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Jessie Zhao Period:1

Chapter #13: The Rise of a Mass Democracy Big Picture Themes 1. Andrew Jackson felt hed been robbed the presidency in 1824. This motivated the regular folks to political action. He vowed to win for the peoples sake, and did so. 2. A conflict started to brew between the north and the south. The issue was the tariff (import tax) and whether the south had the right to nullify or wipe it out. The trouble was worked out, but it foreshadowed bigger trouble to come, over slavery. 3. Jackson distrusted bankshe thought they were tools for the rich to milk money off the poor. He killed the National Bank and threw the whole banking system into chaos. 4. By the time William Henry Harrison ran for president in 1840, popular, mass politics had grown into the circus-like monster that its known as today. IDENTIFICATIONS: American System A system created by Henry Clay whose goal was to unite the nation economically and politically. The plan was to have a strong bank and increase lines of credit, improve transportation, and have a protective tariff. Corrupt Bargain During the election of 1824, Henry Clay struck a deal with John Quincy Adam for giving Adam all his support in return for the position of secretary of state. Tariff of Abominations A disagreement between the south and the north on the protective tariff. The south didnt want to buy products for a higher price and felt like the tariff supported the north. While the north were for the tariff because it help industries flourish.

Nullification It was a state-right doctrine that said that a state could refuse to recognize or to enforce a federal law passed by congress. It was adopted by Calhouns exposition and protest. Force Bill Congress passed this bill known to Carolinas as the bloody bill because it authorized the president to use the army and navy if necessary to collect federal tariff duties.

Five Civilized Tribes they were the five Indian tribes: the Cherokees, the Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles that civilized and formed a government. Trail of Tears Jackson was determined to expand more wests but that meant that they had to meet with more Indians. With the development of civilized Indians, some people still didnt embrace it and the Georgia legislature declared the Cherokee tribal council illegal and asserted its own jurisdiction over Indian affairs and Indian lands. Jackson proposed a bodily removal of the remaining eastern tribes beyond the Mississippi to put more white land settlers there. Nicholas Biddle He was the president of the Bank of America. He held an immense amount of power over the nations financial affairs.

Democrats vs. Whigs The Democrats were Jacksons supporters and the Whigs were Clay, and Calhoun. The Whigs were trying to pass a motion censuring Jacksons for his single-handed removal of the bank. South Carolina Exposition and Protest It was written by Calhoun who was the vice president. He didnt approve of the tariff and declared it unjust and unconstitutional. Martin Van Buren Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836, becoming the eighth president of the United States Specie Circular was issued by President Jackson in1836, and was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. Hayne-Webster Debate An argument between Daniel Webster and Robert Hayne, about the issue states' rights versus national power. Webster said that Hayne was a challenge to the integrity of the Union.

The Alamo it was a battle between Mexican Santa Anna and Texan rebels; and the Mexicans won

GUIDED READING QUESTIONS:

The "Corrupt Bargain or 1824 Know: Andrew Jackson, Henry Clay, John Quincy Adams, King Caucus, Corrupt Bargain 1. What was unusual about John Quincy Adams's victory in the presidential election of 1824? Adams win was not honest because Clay made a deal with Adams to give him all his support and in return, Adams would make Clay sec. of state.

A Yankee Misfit in the White House Know: John Quincy Adams 2. Was John Quincy Adams well suited to be president? Explain. He was not well suited for presidency because he was such a high elite and his thoughts and ideas were too far ahead for people to catch up to him. He seemed unapproachable to many people therefore, he wasnt very popular.

Going "Whole Hog" for Jackson in 1828 Know: Old Hickory, Mudslinging, Rachel Robards 3. Describe the tone and tactics used in the 1828 election. In the election of 1828, the tone and tactics were heavily on mudslinging and having the appearance of an everyday and common man in which people could relate to. Old Hickory as President Know: Inaugural Brawl, King Mob 4. What was there about Andrew Jackson which made him a man of the people? Jacksons background was what made him a man of the people because he wasnt wealthy like most of the presidents and he worked hard for his money and the thought that he was the type of person who anyone can hang out with was what made his popularity so big.

The Spoils System Know: Spoils System, Rotation in Office 5. Defend Andrew Jackson's use of the Spoils System. In Jacksons eyes, he saw that since his supporters were so loyal to him and they helped him succeed, it is only reasonable to repay them someway. Another thing about his Spoil system was that it filled a cabinet of people who were loyal to him and would follow a listen to him.

