You are on page 1of 20

/I!

!
2


"
"
(a > b) l1 l2 etc"
!


"
a

"
"
"
"

2.1
b
 a




a b (a, b) !

(a, b) (b, a) 
a b aA, bB 

2.2
A, BAB
"

A # B = {(a, b): aA bB}"


AB"
aA, bB (a, b)"

A # A A2 "
: 2xy R2 = R#R 
A # B $ B # A 
n(A # B) = n(A) # n(B) "

2.3
A B A # B "
R A B "! R " A # B
: A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {a, b}"
R = {(1, a), (1, b), (3, b)}"
"
"

B
b!
a!
1"

3"

"
(x, y) ! R " x y R- xRy 
(x, y) ! R " x y R- xRy

R A A R A 

R "

(a) A = {, , }, B = {, , }"
A B R "
(a, b) ! R a b "
"
(b) A = {1, 2, 3}, A R "
(a, b) ! R a > b "
"
(c) Z R "
(m, n) ! R n m 
 m R n m | n 

2.4
R F = {(x, y) : (x, y) ! R2, y = x2}"
"
y!

1"
0"

1"

x!






A = {1, 2, 3}, B = {a, b}"
R = {(1, a), (1, b), (3, b)}"
"
(3) 
(1) "
B
"
1"
a!
"
b!
2"
"
b!
a!
3"
"
1" 2
3" A
B
A
(2) 
12 3"
a! 1" 0 0"
b! 1" 0 1"




a b a b 
A = {1, 2, 3, 4}"
R = {(1, 2), (2, 2), (2, 4), (3, 2), (3, 4), (4, 1), (4, 3)}"
1

2.7
R A R A # A
(1) A a aRa R 
(2) aRb bRa R 
(3) aRb bRc aRc R "

"


(1) A a aRa "


"
"


(2) aRb bRa "




"
"


(3) aRb bRc aRc "


"

"
"
!


2.7(b) A ="
(1) aA a=a 
(2) a=b b=a 
(3) a=b b=c a=c 




2.9
R
"
"
2.9 (a) L "
R "
(1) 

(2) li lj "
lj li  
(3) li lj "
lj lk "

li lk 
(1), (2), (3) R 

2.9 "
(a) ab
"

"

(b) ab "
"
(c) "
(d) m "
a, b R!

aRb
! a - b m "
aRb ab (mod m) 

2.10 (a)"
S = {1, 2, 3}, R = {(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 2), (2, 1), (3, 3)}
(1) aRa
(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3)

(2) aRb bRa 
(1, 2) (2, 1) 
(3) aRb bRc aRc 
(1, 2)(2, 1)(1, 1)R



"
(1) "
(2) "
(3) 







"


2.10(b) R
Z 
 xy (mod 5)(x - y 5 )"

Z R 5
A0 = {, -10, -5, 0, 5, 10, }"
A1 = {, -9, -4, 1, 6, 11, }"
A2 = {, -8, -3, 2, 7, 12, }"
A3 = {, -7, -2, 3, 8, 13, }"
A4 = {, -6, -1, 4, 9, 14, }"



"
"
a b "
"
"