. as a “fill-in” crop to balance the rotation plan. Before the planning process. spinach. page 82 and 5. It also allowed them to plant a soil-building full-season cover crop of oat (mowed in June) and red clover on a few MUs each year. by the need to grow four MUs of peas and the use of cowpea and hairy vetch cover crops (close relatives of peas) as nitrogen sources for the other crops. the Summer Acres farmers manage to plant a given crop in adjacent MUs.

Squash also occupies a large percentage of fields Long and Far.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. To purchase the book. With the exception of the nightshades. the farmers in this example manage a reasonable separation in time for most families on most MUs in most years. The farmers have to juggle their crops carefully to avoid growing a nightshade crop more often than one year in three (40/13 ≈ 3). potato.nraes. 90 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . pages 124–137). NRAES 177. and therefore providing adequate breaks between squash crops is difficult. In addition. To minimize the problem of finding locations for nightshades that maximize return times. visit www. and they sometimes manage this on some MUs by growing peppers in field Early. and development of a general crop rotation plan would probably require a shift in the crop mix. and peppers). which are probably planted too frequently. requires considerable juggling of crop placement: Regular repetition of particular crop sequences is largely impossible. The farmers then proceed to place the winter and summer squashes.sare. Increasing the land base could simplify the rotation and avoid the problem of too many MUs of nightshade crops. however.org or www.org. increased land would allow greater use of legumes to supply nitrogen for heavy-feeding crops and allow more convenient placement of crops on the farm. The principal limiting factor on the remaining 40 MUs in fields Long and Far relate to the need to grow 13 MUs of species in the nightshade family (tomato. A longer interval between nightshade crops is desirable (see appendix 3. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. and management is easier if it is planted in a block of adjacent MUs. they begin the placement process for fields Long and Far by locating these crops first. Other crops are then filled in wherever they can fit given the goals discussed above. they grow six MUs of winter squash. In addition. Accomplishing this. or call (607) 255 7654.

making a systematic assessment of the plant species present and mapping potential weed problems may be worthwhile. In both cases. and thus the land can be quickly certified as organic. it will be safest to assume that perennial weeds pose a substantial problem. For example. the first cash crop after a sod should be transplanted. Weeds of the Northeast is a useful guide for weed identification (116).1. At the start. Mohler T he primary purpose of this manual is to help organic farmers plan crop rotations on land that is already being farmed organically. or call (607) 255 7654. 6 CROP ROTATION DURING THE TRANSITION FROM CONVENTIONAL TO ORGANIC AGRICULTURE Charles L. a fallow can be worked in after a spring lettuce crop or before fall broccoli. a brief discussion of how to sequence crops during the transition from conventional to organic management may be useful for beginning organic farmers and those who are adding new land to their farms. Whether or not the transition process begins with a full season of fallow and cover crops. Reducing weed numbers to manageable levels at the outset will pay lasting dividends in reduced labor over the coming years. CHAPTER 6 | Crop Rotation during the Transition from Conventional to Organic Agriculture 91 . soil improvement and weed management are usually large challenges. However. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Nevertheless. avoid leaving the soil bare in the spring or mid to late fall.sare. working a summer fallow period into the first year’s cropping sequence may help get the weeds under control. some forage grasses like smooth brome can be challenging weeds in organic vegetable fields. but export of several tons of hay per acre over several years may have depleted soil nutrients. consider choosing a different field or using conventional methods to get the weed under control before attempting the transition. a full growing season of cover crops and fallow periods is often a good investment when converting old sod to vegetable production (see sidebar 6. If a full year of summer fallow and cover crops to control weeds and improve soil quality is not practical. The long period in sod will have improved soil physical quality. visit www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. If taking an initial weed survey is not practical. Also. “Old hay fields and pastures are excellent habitats for establishment of perennial weed species.nraes. If perennials show up in the fall cover crop after the fallow. Consequently. Taking an initial survey will help you avoid spreading a few patches of weeds like johnsongrass or bindweed all over the field during tillage. not direct seeded. an old hay field).org or www. In general. Organic farms in the northeastern US usually begin either with land that has been actively farmed using conventional practices or with land that has been semi-fallow for several years (for example. as this will allow weed growth and nutrient leaching. If any bad perennial weeds are abundant. a second year of fallow and cover crops may be necessary. Often the previous manager applied no fertilizers or pesticides for several years. NRAES 177.org.” Transition from Old Sod to Vegetable Production Many small organic vegetable farms in the northeastern US begin on land that has been a hay field or pasture for several years. when conditions may prevent working the soil for long periods. page 92). Old hay fields and pastures are excellent habitats for establishment of perennial weed species. To purchase the book.

however. break the sod in the fall so that it can decompose over the winter. where they will dry out and die. In general. Sidebar 6. working a lot of cover crops into the rotation during the first few years of transition is advisable to build soil physical quality.sare. mow the cover crop once or twice to prevent seed production and prevent stems from becoming too long and stringy to incorporate. as this will damage soil structure.org. Soil that has been built up in physical quality and nutrient storage over several years will often support multiple vegetable crops within a single growing season. Cultivate the soil thoroughly but shallowly at about three-week intervals through the hot part of the growing season. pigweed.nraes. and steps should be taken to prevent this.org or www. Also. visit www. because these become impossible to weed late in their growth cycle. and they can be cultivated or hoed sooner after planting.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Also. unless mulch is used. again plant a cover crop to restore soil organic matter lost during the fallowing and to protect the soil over the winter. increase nutrient storage. and foxtail. The cover crop will capture nutrients that could otherwise be lost by leaching and will protect the soil from erosion and puddling. the dominant weeds will likely be full-season. they are harvested before most of the spring-germinating weeds go to seed. multiple cropping may result in low yields and poor-quality produce. NRAES 177. However. If the farm has a use for forages. A spring tooth harrow is ideal for the task because it brings roots to the surface. so the density of their seeds in the soil will decline by natural mortality. whereas investing in soil development and weed control through cover cropping and mulching will provide a basis for longterm prosperity. The nurse crop helps compete with weeds while the forage crop establishes. It will also flush out and kill a lot of weed seeds. organic growers sow perennial forages with a small grain nurse crop. Winter grains like winter wheat and spelt are better at competing with weeds than spring grains because they are already well established in the spring when the dominant weeds in the field begin to germinate. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Their farm now has excellent soil quality and is one of the most weed-free organic farms in the northeast US. Transition from Conventional Cropping on a Farm with Forages When the land has been actively farmed by conventional means. In the spring. Eric and Anne Nordell developed the strategy outlined above during the transition process on their northern Pennsylvania farm. annual weeds do not get a chance to go to seed in a mowed hay field. During transition. 8 inches) to disrupt root systems. transplants compete better with weeds because they begin larger. heavy weed seed production may occur during the establishment year of the sod crop.1 Summer Fallow for Weed Management during Transition from Sod to Vegetables If possible. or call (607) 255 7654. A few years in sod will build soil structure and organic matter better than any alternative crop will (68). Moreover. avoid widely spreading vine crops like winter squash or pumpkins in the first two years after sod. This causes most perennial weeds to repeatedly sprout. In the late summer or fall. and compete with weeds. spring-germinating annuals like lambsquarters. Usually. Avoid repeatedly rototilling the soil. If the land has been in field crops. beginning the transition with a sod crop like alfalfa or a mixed grass–legume hay has multiple advantages. A cover crop that will winter-kill is best before early-planted crops like pea and early lettuce. Use moderately deep tillage (for example. as well. without allowing them time to replenish food reserves in their roots and rhizomes. To purchase the book. Incorporate the cover crop in early summer. often soil organic matter and soil tilth are low. Then level the field and sow a winter cover crop like rye. Winter-hardy cover crops are best before summer-planted crops like tomatoes. No-till farmed land may have a lot of perennial weeds. Red clo- 92 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual .

sow a winter grain cover crop after harvest.nraes. rely on transplanted crops and largeseeded crops like sweet corn and snap beans the first few years. and ensure that the corn grows rapidly enough to be competitive. a densely Table 6. The extensive fine root system of the grain will help build soil quality. Planting the cover crop after the corn is well established will not reduce yield (96).1 Some cropping sequences for transition on a cash grain farm Year 1 2 Sequence 1 Soybean (short-season) followed by winter grain Winter grain with frostseeded red clover Sequence 2 Winter grain with frostseeded red clover Corn with interseeded annual ryegrass at last cultivation 3 Corn with interseeded Soybean red clover or annual ryegrass at last cultivation Spring grain or soybean Winter or spring grain 4 CHAPTER 6 | Crop Rotation during the Transition from Conventional to Organic Agriculture 93 . Accordingly. Often the sod is broken in the fall to allow it to break down over the winter. These are more competitive and easier to cultivate and hoe than direct-seeded crops with small seeds. hay. In vegetables. consider interseeding a cover crop like red clover or annual ryegrass just after last cultivation (96). If possible. avoid crops that are harvested too late to plant a winter cover. visit www.1 for potential sequences). planting with a notill drill is safer. The corn will do nothing for restoring soil quality. A late spring planting will let more weeds germinate before final seedbed preparation. Corn is likely to suffer from nitrogen deficiency early in the transition process (58. or green chop.” Transition to Cash Grain or Vegetables on a Farm Without Forages If the farm does not need forages. Also. even if this would be the logical next crop for the field (see table 6. plant a winter grain like wheat or spelt after soybean is harvested. or call (607) 255 7654. winter cover crops are especially important to build soil quality. while the ground is freezing and thawing (frost seeding). To purchase the book. Since the soil does not yet have good N supplying power. They also allow time for a fallow period for weed control or an additional cover crop to build soil quality. page 43) and other fallow periods may be needed to reduce weed density. compost or some other source of N may be required to reach full yield potential.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Establishment will be better if the cover crop seed is covered by hoeing or cultivation. but it will allow plenty of time for good cover to develop before winter. If the corn is harvested as grain. avoid starting the transition with corn. In contrast.sare. compost. however.6. and a cover crop like rye is planted to protect the soil. The young forage crop should be mowed at four to five inches in late summer to further reduce weed seed production. Avoid planting this first corn crop after transition too early in the spring. soybean supplies its own N. or overseed a cover crop into the cash crop. Early in the transition. the transition cropping sequence will probably rely on cover crops to build soil quality. or expensive organic fertilizer are applied. Spring grains and forages can be planted together at the same time. ver will establish well if overseeded onto the soil surface in very early spring. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. If the sod includes a substantial component of legumes. For alfalfa and grasses.org. “The extensive fine root system of the grain will help build soil quality. If the farm has a use or market for cereal grain.org or www. Stale seedbeds (see table 3. so if it is harvested for silage. reduce seed losses to rot and insects. 119) unless large amounts of manure. A winter grain has multiple benefits early in the transition and represents an alternative to soybean as a starting point. Shortseason crops like transplanted lettuce are useful early in transition because they can be harvested before weeds have a chance to go to seed. This may require using a short-season soybean. On cash grain farms. NRAES 177. taking the spring grain crop off for one of those uses can prevent most mid-season weed seed production. planting a heavy feeder like corn the next year is advisable.

but large-seeded species should be sown before cultivation. or call (607) 255 7654. and it will be harvested before most spring-germinating weeds can go to seed. 94 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Interseeding into corn at last cultivation usually produces good stands but may occasionally fail due to drought during cover crop establishment (see chapter 7. set the combine head low at grain harvest to cut off the seedproducing parts of the weeds.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. pages 95–100) for more on interseeding cover crops).org. set the combine head high. sown winter grain will suppress weeds well. and then return and mow the field at a height of about five inches before weed seeds set. The full year’s growth of clover will supply enough N for a corn crop the following year. The clover will compete heavily with weed regrowth if the weeds are cut after they have flowered. Many organic grain growers in the northeastern US overseed winter grains with clover in late winter. when frost can work the seed into the soil. NRAES 177. interseed a cover crop at last cultivation to ensure continued soil building. sow a winter cover crop after harvest. Small seeds like clover will fall into the broken soil after cultivation. Otherwise.sare. If weeds have started to go to seed. If the growing season is long enough. The clover establishes slowly but will be ready for rapid growth by the time the grain is harvested. visit www. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.org or www.nraes. If the weeds have not yet flowered at harvest. To purchase the book.

and they may necessitate special interventions to keep competition between the intercropped species in balance. this is critical for management of diseases and. Mohler and Kimberly A. underseeding. A simple rotation would put each of the crops in a different year. insects. Advantages of intercropping fall into three basic categories. an intercrop may use resources of light. NRAES 177. for example. visit www. If plants from two families are mixed in the same bed or field. however. or in rows or strips that are close enough for biological interaction. A crop mix that works well in one year may fail the next if weather favors one crop over another. To purchase the book. If. interseeding. Intercropping includes the growing of two or more cash crops together. and using living mulch are all forms of intercropping (see glossary at the end of this chapter). Cover crops can also be intercropped with one another.org. however. and they may necessitate special interventions to keep competition between the intercropped species in balance. It also includes the growing of a cash crop with a cover crop or other non-cash crop that provides benefits to the primary crop or to the overall farm system. planting polycultures. crop mixtures frequently have lower pest densities. do not come for free. They often call for careful timing of field operations. The purpose of this chapter is to outline some of the basic principles for using intercropping successfully and to relate these to the principles of crop rotation detailed in the rest of this manual. As explained in chapters 2 and 3. relay cropping. crops would be separated by only a two-year interval. and this can improve yields and income. One fundamental principle of crop rotation is the separation of plant families in time. Suppose. and nutrients more efficiently than single crops planted in separate areas. First. water. if the mixture is chosen carefully. 7 Guidelines for Intercropping Charles L.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. to increase resource capture by the crops. however. especially of insect pests.sare. squash. to a lesser extent. however. This occurs both because the mixture confuses the insects and. Intercropping also poses a special problem for crop rotation. pages 3–46. or call (607) 255 7654. and mid-season lettuce. Stoner I ntercropping is an all-encompassing term for the practice of growing two or more crops in close proximity: in the same row or bed. broccoli. with a three-year interval before a crop is repeated on the same bed.” more difficult and less effective. It may do little. Mixed cropping. The advantages of intercropping. which may be insufficient to keep some diseases CHAPTER 7 | Guidelines for Intercropping 95 . that a farm grows an acre each of tomato. companion planting. because the mixture attracts beneficial predators. Second.org or www. achieving a substantial time lag before replanting either of those families may be difficult. intercropping may allow more effective management of cover crops. the lettuce and tomato are grown together (see the next section). Finally. overseeding. A mixture of crops with different growth forms or timing of development may make cultivation and use of mulches “[Intercropping systems] call for careful timing of field operations. smother cropping. Intercropping systems require additional management. Planting crops in alternate rows or strips greatly simplifies management and captures some of the benefits of intercropping for pest control. unless alternating strips are close together.nraes. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

org. under control (see appendix 3. barley. even in healthy plants). labor. see reference 126). they are either planted at the same time or harvested at the same time. competitive nurse crop like oats. and relative growth rates of the cash and cover crops that are difficult to repeat consistently. Interplanting Crops with Partially Overlapping Growing Seasons Interplanting crops that share the field for only part of the season can increase the capture of sunlight over the course of the whole year. For an intercropping scheme to be useful. Table 7. For example. Successful exceptions require subtleties of timing. be interplanted successfully into many full-season crops. Without careful planning.nraes. which potentially restricts it to use following early-harvested crops. Thus. He transplants lettuce next to his tomato plants. the vetch sprawls out and provides good winter ground cover and nitrogen for crops the following year. After the grain is harvested. Consequently. This will allow evaluation of whether it fits into the overall management system and whether benefits outweigh extra costs. sowing densities. Most cover crops will compete heavily with the cash crop unless seeding is delayed until the cash crop is well established. Nurse crops are another variation on staggered-season intercropping. Intercropping of beans and corn (usually with squash. though much of this work has been done in the tropics (for example. in New York and New England. clover can be interseeded into corn during the last inter-row cultivation (96). when two cash crops are intercropped. the forages continue to grow through the remainder of the season and are ready for a first cutting in the autumn. pages 124–137). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. harvesting the early crop may damage the late crop. or yield reduction. as well) formed the basic farming system of Native Americans from Central America to the northeastern US. For example. NEON collaborators Eric and Anne Nordell plant single rows of hairy vetch between rows of many types of lateseason vegetables. field pea can be grown with a small grain and the two crops combine-harvested together (119). however. Intercropping Legumes with Nonlegumes Legumes like beans and alfalfa have nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with their roots. or wheat is not there to use the available sunlight. Attempts to use interseeded cover crops to smother weeds have generally shown that if the cover crop is sufficiently dense and vigorous to suppress the weeds. Note that if the cover crop is left after the cash crop is harvested. Similarly. it also competes with the cash crop. The scientific literature has documented the value of intercropping legumes with nonlegumes.sare. the primary use of interseeded cover crops is the early establishment of cover. interseeded cover crops are most useful in late-harvested crops or fields with low weed pressure.org or www. Consequently they compete only slightly with nonlegumes for soil nitrogen and in some cases even supply nitrogen to adjacent plants via leakage and root decomposition (fine roots grow and die rapidly within the season. A new intercropping idea should be tested first on a relatively small area. cover crops planted into established cash crops usually produce negligible organic matter or nitrogen by the time of crop harvest. especially grain crops. The lettuce uses the space that is not yet occupied by the tomatoes and is harvested about the time the tomatoes are branching out to cover the full width of the bed. it should improve the overall economics of the farm. Forage legumes and grasses establish so slowly that weeds tend to take over the field if a fastgrowing. Consequently.1 shows opportunities and problems with interseeding cover crops into established cash crops. It can. Mechanical planting may be difficult if the crops are not planted simultaneously. Despite trampling during harvest. NRAES 177. Thus. or call (607) 255 7654. Note that some consequences of intercropping—such as better or worse weed control. Usually. or difficulties in timing planting or harvest—may not show up in a single test year. To purchase the book. hairy vetch sown after September 15 often winter-kills. whereas clovers sown after corn harvest establish poorly and have little time for growth before winter. intercropping requires extra care and effort in planning and maintaining a viable crop rotation. cleanup of weeds after harvest is restricted to mowing or hand weeding. visit www. 96 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Interseeding cover crops into established cash crops can increase cover crop productivity and the range of cover crop species that can be used in a region. Expert panel farmer Drew Norman (page 51) provides an example of this sort of intercropping. For example.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.

N-fixation by red clover Reasonable establishment most years3 No interference with harvest. crimson clover. alfalfa4 Rye. or call (607) 255 7654. alfalfa. Cover crop will be damaged at harvest. white clover. spelt Crimson clover Cash crop Corn. 4 Wheat or rye seeded by this method will grow several inches above the height of the lowest pods by harvest. alsike clover and hairy vetch can also be established by this method.5X usual rate at leaf yellowing Broadcast at 20 lb/A at leaf yellowing Sow on frozen ground in early spring Plant two rows of bell bean between crop rows after last cultivation Broadcast after last cultivation2 Plant 1 or 2 rows between rows of vegetables after last cultivation Plant 1 or 2 rows between rows of vegetables after last cultivation Broadcast at 2 to 3 bu/A 3 to 5 weeks before harvest Allows establishment in wet years and late harvested soybean N-fixation. annual ryegrass may winter-kill Stand may be patchy. Other surface seeded cover crops usually either fail to germinate or are heavily consumed by seed and seedling feeding insects (species that are normally considered beneficials due to their consumption of weed seeds and pest insects). CHAPTER 7 | Guidelines for Intercropping 97 .This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. creeping red fescue.1 Cover crop interseeding systems Cover crop Red clover. 1 Alfalfa. good production Timing is critical5. birdsfoot trefoil. 2 Seed can be applied at cultivation by attaching a forage seeder box to dribble seed onto the ground behind the cultivator tools. Spelt and annual ryegrass also have a reasonable chance of success. winter wheat. late sweet corn Soybean (planted in rows) Soybean Method Broadcast after last cultivation2 Broadcast in early fall at 3 bu/A Broadcast after last cultivation2 Benefits Good organic matter production. white clover. NRAES 177. N-fixation by legumes Problems Establishment may be poor in a dry summer. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. All resist damage during harvest of the cash crop unless otherwise noted. leafy crops Note: Only systems that cause negligible yield reduction have been included. Seeding should be completed before the first rain after cultivation.nraes. 3 Rye is the only cover crop that usually establishes well when surface sown in the fall. grows fast and then winter-kills. but some damage is inevitable. annual or perennial ryegrass1 Rye Annual ryegrass. many seeds will not make contact with the soil and those that do will not have the benefit of coverage by dead leaves. pepper Late harvested vegetables Late harvested vegetables Late harvested vegetables May winter-kill None apparent Rye None apparent Rye Provides more uniform cover than drilling between rows3 Stand may be patchy. To purchase the book. It can also be spun on with an attachment or by hand. no interference with crop Annual ryegrass Hairy vetch Tomato. late sweet corn Corn. 6 Bell bean is a small seeded variety of fava bean. yellow sweet clover Bell bean6 Winter wheat.org or www. annual ryegrass or perennial ryegrass. If the grain is sown after leaf drop. red clover. alsike clover. yellow sweetclover. visit www. grain establishment will be poor due to shading by the soybeans.org. stand may be poor if the fall is dry. stand may be poor if the fall is dry Establishment may be poor in a dry summer Broadcast at 1. spreads out to give fair winter cover and good spring production Falls over to give fair winter cover. It is preferred over field pea in this application because it does not fall over or twine into the crop. upright growth does not interfere with crop Good dry matter production by next spring N-fixation for next crop. spelt Fall brassicas Good organic matter production and N-fixation before next spring crop N-fixation for next crop. but fall cover and spring dry matter production tend to be less than for red clover. interferes with harvest of short.sare. Table 7. Soybean Red clover. 5 If the grain is sown too soon before leaf drop. no interference with crop. All of these systems provide either a living or winter-killed cover through the winter. stand may be poor if the fall is dry Useful only from zone 6 & south – further north it winter-kills after little growth Ground may not freeze sufficiently to support tractor Expensive seed.

