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Lm bnh c bn

aking
asics
B
KOKOTARU.com
Photography by MrLee
Designed by Arigatou
aking
asics B
[ Mc Lc ]
A. Nhng vt dng c bn ca lm bnh
1. L nng
2. Stand mixer
3. Khun bnh
4. Cc th nho nh khc
B.H o lng dng trong lm bnh, nu nng
C. Hnh nh, tn gi cc loi khun lm bnh
1. Khun bnh ngt ni chung
2. Khun Barquette
3. Khun Brioche
4. Vng bnh (Charlotte rings)
5. Khun bnh lm Chocolate
6. Khun Loaf
7. Khun Madaleine
8. Khun Muffns, Cupcakes
9. Khun Petit four
10. Khun pie
11. Khay phng
12. Khun tho (Springform)
13. Khun Tart
14. Khun ng (Tube)
15. Khun Bundt
D. Cc loi bt lm bnh
1. Bt m thng
2. Cake four
3. Bread four (bt bnh m)
4. Self-rising four
5. Pastry four
E. Cc loi ng lm bnh
1. Granulated sugar
2. Confectioners / Powder / Icing sugar
3. Brown sugar
4. Cc loi si - r (syrups)
F. Cc loi ht (nuts) lm bnh
1. Almond (hnh nhn)
2. Brazil nuts
3. Cashew (ht iu)
4. Hazelnut (ht d)
5. Chestnut (ht d Trng Khnh)
6. Coconut (ci da)
7. Macadamia nut
8. Pecan (ht h o)
9. Peanut (lc, u phng)
10. Pine nut (ht thng)
11. Pistachios (ht d ci)
12. Walnut (ht c ch)
G. Phn bit cc loi pho-mat (cheese)
1. Parmesan
2. Cheddar
3. Mozzarella
4. Blue cheese
5. Cream cheese
6. Mascarpone
7. Ricotta cheese
H. Sa v cc sn phm t sa
1. Cc sn phm sa ti
2. Cc sn phm kem ti (fresh cream)
3. Cc sn phm sa ln men v kem sa
4. Cc sn phm sa c loi nc
5. Pho-mat (cheese)
I. Cc vn vi trng trong lm bnh
1. Cu to ca trng
2. Kch c ca qu trng
3. Chc nng ca trng i vi bnh
4. Kinh nghim bo qun trng
5. Lu khi s dng trng lm bnh
K. Tn gi v phm bit cc loi bnh phng ty
1. Bread - Bnh m
2. Quick bread - Bnh m nhanh
3. Bnh khng dng l nng
4. Pie v tart
5. Cake (bnh bng lan)
6. Cookies
L. La chn l nng ph hp vi nhu cu s dng
1. Toaster Oven
2. Convention Oven
3. Convection Oven
4. Cc tnh nng khc
M. Cch thay th cc nguyn liu
38 50
Va tt nghip Nanyang Technological University chuyn ngnh X hi hc, nhng
Linh li c nhiu hng th v am m vi nu nng v vn ha m thc. Trang web
http://kokotaru.com l ni Linh thng xuyn gii thiu nhng mn n hng ngy v
chia s nim am m ny vi bn b trn Internet. Linh gii thiu 2 cun ebook:
Quick & Easy v Family Feast ti cng ng internet Vit Nam.
Tt nghip ngnh IT ti trng NTU, hin ang lm vic ti IBM Singapore. am m
ca Hng l nhip nh v m thc. Tt c cc hnh nh minh ha cho mn n gii
thiu trn http://kokotaru.com v trong nhng cun ebook u do Hng thc hin.
Hin ang theo hc kha hc v M thut truyn thng a phng tin (Art & Multi-
media) ca trung tm Arena thuc FPT, Lan thc hin mt s project v thit k.
Lan tham gia design 3 cun ebook Quick&Easy, Family Feast v Baking Basics.
Tc Gia
Hnh nh minh ha cho cc bi vit trong cun sch ny a phn c ly t Google Images .
i vi ngi phng Ty, lm bnh ngt cng n thun ch nh vic vo bp nu mt mn n no . y l vic
lm thng nht vn c t rt lu ri. Nhng i vi nhiu ngi Vit Nam ni ring v ngi phng ng ni chung,
lm bnh t nhng chic l nng khng phi l mt vic quen thuc nh vo bp nu mn n hng ngy.