The Tricky Tariff of Abominations Know: Tariff of Abominations (of 1828), Denmark Vesey 6. What circumstances led to the passage of the Tariff of Abominations? The south had to pay a tariff for their products and they didnt like the idea of how much influence the north had over the government. They were afraid that the influence of the north would eventully lead to the abomination of slvery.

"Nullies" in South Carolina Know: Nullies, Henry Clay, Tariff of 1833, Force Bill 5. Describe the nullification crisis. The nullification crisis was where the south Carolina proposed a start-right doctrine where a state could refuse or not enforce a federal law made by congress. The Trail of Tears Know: Cherokees, Five Civilized Tribes, Indian Removal Act, Trail of Tears, Indian Territory, The Bureau of Indian Affairs, Seminoles 8. What was particularly unfair about the treatment of the Cherokee Tribe?

Some people didnt care for the Indians and wouldnt accept their try to start their own government and civilization. It soon led to the trail of tears and the Indian removal act.

The Bank War Know: Bank of the United States, Nicholas Biddle 9. Do you agree or disagree with Nicholas Biddles nickname, Czar Nicholas I? Explain. In a way, I agree because of how much power and influence he had over the financial affairs in the nation. He could have easily crushed America financially. The bank was a huge part of American economy so for a single person to have that much power was frightening. "Old Hickory" Wallops Clay in 1832 Know: Anti-Masonic Party 10. What two things were unique about the election of 1832? 1. a third party was created: anti-masonic. They opposed the influence and fearsome secrecy of the Masonic order. 2. there was a calling of national nominating conventions to name the candidates.

Burying Biddles Bank Know: Mandate, Pet Banks, Specie Circular 11. "Andrew Jackson's killing of the BUS forced him to issue the Specie Circular." Assess. Jackson authorized the treasury to issue a Specie Circular-a decree that required all public lands to be purchased with hard or metallic money.

The Birth of the Whigs Know: Democrats, Whigs 12. What is so alluring about being associated with the common man? Being associated with the common man meant that they were seen by the people as a group that looked after the people and cared for them. It held the power to have more supporters since that what the people want: a party that supported the common man. The Election of 1836 Know: Favorite Son, William Henry Harrison, Martin Van Buren 13. Describe the development of the second party system from 1828-1836. The Whigs decided to come up with favorite sons each with a different regional appeal and hope to scatter the vote so that no candidate would win a majority. Then it would have to be broken down by the House of representative where the Whigs might have a chance.

Big Woes for the "Little Magician" Know: Martin Van Buren 14. Why was Martin Van Buren unpopular? He was unpopular because, many people didnt like the way he was voted into office. The democrats objected to having a bastard Politian smuggled into office beneath the tails of the old generals military coat.

Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury Know: Panic of 1837, Speculation, Divorce Bill, Independent Treasury 15. What caused the Panic of 1837, and what was done by the president to try and end it? The panic of 1837 was caused by rampant speculation prompted by a mania of get-rich-quickism. But the bank war and specie circular gave an additional jolt to the panic. Van Buren decided to apply the divorce bill which convinced some of the financial fever b y the injection of federal funds into private banks. He said that by establishing an independent treasury, the government could lock its surplus money in vaults in several large cities.

Gone to Texas Know: Stephen Austin, Davy Crockett 16. What made Texas so appealing to Americans? Americans were greedy for more land, so they looked on to texas to gain it.

The Lone Star Rebellion Know: Sam Houston, Santa Anna, Alamo, W. B. Travis, Goliad, Lone Star Republic, San Jacinto 17. How did Texas, a part of Mexico settled by Americans, become independent of both? Texas won their independence from Mexico and wanted to be a part of America but America was in a big mess about slavery the people knew that if they took Texas, it would increase their problem because slavery was huge in Texas.

Makers of America: Mexican or Texan? Know: Moses Austin, Stephen Austin, Anglos 18. Did Texans ever really intend to become Mexican citizens, or did they feign allegiance to get land? In a way, Texans never really intended to become Mexican citizens because they just wanted land and waited for the right tine t strike and declare their independence.

The Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840 Know: Log Cabin, Hard Cider, "Tippecanoe and Tyler Too" 19. What does the election of 1840 tell you about politics and voters in America at that time? The election states that American people were looking for presidents that would help the common people and since Van Buren didnt help with the panic of 1837, he didnt win.

The Two-Party System 20. Who were the Democrats and what did they believe? The Whigs? The democrats believed in state rights and federal restraints. The Whigs held onto the idea of a strong central government and a renewed national bank, protective tariff and internal improvements .