Since they move somewhat randomly within that area. and densely planted grass or heavy mulch interferes with their ability to do that. NRAES 177. wheat. 98 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . For example. “Specialist pests have different ways of finding their host plants.nraes. and many studies have found that intercropping has no effect on their numbers. newly emerged Colorado potato beetles find their hosts primarily by walking. the density of generalist pests. or spelt is a good combination for a fall-planted. on the other hand. Using Intercropping to Disrupt Host Finding by Some HostSpecific Insect Pests Intercropping reduced densities of insect and mite pests in about 50 percent of the cases that have been studied. In all of these cases. This may be useful in preventing early bolting. In some cases this can result in as much nitrogen fixation by the mixture as by a pure stand. Whether insects are actually repelled by the odor of non-host plants is a matter of controversy. periodic rows of tall crops can reduce water stress by slowing wind speed. allowing early tillage the following spring. but with a greater yield of organic matter (44). and non-host plants disrupt some species more easily than others. are attracted to an area by odors of plants in the cabbage family. The odor of non-hosts does confuse insects that search for hosts by smell (110). Hairy vetch combined with a winter grain like rye. Hay meadows and pastures are often planted with a mixture of grasses and legumes. Choosing an intercrop that does not host key pests on the main crop is critical. Some research indicates that a pound of clover will fix more nitrogen into plant-usable form when grown with grasses than when grown in a pure stand. or call (607) 255 7654.” Grass-legume combinations are often used for forage and for cover crops. simply alternating rows or strips of different crops can be sufficient to interfere with insect movement or host-finding ability. Imported cabbageworm butterflies (Pieris rapae). In the spring. Expert farmer Eero Ruuttila (page 50) leaves strips of rye–hairy Using Tall Crops to Reduce Drought or Heat Stress of Shorter Crops Two mechanisms are involved in using tall crops to reduce drought or heat stress of shorter crops: partial shading and reduction in wind speed. Oat and field pea planted in August in the northern US and southern Canada will produce substantial organic matter and will then winter-kill. Partial shade cast by a trellised crop or a well-spaced planting of sweet corn can reduce heat stress of summer crops of spinach or lettuce (19). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. landing on anything green. On windy sites.org. the legume provides nitrogen. visit www. Intercropping usually does not reduce. intercropping tends to reduce flea beetle numbers on the host plants (although often not enough to control damage). while the grass produces the bulk of the organic matter.org or www. overwintering cover crop. making mixtures of dissimilar crops less attractive than monocultures.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. and may even increase. Specialist pests have different ways of finding their host plants. for example. A mixture of leaf shapes can similarly confuse insects that search for their hosts by sight. one study showed that soybean yields in Minnesota increased by as much as 28 percent when pairs of corn rows were interspersed in the fields to block wind (89). usually by disrupting the ability of the pest to find its host (2).sare. Crucifer flea beetles (Phyllotreta cruciferae). are good at finding their host plants in a mixture of other plants. and non-host plants disrupt some species more easily than others. For some pests. To purchase the book.

and timing of infestation and reproduction. and overwintering sites can be important in building up a buffer of general- ist insect predators to prevent chance colonization of the field from turning into a major outbreak. It is also used to manage cucumber beetles and squash vine borers on yellow summer squash. so they need steady food sources and undisturbed vegetation nearby to colonize the field when pests arrive. nectar. vetch cover crop between widely spaced rows of potatoes. For example. But beware: So do many pests. and generally require several months to a year for reproduction. or call (607) 255 7654. encounters the trap crop first and stops. which interfere with the beetles’ movement. with hot cherry peppers as the trap crop. arriving in the field from the edges. alternate prey. In those cases. This method is used for pest species that move into a field from the edges. which is strongly preferred to the main crop. This strategy is currently used to manage pepper maggot on bell peppers. To purchase the book.sare. The trap crop. grass strips between fields provide overwintering sites for ground beetles. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. How Intercrops Affect Populations of Beneficial Parasitoids and Pest Predators The effects of intercropping on pest species vary. intercropping can interfere with host finding by the beneficial parasitoids (99).org or www. One way to evaluate “insectary plantings” is to look at both the pests and the beneficials attracted by the flowers and evaluate the beneficial/pest ratio (64). like spiders. Many major groups of beneficial insects—including predators such as lacewings. Corn and other grasses also produce large quantities of pollen. pattern of movement. or overwintering sites. such as pollen. Some generalist predators. Using Trap Crops to Reduce Pests Designing a successful strategy for trap cropping requires a sophisticated understanding of the pest insect: its host plant preferences. shelter. have strong preferences for particular species or varieties of hosts. with blue Hubbard squash as the trap crop.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. The trap crop may be sprayed with an insecticide or flamed to kill the pest before it moves to the main crop. NRAES 177. For the intercrop to increase the numbers of beneficial insects.” CHAPTER 7 | Guidelines for Intercropping 99 . and rove beetles. typically have only one or two generations per year and are not highly mobile. is planted all around the main crop. and hover flies. it should provide the beneficials with an important resource.org. Research into various combinations of mustard family crops for trap cropping of flea beetles and diamondback moth is under way (8). Some of these use plant odors or visual cues to locate their hosts by first finding the plants on which the hosts are located.nraes. depending on the specific behaviors and life cycles of the beneficial insects. lady beetles. He later mows the cover strips and uses the clippings as mulch. which colonize adjacent fields during the growing season. and other flowering plants as sources of nectar and pollen for beneficials. minute pirate bugs. as well as parasitoids and pollinators—feed on pollen or nectar. The pest. alyssum. Organic growers often plant buckwheat. it should provide the beneficials with an important resource. visit www. “For the intercrop to increase the numbers of beneficial insects. like walls of a fortress. including tarnished plant bug and imported cabbageworm butterflies. staying along the edge of the field. Many parasitoids are limited to a narrow range of insect hosts. Alternate food or prey. ground beetles. shelter. One strategy that has recently proved successful for several species is perimeter trap cropping. which interferes with beetle movement and provides habitat for beetle predators.

visit www. Monoculture: A field with a single crop in it. Biostrips: Permanent sod strips. or pertaining to such a field. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Companion planting: A general term essentially synonymous with intercropping but often used to refer to the planting of non-crop or ornamental species with vegetables for attraction of beneficial insects.org. Interplanting: Intercropping. 100 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual .This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. either at planting of the first crop or later.sare.nraes. sometimes also applied to a weedsuppressive cover crop grown alone. Polyculture: A field (or cropping system) with multiple. Parasitoid: An insect that lays its eggs in or on another arthropod. Usually the first crop is harvested before the second matures. undersowing: Overseeding or oversowing. Underseeding. To purchase the book. oversowing: Planting a direct-seeded crop or cover crop into an already established crop. Nurse crop: A fast-growing crop that suppresses weeds while a slow-growing crop establishes. The larvae develop inside the host. Relay (inter)cropping: Planting a second crop into an already established crop. usually of high botanical diversity. Living mulch: Permanent sod strips of perennial grasses or legumes between rows or beds. or pertaining to such a field or cropping system. Interseeding: Planting a direct-seeded crop into another crop. NRAES 177. Smother crop: An interseeded crop sown with the intent of smothering weeds.org or www. A Glossary of Intercropping Terms Alley cropping: Growing annual crops in tilled strips between rows of a tree or shrub crop. Insectary planting: Planting strips or patches in a field with species that attract beneficial insects. after it is established. eventually killing it. usually by surface sowing of the seeds. maintained to provide food and habitat for beneficial organisms and disrupt dispersal of pests. or call (607) 255 7654. interacting crops. Overseeding.

sare.6 2.1 6.000 15.7 1.000 APPENDIX 1 | Characteristics of Crops Commonly Grown in the Northeastern United States 101 .3 5. leaf leaf root root leaf leaf fruit fruit fruit fruit seed fruit fruit leaf leaf root bulb bulb bulb bulb fruit root flower bud bud bud leaf root root fruit fruit root fruit fruit Family Vegetable crops Beet3 Spinach & chard Carrot.000 3. APPENDIX 1 Characteristics of Crops Commonly Grown in the Northeastern United States Compiled by Charles L.000 n/a 50.3 n/a n/a 2. parsnip Celeriac Celery Fennel Cucumber Melons4 Pumpkin.650 20. fresh wt.000 18.3 5.000 n/a 20. rutabaga. scorzonera Garlic Leek Onion6 Scallion Okra Sweet potato Broccoli.5 n/a n/a n/a 2.2 5.8 n/a 5.000 23.0 0.000 10.000 35. winter squash Summer squash Sweet corn Bean.7 n/a n/a n/a 2.0 3.0 n/a n/a 1.3 K2 3.4 1.8 1.0 4.000 6.000 12.8 5.0 n/a n/a 5.000 10.4 n/a 0.0 (lb/1000 lb product.7 2.2 0.5 n/a n/a 0.4 0.7 0.4 3.8 1.7 5.000 10. in pods Endive etc. cauliflower Brussels sprouts Cabbage Mustard greens8 Radish Turnip.000 17. daikon Eggplant Pepper Potato Tomato Strawberry Beet Beet Carrot Carrot Carrot Carrot Cucurbit Cucurbit Cucurbit Cucurbit Grass Legume Legume Lettuce Lettuce Lettuce Lily Lily Lily Lily Mallow Morning glory Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Nightshade Nightshade Nightshade Nightshade Rose (lbs/acre) Average Yield1 Net Removal N 2.000 15.000 25.2 n/a n/a 0.2 Cold Tolerance half hardy hardy half hardy half hardy half hardy half hardy tender tender tender tender tender tender hardy half hardy half hardy hardy very hardy hardy hardy half hardy tender tender hardy hardy hardy hardy half hardy hardy tender tender half hardy tender very hardy Weed Competition moderate moderate low low low low moderate high high high high moderate low low moderate low low low low low low moderate moderate moderate moderate low low moderate moderate moderate high moderate moderate Seedbed Required fine fine fine fine fine fine medium medium coarse medium coarse medium medium fine/medium medium7 fine medium fine fine fine fine medium medium7 medium7 medium7 fine medium7 fine medium7 medium7 coarse medium7 medium7 25.7 1.000 20.000 11.2 5.0 2. Harvested Part root.0 n/a 3.8 0.0 n/a n/a 2.5 n/a n/a n/a 0.4 5. NRAES 177.000 n/a 16.) P2 0.000 26.8 3.5 5.000 9.0 1.7 n/a n/a n/a 4.nraes.500 16.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.8 1.5 0.000 20.0 3. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.6 2.3 0.5 n/a n/a 3.000 6.5 Lettuce Salsify.0 4.000 8.000 15.7 n/a 3.9 1.1 0. Mohler and Anusuya Rangarajan Yield and nutrient removal data are unavailable for some minor crops. Vegetable crops are arranged alphabetically by family.3 0.000 30.000 24.org or www.2 n/a n/a 1.2 0.3 n/a 1. or call (607) 255 7654.0 7. visit www.0 n/a n/a n/a 2.8 9.org. To purchase the book.6 n/a 1.1 4. snap Pea.000 30.

Afalfa-timothy removes more P than the others.1 0. 10 Average yield data for field crops is from Canada (119). 4 Includes cantelope and watermelon.5 n/a 2.7 1.0 2. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. and cover crops.1 Cold Tolerance tender hardy — hardy — hardy — very hardy — very hardy very hardy — tender tender tender very hardy very hardy Weed Competition moderate moderate — moderate — moderate — high — high high — high high moderate high high Seedbed Required coarse medium — medium — medium — medium — medium medium — medium coarse medium fine fine 5.7 1. APPENDIX 1 Characteristics of Crops Commonly Grown in the Northeastern United States (continued) Net Removal N 17 18 18 16 5 25 9 25 8 n/a 22 12 17 59 36 25 21 P 1.org or www.210 3. 3 Yield and nutrients are for roots only.3 2.5 7.sare.5 Family Field crops Field corn—grain Spring barley grain straw Oat grain straw Spring wheat grain straw Winter wheat grain straw Spelt—grain Rye grain straw Buckwheat Soybean Dry bean Alfalfa hay Grass & grass—leg. 2 P and K removal and capture rates are for elemental P and K.3 2.5 14.610 950 2.410 1.1 8. escarole.org. averages.2 15. hay9 Grass Grass Buckwheat Legume Legume Legume Grasslegume Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Harvested Part seed seed stem seed stem seed stem seed stem seed seed stem seed seed seed leaf leaf (lbs/acre) Average Yield10 (lb/1000 lb of produce) K 2.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. or call (607) 255 7654. Asian greens. mustard greens. collards.4 0. napa cabbage. and garlic and sweet potato yields are U.8 4.5 2.0 9. 7 For transplants. 1 Averages are for all producers. visit www. 8 Includes kale.4 n/a 1.030 2.nraes. grain. 102 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual .8 2.4 3. alfalfa-orchardgrass and alfalfa-timothy. The type of data available differ slightly between these crop types.220 3. 5 Includes endive.1 0.500 1. not just organic producers.9 7. all other vegetable crop yields are for New York.410 3. not P2O5 or K2O.790 5.410 2. Turnip yield is for Maryland.1 18.1 2.4 2. radicchio.2 6. cress 9 Nutrient removals are an average of alfalfa-smooth brome.790 Note: Appendix 1 is divided into sections for vegetable.5 19.S. To purchase the book.4 3.770 2. Italian dandelion.3 1. 6 Yield and nutrients are for bulbs only. arugula.9 8.020 2.000 2. NRAES 177.030 4.3 1.0 4.880 1.600 2.

as a cover crop. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. To purchase the book. spelt. Includes rye winter wheat. cc12 Spring grain. canola Oilseed radish Grass Grass Grass Grass Buckwheat Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Mustard Mustard Harvested Part whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant whole plant Capture N11 high moderate moderate high low fixes 80–200 fixes 70–150 fixes 70–130 fixes 90–170 fixes 90–200 fixes 90–150 fixes 70–220 high high P moderate low moderate moderate high low moderate moderate high moderate low n/a high high K moderate low moderate moderate high low moderate moderate high moderate low n/a n/a n/a Cold Tolerance very hardy hardy very hardy tender tender very hardy very hardy tender very hardy very hardy hardy hardy hardy hardy Weed Competitiveness high moderate moderate high high moderate moderate moderate moderate moderate high moderate moderate high Seedbed Required medium medium medium medium medium medium medium medium medium medium coarse coarse medium medium 11 12 N fixation rates are in pounds per acre. APPENDIX 1 Characteristics of Crops Commonly Grown in the Northeastern United States (continued) Family Cover crops Winter grain. visit www. Cold tolerance and weed competitiveness for vegetable crops partially from (39). Cover crop information was adapted largely from (107).org or www. if missing there. hardy14 Clovers.nraes. cc. 15 Includes berseem clover and crimson clover in the north. Other results are based upon Cornell laboratory testing of harvested portions. cc13 Annual ryegrass Sorghum/ sudangrass Buckwheat White clover Clovers. Sources: Some vegetable nutrient composition data adapted from (69). not hardy15 Sweet clover Hairy vetch Field pea Bell bean Rape. APPENDIX 1 | Characteristics of Crops Commonly Grown in the Northeastern United States 103 . Field crop nutrient data computed from (119) and.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. or call (607) 255 7654. Includes barley. NRAES 177. and crimson clover in the south. alsike clover. oat. 14 Includes red clover. spring wheat.sare. from (78). as a cover crop. 13 cc.org.

To purchase the book. I I D D D DD- 104 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . I-. NRAES 177.1 FOLLOWING CROP General C C C C Onion WXXXX XXXX D D XXXX D. collards Radish Turnip. I D-. locate the detailed note in the notes section. sprouts4 Kale. I W. cc6 Spring grain. I D. S XXXX XXXX WWWS D D D XXXX D D D. snap Pea Lettuce etc. I W.1 Potato Tomato Eggplant Pepper Carrot. S. I-. canola Oilseed radish S.2 Celeriac Crucifer greens3 Broccoli. winter squash Summer squash Spinach. CNDD- I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I DD- D- C D D D D D I D. W DD- W. CD-. I W. 104–108.s 109–123.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. S D D D D D D D Scallion Leek D Garlic D Pea Potato W- FAMILY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 — Lily Lily Lily Lily Legume Legume Lettuce Nightshade Nightshade Nightshade Nightshade Carrot Carrot Carrot Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Cucurbit Cucurbit Cucurbit Cucurbit Beet Beet Grass Rose Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Legume Legume Legume Grass-legume Grass Grass Grass Grass Buckwheat Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Mustard Mustard PRECEDING CROP General Onion Scallion Leek Garlic Bean. N. CN. etc.sare. I D D. visit www. b. I W. I W. APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities Compiled by Charles L. hardy8 Clovers. I W. N-. S D. I W. I W. I D-. The row goes across pp. rutabaga. I DD DDDDDDD-. ND D XXXX D. p. herbs etc. W D-. snap Legume Lettuce Lettuce. S-. I W. NI. C- W S S D D D D D DDDD- D D D WWWWWW- WWW- W W W W CD CD CD-.nraes. CN-. N. Mohler Find the preceding crop in the second column and the following crop in the 5th row. C. cc7 Annual ryegrass Sorghum-sudangrass Buckwheat White clover Clovers.org. S. cauliflower Cabbage. S DI. I D- DDDDD W-. NNND. not hardy9 Sweet clover Hairy vetch Field pea Bell bean Rape. parsnip Celery. or call (607) 255 7654. I D-. S- DDDDDDD D D-. daikon Cucumber Melons5 Pumpkin. A B C D E F G H I Nightshade FAMILY — Lily Lily Lily Lily Legume Bean. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. I W. chard Beet Sweet corn Strawberry Field corn Oat Spring barley Winter wheat. I W. Using the row number and column number.org or www. hay Winter grain. spelt Rye Soybean Dry bean Alfalfa hay Grass & grass-leg. CXXXX D D S S.

NRAES 177. parsnip Carrot Celery. NNNND DD D W. I D CD. To purchase the book. I XXXX D. NXXXX D D D C- I I I I D W. NNNND DD D D XXXX D D D-.sare. WD. NW. Kale. I W. rutabaga. ND XXXX D D D D D-. I W. NW. I D. or call (607) 255 7654. I W W W W DDDDDDDDDDDDDDDD D XXXX D D D D-. cauliflower Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Turnip. NW.org or www. WND D N-. I C I C C DDD-. CD CCD XXXX D D D XXXX XXXX D D D D D W. sprouts4 collards Radish Cucumber S S DCD. SDDCCDD-.nraes. W-. W-. WND D N-.org. CNNNND. SD SDDDDDDDC- S S DCS DD D D D S D D D D D D D D W W W W W- D D D D D XXXX D- N-.2 Carrot Mustard Crucifer greens3 Mustard Broccoli. CD. NNNND DD D D D XXXX D DWD. WND D ND D ND D APPENDIX 2 | Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities 105 . SDDDD-. W-. daikon Cucurbit FOLLOWING CROP Tomato 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Eggplant Pepper Celeriac Cabbage. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. I W. APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) J K Nightshade L Nightshade M N O P Q R S T U V FAMILY Nightshade Carrot Carrot. I XXXX D CD D XXXX XXXX D D D. SDDDCD- DD- NND D N-. herbs etc. b. S.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. visit www.

chard Beet Grass Sweet corn Rose Grass Grass FOLLOWING CROP Melons5 Beet Strawberry Field corn Oat FAMILY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 — Lily Lily Lily Lily Legume Legume Lettuce Nightshade Nightshade Nightshade Nightshade Carrot Carrot Carrot Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Cucurbit Cucurbit Cucurbit Cucurbit Beet Beet Grass Rose Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Legume Legume Legume Grass-legume Grass Grass Grass Grass Buckwheat Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Mustard Mustard PRECEDING CROP General Onion Scallion Leek Garlic Bean. CNNNNND D XXXX D N-. canola Oilseed radish CCD D D CD D D CD D D D D D N-. hardy8 Clovers. locate the detailed note in the notes section. I I D- D D XXXX I I I I DD- D-. w. sprouts4 Kale. CNNNNND XXXX D D N-. W X Y Z AA AB AC AD AE FAMILY Cucurbit Cucurbit Pumpkin.s 109–123. CN-. parsnip Celery. I D-. CNNNND D D XXXX XXXX DD I I I I XXXX DDD-. I D-. b. p. daikon Cucumber Melons5 Pumpkin. or call (607) 255 7654.sare. snap Pea Lettuce etc. herbs etc. rutabaga. hay Winter grain. 104–108. Using the row number and column number. spelt Rye Soybean Dry bean Alfalfa hay Grass & grass-leg. cc6 Spring grain. APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Find the preceding crop in the second column and the following crop in the 5th row.1 Potato Tomato Eggplant Pepper Carrot. visit www. cauliflower Cabbage. The row goes across pp. winter squash Summer squash Spinach. N- N- N- 106 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . NRAES 177. squash Cucurbit Summer squash Beet Spinach. I I I I I D D I I I I XXXX XXXX I I I I I I XXXX I I D.nraes. I. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. chard Beet Sweet corn Strawberry Field corn Oat Spring barley Winter wheat. collards Radish Turnip. cc7 Annual ryegrass Sorghum-sudangrass Buckwheat White clover Clovers. I. N- I D-. To purchase the book. not hardy9 Sweet clover Hairy vetch Field pea Bell bean Rape.2 Celeriac Crucifer greens3 Broccoli. N- D. I D-.org.org or www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. I D-.

or call (607) 255 7654. cc6 SorghumBucksudangrass wheat D D W-. APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) AF AG AH AI AJ AK AL Grasslegume AM AN AO AP AQ Buckwheat AR FAMILY Grass Spring barley 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Grass Winter wheat.org. I D XXXX XXXX CXXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX XXXX D D D CW D- APPENDIX 2 | Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities 107 . spelt Grass Legume Legume Legume Grass Grass Spring grain. cc7 Grass Annual ryegrass Grass Legume White clover FOLLOWING CROP Rye Soybean Dry bean Alfalfa GrassWinter legume hay grain.sare. DD. NRAES 177. I D DD. SDD- I D. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. D-. I D. I XXXX DDDDDDD XXXX N-. To purchase the book.org or www. S- WWW- D D XXXX D D.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.nraes. visit www. SN-. I XXXX XXXX D D. I D.

This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual, NRAES 177. To purchase the book, visit www.nraes.org or www.sare.org, or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued)
Find the preceding crop in the second column and the following crop in the 5th row. The row goes across pp. 104–108. Using the row number and column number, locate the detailed note in the notes section, p.s 109–123.
AS AT AU AV AW AX AY AZ

FAMILY
Legume Clovers, hardy8 Legume Legume Legume Hairy vetch Legume Legume Mustard Rape, canola Mustard Oilseed radish

FOLLOWING CROP
Clovers, Sweet not hardy9 clover Field pea Bell bean

FAMILY
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 — Lily Lily Lily Lily Legume Legume Lettuce Nightshade Nightshade Nightshade Nightshade Carrot Carrot Carrot Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Mustard Cucurbit Cucurbit Cucurbit Cucurbit Beet Beet Grass Rose Grass Grass Grass Grass Grass Legume Legume Legume Grass-legume Grass Grass Grass Grass Buckwheat Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Legume Mustard Mustard

PRECEDING CROP
General Onion Scallion Leek Garlic Bean, snap Pea Lettuce etc.1 Potato Tomato Eggplant Pepper Carrot, parsnip Celery, herbs etc.2 Celeriac Crucifer greens3 Broccoli, cauliflower Cabbage, b. sprouts4 Kale, collards Radish Turnip, rutabaga, daikon Cucumber Melons5 Pumpkin, winter squash Summer squash Spinach, chard Beet Sweet corn Strawberry Field corn Oat Spring barley Winter wheat, spelt Rye Soybean Dry bean Alfalfa hay Grass & grass-leg. hay Winter grain, cc6 Spring grain, cc7 Annual ryegrass Sorghum-sudangrass Buckwheat White clover Clovers, hardy8 Clovers, not hardy9 Sweet clover Hairy vetch Field pea Bell bean Rape, canola Oilseed radish

D D

D D D

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D D D D D D

C-

D D D CD D

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D

D D

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108 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual

This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual, NRAES 177. To purchase the book, visit www.nraes.org or www.sare.org, or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued)
Notes: A blank cell indicates that the sequence has no known advantages or disadvantages. Follow general rotation guidelines described in this book. Shading indicates that the crops are in the same family. XXXX = Crops are the same; do not plant. D = Disease problems. D- = Decreases disease problems. W = Weed problems. W- = Decreases weed problems. I = Insect problems. I- = Decreases insect problems. N = Crop nutrition problems. N- = Decreases crop nutrition problems. S = Soil structural problems. S- = Decreases soil structural problems. C = Crop management problems. C- = Decreases crop management problems. 1 Includes lettuce, chicory, endive, and escarole. 2 Includes celery, fennel, parsley, dill, and related herbs. 3 Includes mustard greens, Asian greens, napa cabbage, arugula, and cress. 4 Includes cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and kohlrabi. 5 Includes cantaloupe and watermelon. 6 Includes winter wheat, spelt, and rye. 7 Includes barley, oat, and spring wheat. 8 Includes red clover, alsike clover, and crimson clover in the south. 9 Includes berseem clover and crimson clover in the north. Notes on Interactions:
Row 1 Col. B Notes W-, weed control in onion, which is a weak competitor, is easier following the good weed suppression that results when a competitive crop like tomato or squash is heavily mulched with hay (80). W-, due to cultivation, hilling, and digging, potato is useful for cleaning up after a weedy crop (83). C, many crops do well after alliums, possibly due to mycorrhizal buildup (82, 83). XXXX D, white rot, onion smut (danger is primarily to seedlings before transplanting) (36). D, white rot (36). C, many crops do well after alliums, possibly due to mycorrhizal buildup (82, 83). XXXX C, many crops do well after alliums, possibly due to mycorrhizal buildup (82, 83). 6 R 6 6 6 6 F H I Q 5 M Row 4 4 4 Col. B D E Notes D, onion smut (danger is primarily to seedlings before transplanting), white rot (36). XXXX D, white rot (36). S, root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest; consequently, growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). S, root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest; consequently, growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). S, root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest; consequently, growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). S, root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest; consequently, growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). C, many crops do well after Alliums, possibly due to mycorrhizal buildup (82, 83). D, white rot (36). D, white rot (36). S, root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest; consequently, growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). XXXX S, root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest; consequently, growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). S-, N-, mulched garlic, however, tends to restore soil structure and fertility after the relatively extractive potato crop (80). S, root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest; consequently, growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). S, root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest; consequently, growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). XXXX D, sclerotinia drop (67; see appendix 3, p. 124). D, sclerotinia stalk rot (67; see appendix 3, p. 124). D-, clubroot declines more quickly when tomato, cucumber, snap bean, or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3, p. 21). D-, clubroot declines more quickly when tomato, cucumber, snap bean, or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3, p. 21). D-, clubroot declines more quickly when tomato, cucumber, snap bean, or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3, p. 21).