Nhng chic bnh phng Ty c s cun ht rt ring n t hnh dng, hng v v phng php lm ra chng.
Chng l nhng sn phm gp phn nh em li s ngt ngo cho cuc sng. Hin nay nhu cu c mt chic l nng
trong nhiu gia nh Vit Nam ngy cng ph bin. Ngoi vic dng l nng cho cc mn n mn, mn n chnh, hy
cng khin chic l nng pht huy ht tnh nng ca n hn na vi lnh vc lm bnh ngt y th v.
Lm bnh cng nh nu n u c ci d v ci kh ring. Cun ebook ny trc ht dnh ring cho nhng thng tin,
kin thc c bn nht bn c th d dng lm quen v hiu hn vi lnh vc lm bnh vn cn l mi m vi nhiu
ngi. Do thi gian, kin thc cng nh kinh nghim cn hn ch, tc gi mi ch c th tng hp c mt lng
thng tin rt nh, nhng tin tng rng l nhng iu hu ch v nn bit bn c c mt nn khi nim v
kinh nghim vng cho s sng to v cng ca bn v sau khi bn am m vo lnh vc lm bnh ngt ny.
Chc bn c nhiu nim vui vi ch lm bnh nhiu l th ny.

Singapore, thng 7/2009
Loi mo u
y l trang c tnh c trng
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A. Nhng vt dng c bn ca lm bnh
Nu nh bn tng trm tr trc nhng chic bnh kem p ngy ngt n mc ch mun ngm mi ch khng
mun n
Nu nh bn tng nc n khi c n mt ming bnh khin bn cm nhn c tht nhiu v ngon ca cuc
sng
Nu nh bn tng c rng mnh c th cng lm c nhng chic bnh nh th.. khng cn phi m miu, khng
cn phi lung linh hay honh trng
Ch n gin l bn c gi gm nhng yu thng, s chm cht t m ca mnh vo sn phm dnh cho nhng
ngi bn thng yu v trn trng nht.

Chng c g l kh khn khng th lm c!
Mnh tng ngh lm bnh l mt iu to tt v xa vi lm, ging nh khi mnh cha bit iu g, cha c tri nghim
v n, th mnh u nhn vi mt con mt ngng m v rt r. Cho n ln mnh sang c hc mt thi gian, c
tn mt chng kin trong mi nh k tc x , l nng l mt th v cng thit yu v c bn. Mnh nhn thy bn cng
nh t lm bnh, m mi ch l mua sn bt trn ngoi v, ch vic cho nc hay sa vo ngoy ngoy l cho vo
nng c ri. Vy m mnh thy n lm. Ri mnh tham gia lm pizza cng mt m bn khc, lc u ngh l to
tt lm, nhng ha ra ti bn mua sn hp nguyn liu gm bt bnh v tt c nhng th nhn lm sn ng gi
khc, v ch vic lp ghp vo vi nhau thnh chic pizza, th m mnh cng thy k th lm ri.
chnh l iu khi gi cm hng mun th tp lm bnh ca mnh. Ban u c nhiu hoang mang v y thc mc,
mnh phi i tm c kh nhiu mi bt u tm n c n by gi. V th mnh mun chia s mt vi kinh nghim v
vic chun b dng c lm bnh vi nhng bn cng c chung cm hng v s thch, trnh nhng s lng ph v tn
km cha cn thit m mnh gp phi khi bn mi bt u giai on mun th th trong th gii bnh tri vi bit
bao hng v ngt ngo.
Nhng vt dng c bn cho vic lm bnh cn c:
1. L nng:
- L khng cn qu to cng khng nn nh qu, c 30l
l tm n.
- L c thanh nng trn di, c 3 - 4 nc c th
t khay nng nhng v tr khc nhau ty yu cu
tng loi bnh.
- C nt iu chnh nhit v thi gian.
- Nu l c qut thi th cng tt.
- Khng cn mua l nhn hiu xn nhng cng khng
nn xp x qu, s em li hiu qu khng cao.
2. Stand mixer (my trn bt loi bn) :
- (Thc t, trong sut 1 nm, mnh dng chic my
mixer cm tay hiu Phillips v thy n phc v rt hiu
qu cho mnh.)
