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# /I!

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2.1
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a b (a, b) !
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(a, b) (b, a) 
a b aA, bB 

2.2
A, BAB
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## A # B = {(a, b): aA bB}"

AB"
aA, bB (a, b)"
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A # A A2 "
: 2xy R2 = R#R 
A # B \$ B # A 
n(A # B) = n(A) # n(B) "

2.3
A B A # B "
R A B "! R " A # B
: A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {a, b}"
R = {(1, a), (1, b), (3, b)}"
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1"

3"

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(x, y) ! R " x y R- xRy 
(x, y) ! R " x y R- xRy
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R A A R A 

R "

(a) A = {, , }, B = {, , }"
A B R "
(a, b) ! R a b "
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(b) A = {1, 2, 3}, A R "
(a, b) ! R a > b "
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(c) Z R "
(m, n) ! R n m 
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2.4
R F = {(x, y) : (x, y) ! R2, y = x2}"
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1"
0"

1"

x!

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A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {a, b}"
R = {(1, a), (1, b), (3, b)}"
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1"
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b!
2"
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a!
3"
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1" 2
3" A
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12 3"
a! 1" 0 0"
b! 1" 0 1"

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a b a b 
A = {1, 2, 3, 4}"
R = {(1, 2), (2, 2), (2, 4), (3, 2), (3, 4), (4, 1), (4, 3)}"
1

2.7
R A R A # A
(1) A a aRa R 
(2) aRb bRa R 
(3) aRb bRc aRc R "

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## (3) aRb bRc aRc "

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2.7(b) A ="
(1) aA a=a 
(2) a=b b=a 
(3) a=b b=c a=c 

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2.9
R
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2.9 (a) L "
R "
(1) 
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(2) li lj "
lj li  
(3) li lj "
lj lk "
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li lk 
(1), (2), (3) R 

2.9 "
(a) ab
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(b) ab "
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(c) "
(d) m "
a, b R!

aRb
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aRb ab (mod m) 

2.10 (a)"
S = {1, 2, 3}, R = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 2), (2, 1), (3, 3)}
(1) aRa
(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)
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(2) aRb bRa 
(1, 2) (2, 1) 
(3) aRb bRc aRc 
(1, 2)(2, 1)(1, 1)R
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(1) "
(2) "
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2.10(b) R
Z 
 xy (mod 5)(x - y 5 )"
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Z R 5
A0 = {, -10, -5, 0, 5, 10, }"
A1 = {, -9, -4, 1, 6, 11, }"
A2 = {, -8, -3, 2, 7, 12, }"
A3 = {, -7, -2, 3, 8, 13, }"
A4 = {, -6, -1, 4, 9, 14, }"

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