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49 views20 pagesOct 22, 2013

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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2.1

b

a

a b (a, b) !

(a, b) (b, a)

a b aA, bB

2.2

A, BAB

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AB"

aA, bB (a, b)"

A # A A2 "

: 2xy R2 = R#R

A # B $ B # A

n(A # B) = n(A) # n(B) "

2.3

A B A # B "

R A B "! R " A # B

: A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {a, b}"

R = {(1, a), (1, b), (3, b)}"

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B

b!

a!

1"

3"

"

(x, y) ! R " x y R- xRy

(x, y) ! R " x y R- xRy

R A A R A

R "

(a) A = {, , }, B = {, , }"

A B R "

(a, b) ! R a b "

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(b) A = {1, 2, 3}, A R "

(a, b) ! R a > b "

"

(c) Z R "

(m, n) ! R n m

m R n m | n

2.4

R F = {(x, y) : (x, y) ! R2, y = x2}"

"

y!

1"

0"

1"

x!

A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {a, b}"

R = {(1, a), (1, b), (3, b)}"

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(3)

(1) "

B

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1"

a!

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b!

2"

"

b!

a!

3"

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1" 2

3" A

B

A

(2)

12 3"

a! 1" 0 0"

b! 1" 0 1"

a b a b

A = {1, 2, 3, 4}"

R = {(1, 2), (2, 2), (2, 4), (3, 2), (3, 4), (4, 1), (4, 3)}"

1

2.7

R A R A # A

(1) A a aRa R

(2) aRb bRa R

(3) aRb bRc aRc R "

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!

2.7(b) A ="

(1) aA a=a

(2) a=b b=a

(3) a=b b=c a=c

2.9

R

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2.9 (a) L "

R "

(1)

(2) li lj "

lj li

(3) li lj "

lj lk "

li lk

(1), (2), (3) R

2.9 "

(a) ab

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"

(b) ab "

"

(c) "

(d) m "

a, b R!

aRb

! a - b m "

aRb ab (mod m)

2.10 (a)"

S = {1, 2, 3}, R = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 2), (2, 1), (3, 3)}

(1) aRa

(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)

(2) aRb bRa

(1, 2) (2, 1)

(3) aRb bRc aRc

(1, 2)(2, 1)(1, 1)R

"

(1) "

(2) "

(3)

"

2.10(b) R

Z

xy (mod 5)(x - y 5 )"

Z R 5

A0 = {, -10, -5, 0, 5, 10, }"

A1 = {, -9, -4, 1, 6, 11, }"

A2 = {, -8, -3, 2, 7, 12, }"

A3 = {, -7, -2, 3, 8, 13, }"

A4 = {, -6, -1, 4, 9, 14, }"

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