- Mixer rt cn thit v bn s phi nh bng kem, b,
trng v trn bt bnh thng xuyn. Trn bng tay s
khng em li kt qu t yu cu .
- Nn chn mixer c u ng to mt cht cha c nhiu
nguyn liu, khi nh cng gim vic b bn ra ngoi.
- Nn chn loi c cng sut cao v bn. Khng nn tit
kim tin m mua loi qu r nu khng mun tht vng
sau ny. Mnh mua mt chic my ca Phillips cng sut
350W v dng cho n tn by gi, cng vi chic my ny
mnh lm ra nhng loi bnh chia s trn blog. Nu
bn c iu kin ti chnh v sn sng chi tin hn na,
th bn c th chn mua my hiu Kenwood (nu Chu
u) hoc Kitchen Aid (nu bn M) y u l nhng
brands rt c uy tn.
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3. Khun bnh:
- 1 khun trn c th tho ri (springform pan):
mua khun ng knh c 20-23cm hoc 18 - 19,
l kch c khun thng c s dng trong nhiu
cng thc bnh.
- 1 khun vung nu bn mun lm bnh hnh vung
v cc kiu bnh dng thanh, khi vung hoc ch
nht nh .
- 1 khun tart trn, thnh ln sng cho p. C
loi khun tart ri hoc lin.
- 1 khun muffn 12 cc nu bn mun lm bnh
muffns hoc cupcake.
- Trong l nng khi mua v thng c sn mt
khay nng phng, bn c th dng lm nhng
loi bnh quy a hnh dng. Tuy nhin khay nng
km theo l thng l khay en vn khng c
khuyn khch nng cookies, v vy bn c th
cn nhc mua thm khay nng phng bng nhm
sng mu.
4. Cc th nho nh khc:
- 1 chic spatula dng c trng nh ci xng dt, lm bng
g, nha hoc cao su. Loi cao su c khuyn dng nht,
tuy nhin gi cng t hn.
- 1 ci ry bt c mt li nh ry bt v cc nguyn liu
dng bt khc, trnh s vn cc ca bt.
- 1 cun giy nng bnh hay cn gi l giy nn hoc giy
parchment paper. Bn nn mua loi tt, tuy t hn mt cht
nhng ti s dng c nhiu ln v hiu qu s dng rt
tt.
- 1 ci nh trng bng tay (whisk), loi thun thun bu.
- Nu c nh lm bnh kem trang tr th mua dng c trt
kem, vi ci u bt hoa vn v ti bt kem.
- 1 ci thanh cn (rolling pin) dng cn bt.
- 1 ci cn nh, ti a khong 2kg l va, chia vch khi lng
cng nh cng tt. Nu bn c iu kin kinh t th c th
u t mt chic cn in t.
- 1 cc ong theo chun quc t, loi chia vch ong 1 cup, 2
cup hoc theo ml, oz.
- 1 b tha ong t to n nh chia ng lng 1 tablespoon,
1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8 teaspooon.
Trn y l nhng vt dng c bn nn nm trong danh sch mua sm ban u ca bn bn c th thc s bt
u s thch ca mnh trong lnh vc lm bnh mt cch thoi mi. Mong rng bn s c tht nhiu nim vui khi lm
bnh v c c nhiu sn phm ngon, p mt.
y l trang c tnh c trng
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1/8 cup 15g
1/4 cup 30g
1/3 cup 40g
3/8 cup 45g
1/2 cup 60g
5/8 cup 80g
2/3 cup 85g
3/4 cup 95g
7/8 cup 110g
1 cup 125g
1/8 cup 30g
1/4 cup 55g
1/3 cup 75g
3/8 cup 85g
1/2 cup 115g
5/8 cup 140g
2/3 cup 150g
3/4 cup 170g
7/8 cup 200g
1 cup 225g
Chuyn i mt vi nguyn liu hay s dng:
Bt m a dng (bt m thng)
v ng bt (icing sugar)
ng trng ht mn
B. H o lng dng trong lm bnh, nu nng
Ngi Vit Nam vn c thi quen dng h o lng Metric trong cuc sng hng ngy nh mt (m), kilogam (kg), lt (l).