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APPENDIX 2 | Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities 109

This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual, NRAES 177. To purchase the book, visit www.nraes.org or www.sare.org, or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued)
Row 6 Col. T Notes D-, clubroot declines more quickly when tomato, cucumber, snap bean, or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3, p. 21). D-, clubroot declines more quickly when tomato, cucumber, snap bean, or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3, p. 21). D, common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris; appendix 3, p. 124); soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) increases to high density on bean, though the bean crop is scarcely affected (28, 41). D, common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris; appendix 3, p. 124); soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) (28). D, field pea and bell bean should not be planted after bean due to Fusarium, Pythium, and Sclerotinia (119). D, field pea and bell bean should not be planted after bean due to Fusarium, Pythium, and Sclerotinia (119). XXXX D, sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. trifoliorum); each can attack a variety of crops, including pea, lettuce, and possibly other plants (36). C-, there is time for a short-season crop after harvesting pea, and the second crop benefits from N supplied by the pea (81). C-, there is time for a crop of crucifer greens or spinach after harvesting pea, and the second crop benefits from N supplied by the pea (81). C-, timing works well to plant lettuce or radish after pea or spinach within a year (82). C-, there is time for a crop of crucifer greens or spinach after harvesting pea, and the second crop benefits from N supplied by the pea (81). D, sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. trifoliorum); each can attack a variety of crops, including pea, lettuce, and possibly other plants (36). D, sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. trifoliorum); each can attack a variety of crops, including pea, lettuce, and possibly other plants (36). D, sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. trifoliorum); each can attack a variety of crops, including pea, lettuce, and possibly other plants (36). W-, a short-season crop like lettuce or spinach allows good weed control and low weed seed production prior to slow-growing, long-season, hard-to-weed crops like onion and carrot (83). 8 K Row 8 Col. D Notes W-, a short-season crop like lettuce or spinach allows good weed control and low weed seed production prior to slow-growing, long-season, hard-to-weed crops like onion and carrot (83). D, sclerotinia white mold (67; see appendix 3, p. 124). D, sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. trifoliorum); each can attack a variety of crops, including pea, lettuce, and possibly other plants (36). XXXX D, sclerotinia stalk rot (67; see appendix 3, p. 124). D, lettuce, cabbage, and cress can be symptomless carriers of Colletotrichum coccodes, which causes tomato anthracnose and black dot. C-, short-season salad greens act as a cover crop and are harvested in time to plant tomato, eggplant, or pepper (83). C-, short-season salad greens act as a cover crop and are harvested in time to plant tomato, eggplant, or pepper (83). C-, short-season salad greens act as a cover crop and are harvested in time to plant tomato, eggplant, or pepper (83). W-, a short-season crop like lettuce or spinach allows good weed control and low weed seed production prior to slow-growing, long-season, hard-to-weed crops like onion and carrot (83). C-, leafy greens can make a crop before cucurbits need to be planted, and residue from the greens act as a green manure (81). C-, leafy greens can make a crop before cucurbits need to be planted, and residue from the greens act as a green manure (81). C-, leafy greens can make a crop before cucurbits need to be planted, and residue from the greens act as a green manure (81). C-, leafy greens can make a crop before cucurbits need to be planted, and residue from the greens act as a green manure (81). D, sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. trifoliorum); each can attack a variety of crops, including pea, lettuce, and possibly other plants (36). D, sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. trifoliorum); each can attack a variety of crops, including pea, lettuce, and possibly other plants (36). D, sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. trifoliorum); each can attack a variety of crops, including pea, lettuce, and possibly other plants (36).

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110 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual

Colorado potato beetle (see table 3. 124). cucumber. see appendix 3. verticillium wilt (67. verticillium wilt. cucumber. see appendix 3. D. I. see appendix 3. p. To purchase the book. which are a poor competitor and hard to weed (83).org or www. see appendix 3. S. 124). p. XXXX D. 124). S. verticillium wilt (67. verticillium wilt (67.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. p. p. p. brown and black root rot by Corticium solani (36). D-. p. see appendix 3. p. root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest. D. anthracnose. 21). snap bean. p. p. see appendix 3. consequently. see appendix 3. and collar rot (31. D. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. see appendix 3. see appendix 3. sclerotinia stalk rot. see appendix 3. p. D-. and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). 124). growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). 124). see appendix 3. 124). any 2-year sequence involving carrot. snap bean. 21). clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. 40). see appendix 3. see appendix 3. clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. D. D. consequently. 124). phytophthora blight (see appendix 3.5. p. verticillium wilt (67. verticillium wilt (67. 124). 124). verticillium wilt (36). 124). D. D. Colorado potato beetle (see table 3. verticillium wilt (67. scab of beet is caused by several of the Actinomycete species that cause common scab of potato (36). p. brown and black root rot of strawberries can be caused by the same organism as rhizoctonia canker (black scurf ) of potato (36). bacterial spot (67. 124). p. see appendix 3. consequently. the timing of potato harvest and garlic planting are well suited for following potato with garlic (83). p. clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. D. p. 124). p. 10 10 10 10 10 L Q R S T 9 E 9 9 9 9 F H I J 9 9 K M 9 N 9 O 9 9 P U 9 9 AA AC 10 10 10 F H I APPENDIX 2 | Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities 111 . D-. p. Colorado potato beetle (see table 3. 124). phytophthora blight (67. see appendix 3). p. 124). see appendix 3. 124). cucumber.5. A D Notes W-. due to cultivation. S. early blight (67. celery. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Row 9 9 Col.nraes. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. 124). and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). D. Colorado potato beetle (see table 3. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. S-. p. verticillium wilt (36). D. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3. D. growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). S. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3. D. any 2-year sequence involving carrot. XXXX D. 124). sclerotinia drop (67. p. any 2-year sequence involving carrot. I.org. celery. consequently. stem canker (36). phytophthora crown and collar rot (see appendix 3). preceding and following root crops with “soil building” crops is often desirable (80). 124).sare. snap bean. phytophthora blight (31. cucumber. potatoes are useful for cleaning up weeds prior to other crops (83. 124).5. 21). p. p. see appendix 3. D. p. and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest. phytophthora blight (31. D-. cucumber. S-. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. potato cleans up weeds prior to carrots. phytophthora blight (67. D. J K Notes XXXX D.5. D. potatoes improve soil structure before small direct-seeded crops due to low traffic (83). I. sclerotinia white mold (67. see appendix 3. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3. p. 40). see appendix 3. visit www. D. preceding and following root crops with “soil building” crops is often desirable (80). p. 40). phytophthora crown. consequently. D. D. phytophthora blight (67. 40). 40). p. p. NRAES 177. D. p. D. p. and digging. W. D-. phytophthora blight (67. D. D. p. Colorado potato beetle (see table 3. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. S. D. W-. phytophthora blight (67. sclerotinia white mold (67.5. p. see appendix 3. 124). 124). sclerotinia drop (67. C-. due to cultivation and competitiveness. 124). root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest. I. see appendix 3. p. D. 124). snap bean. 21). p. verticillium wilt (67. preceding and following root crops with “soil building” crops is often desirable (80). weed control is difficult in carrots and can lead to heavy weed pressure in onions. early blight. D. 124). I. Colorado potato beetle (see table 3. D. or call (607) 255 7654. D. clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. 81). D. potatoes improve soil structure before small directseeded crops due to low traffic (83).5. 124). p. p. which is also a difficultto-weed crop. phytophthora blight (31. I. p. see appendix 3. 40). XXXX D. 124). D. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3. p. 13 D 10 10 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 13 U V W X Y AC I J K L V W X Y I J K L V W X Y B Row 10 10 Col. 21). p. root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest. 124). hilling. snap bean. root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest. celery.

brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). canola. NRAES 177. any 2-year sequence involving carrot. Chinese cabbage. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). any 2-year sequence involving carrot. any 2-year sequence involving carrot. 21). any 2-year sequence involving carrot. D. D. celery. root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest. short-season salad greens act as a cover crop and are harvested in time to plant tomato. leafy greens can make a crop before cucurbits need to be planted. N-. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. and many weeds (36). sclerotinia stalk rot. p. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. D. or call (607) 255 7654. preceding and following root crops with “soil building” crops is often desirable (80). see appendix 3. once a crop has shown infection. 124). mustard. common scab (67.org. and many weeds (36). eggplant. C-. p. celery. and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). sclerotinia drop (67. turnip. N-. or pepper (83). and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). W-. and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). lettuce. and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). D. 124). Chinese cabbage.org or www. celery root rot and celeriac scab are caused by the same organism (Phoma apiicola). and potato should be avoided due to rootknot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). D. C-. N-. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. visit www. and residue from the greens act as a green manure (81). growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). canola. celery. C-. celery. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. and many weeds (36). D. including cabbage and its relatives. celery. E Notes S. XXXX D. S. shortseason salad greens act as a cover crop and are harvested in time to plant tomato. and residue from the greens act as a green manure (81). a spring-planted field pea cover crop (often with oat) controls weeds and helps restore N after lateharvested root crops like parsnip.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. which causes tomato anthracnose and black dot (chapter 3. consequently. any 2-year sequence involving carrot. D. and residue from the greens act as a green manure (81). Cucumber can be infected with canker from soil containing diseased remains of carrots or turnips (36). Chinese cabbage. including cabbage and its relatives. and many weeds (36). a spring oat cover crop (often with field pea) helps control weeds and restore soil structure after lateharvested root crops like parsnip. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. cabbage. mustard. mustard. XXXX D. p. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. celery. and cress can be symptomless carriers of Colletotrichum coccodes. N Notes D. C-. leafy greens can make a crop before cucurbits need to be planted. turnip. neither crop should be grown for 3–4+ years (36). radish. or pepper (83). celery. XXXX D. including cabbage and its relatives. N-. Chinese cabbage. 124). and residue from the greens act as a green manure (81). turnip. D. D. canola. consequently. and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). celery root rot and celeriac scab are caused by the same organism (Phoma apiicola). see appendix 3. short-season salad greens act as a cover crop and are harvested in time to plant tomato. To purchase the book. S. p. neither crop should be grown for 3–4+ years (36). and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). D. eggplant. turnip. canola. mustard. leafy greens can make a crop before cucurbits need to be planted. APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Row 13 Col. any 2-year sequence involving carrot. D. once a crop has shown infection. 15 16 O J Row 15 Col. see appendix 3. and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). and potato should be avoided due to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (20). root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest. sclerotinia white mold (67. including cabbage and its relatives. C-. D.sare. W-. consequently. S-. and many weeds (36). celery. eggplant. radish. celery. C-. any 2-year sequence involving carrot.nraes. turnip. canola. N-. radish. leafy greens can make a crop before cucurbits need to be planted. or pepper (83). root crops tend to reduce soil structure due to the additional soil disturbance during harvest. XXXX D. C-. radish. including cabbage and its relatives. any 2-year sequence involving carrot. D. radish. Chinese cabbage. growing “soil building” crops before and after a root crop is often desirable (80). 13 13 13 F H I 16 K 13 13 M N 16 L 13 O 16 16 P Q 13 U 16 R 13 13 V AN 16 S 16 T 13 AW 16 U 14 I 16 V 14 M 14 14 N O 16 W 16 X 15 I 15 M 16 Y 112 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . any 2-year sequence involving carrot. mustard.

brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). and many weeds (36). 124). and many weeds (36). see appendix 3. 124). D. Chinese cabbage. fusarium yellows. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). 124). 124). which causes tomato anthracnose and black dot (chapter 3. broccoli residue reduces the severity of verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae) in subsequent strawberry (106). canola. turnip. mustard. Chinese cabbage. C-. p. canola. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. Chinese cabbage. D. D-. 124). radish. p. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). white mold (67). N-. residues of crops in the mustard family suppress aphanomyces root rot of pea (85). To purchase the book.org. mustard. Chinese cabbage. 124). brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). Chinese cabbage. including cabbage and its relatives. canola. Chinese cabbage. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. including cabbage and its relatives. blackleaf. clubroot. black rot. black rot. and many weeds (36). black rot. XXXX D. canola. see appendix 3. turnip. p. 124). 124). 16 AZ 17 17 17 17 F H I P 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 17 Q R S T U V W X Y 19 19 19 19 19 F G H I P 17 17 AC AY 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 Q R S T U V W X Y AY 17 AZ 18 18 18 18 18 F G H I J 18 P APPENDIX 2 | Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities 113 . blackleaf. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). turnip. clubroot (67. fusarium yellows. D. white mold (67). clubroot (67. sclerotinia white mold (67. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. see appendix 3. clubroot. and many weeds (36). beet cyst nematode attacks both cabbage and beet (10). p. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). turnip. N-. including cabbage and its relatives. clubroot (67. D. including cabbage and its relatives. D-. or call (607) 255 7654. D. fusarium yellows. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). white mold (67). brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). D. D. including cabbage and its relatives.nraes. black rot. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). 124). APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Row 16 Col. mustard. clubroot. canola. p. see appendix 3. Chinese cabbage. D. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. black rot. D. sclerotinia drop (67. and cress can be symptomless carriers of Colletotrichum coccodes. D. 124). blackleaf. fusarium yellows. black scurf and stem canker (Corticum solani) (36). brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). 18 AZ Row 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 Col. D. p. see appendix 3. p. see appendix 3. see appendix 3. see appendix 3. N-. p. p. turnip. D. clubroot. D. white mold (67). N-. 124). mustard. fusarium yellows. p. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. D. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. blackleaf. Chinese cabbage. sclerotinia stalk rot (67. radish. fusarium yellows. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). including cabbage and its relatives. see appendix 3. black rot. mustard. 21). D. D. D. residues of crops in the mustard family suppress aphanomyces root rot of pea (85). and many weeds (36). mustard. XXXX D. N-. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. mustard. N-. blackleaf. and many weeds (36). D. 124). and many weeds (36). clubroot. p. p. turnip. radish. clubroot (67. canola. Chinese cabbage. turnip. white mold (67). clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. D. p. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). canola. clubroot (67. mustard. blackleaf. see appendix 3. D. AY Notes D. D. clubroot. N-. turnip. D. D. D. 124). radish. see appendix 3. sclerotinia stalk rot (67. p. radish. turnip.org or www. D-. radish. 124). two rows of broccoli fit comfortably in the space needed for one row of summer squash. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. mustard. lettuce. including cabbage and its relatives. see appendix 3. 124). including cabbage and its relatives. D. sclerotinia stalk rot (67. sclerotinia drop (67.sare. p. sclerotinia white mold (67. XXXX D. and many weeds (36). radish. including cabbage and its relatives. turnip. N-. sclerotinia drop (67. Chinese cabbage. cabbage. see appendix 3. radish. white mold (67). radish. and many weeds (36). D. sclerotinia white mold (67. N-. canola. canola. canola. mustard. Q R S T U V W X Y AA AY Notes D. p. visit www. including cabbage and its relatives. D. N-. clubroot (67. and many weeds (36). N-. NRAES 177. D. see appendix 3. N-. see appendix 3. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. radish.

including cabbage and its relatives. including cabbage and its relatives. D. N-. unmulched vine crops get weedy. p. turnip. phytophthora crown and collar rot (see appendix 3. corn rootworm adults are attracted to cucurbits. D-. turnip. Chinese cabbage. p. see appendix 3. clubroot (67. 124). blackrot (67.org or www. see appendix 3. Chinese cabbage. radish. 124). canola. N-. clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. black rot (gummy stem blight). D. clubroot. XXXX D. Cucumber can be infected with canker from soil containing diseased remains of carrots or turnips (36).org. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). N-. radish. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. D-. mustard. D-. including cabbage and its relatives. cucumber. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). they lay their eggs at the base of the plants. p. N-. 21). canola. and many weeds (36). mustard. D. D. D. p. 21). D.nraes. snap bean. residues of crops in the mustard family suppress aphanomyces root rot of pea (85). clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. 124). see appendix 3. and many weeds (36). 22 22 V W 22 U 22 T 22 S 22 R 22 Q Row 21 Col. NRAES 177. blackleaf. N-. W. p. clubroot. turnip. N-.5. snap bean. Chinese cabbage. W. W-. 40). mustard. turnip. D. see appendix 3. D-. common scab (67. radish. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. I. clubroot (67. blackleaf. mulched vine crops clean up weeds before hard-toweed crops (83). common scab (67. phytophthora blight (67. 124). D. therefore. mustard. p. therefore. see appendix 3. intense cultivation of bean can help clean up weeds following a weedy vine crop (83). snap bean. clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. D. cucumber. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). D-. W. p. canola. cucumber. blackleaf. clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. D. 124). N-. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. residues of crops in the mustard family suppress aphanomyces root rot of pea (85). AZ Notes D. p. and the larvae attack corn roots the following year (see table 3. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). 124). visit www. clubroot (67. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). p. blackrot (67. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3). phytophthora blight (see appendix 3. cucumber. snap bean. see appendix 3. D. canola. blackrot (67. mustard. radish. leaf spots. 124). radish. W-. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. p. XXXX D. cucumber. and many weeds (36). unmulched vine crops get weedy. N-. including cabbage and its relatives. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). D. clubroot (67. see appendix 3. 20 20 20 G I P 21 AZ 22 22 22 22 22 22 A F H K L M 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Q R S T U V W X Y AY 22 P 20 AZ 21 21 21 G I P 21 21 21 21 21 21 Q R S T U V 21 21 21 W X Y 22 22 22 X Y AB 114 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . p. 124). p. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). N-. do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83). canola. p. canola. D. see appendix 3. 21). 124). clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Row 19 Col. 21). Chinese cabbage. see appendix 3. and many weeds (36). p. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). D. To purchase the book. D. unmulched vine crops get weedy. mustard. see appendix 3. p. do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83). blackrot (gummy stem blight). N-. p. turnip. N-. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. scab (67. D. therefore. turnip. clubroot (67. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. 21). p. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). 124). canola. mustard. AY Notes D. D-. Chinese cabbage. p. Chinese cabbage. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). 124). 124). clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. phytophthora blight (67. D. see appendix 3. Chinese cabbage. or call (607) 255 7654. including cabbage and its relatives. turnip. do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83).sare. 124). and many weeds (36). including cabbage and its relatives. D. and many weeds (36). D-. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. including cabbage and its relatives. and many weeds (36). clubroot. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). fusarium crown and fruit rot. radish. N-. p. 124). clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. brassicas can follow cucurbits within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). snap bean. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. see appendix 3. XXXX D. p. p. see appendix 3. 124). clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. radish.

unmulched vine crops get weedy. D. D. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3. D. W. p. N-. p. p. W-. 124). they lay their eggs at the base of the plants.org. intense cultivation of bean can help clean up weeds following a weedy vine crop (83). see appendix 3. N-. and the larvae attack corn roots the following year (see table 3. D. p. corn rootworm adults are attracted to cucurbits. or call (607) 255 7654. do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83). 22 23 23 23 AJ A F H 23 23 23 K L M 23 P 24 24 24 X Y AB 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 23 Q R S V W X Y AB 24 AD 24 24 25 25 25 25 25 25 AJ AV A H K L M P 23 AD 23 24 24 24 AJ A F H APPENDIX 2 | Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities 115 . I. 124). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.5. they lay their eggs at the base of the plants. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). p.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. To purchase the book. unmulched vine crops get weedy. therefore. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). N-. AD Notes I. hairy vetch can be overseeded into winter squash in July to provide a winter cover crop after harvest (83). therefore. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). p. do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83). scab (67. N-. fusarium crown and fruit rot. p. 124). 124). C-. p. 124). phytophthora crown and collar rot (see appendix 3.5. see appendix 3. do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83). mulched vine crops clean up weeds before hard-toweed crops (83). see appendix 3. D. 124). therefore. 124). and the larvae attack corn roots the following year (see table 3. W-. see appendix 3. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3. unmulched vine crops get weedy. intense cultivation of bean can help clean up weeds following a weedy vine crop (83). and the larvae attack corn roots the following year (see table 3. I. 40).5. scab (67. p. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). W. 124). therefore. 25 25 Q R 24 24 24 24 24 Q R S V W Row 24 24 24 24 Col. 40). brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). see appendix 3.5. do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83).org or www. they lay their eggs at the base of the plants. see appendix 3. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). phytophthora blight (67. p. do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83). gummy stem blight. D. unmulched vine crops get weedy. p. NRAES 177. corn rootworm adults are attracted to cucurbits. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3). N-. 124). W. D. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). I. and the larvae attack corn roots the following year (see table 3. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). 40). do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83). do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83). therefore. unmulched vine crops get weedy. leaf spots. black rot (gummy stem blight). they lay their eggs at the base of the plants. phytophthora blight (67. therefore.nraes. 40). do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83). 124). N-. do not follow them with direct-seeded salad greens or carrots (83). W-. W. D. N-. unmulched vine crops get weedy. unmulched vine crops get weedy. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3).sare. XXXX D. unmulched vine crops get weedy. 40). corn rootworm adults are attracted to cucurbits. brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). W. p. black rot (gummy stem blight) (67. and the larvae attack corn roots the following year (see table 3. N-. visit www. phytophthora blight (67. I. W-. N-. p. mulched vine crops clean up weeds before hard-toweed crops (83). N-. therefore. phytophthora blight (67. therefore. W-. mulched vine crops clean up weeds before hard-toweed crops (83). intense cultivation of bean can help clean up weeds following a weedy vine crop (83). W. p. W-. intense cultivation of bean can help clean up weeds following a weedy vine crop (83). phytophthora crown and collar rot (see appendix 3. phytophthora blight (see appendix 3). corn rootworm adults are attracted to cucurbits. phytophthora crown and collar rot (see appendix 3. APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Row 22 Col. p. W. 124).5. W. N-. they lay their eggs at the base of the plants. therefore. p. blackrot (gummy stem blight). intense cultivation of bean can help clean up weeds following a weedy vine crop (83). p. K L M P Notes D. unmulched vine crops get weedy. W-. XXXX D. 124). D. W-. W. see appendix 3. leaf spots. corn rootworm adults are attracted to cucurbits.