Tuy nhin khi c nhng cng thc nu n nc ngoi, hay nhng sch dy nu n hoc lm bnh, chng ta thng
gp nhng h o lng khc, ph bin nht l h o ca US. Ban u bn s thy lng tng vi nhng n v nh cup,
teaspoon, dash, pint, stick, oz, inch, vv. tin cho vic nu nng ni chung v lm bnh ni ring, c nhng iu c
bn v mt vi quy i nn nh nh sau qu trnh nu c nhanh v tin li.
1 cup (US)= 240ml.
1 cup (Metric) = 250ml.
-> bn nn mua 1 chic cc ong c chia vch 1/4 cup, 1/4 cup, 2/3 cup, 1 cup, ...
1 teaspoon (tsp) = 5ml
1 tablespoon (tbs) = 15ml
-> bn nn mua 1 b tha ong, gm 1 tha tbs, 1/2 tbs, 1 tsp, 1/2 tsp, 1/3 tsp, 1/4 tsp, 1/8 tsp. 1 b tha nh vy
lun i cng nhau, treo cng trn 1 chic vng, rt tin li.
1 inch = 2.54cm
-> ci ny ch cn lu khi chn mua dng c v c trong cc cng thc hng dn bit l dng khun kch c
bao nhiu.
Mt vi iu khc cn ch :
- Nhng nguyn liu khc nhau s c khi lng khc nhau vi cng 1 th tch. V d cc loi bt khc nhau, cng
1 th tch cng c khi lng khc nhau.
- Khi ni ong 1 cup, hay 1 tbs, 1 tsp, ngha l chng ta phi t dng c o trn b mt phng v ong bng mt.
Vi tsp, tbs th ly y tha v gt mt cho phng, nh vy s ong c chnh xc.
- Trc khi bt tay vo chun b cc loi nguyn liu, bn nn cn nhc xem ong ci no trc v dng dng c
no trc s l tin nht, s dng t dng c nht ( phi by ra nhiu v tn t cng ra).
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1/8 cup 30g
1/4 cup 55g
1/3 cup 75g
3/8 cup 85g
1/2 cup 115g
5/8 cup 140g
2/3 cup 150g
3/4 cup 170g
7/8 cup 200g
1 cup 225g
1/8 cup 25g
1/4 cup 50g
1/3 cup 65g
3/8 cup 75g
1/2 cup 100g
5/8 cup 125g
2/3 cup 135g
3/4 cup 150g
7/8 cup 175g
1 cup 200g
ng nu B hoc Margarine
y l trang c tnh c trng
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Vi nhng ngi thch lm bnh th nhng chic khun bnh tr nn cc k thn thng. i khi nhn mt ng khun
xp trong bp th trong lng cng cm thy rt thch th, nht l khi t nhng chic khun m bao nhiu loi
bnh ngon p ra i.
Nh li ngy u mi tp te lm bnh hi cch y gn mt nm, mnh chng bit loi khun no vi khun no, tn
gi ra sao. Ra siu th mua th ch phn bit c khun trn, khun vung v khun muffns. V sau dn dn lm n
nhiu loi bnh hn th mnh mi r tn cc loi khun v dng lm nhng loi bnh no.
Bi chia s ny c l l khng cn thit vi nhng ngi quen thuc vi bnh tri, nhng mnh hy vng s gip ch
cho nhng bn tng ging mnh ngy trc. Trc khi lm bnh, bit c s a dng ca cc loi khun, trc ht
l bit tn, nhn dng c chng s gip bn d dng hn khi i vo nhng ca hng bn chuyn dng, khng
b ngp v la chn c ng loi khun cn thit cho mc ch lm bnh ca mnh.
C. Hnh nh, tn gi cc loi khun lm bnh
1. Khun bnh ngt ni chung
C cc dng hnh trn, vung, tri tim, hoa, a gic, v c
nhiu kch c khc nhau.
2. Khun barquette
Khun c dng thuyn dng lm bnh petits fours hoc
nhng chic bnh tart nh
4. Khun Brioche
3. Vng bnh (cn c tn gi l Charlotte rings)
L cc vng kim loi khng r c ng knh v chiu cao
khc nhau. thng dng lm khun cho cc loi bnh
trng ming lnh (nh mousse, thch, pudding, vv) hoc
nhng loi bnh c trnh by c bit. Sau khi bnh
gi vng c hnh sau qu trnh lnh th nhng vng kim
loi ny s c tho ra.
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5. Khun lm chocolate
6. Khun loaf
C loi c np v khng np, dng hnh khi ch nht,
thng dng nng cc loi bnh m gi/ nh cch
gi VN.
7. Khun madeleine
Tn gi ca 1 loi khun dng lm bnh madeleines,
bnh c dng v s.
8. Khun muffns, cupcakes
Khun c dng nhiu hnh cc lm, thng mi khun c 6,
12, 24 cc ging nhau, kch thc c th to nh khc nhau.
9. Khun petit four
Cc loi khun nh c hnh dng khc nhau c s dng
lm cc loi bnh tart nh hoc bnh fnancier.
10. Khun pie
Khun nng, thnh xin, dng lm bnh pie.
11. Khay phng
Khay thng c hnh ch nht, vung, v nng, dng
lm cc loi bnh cun hoc lm khay nng cookies.
12. Khun tho (springform)
L loi khun c th tho ri , thng dng khi nng
cheesecake hoc cc loi bnh c kt cu mm kh b ra
khi khun.
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13. Khun tart
Khun nng, c cnh l ng vin, c th tho hoc khng
tho . Truyn thng khun c dng hnh trn, nhng hin nay
khun vung, ch nht cng rt ph bin.
14. Khun ng (tube)
Khun c dng su, c ng chnh gia thng dng lm cc
loi bnh c n cao v bng xp, thng l do qu trnh nh
bng trng nh chiffon hoc angel food cakes. Khun thng c
kh nng tho khi tch bnh ra khi khun c d dng.
15. Khun bundt
Dng c bit ca khun tube. Cnh khun bundt thng c
nhiu hnh dng hoa vn khc nhau to nn hnh dng trang tr
cho bnh.
Trn y l im qua nhng loi khun c bn thng dng lm cc loi bnh ph bin. Khi bn i vo tng loi bnh
c th th li c s bin i rt a dng. Ngy nay khun silicon ang cng tr nn ph bin, khun bnh cng s cng
phong ph hn v kiu dng v ha tit.
y l trang c tnh c trng
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Trc y khi cha bit g v lm bnh th vi mnh ch c mt vi khi nim dng tn gi ca mt vi loi bt nh
bt m, bt go, bt nng, bt sn ch yu l cc loi bt lm nhng mn bnh Vit. Cng v Vit Nam khng phi
l nc sn xut la m nn hi mnh ch ngh n gin l bt m l bt t ht la m, cng nh bt go l bt xay
t ht go.
Khi bt u dn thn vo cc loi bnh ngt phng Ty th mnh mi hoa mt trc bao nhiu loi bt. Bui u lm
bnh, mnh cng ch dm mua bt m thng (plain four) cho an ton v c thy cng dng l dng chung cho tt c
cc loi bnh. V tt c cc sn phm bt vi tn gi chung chung l bt m theo cch gi Vit Nam y s d gy
nhm ln vi nhng ngi mi lm quen vi bnh ngt.
Nu ni chi li v ht la m, thnh phn cc cht v qu trnh xay bt to ra c cc sn phm bt m khc nhau th
cn rt di v c nhiu iu th v. bi vit ny, mnh s c gng phn bit cc loi bt thng gp trong lm bnh
nhng ngi mi n vi bnh ngt c th phn bit c s khc bit gia tn gi v cng dng ca chng, t
m c th s dng bt hiu qu v chnh xc hn.
Trc mt, bn ghi nh mt trong nhng phn bit c bn gia cc loi bt l hm lng gluten. Hm lng gluten
khc nhau s cho ra nhng sn phm bt khc nhau.
D. Cc loi bt lm bnh
1. Plain four / All-purpose four (bt m thng / bt m a dng)
y l loi bt ph bin nht v thng c s dng nhiu khi lm bnh ngt cy nh l vn. Loi bt ny c ng
dng rng ri trong nhiu cng thc bnh ngt to s tin li cho ngi lm bnh. Cn vi cc ca hng bnh chuyn
nghip th bt m a dng thng khng c dng m nhng ngi th lm bnh nht nh s la chn nhng loi bt
chuyn dng cho tng loi bnh, ph thuc vo yu cu hm lng gluten ca bnh.