This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual, NRAES 177. To purchase the book, visit www.nraes.org or www.sare.org, or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued)
Row 25 25 25 Col. S V W Notes N-, brassicas can follow vine crops within the same year and vice versa without need for additional compost (83). D, phytophthora blight (see appendix 3, p. 124). D, leaf spots, black rot (gummy stem blight), scab (67; see appendix 3, p. 124); phytophthora blight (see appendix 3). D, blackrot (gummy stem blight), fusarium crown and fruit rot, phytophthora blight (67; see appendix 3, p. 124). XXXX I, corn rootworm adults are attracted to cucurbits; they lay their eggs at the base of the plants, and the larvae attack corn roots the following year (see table 3.5, p. 40). I, corn rootworm adults are attracted to cucurbits; they lay their eggs at the base of the plants, and the larvae attack corn roots the following year (see table 3.5, p. 40). W-, a short-season crop like lettuce or spinach allows good weed control and low weed seed production prior to slow-growing, long-season, hard-to-weed crops like onion and carrot (83). W-, a short-season crop like lettuce or spinach allows good weed control and low weed seed production prior to slow-growing, long-season, hard-to-weed crops like onion and carrot (83). C-, timing works well to plant lettuce or radish after pea or spinach within a year (82). W-, a short-season crop like lettuce or spinach allows good weed control and low weed seed production prior to slow-growing, long-season, hard-to-weed crops like onion and carrot (83). C-, timing works well to plant lettuce or radish after pea or spinach within a year (82). XXXX D, scab of beet is caused by several of the Actinomycete species that cause common scab of potato (36). D, beet cyst nematode attacks both cabbage and beet (10), and thus presumably also broccoli and cauliflower. D, beet cyst nematode attacks both cabbage and beet (10). D, beet cyst nematode attacks both cabbage and beet (10), and thus presumably also kale and collards. XXXX D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). C-, potato works well after corn because it tolerates corn stover (82). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). 30 AJ 30 30 AF AG 30 30 30 30 AA AB AD AE 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 AG AJ I J K AC F I Q R S X Row 28 28 28 28 28 Col. X AA AB AD AE Notes D, fusarium fruit rot is more common on pumpkin following corn (chapter 3, p. 21). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beet to decrease root rots (67). XXXX I, corn rootworm (see table 3.5, p. 40). D, scab (Gibberella zeae) on barley and spring wheat tends to be worse following corn even than following another spring grain, unless the corn stalks are removed for silage or by clean tillage (10). D, fusarium can be a problem when wheat follows corn (83). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). D, verticillium wilt (36). D, verticillium wilt (36). D, verticillium wilt (67; see appendix 3, p. 124). XXXX D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). C-, potato works well after corn because it tolerates corn stover (82). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D, fusarium fruit rot is more common on pumpkin following corn (chapter 3, p. 21). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beet to decrease root rots (67). I, corn rootworm (see table 3.5, p. 40). XXXX D, scab (Gibberella zeae) on barley and spring wheat tends to be worse following corn even than following another spring grain, unless the corn stalks are removed for silage or by clean tillage (10). D, barley should not be grown after corn due to possibility of scab (119). D, scab (Fusarium spp. and Gibberella spp.) can be a problem when wheat follows corn (83, 20). D-, foot rot is negligible when wheat follows oat, corn, or beans (20); take-all is better suppressed by corn than by other crops like soybean and sunflower (65). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67).

25 25 25

X Y AB

25

AD

26

B

26

D

26 26

H M

26 26 27 27 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 28

T Z I Q R S AA F I Q R S

116 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual

This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual, NRAES 177. To purchase the book, visit www.nraes.org or www.sare.org, or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued)
Row 31 Col. A Notes D-, small grains decrease nematode populations (chapter 3, p. 21). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). D-, rotation with small grains decreases root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) effects on lettuce (22). D-, use of 2 years of grass or 1 year of cereal in rotation with potato helps reduce rhizoctonia canker (67). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beet to decrease root rots (67). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). 32 M 32 C Row 31 31 31 31 Col. AB AD AE AG Notes I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). XXXX D, incidence of foot rot of wheat caused by Fusarium culmorum (but not by Helminthosporium sativum) declines more slowly if oat is part of the rotation (56). D-, foot rot is negligible when wheat follows oat, corn, or bean (20). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). D-, small grains decrease nematode populations (chapter 3, p. 21). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). D-, a preceding oat crop reduces aphanomyces (common) root rot (Aphanomyces euteiches) (54). D-, rotation with small grains decreases root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) effects on lettuce (22). D-, use of 2 years of grass or 1 year of cereal in rotation with potato helps reduce rhizoctonia canker (67). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult to cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40).

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APPENDIX 2 | Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities 117

This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual, NRAES 177. To purchase the book, visit www.nraes.org or www.sare.org, or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued)
Row 32 Col. N Notes W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult to cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beet to decrease root rots (67). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). XXXX D, barley is a good host for take-all, even though it is less affected by the disease than wheat (52); foot rot is highest when following barley (20). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). D, barley is a host for ergot (119). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). D-, small grains decrease nematode populations (chapter 3, p. 21). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). 33 33 33 33 33 33 Q R S V W AA 33 N Row 33 33 Col. H I Notes D-, rotation with small grains decreases root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) effects on lettuce (22). D-, use of 2 years of grass or 1 year of cereal in rotation with potato helps reduce rhizoctonia canker (67). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beet to decrease root rots (67). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). D, seedling root rots of corn are more common following wheat than following oat (20). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). I, wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). D, To avoid leaf diseases, avoid planting barley after wheat (107); barley should not be planted after wheat due to leaf diseases and root rot (119). XXXX D, wheat is a host for ergot (119). I, wireworms Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3.5, p. 40). D-, use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). D-, small grains decrease nematode populations (chapter 3, p. 21). W, broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest, which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39, based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). I, onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83).

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118 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual

D-. XXXX D-. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67).) (see table 3.nraes. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. D. 40).5. 124). p. I. field pea and bell bean should not be planted after alfalfa due to Fusarium and Pythium (119).) (see table 3. 124). D-. appendix 3. XXXX D. I. carrot root dieback can be severe after alfalfa. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest. D-. visit www. use of 2 years of grass or 1 year of cereal in rotation with potato helps reduce rhizoctonia canker (67). wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.5. or beans (20). 40). which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39. 40). 40). D. 41). 124). D. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. see appendix 3. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39.5. D-. 34 D 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 36 AI AJ AY F H I AG AI 34 34 34 F H I 34 M 34 N 36 36 36 37 37 AJ AW AX I M 34 34 34 34 34 34 Q R S V W AA 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 AJ AK AW AX B C D I 34 34 34 34 34 AB AD AE AH AJ APPENDIX 2 | Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities 119 .) (see table 3. AL F I AD Notes D. I. dry beans do well after sod crops due to good tilth and nutrition (83). which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39. 40). To purchase the book. D. common bacterial blight (appendix 3. p. p. W. D-. p.) (see table 3. a previous crop of soybean reduces red root rot of corn (Phoma terrestris + Pythium spp. common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris. p. soybean cyst nematode increases to high density on bean. based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). p. though the bean crop is scarcely affected (28. D. broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest. 40).) (see table 3. 124). p. which is particularly a problem in noncompetitive or difficult-to-cultivate crops like onion and carrot (39. p. I.5. D. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83).5. based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). soybean cyst nematode (28). field pea and bell bean should not be planted after bean due to Fusarium. W. D-. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). I. p. broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest. D. common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris.org or www. avoid planting crops that are hosts to ergot.5. I. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Row 34 Col. and Fusarium spp. NRAES 177. I. also. I. D-.sare. use of 2 years of grass or 1 year of cereal in rotation with potato helps reduce rhizoctonia canker (67). alfalfa is a host for Pythium violae.5. D. p. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). I. 124). D-. N-. common bacterial blight (Xanthomonas campestris. I. S-. 40). use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67).) (see table 3. Row 34 35 35 35 Col. 124). W. D. sclerotinia stalk rot (67. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83).5.) (123). XXXX D.) (see table 3. or call (607) 255 7654. p. I. based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). broadleaf weeds have time to set seeds in a grain crop before harvest. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). XXXX D. green manure of rye or other grass reduces common scab and black scurf (rhizoctonia canker) (36). onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). see appendix 3. I. 21). p. 40). soybean before potato prevents scab (82). D-. alfalfa decreases fusarium wilt (20). following soybean with rape or canola fosters buildup of Sclerotinia (119). C Notes W. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beans to decrease root rots (67). soybean cyst nematode (28). based on experience of Eric and Anne Nordell). use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beet to decrease root rots (67). foot rot is negligible when wheat follows oat. such as forage grasses. appendix 3. soybean cyst nematode (28). I. corn. p. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. sclerotinia drop (67. rotation with small grains decreases root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) effects on lettuce (22). Pythium. and Sclerotinia (119). and Sclerotinia (119). wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Pythium. D-. field pea and bell bean should not be planted after bean due to Fusarium. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3. p. p. D-. D-. before and after rye in the rotation (119). field pea and bell bean should not be planted after alfalfa due to Fusarium and Pythium (119). which causes cavity spot (see chapter 3.org. appendix 3.

p.sare.5. p. before and after rye in the rotation (119). “Winter killed cover crops like field pea and oats made the most sense before early planted vegetables. Problems can be avoided by incorporating residue a few weeks before planting (107). p. 40). I. allowing us to work the ground early in the spring” (39. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. p. C. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). green manure of rye or other grass reduces common scab and black scurf (rhizoctonia canker) (20. use before late spring or early summer crops (81). wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. I. I. D-. onion thrips may be a problem when grain precedes onions (82. N-.nraes. To purchase the book. 40). C-. D-. D. S. I. rye and hairy vetch establish well in plowed sod and make a good transition from grass sod to vegetables (81). NRAES 177.5. incorporation of large amounts of grain straw can tie up nitrogen in microbial tissues. 83). C-.5. it is a heavy feeder and can use the high N available.) (see table 3. the lag between incorporation and planting. C-. 40).5.org. XXXX D-. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83).) (see table 3. predator mites and other important predators” (107).) (see table 3. thereby making it unavailable to succeeding crops. N-. D-. D-. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). 36). N. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-. white grubs (Phyllophaga spp. smooth brome should not be used in rotation with wheat if take-all is a problem (52). onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). thereby making it unavailable to succeeding crops. 40). I. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beans to decrease root rots (67).) and white grubs (Phyllophaga spp. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. however. I. or call (607) 255 7654. however. and diseases are not a problem (82). 40).) (see table 3.) (see table 3. it is a heavy feeder and can use the high N available. C. 40). C.) and white grubs (Phyllophaga spp.5. barley should not be grown after bromegrass” (119). avoid planting crops that are hosts to ergot. I.) (see table 3. S. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. p. M Notes W. D. D. to avoid leaf diseases. and other important predators” (107). C. p. D-. quoting Eric and Anne Nordell).) and white grubs (Phyllophaga spp. W-.) (see table 3. Problems can be avoided by incorporating residue 3 weeks before planting (95). 38 38 38 38 V W AA AB 38 38 AC AD 38 AE 38 AG 38 AH 38 38 38 AJ AL AM 38 AV 39 A 40 40 B C 120 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (see table 3. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beet to decrease root rots (67). corn does well after sod. N. D-. leaves the soil open to erosion. “If scald is a problem. I. 40). rye and hairy vetch establish well in plowed sod and make a good transition from grass sod to vegetables (81). leaves the soil open to erosion. the lag between incorporation and planting. and diseases are not a problem (82). dry beans do well after sod crops due to good tilth and nutrition (83). B C D F G H I M N P Q R S AA AF AJ Notes I. perennial grasses and weeds from plowed-down sod make weeding carrots difficult (82). S-. p. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp.) (41). onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). avoid direct seeding small-seeded crops after a rye cover crop due to interference from the straw (82). for maximum dry matter accumulation.5. wireworms` (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. D-.) and white grubs (Phyllophaga spp. corn does well after sod. rye suppresses thielaviopsis (black) root rot (Thielaviopsis basicola) (54). D-. p.5. such as forage grasses. p.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.5. avoid planting barley after wheat (107). “High-biomass cover crops such as barley or rye increased population of centipedes. 40). wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. D. onion thrips may be a problem when grain precedes onions (82. I. I. 40). use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). D-. I. p. avoid direct seeding small-seeded crops after a rye cover crop due to interference from the straw (82). incorporating annual ryegrass can tie up N in microbial tissues. 39 40 AM A Row 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 39 Col. APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Row 38 Col. C.) (see table 3. I. 40). avoid direct seeding of small-seeded crops after a rye cover crop due to interference from the straw (82). N-. avoid direct seeding small-seeded crops after a rye cover crop due to interference from the straw (82).5. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. XXXX C-. I-. an oat cover crop decreases density of lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp. wireworms (Melanotus communis and Limonius spp. unlike most crops. “High-biomass cover crops such as barley or rye increased population of centipedes. I. visit www. 83). decomposing rye releases allelopathic toxins that suppress weeds but may also harm crops. I-. predator mites. I.5.) (see table 3.org or www.

cucumber. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. oat cover crop (often with field pea) controls weeds and improves soil structure before summertransplanted brassicas (83). incorporating annual ryegrass can tie up N in microbial tissues. D. p. quoting Eric and Anne Nordell). cucumber. oat cover crop (often with field pea) controls weeds and improves soil structure before summertransplanted brassicas (83). including pea. clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. N-. each can attack a variety of crops. use of 2 years of grass or 1 year of cereal in rotation with potato helps reduce rhizoctonia canker (67). and slugs were also a nuisance after even one year of clover sod” (39. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). D-. and slugs were also a nuisance after even one year of clover sod” (39. oat cover crop (often with field pea) controls weeds and improves soil structure before summertransplanted brassicas (83). APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Row 40 40 40 40 Col. D-. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). I. “Grubs. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). p. D-. I. p.sare. D-. XXXX D-. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. D-. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beet to decrease root rots (67). 21). S-. ryegrass reduces clubroot infection rates more than other rotation species (20). ryegrass reduces clubroot infection rates more than other rotation species (20). use of 2 years of grass or 1 year of cereal in rotation with potato helps reduce rhizoctonia canker (67). D-. snap bean. 21). or call (607) 255 7654. W-. snap bean. 21). nitrogen-fixing cover crop (107). use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with beans to decrease root rots (67). snap bean. I. 21). snap bean. D-. D-. S-. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. lettuce. I. I. 45 H 45 G 44 44 45 H AR A 43 T Row 41 42 Col.nraes. p. the lag between incorporation and planting. maggots. “Grubs. D-. ryegrass reduces clubroot infection rates more than other rotation species (20). use of 2 years of grass or 1 year of cereal in rotation with potato helps reduce rhizoctonia canker (67). however. trifoliorum). quoting Eric and Anne Nordell). ryegrass reduces clubroot infection rates more than other rotation species (20). D-. p.org. I. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with cabbage and related species to decrease white mold (67). NRAES 177. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. and possibly other plants (36). onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). sorghum-sudangrass cover crop reduces southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) populations in subsequent vegetable crops (30). I. snap bean. I. p. 42 42 42 42 42 43 B C D I AP I 40 R 40 S 43 Q 40 40 40 41 AA AJ AN A 43 R 43 S 43 U 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 41 B C D I P Q R S T U 43 44 AQ A APPENDIX 2 | Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities 121 . XXXX I. D-. cucumber. S-. severity of verticillium wilt was lower following buckwheat green manure than following canola or a fallow period (see chapter 3. leaves the soil open to erosion. D-. D-. ryegrass reduces clubroot infection rates more than other rotation species (20). 21). D-. Problems can be avoided by incorporating residue a few weeks before planting (107). 21). thereby making it unavailable to succeeding crops. clover rot fungus (Sclerotinia trifoliorum) occasionally attacks lettuce (36). XXXX N. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). cucumber. S. N-. clovers before lettuce increases tarnished plant bug attack (82).org or www. D F I Q Notes I. D-. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. nitrogen-fixing cover crop (107). D-. clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. buckwheat leaves the soil in a good state of tilth for potato (83). cucumber. D-. ryegrass reduces clubroot infection rates more than other rotation species (20). visit www. onion thrips may be a problem when grain or any grass precedes onions (83). D. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. or buckwheat is grown (see chapter 3. AO A Notes XXXX D-. XXXX I. clover before lettuce increases tarnished plant bug attack (82). S-. W-. maggots. W-. D-. To purchase the book. D-. use grain crops or sweet corn in rotation with bean to decrease root rots (67). clubroot declines more quickly when tomato. D-. wireworms. wireworms.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.

It can infect also broad bean (and presumably bell bean). C-. lettuce. a field pea cover crop (often with oat) controls weeds and provides nitrogen for summer-transplanted brassicas (83). N-. D. “Winter killed cover crops like field pea and oats made the most sense before early planted vegetables. cucurbits have a high nitrogen need that vetch can supply (83). allowing us to work the ground early in the spring” (39. lettuce. C-. including pea. quoting Eric and Anne Nordell). each can attack a variety of crops. avoid hairy vetch in rotation with pea due to black stem fungus (Ascochyta pinodella) (20). W-. D.org or www. D. and alsike and other clovers (36). and possibly other plants (36). N-. sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. XXXX D. XXXX N-. W-. sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. N-. a field pea cover crop (often with oat) controls weeds and provides nitrogen for summer-transplanted brassicas (83). trifoliorum). It can infect also broad bean (and presumably bell bean). sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. D. soybean. nitrogen-fixing cover crop (107). N-. hairy vetch can be a severe weed in all winter grains. trifoliorum). D. use of hairy vetch (often with rye) before late-planted crops allows maximum accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen (81). including pea. It can infect also broad bean (and presumably bell bean). APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Row 45 Col. clover before lettuce increases tarnished plant bug attack (82). and alsike and other clovers (36). NRAES 177. “Never plant dry beans or soybeans after clover unless the cover has been thoroughly incorporated by plowing” (107). N-. and alsike and other clovers (36). sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. A Notes D. nitrogen-fixing cover crop (107). and possibly other plants (36). N-. and possibly other plants (36). Dormant seeds in the cover-crop sowing may persist in the soil for several years and infest subsequent winter grain crops even if the cover crop is not allowed to seed (59). nitrogen-fixing cover crop (107). hairy vetch residue incorporated into the soil reduces fusarium wilt in watermelon. soybean. XXXX 45 Q 48 48 48 G V W 45 S 45 AI 45 AJ 48 48 48 X Y AM 45 45 AS AW 45 AX 48 49 AV A 46 46 46 47 47 A H AT A F 47 47 I AI 49 Q 49 R 47 AM 49 S 47 AS 49 AS 47 47 AU AX 122 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . D. lettuce. P Notes C-. D. fall-sown red clover provides a drought-tolerant cover crop the next summer prior to fall-sown brassicas (83). soybean. and possibly other plants (36). N-. decreasing both yield and quality. a winter grain can be overseeded into a previously established hairy vetch cover crop to create a mixed grass–legume winter cover (83). It can infect also broad bean (and presumably bell bean). fall-sown red clover provides a drought-tolerant cover crop the next summer prior to fall-sown brassicas (83). XXXX D.sare. N-. white sweet clover is an important host in which yellow bean mosaic virus 2 overwinters. fall-sown red clover provides a drought-tolerant cover crop the next summer prior to fall-sown brassicas (83). nitrogenfixing cover crop (107). W. lettuce. visit www. C-. soybean. white sweet clover is an important host in which yellow bean mosaic virus 2 overwinters. sweet clover green manure is more conducive to scab development than alfalfa or rye (20). trifoliorum).This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. N-. white sweet clover is an important host in which yellow bean mosaic virus 2 overwinters. D. including pea. D. XXXX N-. and alsike and other clovers (36). “Never plant dry beans or soybeans after clover unless the cover has been thoroughly incorporated by plowing” (107). trifoliorum). each can attack a variety of crops. C-. cucurbits have a high nitrogen need that vetch can supply (83). trifoliorum). white sweet clover is an important host in which yellow bean mosaic virus 2 overwinters. each can attack a variety of crops. a field pea cover crop (often with oat) controls weeds and provides nitrogen for summer-transplanted brassicas (83). D. each can attack a variety of crops. I. lettuce.nraes. C-. D. cucurbits have a high nitrogen need that vetch can supply (83). To purchase the book. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. D-. or call (607) 255 7654. cucurbits have a high nitrogen need that vetch can supply (83). each can attack a variety of crops. W-. 49 AW 49 H 49 G Row 48 Col. including pea. sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. and possibly other plants (36). hairy vetch is a good host for northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) (113).org. including pea.

brassicas do well after incorporating bell beans due to abundant N supply (83). mustard. D. D. nitrogen-fixing cover crop. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. turnip. lettuce. plowed-down brassica cover crops act as a fumigant against potato diseases (83). including cabbage and its relatives. turnip. visit www. trifoliorum). N-. sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. each can attack a variety of crops. D. canola. mustard. p. D. To purchase the book. and possibly other plants (36). brassicas do well after incorporating bell bean due to abundant N supply (83). Chinese cabbage. radish. canola. sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. N-. D-. each can attack a variety of crops. or call (607) 255 7654. turnip. and possibly other plants (36). including cabbage and its relatives. including cabbage and its relatives. and many weeds (36). D-. including cabbage and its relatives. brassicas do well after incorporating bell bean due to abundant N supply (83). and many weeds (36). oilseed radish can decrease nematode populations in soybean (119). brassicas do well after incorporating bell bean due to abundant N supply (83). NRAES 177. D. radish. canola. N-. each can attack a variety of crops. D. turnip. N-. Chinese cabbage. including cabbage and its relatives. plowed-down brassica cover crops act as a fumigant against potato diseases (83). brassicas do well after incorporating bell bean due to abundant N supply (83). canola. radish. N-. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. D-. lettuce. D. D-. sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. 21). D. Chinese cabbage. and many weeds (36). Chinese cabbage. mustard. and many weeds (36). S Notes D. D. including cabbage and its relatives. Chinese cabbage. canola. D. N-. lettuce. lettuce. canola. and possibly other plants (36). clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. mustard. canola. Chinese cabbage. and many weeds (36). sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. turnip. including pea. canola. and possibly other plants (36). trifoliorum). canola. radish. turnip. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. turnip. trifoliorum). canola. including cabbage and its relatives. canola.org. Chinese cabbage. including cabbage and its relatives. lettuce. including cabbage and its relatives. including cabbage and its relatives. D. and many weeds (36). canola. incorporated mustard family cover crops suppress a variety of soilborne diseases (see chapter 3. mustard. radish. turnip. Chinese cabbage. and many weeds (36). including cabbage and its relatives. Chinese cabbage. and many weeds (36). Chinese cabbage.org or www. including pea. mustard. trifoliorum). radish. including cabbage and its relatives. radish. turnip. mustard. including pea. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. mustard. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. D. including cabbage and its relatives. mustard. each can attack a variety of crops. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. mustard. AX Notes D. N-. canola. turnip. radish. radish. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. mustard. radish. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. 21). including cabbage and its relatives. 51 U Row 51 Col. mustard. and many weeds (36). and possibly other plants (36). D. turnip. mustard. Chinese cabbage. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family.nraes. mustard. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. Chinese cabbage. p.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. turnip. sclerotinia disease of broad bean (presumably including bell bean) and red clover rot are closely related (varieties of S. XXXX D. radish. D. and many weeds (36). turnip. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family.sare. canola. APPENDIX 2 Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities (continued) Row 49 Col. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. XXXX 51 T 50 50 A G 51 51 AY AZ 50 H 52 52 52 A I P 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 P Q R S T U AS 52 Q 52 R 52 S 52 T 50 AW 52 U 52 52 AI AY 50 51 51 51 AX A I P 52 AZ 51 Q 51 R APPENDIX 2 | Crop Sequence Problems and Opportunities 123 . clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. incorporated mustard family cover crops suppress a variety of soilborne diseases (see chapter 3. and many weeds (36). including pea. each can attack a variety of crops. clubroot attacks many crops in the mustard family. radish. radish. Chinese cabbage. and many weeds (36). D. D. radish. brassicas do well after incorporating bell bean due to abundant N supply (83). trifoliorum). and many weeds (36). including pea. XXXX D-. Chinese cabbage. turnip. and many weeds (36).

velvetleaf 124 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual .This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States Compiled by Margaret Tuttle McGrath Rotation (years)1 Disease VEGETABLE CROPS Asparagus Fusarium crown rot Fusarium root rot Phytophthora spear rot Pathogen Name Seed Borne Windblown Spores2 Insect Vectored Weed Hosts Fusarium spp. phaseolicola Pythium. soybean wide host range8 wide host range Rust Bean.5 White mold Bean. some other weeds in the mustard family. visit www. NRAES 177. Fusarium spp. horsenettle. and possibly other perennial weeds mustard. rain) NA NA N N N Y (aphid) Y (3) NA Y NA N N N N Y NA Y NA N Y (aphid) N Y Common bacterial blight Xanthomonas campestris Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Pseudomonas syringae pv. common lambsquarters. black medic. syringae Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) Uromyces appendiculatus Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) Botrytis cinerea Clover yellow vein virus (CYVV) Y (3) Y (3) Y (2) NA N Y Y Y Y Y (local. mostly legumes 7 common sunflower common lambsquarters. eastern black nightshade. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.org or www. Rhizoctonia. velvetleaf. shepherd's purse. Phytophthora spp.nraes. snap and dry Anthracnose Bacterial brown spot Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) Bean rust Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) Botrytis gray mold Clover yellow vein virus (CYVV) Puccinia asparagi Colletotrichum lindemuthianum Pseudomonas syringae pv. clover. Canada thistle no records located many. damping-off Y (3-4) Y N N wide host range3. lima Downy mildew Pod blight Y (5) N Y (local) N wide host range6 Y (2) Y (>3) Y N Y Y (local. and Pratylenchus spp. Thielaviopsis. black medic.sare. rain) N N no records located common purslane. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Phytophthora phaseoli Phytophthora capsici Y (2-3) Y NA N Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Halo blight NA Y (3) Y Y NA NA Y (aphid) N Root rot. horsenettle. or call (607) 255 7654. capsici) no records located no records located wide host range common chickweed. Fusarium. eastern black nightshade (P.4. To purchase the book.org. Y (long) Y (long) N Y (crown) Y (crown) Maybe N N N N N N wide host range3 wide host range3 common purslane.

Rhizoctonia solani Heterodera schachtii Rotation (years)1 Y (long). actual hosts might be affected by strain specificity wide host range3 wide host range wide host range9 Cabbage.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. tumble pigweed. cauliflower. campestris Plasmodiophora brassicae Peronospora parasitica Y (4) Y (3) Y Y Y (local) NA N N Clubroot Downy mildew Y (7) Y (3) N N NA Y N N Fusarium yellows Head rot of broccoli Root-knot nematodes Fusarium oxysporum Pseudomonas spp. hedge mustard. rain) N N NA N N N N N N several10 no records located no records located wide host range5 wide host range4. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. To purchase the book. shepherd's purse. incognita Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Cercospora beticola Streptomyces spp. M.nraes. root rot Sugar beet cyst nematode N Y (local) N wide host range6 Y (3) Y (3-4) Y (3) Y Y (3-4) Y (4-5) Y N Y Y Y N Y (local) N Y (local.org or www. common lambsquarters.5 wide host range6 wide host range5 APPENDIX 3 | Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States 125 . marsh yellowcress. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 NA Disease Root-knot nematodes Pathogen Name Meloidogyne hapla. shepherd's purse. Rhizoctonia solani Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Rhizoctonia solani Y (7) Y (2) Y (long). field pennycress weeds in the mustard family mustard. yellow rocket. Y (3) Y Y (local) N Black leg. seed decay Black rot Phoma lingam Xanthomonas campestris pv. hairy galinsoga field pepperweed. Phoma betae Rhizoctonia solani Pythium ultimum. Virginia pepperweed. small grains Y (3) Y (5) Y (4-5) N N N N NA NA N N N Root rot White mold Wirestem Y N Y N Y (local) N N N N wide host range4. NRAES 177. Meloidogyne hapla. small grains Y (5) Seed Borne N Insect Vectored N Weed Hosts wide host range9 White mold Beet Cercospora leaf spot Common scab Phoma leaf spot Pocket rot Seed rot. M.5 field pennycress. visit www. incognita Pythium ultimum.sare. broccoli. and Brussels sprouts Alternaria leaf spot Alternaria spp. damping-off. field pennycress suspected. some other weeds in the mustard family several11 wild mustard. or call (607) 255 7654.org.

others Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Aster yellows phytoplasma Pseudomonas syringae pv. foliar blight Damping-off. cottony rot Celery Aster yellows Bacterial leaf spot Early blight. Italian ryegrass. To purchase the book.. wild-proso millet wide host range3 no records located 126 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . carotae Pythium spp.sare. annual bluegrass yellow woodsorrel NA Y NA Y (1. M. apii Cercospora apii Septoria apiicola Rotation (years)1 Y (2-3) NA Y (2-3) Seed Borne Y N Y Insect Vectored N Weed Hosts no records located Y wide host range12 (leafhopper) N mustard. septoria leaf spot Corn. etc Erwinia stewartii Y NA N — Y (local. or call (607) 255 7654. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual..nraes.org. barnyardgrass green foxtail. shepherd's purse. Meloidogyne hapla. NRAES 177. visit www. small grains Y (5) Y Y N Y N N N Y (local) N N N NA N N N N N N White mold.org or www. johnsongrass. Rhizoctonia spp.. Cercospora carotae Streptomyces spp. 2 w/ no-till) N NA N Y N N N Y Y Y (local) NA Y (local) N NA N Y no records located (leafhopper) Y (aphid) N Y Y (flea beetle) witchgrass. some other weeds in the mustard family several weed hosts4 no records located no records located wide host range5 wide host range4. sweet Anthracnose Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV-PAV) Common rust Common smut Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) Northern corn leaf blight Seed rots Stewart's wilt N Y (local) N wide host range6 NA Y (2-3) Y Y (2) N Y Y Y NA NA Y (local) Y (local) Y wide host range12 (leafhopper) N N N wide host range no records located no records located Colletotrichum graminicola Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDVPAV) Puccinia sorghi Ustilago maydis Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) Exserohilum turcicum Fusarium spp. seed decay Root-knot nematodes Y (3-4) Y (2-3) Y (3-4) Y (4-5) N Y (long). APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 Y (local) NA NA Disease Carrot Alternaria leaf blight Aster yellows Bacterial leaf blight Pathogen Name Alternaria dauci Aster yellows phytoplasma Xanthomonas campestris pv. Rhizoctonia solani Pythium spp. Diplodia spp. incognita.5 wide host range9 Cavity spot Cercospora leaf spot Common scab Crater rot. cercospora leaf spot Late blight. rain) NA N Y (aphid) several grasses13 witchgrass.

cucurbitae Fusarium oxysporum f. watermelon) Bacterial leaf spot Bacterial wilt Y ( 3) NA Y N NA NA Y? (bee) Y no records located (cucumber beetle) N N N N Y (aphid) N wide host range5 no records located redroot pigweed several weed hosts4 wide host range8 common purslane. wide host range no records located mustard. horsenettle. To purchase the book. citrulli Erwinia tracheiphila Rotation (years)1 Y (2+) Y (2+) Y (2) Y (2-3) Seed Borne Y Y Y Y Insect Vectored N N Y N Weed Hosts Virginia copperleaf is a host for Alternaria spp.org. sp. rain) NA Disease Alternaria leaf blight Angular leaf spot Anthracnose Bacterial fruit blotch Pathogen Name Alternaria cucumerina Pseudomonas syringae Colletotrichum orbiculare Xanthomonas campestris Acidovorax avenae subsp. or call (607) 255 7654. niveum Didymella bryoniae Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) Phytophthora capsici Podosphaera xanthii NA Y (5) Y (5-7) Y (5-7) Y (5-7) Y (2) NA Y (>3) N N Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y N N N N Y (local) NA Y (local.org or www. Y (long) Y (2) Y (2) N NA N N Y N N N N N Y (local) Y (local) N NA N Downy mildew Fusarium crown and root rot Fusarium wilt (cucumber) Fusarium wilt (melon) Fusarium wilt (watermelon) Gummy stem blight (aka black rot) Papaya ring spot virus (PRSV) Phytophthora blight Powdery mildew Pseudoperonospora cubensis Fusarium solani f. velvetleaf (P. infestans)4 no records located no records located no records located no records located no records located no records located burcucumber common purslane. melon. pumpkin. gummy stem blight Choanephora blossom blight or fruit rot Cottony leak Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Damping-off.nraes. sp.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. NRAES 177. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 Y (local) NA Y (local. Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Pythium spp. squash. eastern black nightshade. sp.sare. Phytophthora spp. cucumerinum Fusarium oxysporum f. velvetleaf no records located Belly rot Black rot. root rot Rhizoctonia solani Didymella bryoniae Choanephora cucurbitarum Pythium spp. rain) Y N N N N N N Y (aphid) N N APPENDIX 3 | Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States 127 . shepherd's purse. horsenettle. melonis Fusarium oxysporum f.. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. some other weeds in the mustard family no records located Cucurbits (cucumber. eastern black nightshade (P. sp. visit www. capsici and P. capsici).

incognita Verticillium alboatrum. eastern black nightshade (A. M. burcucumber.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. rain) NA Y N NA N prickly lettuce Y wide host range12 (leafhopper) N N Y (aphid) common sunflower wide host range5 no records located 128 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Virginia pepperweed. NRAES 177. small grains Y (4-5) N N N N Verticillium wilt Lettuce Anthracnose Aster yellows Botrytis gray mold-post harvest Bottom rot Broadbean wilt virus (BBWV) Y N N wide host range14 Y (1) NA Y Y (3) NA Y N N N N Y (local. M. small grains Y (2+) Y (2+) Y (long). APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 NA Y (local) Y (local) N Disease Root-knot nematodes Scab Septoria leaf spot Southern blight Pathogen Name Meloidogyne hapla.org. visit www. redroot pigweed. alternata Phytophthora capsici Y (5) NA N N Y (local) NA N Y (aphid) Y Y (2-3) Y Y (local. incognita Cladosporium cucumerinum Septoria cucurbitacearum Sclerotium rolfsii Rotation (years)1 Y (long). To purchase the book. grass Y (2) Y (5) NA Seed Borne N Y N N Insect Vectored N N N N Weed Hosts wide host range9 common sunflower no records located no records located Ulocladium leaf spot Verticillium wilt Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) Ulocladium cucurbitae Verticillium dahliae Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) N Y N Y (local) N NA N N Y (aphid) no records located velvetleaf. solani) field pepperweed. corn. dahliae Microdochium panattonianum Aster yellows phytoplasma Botrytis cinerea Rhizoctonia solani Broadbean wilt virus (BBWV) Y (2-3) Y (long). A. velvetleaf jimsonweed. eastern black nightshade.org or www. common sunflower. shepherd's purse wide host range6 no records located White mold Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) Eggplant Anthracnose Alternaria early blight Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) Colletotrichum coccodes Alternaria solani. jimsonweed. rain) Y (local) N N eastern black nightshade. or call (607) 255 7654. rain) Y (local) NA N Phomopsis vexans Meloidogyne hapla. field pennycress no records located wide host range9 Phytophthora crown or collar rot Phomopsis Root-knot nematodes Y (>3) N Y (local.nraes. field pennycress common lambsquarters. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. V. small grains.sare.

APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 NA N Y Y (local) NA Disease Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Damping-off Downy mildew Drop Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) Root-knot nematodes Pathogen Name Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Pythium spp. M.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. small grains) Y (3-4) Y (4) Y (long) Y Y (3-6) N NA N Onion Bacterial canker. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. field pepperweed. To purchase the book. N N N Y Y (Fusarium) NA NA Y Y N N N N N N no records located no records located no records located no records located wide host range3. small grains Y Y Y (long) Y (long) N Y Y Y (local) NA N N Slippery skin Smut Stalk rot Stemphylium leaf blight White rot N Y Y Y N NA Y (local) Y (local) Y (local) N N N N N N wide host range no records located green foxtail no records located no records located APPENDIX 3 | Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States 129 . witchgrass.4 Downy mildew Fusarium basal rot Lesion nematodes Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) Pink rot Peronospora destructor Fusarium oxysporum f. green foxtail. Fusarium spp. common lambsquarters. NRAES 177. sp.nraes. annual sowthistle wide host range9 Y (long). sour skin Bacterial soft rot Botrytis leaf blight Botrytis net rot Damping-off Burkholderia cepacia Erwinia carotovora subs. or call (607) 255 7654. shattercane.org. prickly lettuce wide host range6 common groundsel. incognita Rotation (years)1 NA N Y (2-3) Y (3) NA Seed Borne N Y N N Y Insect Vectored Y (aphid) N N N Y Weed Hosts wide host range8 several weed hosts4 perennial sowthistle. carotovora Botrytis squamosa Botrytis allii Pythium spp. wide host range9 Purple blotch Root-knot nematodes Alternaria porri Meloidogyne hapla. cepae Pratylenchus spp. minor Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) Meloidogyne hapla. M. horsenettle Virginia copperleaf is a host for Alternaria spp. allicola Urocystis colchici Stemphylium botryosum Stemphylium vesicarium Sclerotinia cepivorum Y (long) Y (long). annual sowthistle. small grains N N Y (3-4) Y (2-3) Y (Fusarium. S.sare. visit www.. Onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV) Phoma terrestris Y N Y Y N Y N NA NA Y (local) N N N Y (aphid) N no records located no records located wide host range no records located barnyardgrass. Bremia lactucae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. incognita Pseudomonas gladioli pv.org or www.

small grains Y (long) NA Y (long) N Y Southern blight Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Verticillium wilt N N N N NA N N Y (thrips) N no records located wide host range15 wide host range14 130 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . eastern black nightshade (P. infestans)4. sp.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. field pennycress wide host range9 Bacterial soft rot Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Damping-off N NA N N N N NA NA N Y Y (aphid) N Phytophthora blight Phytophthora capsici Y (>3) Y Y (local. or call (607) 255 7654. Pythium spp. horsenettle. rain) NA N N velvetleaf mustard. some other weeds in the mustard family no records located wide host range8 common purslane. viridiflava Ascochyta pisi Pseudomonas syringae pv. incognita Sclerotium rolfsii Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Verticillium alboatrum. M. shattercane. barnyardgrass. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.. velvetleaf (P. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 NA NA Disease Parsnip Aster yellows Bacterial blight Pathogen Name Aster yellows phytoplasma Pseudomonas marginalis.nraes.org or www. visit www. rain) NA N Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne hapla. vesicatoria Erwinia carotovora Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Phytophthora spp. P. V..5 field pepperweed. quackgrass wide host range6 White mold Pepper Anthracnose fruit rot Bacterial leaf spot Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Xanthomonas campestris pv. To purchase the book. Virginia pepperweed.sare.org. shepherd's purse. pisi Pythium ultimum Rotation (years)1 NA Y Seed Borne N N Insect Vectored Weed Hosts Y wide host range12 (leafhopper) N wide host range Pea Ascochyta leaf spot Bacterial blight Fusarium wilt Seed decay and root rot Y (3) NA Y (long) Y (3-4) Y Y N Y Y (local) NA N N N N N N no records located wide host range no records located wild-proso millet. capsici). NRAES 177. Rhizoctonia solani Y (5) N Y (local) N Y (2) Y Y Y Y (local. pisi Fusarium oxysporum f. capsici and P. dahliae Y (long).

NRAES 177. Colletotrichum coccodes Botrytis cinerea Rhizoctonia solani Streptomyces spp. dahliae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Colletotrichum spinaciae Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y (long) Y (long) Y (5-9) Y (seed tubers) Y (seed tubers) Y (seed tubers) Y (seed tubers) N Y Y (seed tubers) Y (seed tubers) N N N NA N N N N N (>4 if severe) Y (long) N (>4 if severe) Y (3-10) Y (long). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. small grains Y (>3?) Y (long) Y (5) Y N NA N N NA N N N N N N eastern black nightshade several weed hosts4 wide host range no records located no records located wide host range9 Silver scurf Verticillium wilt White mold Spinach Anthracnose Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Y (seed tubers) N N N N Y (local) N N N no records located wide host range14 wide host range6 Y (3+) NA Y N Y (local. sepedonicum Erwinia spp. or call (607) 255 7654. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 NA Disease Potato Bacterial ring rot Pathogen Name Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. jimsonweed (A. F. tomatophila Rotation (years)1 NA (regulated. solani) wide host range3 no records located Fusarium dry rot Fusarium wilt Golden nematode.nraes. V.) green foxtail (F. NY only) Late blight Leak Lesion nematodes Pink rot Powdery scab Root-knot nematodes Fusarium solani. A. velvetleaf common sunflower wide host range5 no records located redroot pigweed. eastern black nightshade. Pratylenchus spp. Alternaria solani. M.org or www. Globodera rostochiensis Phytophthora infestans Pythium spp. Phytophthora erythroseptica Spongospora subterranea Meloidogyne hapla.sare. 0 tolerance) N Y (2) N Y (3-4) Y (3-4) Y (2) Seed Borne Y (seed tubers) Insect Vectored N Weed Hosts no records located Bacterial soft rot Black dot root rot Botrytis vine rot Canker and black scurf Common scab Early blight N Y (seed tubers) N Y (seed tubers) N N NA N Y N N Y (local) N N N N N N no records located eastern black nightshade. To purchase the book. Potato cyst nematode (quarantined. incognita Helminthosporium solani Verticillium alboatrum. visit www.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. sambucinum Fusarium spp. rain) NA N Y (aphid) no records located wide host range8 APPENDIX 3 | Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States 131 . solani). Virginia copperleaf (A.org. sp.

michiganensis Erwinia carotovora subsp. velvetleaf no records located Bacterial soft rot Bacterial speck Bacterial spot N Y (2) Y (1-3) N Y Y NA NA NA N N N no records located no records located mustard. Peronospora effusa Albugo occidentalis Ceratocystis fimbriata Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.org or www. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. rhizopus soft rot Surface rot. southern blight. circular spot Scurf Soft rot. vesicatoria Botrytis cineria Phytophthora parasitica. sheperd's purse. small grains Y (3-4) Y (2-4) N N NA Seed Borne N Y N Y (seed roots) Y (seed roots) Y (seed roots) Y (seed roots) Y (seed roots) Y (seed roots) N N Y (seed roots) Insect Vectored N N N N N N N Weed Hosts several weed hosts4 winter spinach. fusarium surface rot Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) Tomato Anthracnose Bacterial canker N N N N NA N N N N Y (aphid) no records located no records located no records located wide host range3 no records located Y (3+) Y Y Y Y (local.org. capsici) wide host range8 wide host range4. Rhizoctonia spp. incognita Sclerotium rolfsii Monilochaetes infuscans Rhizopus stolonifer Fusarium oxysporum Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) Colletotrichum coccodes Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. M. tomato Xanthomonas campestris pv. batatas Streptomyces ipomoea Meloidogyne hapla.5 Botrytis gray mold Buckeye fruit rot N Y (3+) N N Y Y (local. or call (607) 255 7654. common lambsquarters no records located no records located no records located no records located wide host range9 Sclerotial blight. velvetleaf (P. Rotation (years)1 N Y (2) Y (3) Y (3-4) Y Y (5) Y (long). capsici Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Pythium spp. rain) NA N N eastern black nightshade. rain) NA N N N Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) Damping-off NA N N N Y (aphid) N 132 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual .This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. NRAES 177. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 N Y Y (local) N N N NA Disease Damping-off and seed rot Downy mildew.. soil rot Root-knot nematodes Pathogen Name Pythium spp. To purchase the book.nraes. visit www. carotovora Pseudomonas syringae pv. horsenettle. blue mold White rust Sweet Potato Black rot Fusarium wilt Pox.sare. some other weeds in the mustard family common sunflower common purslane. P.

corn.nraes. To purchase the book.5 Y (3) Y NA N Blackleg Clubroot Common scab Damping-off Y (4) Y (7) Y (3-4) N Y N N N Y (local. rain) NA N N N N N N Downy mildew Y (3) N Y N wild mustard. jimsonweed (A.. capsici) horsenettle. sp. visit www. eastern black nightshade.) no records located eastern black nightshade no records located common purslane. some other weeds in the mustard family wild radish wide host range11 no records located wide host range4. lycopersici Phytophthora infestans Fulvia fulva Phytophthora parasitica. P.. others Peronospora parasitica Y (2+) Y Y (local) N field pepperweed. solani Rotation (years)1 NA Seed Borne Y Insect Vectored Y (aphid) Weed Hosts no records located Early blight Y (long) Y Y (local) N redroot pigweed. A. hedge mustard. Virginia copperleaf (A.org or www. Virginia pepperweed. horsenettle. marsh yellowcress. yellow rocket. Pythium spp. shepherd's purse. capsici Septoria lycopersici Sclerotium rolfsii Y (5-7) N Y (3+) Y (3+) Y Y Y N N Y Y N N N N N Septoria leaf spot Southern blight Y (3) Y (long). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. campestris Phoma lingam Plasmodiophora brassicae Streptomyces spp. cereal. brown Alternaria spp. spot Black rot Xanthomonas campestris pv. or call (607) 255 7654. field pennycress wide host range5 Wirestem Rhizoctonia solani Y (4-5) Y N N APPENDIX 3 | Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States 133 . grass NA NA Y N Y N Y (local) N N N Tomato mosaic virus (TMV) Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Verticillium wilt White mold. V. field pennycress mustard. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 NA Disease Double virus streak Pathogen Name Tomato mosaic virus (TMV) and potato virus X (PVX) Alternaria tomatophila. jimsonweed no records located Fusarium Late blight Leaf mold Phytophthora root rot Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.sare. timber rot Tomato mosaic virus (TMV) Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Verticillium alboatrum. dahliae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum N N N N NA NA N Y (local) Y (aphid) Y (thrips) N N no records located wide host range15 wide host range14 wide host range6 Turnip.org. Rhizoctonia spp. solani). rutabaga and radish Alternaria leaf spot. shepherd's purse.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. velvetleaf (P. NRAES 177.

annual bluegrass yellow woodsorrel Common rust Common smut Diplodia ear rot. nonlegumes Y (long) Y Y N N N N wide host range wide host range3. To purchase the book. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 Disease FIELD CROPS Alfalfa Anthracnose Aphanomyces root rot Bacterial wilt Pathogen Name Rotation (years)1 Seed Borne Insect Vectored Weed Hosts Colletotrichum trifolii Aphanomyces euteiches Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. Rhizoctonia solani Fusarium oxysporum f.5 Fusarium wilt Lepto leaf spot Lesion nematodes Phytophthora root rot Y (long) N N Y (very long) Y N N N N Y (local) NA N N N N N no records located medics.. Italian ryegrass. P. Pythium spp. visit www. S. worst in no-till continuous corn N Y N Y Y (local) Y N Y no records located (leafhopper) N no records located 134 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . NRAES 177.org.org or www. rain) NA N Y (aphid) several grasses13 witchgrass.4. soybean wide host range no records located Sclerotinia crown and stem blight Spring black stem and leaf spot Summer black stem and leaf spot Verticillium wilt Corn Anthracnose leaf blight and stalk rot Barley yellow dwarf virus Y (3-4) Y Y (local) N wide host range6 Y (2-3) Y (2-3) Y (3) Y Y Y Y (local. megasperma f. stalk rot. rain) N N N Y (several) legumes legumes wide host range14 Y (2) NA N N Y (local. rain) Y (local. insidiosus Phoma sclerotioides Fusarium spp. or call (607) 255 7654.. medicaginis Sclerotinia trifoliorum. Phytophthora medicaginis.sare. sp. sp. sclerotiorum Phoma medicaginis Cercospora medicaginis Verticillium albo-atrum Colletotrichum graminicola Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV-PAV) Puccinia sorghi Ustilago maydis Stenocarpella maydis (Diplodia maydis) Y (2-3) Y (2-3) N Y N Y Y (local. medicaginis Leptosphaerulina trifolii Pratylenchus spp.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. rain) N NA N N N no records located legumes no records located Brown root rot Crown and root rot complex Y (3). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.nraes. seed rot and seedling blight N Y (long) Y (2-3). Phoma medicaginis.

Diaporthe phaseolorum (Phomopsis phaseoli) Bean pod mottle virus Phomopsis spp. worst in no-till continuous corn N N N Y (2-3) N N Y (local. Diplodia spp. Y N N N N NA NA NA Y N Y (corn flea a few grasses beetle) N Y (aphid) N Y wide host range witchgrass. Fusarium spp. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 Y Disease Diplodia leaf spot. Diplodia leaf streak Eyespot Pathogen Name Stenocarpella macrospora (Diplodia macrospora) Aureobasidium zeae Rotation (years)1 Y (2-3) Seed Borne N Insect Vectored N Weed Hosts no records located Y. Y Y (local) Gray leaf spot. ear worm) N wide host range3 Gibberella stalk and ear rot16 Fusarium spp. NRAES 177. rain) velvetleaf APPENDIX 3 | Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States 135 .4.5 Diaporthe stem canker Y Y Y (local.. green foxtail.. Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) Exserohilum turcicum Fusarium spp. Cercospora leaf spot Cercospora sorghi N Y (local) N a few grasses Leaf blight Lesion nematodes Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) Northern corn leaf blight Seed rots Soybean Asian soybean rust Brown spot Brown stem rot Erwinia stewartii Pratylenchus spp. johnsongrass..This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. clover. likely Damping-off.org. rain) NA N no records located Green stem/soybean viruses Phomoposis seed rot NA Y (low levels) Y Y (bean leaf beetle) N no records located Y Y (local.sare. or call (607) 255 7654.nraes. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.org or www. stem rot Y (long) N N N wide host range3. worst in no-till continuous corn Y. To purchase the book. worst in no-till continuous corn Y (2-3). goosegrass johnsongrass. rain) N no records located Fusarium stalk and ear rot Fusarium moniliforme Y Y (local) Y grasses (European corn borer. wild-proso millet wide host range3 NA Y Y (2-3) N Y N Y Y N N N N kudzu. worst in no-till continuous corn Y (1-2). Phytophthora sojae. lupin no records located unknown.. Pythium spp. visit www. barnyardgrass. etc Pakospora pachyrhizi Septoria glycines Phialophora gregata (Cephalosporium gregatum) Rhizoctonia spp.

sp. quackgrass a few grasses Tan spot Wheat spindle streak mosaic Y N Y NA N N unknown. rain) NA N a few grasses Stagonospora leaf and glume blotch Take-all Y (1-2) Y (2-3). or call (607) 255 7654.org. sclerotinia stem rot Soybean cyst nematode Sudden death syndrome Wheat Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV-PAV) Cephalosporium stripe Pathogen Name Phytophthora sojae Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Heterodera glycines Fusarium solani f. sp. head blight16 Leaf rust. annual bluegrass etc. glycines Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDVPAV) Hymenula cerealis (Cephalosporium gramineum) Tilletia tritici Bipolaris sorokiniana (Cochliobolus sativus) Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides Fusarium spp.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. likely (soilborne protozoan) 136 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . brown rust Lesion nematodes Loose smut Powdery mildew NA Y (3-6). (about 105 grass species) perennial grasses Y (2-3) N N N Common bunt. NRAES 177. rain) Y (local. rain) Y (local. Puccinia triticina Pratylenchus spp. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Windblown Spores2 N Y (local) NA N Disease Phytophthora root rot Sclerotinia white mold. avoid barley Y (2-3) Y (3 or more) Y N N N annual bluegrass annual bluegrass.sare. tritici Pyrenophora triticirepentis Wheat spindle streak mosaic bymovirus (WSSM) Rotation (years)1 Y (long) Y (long) Y (3+) Y (3) Seed Borne N Y Y (in soil with seed) N Insect Vectored N N N N Weed Hosts unknown. Fusarium spp. Ustilago tritici Blumeria gramini (Erysiphe graminis f. quackgrass) wide host range3 wide host range3 no records located wide host range no records located annual bluegrass Septoria leaf blotch Y (1-2) N Y (local. rain) Y NA Y (local) Y N N N N N N NA N N no records located grasses likely grass weeds (esp. Italian ryegrass.nraes. avoid oat Y (2+) Y (2-3) Y (2-3) Y Y (2-3) NA Y (1-2) Y Y N Y NA N N Y N NA Y Y (local. To purchase the book. rain) Y (local. tritici) Septoria tritici (Mycosphaerella graminicola) Stagonospora nodorum Gaeumannomyces graminis var. stinking smut Common root rot Eyespot foot rot Foot rot Fusarium scab. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. visit www.org or www. likely wide host range6 many no records located NA N NA Y (aphid) witchgrass.

rarely moving farther than adjacent fields. annual bluegrass. large crabgrass. black medic. Long means more than just a few years. redroot pigweed.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Y=Spores are dispersed by wind. common lambsquarters. ultimum) and yellow foxtail (P. and cowpea. Hosts of V. broad bean. common ragweed. shepherd’s purse. wild-proso millet. common chickweed. NA=Not applicable. p.sare. including wild-proso millet. corn speedwell. freesia. The number in parentheses is the minimum rotation return time needed for successful management of the disease (see sidebars 5. common milkweed. shepherd’s purse. and black locust) and nonlegume species (lambsquarters. and gladiolus). including wild mustard.org. field pepperweed. tumble pigweed. shattercane. field pennycress. redroot pigweed. common groundsel. burcucumber. page 70–page 71). white campion. Many common weeds host the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. graminicola). large crabgrass.4 and 5. vetchling. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 APPENDIX 3 | Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States 137 . common bean. redroot pigweed. Several common weeds host Pythium species. horsenettle. minor on lettuce is also hosted by yellow nutsedge. annual sowthistle. redroot pigweed. including barnyardgrass. APPENDIX 3 Sources of Inoculum for Crop Diseases in the Northeastern United States (continued) Notes Y indicates yes and N indicates no. sweet clover. common purslane. Local=Spores are wind dispersed for short distances. johnsongrass. common purslane. common sunflower. field horsetail. as pathogen does not produce spores. Canada thistle. green foxtail. 1 Y=Yes. corn cockle. common milkweed. Rain=Spores are dispersed by splashing water and can be moved out of a field by wind during a rainstorm. common ragweed. sweet pea. and prickly sida. wild radish. the disease cannot be managed through rotation because the pathogen survives too well in the soil or wind disperses the spores too widely. white sweetclover. Many common weeds host Fusarium species. prostrate pigweed. annual bluegrass. lentil. field pennycress. purslane speedwell. and field pennycress. hapla. and Italian ryegrass. N=No. including barnyardgrass. common cocklebur. Several weeds host Plasmodiophora brassicae. witchgrass. corn cockle. including common lambsquarters. NA=not applicable as the pathogen does not survive in the soil. Many common weeds host the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV). For example. field bindweed. wild mustard. prostrate knotweed. or call (607) 255 7654. NRAES 177. and Canada thistle. barnyardgrass. pea. including common lambsquarters. and wild radish. eastern black nightshade. redroot pigweed. tumble pigweed. common sunflower. including herbaceous plants such as sicklepod and other Cassia species. medics. shepherd’s purse. shepherd’s purse. shattercane. wild radish. common groundsel. common lambsquarters. common purslane. prickly lettuce. common lambsquarters. common purslane. yellowwood. yellow rocket. Many weeds host Verticillium albo-atrum. soybean. field pennycress. annual sowthistle. shepherd’s purse. Several weeds host Cercospora beticola. including eastern black nightshade. Many common weeds host CMV. Canada thistle. roundleaf mallow. Canada thistle.org or www. and witchgrass. S. in the column labeled “Seed Borne” Y indicates that the pathogen is seed borne and N indicates it is not seed borne. wild buckwheat. To purchase the book. Many common grasses host Colletotrichum graminicola. horsenettle. It has many weed hosts. quackgrass. prickly lettuce. Italian ryegrass. including redroot pigweed. tall morningglory. shepherd’s purse. including annual sowthistle. Many common weeds host Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. fenugreek. corn chamomile. goosegrass. perennial sowthistle. including dandelion. It can also infect woody members of the family (pigeon pea.5. alfalfa. barnyardgrass. clover. prickly lettuce. and wild buckwheat. vetch. crotalaria. More than 300 species are susceptible. large crabgrass. lupine. green foxtail. N=Spores are not dispersed by wind. prostrate pigweed. Virginia pepperweed. common lambsquarters. shattercane. field pepperweed. yellow woodsorrel. visit www. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Venice mallow. The same pathogen causes fusarium scab (head blight) of wheat and gibberella stalk rot of corn. Bean yellow mosaic virus has both cultivated and wild host reservoirs. redroot pigweed. goosegrass. chickpea. common lambsquarters. eastern black nightshade. the disease can be managed by rotation. perennial sowthistle. common ragweed. common ragweed. prickly lettuce. jimsonweed. wildproso millet. mouseear chickweed. and marsh yellowcress. Many common weeds host Rhizoctonia solani. common chickweed. Russian thistle. including green foxtail. wild mustard. quackgrass (P. field bindweed. plantain. It can infect most species of the legume family. common purslane. and ivyleaf morningglory. witchgrass. common purslane. wild mustard. wild buckwheat. Several species of leafhopper transmit aster yellows. prostrate pigweed. and wild buckwheat. field pennycress. hairy galinsoga. commonly for several miles.nraes. common sunflower. pitted morningglory. kochia. dahliae include velvetleaf. perennial sowthistle. eastern black nightshade. eastern black nightshade. hairy galinsoga. There are also ornamental hosts. and wild lettuce. including common chickweed. prickly lettuce. wild mustard. common groundsel. redroot pigweed. black medic. velvetleaf. and yellow nutsedge. jimsonweed. hedge bindweed.

) Morningglory R. late summer up to 5 yrs NA 5–20 yrs Chamomile.6 1. 39.5 yrs NA several yrs 1–5 yrs <5 yrs up to 21 yrs small. catchweed (cleavers) Bedstraw. hedge Calystegia sepium (L.) Beauv. Lettuce Lettuce Pink Pink Pink Lettuce Spurge Grass Lettuce Grass Grass 0. common4 Copperleaf. fall in warm regions. annual Buckwheat. spring. Polygonum convolvulus L. spring fall.) Vill.5. giant Foxtail. <3 mos up to 2.4–0. corn Cocklebur. early to late spring. Morningglory perennial spreading by deep. field Convolvulus arvensis L. creeping fleshy roots annual or shortlived perennial summer annual summer annual winter or summer annual.73 0. white Poa annua L. Anthemis cotula L. 0. large Dandelion Foxtail. spring 5–20 yrs >20 yrs 20–60 yrs NA usu.3 11 late spring spring spring late spring to midsummer throughout growing season 138 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Virginia Crabgrass. green Anthemis arvensis L.7 7. APPENDIX 4 Characteristics of Common Agricultural Weeds Relevant to Crop Rotation Compiled by Charles L. Mohler Weed scientific name Echinochloa crusgalli (L.2 Season of emergence spring to summer fall.org. Weed common name Barnyardgrass Bedstraw. 3–12 mos Bindweed. NRAES 177.13 12. 40 spring. 1.26 6 81 0.org or www.) E. or call (607) 255 7654.H.74 spring.7 seeds.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.52 0. Sicyos angulatus L. Krause Grass Buckwheat Cucurbit Pink 0.2 0. Agrostemma githago L. spring to summer large.67 0.L. Setaria viridis (L. 54 0.nraes. late summer up to 4 yrs to early fall spring.sare. Br. biennial or short-lived perennial annual or biennial winter or summer annual winter or summer annual perennial winter annual summer annual summer annual summer annual perennial summer annual summer annual 10 >20 yrs Bindweed. Xanthium strumarium L. Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers Setaria faberi Herrm. winter Seedbank longevity3 3–8 yrs 1–5 yrs Family Grass Madder Life history summer annual summer or winter annual perennial Galium mollugo L. spring fall. Madder 0.6.4 0. Cerastium vulgatum L. To purchase the book.2 1. spring late summer to fall. 15 fall. 0. Galium aparine L. spring usu.) Scop. Stellaria media (L. corn Chamomile. creeping fleshy roots perennial spreading by deep. wild Burcucumber Campion. mayweed Chickweed. Digitaria sanguinalis (L. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Silene alba (Mill. spring fall.) Beauv. Shoots: early spring fall. common Chickweed. mouseear Cockle. some in summer and fall mid spring to early summer mid to late spring. Acalypha virginica L. smooth Seed weight (mg)1.35. fall >20 yrs Bluegrass. visit www.

45 3.7 0.sare. Eleusine indica (L. 35 27 spring spring spring to summer fall. many yrs >39 yrs APPENDIX 4 | Characteristics of Common Agricultural Weeds Relevant to Crop Rotation 139 . spring spring NA <2 yrs >20 yrs 1–5 yrs NA 1–5. Family Grass Lettuce Lettuce Grass Nightshade Life history summer annual summer annual summer annual summer annual perennial spreading by deep rhizomes summer or winter annual winter annual perennial spreading by deep. spring. Galinsoga ciliata (Raf. & Bush Senecio vulgaris L. 7. visit www.4 0. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.) Beauv.43– 0.18 0. common Henbit Horsenettle Weed scientific name Setaria glauca (L. summer.5 0. pitted Panicum miliaceum L. 3. some during summer spring. Physalis subglabrata Mackenz.5. smooth Groundsel.6. NRAES 177. also summer and fall spring. common Lettuce. or call (607) 255 7654.8 6.22 0.2 2. also summer and fall early to midsummer spring to summer Seedbank longevity3 up to 13 yrs a few yrs a few yrs <5 yrs NA Lettuce Mint Nightshade 0. Morningglory Morningglory spring through summer early summer early summer >5 yrs prob. Lactuca serriola L.) Pers. Sorghum halpense (L.18. 32.17 0. spring summer fall. prostrate Kochia Lambsquarters. Asclepias syriaca L. Venice Medic. APPENDIX 4 Characteristics of Common Agricultural Weeds Relevant to Crop Rotation (continued) Seed weight (mg)1. Hibiscus trionum L.54 0.73 14 30. prickly Mallow. To purchase the book.1–1. wild-proso Morningglory. black Milkweed.nraes.51 1. field Horsetail tiny spore 5. 0.) Schrad.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.) Gaertn. spring spring >4 yrs up to 7 yrs Horsetail. smallflower Goosegrass Groundcherry.) Blake Galinsoga parviflora Cav. common Buckwheat Beet Beet Lettuce Mallow Legume Milkweed 1. Chenopodium album L.3 1. yellow Galinsoga.9 fall.2 spring spores shortlived >20 yrs up to 7 yrs Jimsonweed Johnsongrass Datura stramonium L. Medicago lupulina L.5 Weed common name Foxtail. creeping roots perennial spreading by rhizomes summer annual perennial spreading by shallow rhizomes summer annual summer annual summer annual summer or winter annual or biennial summer annual winter or summer annual perennial spreading by deep.53 1. Polygonum aviculare L. hairy Galinsoga. Nightshade Grass spring spring Knotweed. Solanum carolinense L. Equisetum arvense L.7 0. 1–5 yrs winter fall. ivyleaf Morningglory. 5–20 yrs up to 9 yrs Millet.) Jacq. Grass Ipomoea hederacea (L.org. Lamium amplexicaule L.2–2. Ipomoea lacunosa L. creeping roots summer annual summer annual summer annual Season of emergence spring. Kochia scoparia (L.org or www.

Nutsedge. Lepidium campestre (L. Pigweed Pigweed Pigweed Pigweed Pigweed 0.39 0.org. yellow Cyperus esculentus L. fall Pennycress. Ambrosia trifida L.9 0. Amaranthus blitoides S.) Roth Sisymbrium officinale (L. 31 late summer to fall.5 Weed common name Morningglory. Wats. Wheeler (= Sinapis arvensis L.) L.35 >20 yrs NA NA Pigweed.57 late spring to midsummer fall.13 2. 2.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual.28 NA NA up to 20 yrs up to 40 yrs NA Purslane. early spring early to late spring early spring. NRAES 177.sare. spring late summer to early fall late summer to early fall.51 0.org or www. late summer up to 60 yrs to early fall spring to summer spring up to 39 yrs most tubers <2 yrs 10 yrs Nightshade. wild Ragweed. common Ragweed. eastern Solanum ptycanthum Nightshade black Dun. visit www. some spring mid spring late spring to early summer mid spring mid to late spring late spring to early summer. wild Brassica kaber (DC. Elytrigia repens (L. Br.17 Panicum. field Pepperweed.37 0.6. occasionally biennial summer annual summer annual summer annual summer annual summer annual 1. fall Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. field Pepperweed. tumble Amaranthus powellii S. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) 1.43 0. rarely biennial summer or winter annual summer annual perennial with rhizomes and tubers summer annual Season of emergence early summer spring to summer Seedbank longevity3 prob. smooth Pigweed. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.) R. prostrate Pigweed. APPENDIX 4 Characteristics of Common Agricultural Weeds Relevant to Crop Rotation (continued) Seed weight (mg)1. Wats. Amaranthus albus L. Thlaspi arvense L. or call (607) 255 7654. diminishing through early summer up to 20 yrs up to 40 yrs 4–18% survive 1st yr 140 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . tall Mustard.89 0. Sedge 0. Virginia Mustard Mustard Mustard winter or summer annual winter annual winter or summer annual.) Nevski Raphanus raphanistrum L.2 17. some through fall summer spring.2 25 1. Amaranthus retroflexus L. common Quackgrass Portulaca oleracea L. To purchase the book. giant Mustard Lettuce Lettuce 8 3. Family Morningglory Mustard Life history summer annual winter or summer annual.0 >20 yrs 5–20 yrs Radish. Purslane Grass summer annual perennial spreading by shallow rhizomes winter or summer annual summer annual summer annual 0.3 spring. Grass 0. Mustard C. redroot Pigweed.) Scop.25 1.nraes. hedge Weed scientific name Ipomoea purpurea (L. Lepidium virginicum L. many yrs >5 yrs Mustard. Powell amaranth Pigweed. Amaranthus hybridus L.

visit www. Common cocklebur has one large and one small seed in each capsule. spring. spring shoots: early spring. Seeds usually die off at a constant rate. 13. 6. 91. field Witchgrass Woodsorrel. prickly Smartweed. 3. except for common cocklebur.) Moench Capsella bursapastoris (L. purslane Veronica peregrina L. 87.sare. To purchase the book. spring up to 6 yrs up to 30 yrs 5–20 yrs <5 yrs Speedwell. Seed weight (mg)1. Italian Shattercane Shepherd's purse Sida. and data of the author.35 0.27. so that most are gone much more quickly than the numbers indicate. Sonchus oleraceus L. yellow Mallow Violet Grass Woodsorrel 7 0.5.4–0. fall spring. Grass Grass Mustard Mallow Buckwheat Lettuce Lettuce 2 14 0. Panicum capillare L. 49. 0. Also. Oxalis stricta L. APPENDIX 4 | Characteristics of Common Agricultural Weeds Relevant to Crop Rotation 141 . 77. 108. 15.7 spring.) Medicus Sida spinosa L. spring. annual Sowthistle. Sorghum bicolor (L. spring late spring to midsummer spring to summer up to 50 yrs >5 yrs several decades >5 yrs Yellowcress. winter Seedbank longevity3 1–5 yrs Family Mustard Life history biennial or shortlived perennial. Veronica persica Snapdragon Snapdragon Snapdragon Lettuce 0.34 0. 11. up to 30 yrs winter spring. >20 yrs winter spring to midsummer spring to early summer fall. 32. Velvetleaf Violet. one lettuce seed weighs about 1 milligram. 0.org or www. shallow rhizomes annual. APPENDIX 4 Characteristics of Common Agricultural Weeds Relevant to Crop Rotation (continued) Weed common name Rocket. 76. 117.1 0. Persian Veronica arvensis L. Br. Canada Cirsium arvense (L. 12. 7. short-lived perennial (rarely) Ryegrass.5 Season of emergence fall. Abutilon theophrasti Medicus Viola arvensis Murr.) Scop. Sources: Compiled primarily from references 1. 25. Polygonum pensylvanicum L. 116. For comparison.1 2. seedlings: late spring to early summer fall. fall NA 5–20 yrs Speedwell.org. often based on undisturbed burial experiments. 4.52 0. spring.03 1. 88.2 0. occasionally a winter annual winter annual summer annual summer or winter annual summer annual summer annual winter or summer annual perennial spreading by creeping roots annual winter or summer annual annual perennial spreading by horizontal roots summer annual annual summer annual perennial with short. biennial. Data are maximum survival of seeds in soil. 38. NRAES 177. 112.nraes. late summer <4 yrs to mid fall mid spring to early summer <13 yrs fall. 2.5 0.3 4. summer. Sonchus arvensis L. corn Speedwell. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. perennial Lolium multiflorum Lam.2 up to 20 yrs fall. or call (607) 255 7654.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. 109. 90. Thistle. summer. Pennsylvania Sowthistle. NA=Information not available.2 0. yellow Weed scientific name Barbarea vulgaris R.13 late spring to early summer fall. marsh Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbas Mustard NA spring up to 10 yrs Notes: 1. they die off more quickly in regularly tilled soil.38. Multiple numbers are weights from different populations.

org. Alternaria spp.) E.H. alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. and carrot.org or www. mayweed Chickweed. Cucumber mosaic virus. Fusarium oxysporum (various diseases of many crops). No records located. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Sicyos angulatus L. turnip mosaic potyvirus. potato virus Y potyvirus. Bedstraw. or call (607) 255 7654. Many additional viruses affecting crops are reported on common chickweed in the United Kingdom and may be present in North America as well (100). catchweed (cleavers) Bedstraw. Fusarium sp. potato virus Y potyvirus. Cephalosporium gramineum (cephalosporium stripe) (84). Claviceps purpurea (ergot).This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). turnip mosaic potyvirus.L.) R. No records located for North America. Bindweed. Poa annua L. barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus. papaya ring spot potyvirus. Galium mollugo L.) Vill. tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (128).) Beauv. 142 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Krause Anthemis arvensis L. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). smooth Bindweed. common Copperleaf. mouseear Cockle. oat pseudo-rostette tenuivirus. Virginia Cerastium vulgatum L. beet.sare. viruses including maize dwarf mosaic. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). (various diseases of many crops) (31). cabbage. and wheat streak mosaic rymovirus (45). Fusarium sp. Br. field Galium aparine L. Weed common name Barnyard grass Weed scientific name Echinochloa crus-galli (L. lettuce drop) (31).nraes. Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. wild Burcucumber Campion. Meloidogyne hapla (northern rootknot nematode) (113). Colletotrichum graminicola (anthracnose of corn). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Buckwheat. Verticillium albo-atrum (verticillium wilt of nightshade crops) (26). common Polygonum convolvulus L. white Chamomile. and crucifer crops). Convolvulus arvensis L. corn Chamomile. hedge Bluegrass. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (128). Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). APPENDIX 5 Crop Disease Pathogens Hosted by Common Agricultural Weeds Compiled by Charles L. turnip mosaic potyvirus (128). Gaeumannomyces graminis (take-all). No records located. beans. Mohler and Margaret Tuttle McGrath Pathogens and crop diseases1 Pythium ultimum (seed rot and root rot of pea. foveata (potato rot fungus) (77). To purchase the book. NRAES 177. annual Septoria nodorum (stagnospora blotch of wheat). Calystegia sepium (L. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Anthemis cotula L. tobacco mosaic tobamovirus (128). visit www. Agrostemma githago L. Silene alba (Mill. Chickweed. Phoma terrestris (onion pink rot). (various diseases of many crops). Phoma exigua var. Acalypha virginica L. Xanthium strumarium L. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. barley yellow dwarf virus (48). alfalfa dwarf disease (Xylella fastidiosa). corn Cocklebur. watermelon mosaic potyvirus (128). Erysiphe graminis (powdery mildew) (77). Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). Stellaria media (L. but whether the strains that attack annual bluegrass can damage wheat is unclear. bean yellow mosaic potyvirus. tomato. tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (128). (alternaria leaf spot) (37).

Exserohilum turcicum (northern corn leaf blight). Horsetail. potato virus X potyvirus. tobacco etch potyvirus (128). and carrot. Kochia scoparia (L. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31).sare. wheat streak mosaic rymovirus (45). Stemphylium botryosum (onion stalk rot). Alternaria solani (early blight). To purchase the book. beans. large Weed scientific name Digitaria sanguinalis (L. yellow Galinsoga. Ustilago neglecta (smut) (17). Physalis subglabrata Mackenz. Verticillium albo-atrum (verticillium wilt) (26. potato virus Y potyvirus (128).) Pers. visit www. Pythium graminicola (browning root rot).org or www. tobacco etch potyvirus. lettuce drop). prostrate Kochia APPENDIX 5 | Crop Disease Pathogens Hosted by Common Agricultural Weeds 143 . potato virus Y potyvirus. No records located. alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. several nematodes including Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) and Heterodera schachtii (beet cyst nematode) (77). Galinsoga ciliata (Raf. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. field Jimsonweed Johnsongrass Sorghum halpense (L. maize chlorotic dwarf mosaic virus (77). Taraxacum officinale Weber in Wiggers Pathogens and crop diseases1 Colletotrichum graminicola (anthracnose of corn). corn dwarf mosaic (45). Fusarium oxysporum (various diseases of several crops).nraes. giant Foxtail. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. tomato. green Setaria faberi Herrm. barley stripe hordeivirus (45). turnip mosaic potyvirus (128).org. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold of potato. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). Phytophthora capsici (phytophthora blight) (35). Polygonum aviculare L. alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus.) Blake Eleusine indica (L. or call (607) 255 7654. turnip mosaic potyvirus. Claviceps purpurea (ergot). APPENDIX 5 Crop Disease Pathogens Hosted by Common Agricultural Weeds (continued) Weed common name Crabgrass. Verticillium alboatrum (verticillium wilt) (26). Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). aster yellows phytoplasma. watermelon mosaic potyvirus (128). Knotweed. cabbage. Fusarium solani (fusarium dry rot of potato. cabbage. Dandelion Foxtail. lettuce drop). 31). Exserohilum turcicum (northern corn leaf blight).) Beauv. southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) (29). Goosegrass Groundcherry. tobacco mosaic tobamovirus. common Horsenettle Verticillium albo-atrum (verticillium wilt) (26. maize dwarf mosaic. Colletotrichum graminicola (anthracnose of corn). Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). beet yellows closterovirus. smooth Groundsel. Phoma terrestris (onion pink rot). beans. Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. NRAES 177. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. Equisetum arvense L. Setaria viridis (L. & Bush Senecio vulgaris L. and carrot. 31). tomato. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. lettuce mosaic virus (128). Cercospora beticola (cercospora leaf spot of beet). dandelion yellow mosaic virus of lettuce (36). tobacco etch potyvirus (128). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus.) Schrad. Datura stramonium L. Sclerospora graminicola (downy mildew). hairy Setaria glauca (L. (46). Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). Septoria lycopersici (septoria leaf spot of tomato) (31).) Beauv. turnip mosaic potyvirus. fusarium crown and root rot of cucurbits).) Gaertn. Septoria lycopersici (septoria leaf spot of tomato) (31). Foxtail. Colletotrichum graminicola (corn anthracnose) (31).) Scop. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. Phoma terrestris (onion pink rot). Solanum carolinense L. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31).

Lettuce. tomato. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. black Hibiscus trionum L. tall Mustard. watermelon mosaic potyvirus (128). Cercospora longissima (cercospora leaf spot). and carrot. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. wild Nightshade. common Millet. potato virus Y potyvirus. Colletotrichum coccodes (anthracnose of tomato and eggplant. cabbage. beans.) Solanum ptycanthum Dun. lettuce drop). Ipomoea purpurea (L. Ipomoea lacunosa L. hedge Mustard. Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew of crucifer crops). clover yellow vein potyvirus (128). Fusarium sp. Ipomoea hederacea (L.) L. Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew of crucifer crops) (31). cabbage. alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. Microdochium panattonianum (lettuce anthracnose). or call (607) 255 7654. lettuce drop). and carrot. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). Cystopus candidus = Albugo candida (white blister) (36). To purchase the book. Bacterium campestre (77). bean yellow mosaic potyvirus. clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae) (36). Milkweed. cabbage. Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). NRAES 177. ivyleaf Morningglory. Erysiphe cichoracearum (powdery mildew). C. Pythium ultimum (seed decay and root rot of many crops). Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt) (13). beet nematode (Heterodera schachtii) (20). Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). Wheeler (= Sinapis arvensis L. Exserohilum turcicum (northern corn leaf blight). Panicum miliaceum L. and Septoria lactucae (septoria leaf spot of lettuce). tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (31). (various diseases of many crops) (31). Venice Medic.) Scop. and carrot. turnip mosaic potyvirus (128). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato.sare.) Jacq. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. tomato. Verticillium albo-atrum (verticillium wilt) (26). Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. Asclepias syriaca L.org. Verticillium albo-atrum (verticillium wilt of solanaceous crops). visit www. beet curly top virus (45).nraes. Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot). potato black dot). turnip mosaic potyvirus. beans. beet yellows virus. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops). soybean mosaic potyvirus. tobacco etch potyvirus.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Brassica kaber (DC. Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (128). Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode) (29).org or www. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. lettuce drop). cabbage. beans. clover yellow vein potyvirus. Mallow. eastern black 144 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . tomato. Colletotrichum graminicola (corn anthracnose) (31). tobacco etch potyvirus. lettuce mosaic virus (128). Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (128). potato virus Y potyvirus. bean yellow mosaic potyvirus. and carrot. Phytophthora infestans (late blight). Pathogens and crop diseases1 Peronospora effusa (downy mildew of spinach). turnip mosaic potyvirus. Sclerotium rolfsii (southern blight) (31). Cercospora beticola (cercospora leaf spot of beet). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. watermelon mosaic potyvirus. Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce). Medicago lupulina L. Fusarium oxysporum (various diseases of many crops). lettuce drop). Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). common Weed scientific name Chenopodium album L.) Roth Sisymbrium officinale (L. wild-proso Morningglory. APPENDIX 5 Crop Disease Pathogens Hosted by Common Agricultural Weeds (continued) Weed common name Lambsquarters. alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. Alternaria solani (early blight). barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (128). Phytophthora capsici (phytophthora blight) (35). beans. prickly Lactuca serriola L. tomato. pitted Morningglory.

glycines (soybean cyst nematode) (11). Alternaria brassicae (alternaria leaf spot of mustard family crops) (31). H. tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. Verticillium albo-atrum (verticillium wilt of nightshades). cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Heterodera schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode). NRAES 177. Powell amaranth Pigweed. (various diseases of many crops). sp. Pythium ultimum (seed rot and root rot of pea. tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (128). Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). Wats. Amaranthus blitoides S. Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode) (11). prostrate Pigweed. Albugo bliti (white rust). Virginia Pigweed. alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). and crucifer crops). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode) (29). beans.org or www. field Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt). alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. (various wilts and rots) (11). Alternaria spp. Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot) (36). M. lettuce drop) (31). Pigweed. Gaeumannomyces graminis (take-all) (52). Fusarium oxysporum f. turnip mosaic potyvirus (128). smooth Amaranthus hybridus L. Amaranthus retroflexus L. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops). lettuce drop). Alternaria brassicicola (alternaria leaf spot) (13). turnip mosaic potyvirus (128). Amaranthus powellii S. Albugo bliti (white rust). Colletotrichum graminicola (anthracnose of corn). cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (11). Pepperweed. turnip mosaic potyvirus. yellow Panicum. visit www. Pratylenchus penetrans (meadow nematode). Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. Purslane. redroot Lepidium campestre (L. fall Weed scientific name Cyperus esculentus L. and carrot. Wats. betae (fusarium wilt of beet) (11). Alternaria solani (early blight). field Pepperweed. and carrot. sp. APPENDIX 5 Crop Disease Pathogens Hosted by Common Agricultural Weeds (continued) Weed common name Nutsedge. Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt of cucurbits.) R. potato virus Y potyvirus. beet. Pigweed. Fusarium oxysporum f. potato virus Y potyvirus. alfalfa mosaic virus (45). tumble Amaranthus albus L. Sclerotium rolfsii (southern blight). overwintering host for alfalfa mosaic virus (51). common Quackgrass Elytrigia repens (L.sare. Verticillium albo-atrum (verticillium wilt of solanaceous crops). tobacco mosaic virus (45). clover big vein virus (45). Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot) (36. Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). or call (607) 255 7654. radicis-lycopersici (tomato fusarium wilt) (11). alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. Alternaria brassicae (alternaria leaf spot of mustard family crops) (31). Thlaspi arvense L. Phytophthora capsici (phytophthora blight) (35). nightshades). Fusarium spp. tomato. beans. Albugo bliti (white rust). aster yellows phytoplasma. cabbage. Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot). cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (128). cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Heterodera schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode) (11).This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Phoma terrestris (onion pink rot). tomato. cabbage. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. Choanephora cucurbitarum (choanephora blossom blight and fruit rot of cucurbits). Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops. Lepidium virginicum L. alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. incognita (southern root-knot nematode). (various leaf spots and blights). Portulaca oleracea L. To purchase the book. No records located.org. Pratylenchus penetrans (lesion nematode) (11). Heterodera schachtii (sugar beet cyst nematode). Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode) (29). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Fusarium sp. Pennycress. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). potato virus Y potyvirus (128).) Nevski APPENDIX 5 | Crop Disease Pathogens Hosted by Common Agricultural Weeds 145 .nraes. Br. 31). Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew). Meloidogyne incognita (southern root-knot nematode). Pathogens and crop diseases1 Sclerotinia minor on lettuce and peanut (44a and appendix 3).

and carrot. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). which attack most crops in the mustard family. and carrot. and carrot. viruses including alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. purslane Sunflower. Peronosclerospora sorghi (sorghum downy mildew of corn) (123). Pythium ultimum (seed decay and root rot of several crops). lettuce drop). cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Botrytis cineria (gray mold blight). Pennsylvania Sowthistle. Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). Italian Shattercane Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). Sorghum bicolor (L. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. Phoma lingam (black leg and seed decay of crops in the mustard family) (31). annual Sida spinosa L. prickly Smartweed. Polygonum pensylvanicum L. Ragweed. tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. Pathogens and crop diseases1 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. Claviceps purpurea (ergot). tomato. Fusarium oxysporum (various diseases of many crops). and carrot.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. beet mosaic potyvirus. beans. beet yellows closterovirus. beans. cabbage. Sonchus oleraceus L. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. Persian Speedwell.) Medicus Sida. tomato. aster yellows phytoplasma (45).sare. common Rocket. Speedwell. Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. cabbage. cabbage. Veronica persica Veronica peregrina L. beet curly top hybrigeminivirus. lettuce drop) (31).nraes. Verticillium dahliae (verticillium wilt). Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). cauliflower mosaic virus (45). barley yellow dwarf virus. tomato.org. lettuce drop). common Veronica arvensis L. Arabis mosaic and strawberry latent ring spot viruses carried by the nematode Xiphinema diversicaudatum (111). Lolium multiflorum Lam. Fusarium oxysporum (various diseases of several crops). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. perennial Sonchus arvensis L.org or www. corn Speedwell. Peronospora parasitica (black rot and downy mildew of crops in the mustard family) (31). To purchase the book. cabbage. Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot) and Cystopus candidus = Albugo candida (white blister). Phoma terrestris (onion pink rot). aster yellows phytoplasma (77). visit www. Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew of crucifer crops) (31). wild Weed scientific name Raphanus raphanistrum L. Bremia lactucae (lettuce downy mildew). beans. turnip mosaic potyvirus. oat sterile dwarf virus (6). Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31). tomato.) Moench Shepherd's purse Capsella bursapastoris (L. APPENDIX 5 Crop Disease Pathogens Hosted by Common Agricultural Weeds (continued) Weed common name Radish. lettuce drop). Helianthus annuus 146 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . Diseased roots can act as a source of Fusarium oxysporum (various diseases of many crops). cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. No records located. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. and barley. Erysiphe cichoracearum (powdery mildew). and carrot. beans. Bremia lactucae (downy mildew of lettuce). lettuce drop). rye. lettuce mosaic virus (128). Xanthomonas campestris pv. and carrot. Cladosporium cucumerinum (scab of cucurbits). tomato spotted wilt tospovirus. lettuce drop). cabbage. watermelon mosaic potyvirus (128). Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. or call (607) 255 7654. tomato. Sowthistle. beans. aster yellows phytoplasma (12). alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus. beans. turnip mosaic potyvirus (128). aster yellows phytoplasma. NRAES 177. yellow Ryegrass. Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops). rusts of wheat. Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot) (36). Cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (128). Colletotrichum graminicola (corn anthracnose). aster yellows phytoplasma. beet curly top hybrigeminivirus (45). campestris (bacterial wilt). tomato. cabbage. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. Rhizoctonia solani (black scurf and stem canker of potato) (36). Verticillium albo-atrum (verticillium wilt) (26).

org. APPENDIX 5 Crop Disease Pathogens Hosted by Common Agricultural Weeds (continued) Weed common name Thistle. Pathogens and crop diseases1 Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (white mold and cottony rot of potato. Colletotrichum dematium and C.nraes. sugarcane mosaic potyvirus. Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (113). tomato. field Witchgrass Viola arvensis Murr. Colletotrichum graminicola (corn anthracnose). Rhizoctonia solani (various diseases of many crops) (31).) Scop. cucumber mosaic cucumovirus. cabbage. yellow Yellowcress. visit www. Sexual stages of Puccinia sorghi and P. Woodsorrel. APPENDIX 5 | Crop Disease Pathogens Hosted by Common Agricultural Weeds 147 . barley yellow dwarf luteovirus. downy mildew). Verticilium dahliae (verticillium wilt) (12). Phomopsis sojae (pod and stem blight of soybean). turnip mosaic potyvirus (128).sare. Note that diseases with the same common name are sometimes caused by different organisms in different crops (for example. Velvetleaf Abutilon theophrasti Medicus Violet. or call (607) 255 7654. maize chlorotic mottle machlomovirus. beans. Fusarium oxysporum (various vegetable diseases). C. marsh 1 Oxalis stricta L. lettuce drop) (31). also susceptible to bromegrass mosaic virus but whether it hosts this virus in the field is unknown (13). bean yellow mosaic potyvirus. Plasmodiophora brassicae (clubroot). The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbas Both common and scientific names are given where possible. wheat streak mosaic rymovirus. To purchase the book. rusts of rye and barley (77). wheat American striate mosaic nucleorhabdovirus. purpurea (sorghum rust) (11).org or www. Colletotrichum coccodes (tomato anthracnose and potato black dot). gloeosporioides (pepper anthracnose) (31). turnip mosaic potyvirus (128). polysora (corn rusts) and P. aster yellows phytoplasma (76).This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. maize dwarf mosaic potyvirus. and carrot. Panicum capillare L. barley stripe mosaic hordeivirus. gloeosporioides (soybean anthracnose). Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew of crucifer crops) (31). Phytophthora capsici (phytophthora blight) (29). Phoma terrestris (onion pink rot). No records located. and the weed may only host one of the pathogens with that common name. Meloidogyne hapla (northern root-knot nematode) (12). cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (128). NRAES 177. Canada Weed scientific name Cirsium arvense (L.

or choose Cells from the Format menu and select Borders. The web site does not support the dynamic linkage between the table and map that you can achieve on your own computer.2 and 5. If necessary. The value that appears in cell A2 of the DATA sheet should appear. choose Date. Including cell C3. visit www. 3. on the map.org. At the top of the table enter your column headings. The map and spreadsheet can also be set up to place additional information. In the example. double click on the Sheet1 tab at the bottom of the page and name it Field_nameDATA (for example. leaving blank lines between sections on the DATA sheet will make using the workbook easier. Enter the data for each management unit.com and click on “Roxbury Farm Manuals. Then double click that tab to select it. A sample map and spreadsheet called Example_field_ map_07 can be downloaded from http://www. Moreover. Delete any zeros that appear where data are absent on the DATA sheet.” In the section “Mapping of Crop Rotations” click on either sample database to see the table or sample map to see the map. 6. NRAES 177. we selected Cells C3–G3. as shown in the example. 5. Mohler reating management maps of your fields using Excel is easy and allows you to link a spreadsheet similar to tables 5. and hit Crtl-D to fill them. To purchase the book. change the font size in some columns to make the information fit. Columns containing dates need to be formatted: Select those columns. If you break up crop fields into sections that are 148 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . choose Cells.html. then select the rows within that outline and underline them with a thin line. you can duplicate the workbook. Use Print Preview on the File menu to see how the map will appear on the printed page. Peter Lowy. 2. To Create the MAP Sheet: 1. An example of a field map in use on a real farm can be viewed at http:// www. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Once you have a map and spreadsheet set up in a workbook. click on the Number tab. Then hit Ctrl-R to fill those cells. Select cell C3 and in the formula bar (a toolbar available under View that appears above the workbook) enter =Field_nameDATA!A2 and click on the checkmark in the toolbar. go to Format menu. First outline a section (a group of management units) with a thick line. 4. The map has to be created only once.org or www. 6. choose as many cells to the right as you have data that you want to include on the map. In the example.roxburyfarm. entering crop names on the spreadsheet causes them to appear on the map at the same time. Leaving rows 1 and 2 and columns A and B free gives you room to draw in landmarks later. APPENDIX 6 Linking a Field Map and Spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel Jody Bolluyt. To name the first sheet of the workbook. Open a new Excel workbook and save it with an appropriate name. or call (607) 255 7654. adjust the row height (Rows on the Format menu) to help get the shape right. and Date2. or copy and paste columns from the FieldWork1 spreadsheet if you are following the detailed planning procedure.sare. cornell. like target planting dates. so click “No” when asked if you want to update linked information. for subsequent years.edu/croprotation/index. Click on the Sheet2 tab at the bottom of the page to go to that sheet. C physically separated by driveways. 5. Date. and this may also require adjusting column widths and row heights. MU. Select enough cells down to cover the number of rows in your DATA sheet.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Updating the map as the season progresses is as simple as entering the changes in the spreadsheet.nraes. Crops. and select the date format you prefer. they are Section. Adjust the column widths (Columns on the Format menu) until all of the information is visible and pleasantly spaced.neon. 4. and Charles L. and enter the crops for that year into the spreadsheet. 3.3 (pages 62–67) to the maps. NorthDATA). Widen or narrow the column containing the crop species information to make the management units appear more or less the shape they are in the field. 2. ▶ To Create the DATA Sheet: 1. Outline the sections and management units using the Outline box on the formatting toolbar. You will want the map to print nicely on one or possibly two pages. NorthMAP). If necessary. rename it with the appropriate year. and enter the name Field_nameMAP (for example.

click View. NRAES 177. If not. APPENDIX 6 Linking a Field Map and Spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel (continued) 7.org. 8.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Then. APPENDIX 6 | Linking a Field Map and Spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel 149 . click on the box next to Gridlines to make the checkmark disappear. hedgerows. click on the Sheet3 tab at the bottom of the page. Note that maps of many fields can be coordinated with a single DATA sheet that contains information on all management units on the farm. so that the page looks more maplike. use the Borders and Patterns tabs within Cells on the Format menu to add landmarks like roadways. follow the instructions above for making a map. etc. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. For each field. Click OK. This will eliminate the pale gridlines. Finally. Verify that View is highlighted among the options on the left. or call (607) 255 7654. Then choose Worksheet on the Insert menu repeatedly to create as many additional sheets as you have fields to map. visit www. Mac users: Go to Excel on the menu bar and select Preferences. To purchase the book.org or www.nraes.sare. To make additional maps. PC users: Go to Tools on the menu bar and select Options. Then click on the Gridlines box to make the checkmark disappear.

Cavers. Characteristics of multiple-seeded cocklebur: A biotype of common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.and Rhizoctonia-induced carrot root dieback. Smith. Rahn. Agricultural Experiment Station. E. soybean. H. Panicum capillare L. Bulletin 364. Compendium of Lettuce Diseases.nraes.hort. Weed Science 52:281–90. and E. Chancellor. R. Kurtz. W. Bruehl. Cobb. Braun). Botanical Review 29:413–79. 1997... Paul. 2000. ed. 24. Survival of Colletotrichum coccodes in infected tomato tissue and in soil. NRAES 177. 1. M. 19. Dillard. multiflorum (Lam) Husnot. 2003. A. P. M. Perimeter trap cropping works! University of Connecticut.cornell. K. Cavers.edu/ipm/veg/htms/ptcworks. Curl. 1999. Bellinder. Vegetable MD Online.. 1991. 2005. L. PA: Rodale Press.. and R. Soilborne Plant Pathogens. Great Garden Companions. Annual Review of Entomology 36:561–86. Brainard.. Paul. M. A. R. Diagnostic compendia for alfalfa. 10. Harwood. 14. 15. APS Press. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. italicum A. Integrated Pest Management. Cavers. ssp. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. R. http://vegetablemdonline. Publication 1251. S. To purchase the book. and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. Kingston: University of Rhode Island. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. Andow. Nunez. visit www. San Diego: Academic Press. MN: APS Press. potato.shopapspress. Contributions 103–129. corn. Cunningham. Clements. S. Probyn. and M. Life History Studies as Related to Weed Control in the Northeast. http://www. A. 5. and R. P. and R. S. Ottawa: Agricultural Institute of Canada. 1986. K. P. R. Biogeography. beet. 1995. Weed suppression in a broccoli–winter rye intercropping system. org/disease-diagnostic-series. Cavigelli. J. 127. reference numbers are given in parentheses.. 16.).htm. REFERENCES Note: In the text. T. D. 1998. N. lettuce. H. S. I.htm. Beddows. R. http://www. eds. 4. D. Weed Technology 13:257–63. pepper. E. Darbyshire. R. 22. sweet potato. D. Contributions 84–102. Ottawa: Agricultural Institute of Canada. Doran. Nutgrass. 1963. 11. Pantone. DiTommaso. org/disease-diagnostic-series. barley. Davis. M. perenne L.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. J. 20. S. and J. onion. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. Diagnostic compendia for bean. 13. M. and A. Baskin. and R.ppath. N. Control of plant diseases by crop rotation. Deming. C. Conners. R. 3. A. K. 1987.shopapspress.. Lolium multiflorum Lam. 1998. Abbas. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 84:327–41. J. 6. 1991.. P. 9. G. Lachman. B. Boucher. or call (607) 255 7654. Extension Bulletin E-2646. Vegetational diversity and arthropod population response. Plant Disease 82:235–38. 2004. Ottawa: Canada Department of Agriculture. Decline of arable weed seeds during 20 years in soil under grass and the periodicity of seedling emergence after cultivation. Sweet. Biological flora of the British Isles. ed. R.. http://www. Journal of Ecology 61:587–600. Canada and Greenland. Michigan Field Crop Ecology: Managing Biological Processes for Productivity and Environmental Quality. B. D. St. R. and tomato. The biology of Canadian weeds. 18. Influence of crop rotation on the incidence of Pythium.html. Role of cover crops in nutrient cycling. An Annotated Index of Plant Diseases in Canada and Fungi Recorded on Plants in Alaska.html. Raid.. R. C. Sartonov. 1973. 21. H. 7. 8.. C. 2. 1999. cucurbit. APS Press. 12. L. 23. In Cover Crops for Clean 150 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . B.edu/ NewsArticles/McNabRotations. (L. 2004. Durgy. Ottawa: Agricultural Institute of Canada. carrot. J. Journal of Applied Ecology 23:631–37.org.. D. A. uconn. J. W. 1967. J. 17.org or www. Plant Disease 83:146–48. and wheat. and R.sare. East Lansing: Michigan State University. and A. and J. Emmaus. D. C. Baskin. Cavers. J. Davis. 1998. R. pea. B. L. 1. W. Subbarao. V. 1998.. ed.. New York: Macmillan. 1962. Bell.. Contributions 62–83. Cornell University. Seeds: Ecology.

Plant Disease 90:345–50. eds. Hollowell. N fertilizer recovery. R. Plucknett. K. I. Relationships between seed weight. and A. G. Ilnicki.htm. 40. Kaiser. Chaney. Characterization of Phytophthora capsici associated with roots of weeds on Florida vegetable farms.. F. C.rutgers. http://www. Hall. and B. Notes on Wisconsin parasitic fungi VII. N. Katepa-Mupondwa. http:// ipmworld. 2003. E. Managing wireworms in New Jersey’s field crops. Kirby. P. Kingston: University of Rhode Island. 1958. W. 50. J. 34. G. 29. Willoughby. Supplement 244. Smith. Plant Disease 85:562. Holzner and N. V. Phytopathology 12:67–88. NRAES 177. Schjoerring. ed.E. Honolulu. A. M. S. Effects of broccoli rotation on lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor and on the population density of sclerotia in soil. and R. Biological flora of the British Isles. 48. Holm. W. In Biology and Ecology of Weeds. 25.sare. Hargrove. Agriculture and Engineering Service (NRAES). T. Plant Disease Reporter. Vegetable Insect Management: With Emphasis on the Midwest. The take-all disease of cereals and grasses. and W.) as a host for Sclerotinia minor. Wyland. Nursery and Garden Crops. 1996. Herberger. The Hague: Dr. Koike. 47. B. Paul. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. Grime.. 35.umn. University of Maryland. Plant Disease 67:1354– 57. M. New York: Philosophical Library. 1982. 2001. Journal of Economic Entomology 94:204–7.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. Doll. 52. Hannan. or call (607) 255 7654. 46. R. FL: CRC Press. 1922. Practical Handbook of Agricultural Science. Koike. L. and R. 36. and F. S.. Radcliffe’s IPM World Textbook.. Rossman. Hunt. Interactions between white clover and ryegrass under contrasting nitrogen availability: N2 fixation.). J. 28. Multiplication. SARE final project report LNE00-131. http://njaes. 2006.. and S. 44. and A. Shaw. V. P. 1991. F. and J. 27. Chamuris. Phacelia. Natural Resource. 1997. Flood..uk Engelhard. Cultural control. Boca Raton. 44a. E. J. A. HI: University Press of Hawaii. M. L. MN: APS Press. Pancho. and J. MN: APS Press. G. J. P. T. (including Verticillium dahliae Kleb. Host index of Verticillium alboatrum Einke & Berth. 85–90. Ankeny. K. 1957. New Phytologist 95:697–706. J. Hodgson. Rotational benefits of forage crops in Canadian prairie cropping systems. Additional hosts of alfalfa mosaic virus and its seed transmission in tumble pigweed and bean. S. J. eds. Bills. Horse Nettle. OH: Meister Publishing. L. Lana REFERENCES 151 .. Høgh-Jensen. J. Ithaca. R. 42. J. D.sare. Plant and Soil 197:187–99.B..co. pp. IA: Soil and Water Conservation Society. L. H. Poa annua L. R. and S. R. Greene. Agricultural Experiment Station. K. 45.edu/pubs/ publication. Seymour. C. D. NY: Cornell University.org/reporting/ report_viewer. Holm.. Håkansson. Y. W.. V. E. 1962. Herberger. H. W. growth and persistence of perennial weeds. Personal communication. 1996. M.org or www. and J. 31. ed. 1990. Journal of Ecology 70:887–901. 3. New York: John Wiley.. J. 53. A.. W.asp. H. Foster. Bullied. 1997. visit www. Compendium of Bean Diseases. Paul. D. 30. ash content and seedling growth in twenty-four species of Compositae. 1953..edu/chapters/ferro. Farr. St. Subbarao. S.. Entz. Hutchinson. French-Monar. 1982. M. Hanson. Fertig.. East-West Center. 1983. St. W. J. D. Bulletin 368. 49. P. and A. and B. 1945. Huffaker. J. 37. 1983. 2003. Sustainable Vegetable Production from Start-up to Market. 39. Everts. Grubinger. Ecological Flora of the British Isles at the University of York. Life History Studies as Related to Weed Control in the Northeast. London: Unwin Hyman. E. Inman. G. Plant Disease Reporter 42:194.. 1995. Everts. Epps. Jackson. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. 43. pp. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution.nraes. 1988. 1995. New host records for Heterodera glycines: including one host in the Labiatae. 1997. J. 33. FS880. Y. 38.ecoflora.. 123– 35. Comparative Plant Ecology: A Functional Approach to Common British Species. Rutgers Cooperative Extension Fact Sheet. K. R. Junk. 41. 2001. Journal of Production Agriculture 8:521–29.asp?pid=FS880. To purchase the book. Ferro. 1989. Vernon.W. Plant Disease 87:159–66. A. Fenner. and R. S. D. Water. World’s Worst Weeds: Distribution and Biology. Plant Diseases in Orchard. Gram. and G. Yellow nutsedge (cyperus esculentus L.. 26.. 1977. http://www. Hao. 51. Numata. J. L. Pancho. 32. J. American Midland Naturalist 34:258–70. Weber. EckJones. Hunt. University of Minnesota. Portable trench barrier for protecting edges of tomato fields from Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). 1999. D.. L. and S. Development and evaluation of management alternatives for root knot nematodes and volunteer potatoes. N.org. N transfer and water use efficiency. Holm. Ingerson-Mahar. F. Chambers.

2001b. 68.ppath. 2002. D. Staver. 58. MD: Sustainable Agriculture Network. and Austrian winter pea: Three new cover crop hosts of Sclerotinia minor in California. M. E. 2000. M. W. E. Center for Education and Training for Development. To purchase the book. J. Liebman. Weed life history: Identifying vulnerabilities.org. 269–321.. 322–74.. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 22:489–94. and G. Wratten. and E. Dyck. Zitter. Knott’s Vegetable Handbook. Crop rotations and common rootrot in wheat. filipes (Small) Eiten. 63. Santa Cruz. Luna. and C. Oxalis stricta L. Zitter.. J. New York: Cambridge University Press.. Ottawa: Agricultural Institute of Canada. or call (607) 255 7654. D.. Ecological Applications 3:92–122. Liebman. 55. Crop diversification for weed management. Liebman. Lovett Doust. C. 1984. 71. A. Smith. 1990. R. usda. R. Nitrate leaching from ploughed pasture and the effectiveness of winter catch crops in reducing leaching losses. and S. pp. Contributions 33–61. New York: Cambridge University Press. Crop production during conversion from conventional to low-input methods. Lampkin. C. eds. 67.. and F. Plant Disease 80:1409–12. 71. L. 1996. and W.. 56. L. pp. 2nd ed. A. eds. dillenii Jacq. Publication 1765. C. Characterization of root-knot nematode populations associated with vegetables in New York State. E.. Cornell University.. 64. ed. Maynard.gov/technical/ECS/nutrient/tbb2. M. M. Harwood. 75.nrcs. A. J. 66. 1997.. Muller.htm. Do rotations matter within disease management programs? Vegetable MD Online. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 65:691–709. In Nitrogen Efficiency in Agricultural Soils. Radke. 62. eds.. R. Jenkinson and K. MacNab. St. 1993. R. Mohler. P. U. In Ecological Management of Agricultural Weeds. P.cornell. pp. ed. Mohler. In Ecological Management of Agricultural Weeds. Levine. K.sare. Enhancing the competitive ability of crops. Paul. pp. 1991. In Agricultural Ecology. Annual Review of. L. 4th ed.edu/ NewsArticles/McNabRotations. J. and P. The Biology of Canadian Weeds.... W. 69. Cameron. Daly. vol. MN: APS Press. A. and B. Compendium of Pea Diseases and Pests. H. S. Mulligan. Lovett Doust. Culik. Jepson. M. Building Soils for Better Crops. 2001. Management of diabroticite rootworms in corn. A. A. and A. M. Gurr. J. Morlet. Plant Nutrient Content Database. MacNab. Ledingham. and H. G. http://vegetablemdonline. Liebhardt. D. and T.. Gallandt. C. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research 39:413–20. woollypod vetch. O. 73.. Influence of catch crops on mineral nitrogen leaching and its subsequent plant use. ssp. S. Personal communication. L. 59. 40–98. Liebman. corniculata L. and J. C. P. 54. A. Maas.. Kraft. Canadian Journal of Botany 41:479– 86. Staver. Habitat management to conserve natural enemies of arthropod pests in agriculture. P. J. R. G. K. Mohler. N. G. 72. ssp. and C. McLenaghen. The Biology of Canadian Weeds. D. G. 78. O. Denys. Contributions 1–32. 2000. pp. Iowa State University. Landis. and E.. 2nd ed. Janke. Enhancement of Biological Control with Insectary Plantings. A.org or www. Staver.ppath. Publication 1693. 1979. R. New York: John Wiley. Natural Resources Conservation Service. 57. Mulligan. Department of Agriculture. Beltsville.cornell. Abawi. F. Agronomy Journal 81:150–59. Magdoff. Crop rotation and take-all of wheat in South Africa. Mohler.. Crop rotation and intercropping strategies for weed management. Many little hammers: Ecological management of crop-weed interactions.html. M. 1985. and T. Van der Beek. 77. R. S. L. 1988. Mohler. dillenii and O. R. eds.S. Introduction to Insect Pest Management. Mitkowski. CA: Academic Press. Van Es. C. A. C. L. http://vegetablemdonline. 85–98. C.htm. and C. Information Bulletin 11. 2002. Pfleger. L. R. New York: John Wiley. 2000. and C. A. http://www. 70. J. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. dillenii Jacq.. Annual Review of Entomology 36:229–55. Deo. N. M. 2000. 1982.. College 152 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . New York: Elsevier Applied Science. C. Plant Disease 86:840–47. In Ecological Management of Agricultural Weeds. 60. 78a. Liebman. D.. A. D. Hochmuth. Mariotta.. 2001a. G. New York: Cambridge University Press. Entomology 45:175–201. Andrews. 74. MacKinnon. M. and H. 65. Jackson. L. CA: Organic Farming Research Foundation. Biology of Canadian weeds. 291–343. Metcalf. 76. San Diego. Oloumi-Sadeghi. Luckmann. H.nraes. and G.. A. 2.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. NRAES 177. Staver. L. M. 61...edu/ NewsArticles/McNabRotations. 1961. Liebman. RiegerSchwartz. visit www. 1997. Ottawa: Agricultural Institute of Canada. eds. Liebman. M. ed. N. M. DACUM & SCID Training Information.. L.

R. Entz. 96. eds. D.. Dunn. Burt. Suppression of aphanomyces root rot of peas by cruciferous soil amendments. 2. Meade. Bulletin 368. ippc. Agricultural Experiment Station. 1994. and J. F. 1962. New York: John Wiley. 85. R. Pedersen. 98. MacNab. Stoner. S. Weed Science 47:282–90. J. and C. Cornell University. 1997. To purchase the book. Strip intercropping for wind protection. Hubbard. G. 1992. 97. 2nd ed. F. REFERENCES 153 . Veatch. Sobey. Ohio State University. Pleasant. 291–307. Journal of Entomological Science 32:7–16. pp. 1987..” Jan. Insects and Related Pests of Vegetables. State of Connecticut.sare. A. 4. and A. K. 5. McSorley. 1986. Reichert. and G. http://plant-disease. J. Dunn. Vegetable Diseases and Their Control. Emmaus.. Bulletin 365. Ruberson. Observation of growers at Northeast Organic Network (NEON) meeting. Agricultural Experiment Station. A. C. P.org.. 6. V. Observation of growers at Northeast Organic Farmers Association of New York workshop “Identifying Problems in Crop Rotation Sequences. Raleigh: North Carolina State University. pp. Intercropping and pest management: A review of major concepts. and P. 1968. NRAES 177. pp. Scott. A. Stoner. Vengris. Geneva: New York State Agricultural Experiment Station. 1966. and S. 1999. Sorenson. and C.. Raleigh. and S. Sweet. R. A. Smith. Phytopathology 56:1071–75. Hatfield and B.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. S. Life History Studies as Related to Weed Control in the Northeast. Flanagan. A. L.ct. 1999. Eckenrode.. HortScience 33:60–63. 1971. Baker. H. 2000.cfm. K. Newark: University of Delaware. In Handbook of Pest Management.. J. M.. J. Life History Studies as Related to Weed Control in the Northeast. Plant Disease 83:124–29. 1999. Radke. 26. 30–Feb. Robak. G. nitrogen accumulation and weed suppression by fall cover crops following early harvest of vegetables.. 87. T. Cover crops and rotations. Weed suppression by Medicago sativa in subsequent cereal crops: A comparative survey.edu/ AG295/html/.” Feb. Subbarao. 84.. Predicting Cabbage Maggot Flights in New York Using Common Wild Plants. 101.. C. and S. D. eds. Jan. Contributions of ground cover. Evaluation of broccoli residue incorporation into field soil for Verticillium wilt control in cauliflower. R. pp. G.. 86.W. 90. M. Cultural approaches to managing plant pathogens. Kenkel. ed. Soil Health Series. T. Triplett. L. In Crops Residue Management. 1976.com/.org or www. Bugg. and nitrogen from intercrops and cover crops in a corn polyculture system. Hagstrom. In Enhancing Biological Control: Habitat Management to Promote Natural Enemies of Agricultural Pests.. 95. College of Agriculture and Natural Resources. 29. 201–22. 2002. An Online Guide to Plant Disease Control. Jan. Biological flora of the British Isles. 2003. 88. Otis. In Multiple Cropping.nraes. J. and R. J. 91. WI: American Society of Agronomy. Reeves. 89. Life History Studies as Related to Weed Control in the Northeast. Observation of growers at Northeast Organic Farmers Association of New Jersey workshop “Identifying Problems in Crop Rotation Sequences. Sanchez. 1981. T. 93. Observation of growers at the DACUM expert farmer workshop. Kingston: University of Rhode Island..gov/caes/cwp/view. eds. L. J.orst. NRAES-138. http://www. R. Bulletin 415. H. and W. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use. M. 1998. Acta Horticulturae 371:223–26. J. A. D. Alternatives to Insecticides for Managing Vegetable Insects. Oregon State University Extension. 81. Santelmann. T. Papavizas. R. A. and R.ncsu. Pickett and R. W. 94. B.) Vill. E. visit www. Berkeley: University of California Press. L. 2003. Ann Arbor. Life History Studies as Related to Weed Control in the Northeast. P. Madison. Papendick. or call (607) 255 7654. asp?a=2797&q=345156 105. Sarantonio.. 103. A. and N. The role of spiders and their conservation in the agroecosystem. 99. Large and Small Crabgrass. J. Stivers-Young. A. M.edu/index. H. 1994. Stewart. 102. 1999. M. Schwartz. FLS 87. R. Storrs: University of Connecticut. J. and D. Northeast Cover Crop Handbook. eds. Stellaria media (L. Barnyardgrass. 100.dacumohiostate. 2003. MI: CRC Press. 104. of Education and Human Ecology. 1963. R.. K. 125–58. AG-295. Journal of Ecology 69:311–35. 79. 1998. L. Storrs Agricultural Experiment Station. 80. Agricultural Experiment Station. Skoglund. D. Influence of mulches on the colonization by adults and survival of larvae of the Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in eggplant. Koike. Ominski. Yellow Foxtail and Giant Foxtail. http://ipm. E. http://www. Rahn. dry matter. ed. K. Quackgrass. H. Bulletin 369. New York: Marcel Dekker. Mt. F. Agricultural Experiment Station. Newark: University of Delaware. C. Peters. 211–37. 1. Agronomy Journal 79:792–98.. I. Brown. American Entomologist 46:154–61. A. Sherf. 82. Peters. 92. A.. PA: Rodale Institute. Growth. 83. W. K. Crop rotation effect on clubroot disease decrease. 1980.

127. Paul. Kinkel. E. 1997. Köpke. 111. DiTomaso. To purchase the book. 2001. Weiner J. 107. A. R. 1999. R. 115. 7.html. Journal of Economic Entomology 87:723–29.sare. 128.unl. Weeds of the Northeast. Compendium of Corn Diseases. Some weed hosts of the northern root-knot nematode. 1993. Thlaspi arvense L. J. 2nd ed. Eltun. 1999. Sweet. T. and U. Life History Studies as Related to Weed Control in the Northeast. The influence of vegetational diversity on the population ecology of a specialized herbivore. 126. 106. 110.. Bulletin 1033. and T. 124.org.sare.htm. W. P.. 2002. C. S. Christ. J. Common Purslane. G. E. K. and D.ca/ conference/2000proceedings/turkington. Use of Cultural Practices in Crop Insect Pest Management. Sweet.. 1986. visit www. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 82:803– 23. Ithaca. Life History Studies as Related to Weed Control in the Northeast. rotation and border crops affect Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) colonization and population density and early blight (Alternaria solani) severity in rotated potato fields. Green manures and crop sequences influence potato diseases and pathogen inhibitory activity of indigenous streptomycetes. J. Organic Field Crop Handbook. K. Amherst: University of Massachusetts. 122.html. Uva. White.. Galinsoga. College of Food and Natural Resources. D. Thompson.This page is from Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual. http://ssca.. A Checklist of Major Weeds and Crops as Natural Hosts for Plant Viruses in the Northeast. 125. Journal of Applied Ecology 38:784–90.edu/ stromberg/smallgrain/sgpractices.org/reporting/report_viewer.. Subbarao. Root. 2001. 108. V. 1972. NRAES 177. Gooding. Veatch.ianr. S. Kristensen. Managing Cover Crops Profitably... Thomas. 2001. D. New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. ed. B. 2001. 9. W. Integrated Disease Management. Clayton. Hyderabad. Smilowitz. 114. T. Agricultural Experiment Station. S. 1962. Increasing the suppression of weeds by cereal crops. J. R. and J. and L. Ottawa: Canadian Organic Growers. Having problems controlling vegetable crop diseases? Try rotation. Wijands. A. K. Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood. Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).org or www. 9. Canadian Journal of Botany 40:543–48. or call (607) 255 7654. Integrated Disease Management in Small Grains. ed. and R. and B. Warwick. Wiley. Griepentrog. MD: Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN). Common Ragweed. 113. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Intercropping. Oecologia (Berlin) 10:321–46. Wiggins. The biology of Canadian weeds. Turkington. Jensen.nraes. Nebraska Cooperative Extension EC95-1560-B. G. http://www. R. 154 Crop Rotation on Organic Farms: A Planning Manual . http://www.. 1978. NY: Cornell University Press. J. Olesen.) and their susceptibility to viruses transmitted by this species. in Ontario. Hodgson. Life History Studies as Related to Weed Control in the Northeast. Crop rotation in organic farming: Theory and practice. http:// www. In Designing and Testing Crop Rotations for Organic Farming. Phytopathology 95:178–85. 121. cornell. 10–13 January 1979. 120. Neal. asp?pn=SW99-009.-W. I. http://vegetablemdonline/ppath. 117. uconn.. F. 1999. Dunn. Townshend. http://www. University of Connecticut. Host status of some plants for Xiphinema diversicaudatum (Micol. S. NY: Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station. J.hort. Annals of Applied Biology 65:169–78. D. Weisz. and S.html. 2005. Diseases and management practices.edu/ipm/veg/htms/rotate. M. 3rd ed. Ithaca. R. Functional Ecology 7:236–41. B. Band. (updated).. 2nd ed. Susko. Rotations with broccoli—A sustainable alternative to soil chemical fumigants. SARE final project report SW99-009. Research Bulletin 598. R. R. C. 1970.. MN: APS Press. Vengris. Zitter. H. 1972. New York State College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Virginia Cooperative Extension. R.htm.edu/ pubs/insects/ec1560. and M. 8. 112.. Tahvanainen. 118. Davidson. 116. St. and L. and G. 1994.edu/Tables/WeedHostTable. Beltsville. Sustainable Agriculture Network (SAN). Crop Rotation and Plant Disease Management. G. 123. 119. J. E. Seed size and shape predict persistence in soil. R. L. 1998. M. 1981. and J. eds. H. 1949. Dunn. Wright. India: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. 109. Wallace. R. J. Tjele: Danish Research Center for Organic Farming. Ithaca. Francis. J.. NY: Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station. A. Distance. Stacewicz-Sapuncakis.ppws.vt. O. L. The first page of this PDF has information on fair use.

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