2. Cake four
Loi bt ny c hm lng gluten rt thp, bt rt nh v mn, mu trng tinh. Cake four c s dng lm cc loi
bnh c kt cu bng xp, mm, nh.
3. Bread four (bt bnh m)
Loi bt c hm lng gluten cao dng lm bnh m. Gluten s tng tc vi men n pht trin to nn kt cu
dai v chc cho bnh m.
H hng vi loi bt bnh m ny cn c loi High-gluten four, loi bt chuyn dng lm cc loi bnh m v cng,
gin, v d nh bnh pizza hoc bagel.
4. Self-rising four
Loi bt trn sn baking powder v i khi c mui. Bt ny c u im l baking powder c trn rt u vi
bt m, tuy nhin ng dng ca n li hn ch hn v 2 l do: mt l mi loi bnh khc nhau c yu cu lng baking
powder khc nhau, hai l baking powder s gim tc dng theo thi gian, v th c th gy nh hng n cht lng
bnh.
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Ngoi ra cn cc loi bt khc khng phi bt m nhng cng thng cn n khi lm bnh.
Bt ng
Ting Vit ch gi chung l bt ng, nhng bt ng cng chia lm 2 loi c bn:
- Bt ng trng (cornfour, cornstarch): bt trng, mn v rt nh, lm t tm trng ca ht ng. Trong nu n th
bt ng cn c tc dng l cht lm st khi nu cc mn sp hoc st.
- Bt ng vng (cornmeal, hay i khi cn c gi l Polenta): l bt c xay t nguyn ht ng kh.

Cng cn c rt nhiu tn gi cc loi bt khc m gn nh nu dch sang ting Vit th rt kh hnh dung v ngi
VN vn t quen thuc vi nhng loi ht ny. Mnh cng vy, v th mnh ch im qua cc tn gi mi ngi cng c
cht khi nim v nhng loi bt t cc ht lng thc khc c dng lm bnh.
- Whole wheat four: bt lm t nguyn ht la m xay mn ra.
- Bran four: bt lm t lp v mng ca ht la m.
- Rye four: bt lm t ht la mch en. C cc loi con nh light rye, medium rye, dark rye, whole rye four, rye
meal, rye blend.
- Oat four: bt lm t ht yn mch. Sn phm t ht yn mch thng dng l rolled oats, oat bran.
- Buckwheat four: bt kiu mch, thng c s dng lm pancake hoc crepe. (Loi m soba ni ting ca Nht
c lm t bt buckwheat)
- Durum four: bt ny lm t ht durum (khng bit tn ting Vit l g). Spaghetti v cc loi pasta kh l lm t bt
ny. Trong nng bnh th bt ny c s dng lm cc loi bnh m c sn ca .
5. Pastry four
Cng l mt loi bt c hm lng gluten thp, nhng vn cao hn cake four. Bt c mu trng kem, thch hp lm
v bnh pie, cookies, bnh quy v muffns.
y l trang c tnh c trng
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E. Cc loi ng lm bnh
Bnh ngt th khng th thiu ng, v ch cn nhc n t ng l
tng tng c v ngt trong ming ri. L ra gi cho chnh
xc th phi ni l cc cht to v ngt, nhng cho gn v tin th mnh
gi chung bng t ng.
Ngi VN mnh cng phn bit mt s loi ng khc nhau bng nhng
tn gi khc nhau nh ng ct, ng , ng phn, ng phn,
vv.. Tuy nhin, khi i vo lnh vc bnh ty th khi nim ng - sugar
khng cn mang ngha chung chung l ng ch 1 loi ng na.
ng c phn loi da trn mu sc, kt cu, ngt hoc ngun
gc sn xut mt cch rt c h thng.
Tc dng ca ng i vi bnh ngt:
- To v ngt v mi thm cho bnh.
- To mm mn cho kt cu bnh.
- To mu sc vng p cho v bnh.
- Gi m cho bnh, gip bnh gi cht lng c lu hn.
- Kt hp vi cht bo (b, shortening) lm kem hoc nh cng
trng to s bng mt.
- L thc n cho men.
ng tinh luyn ( ch chung cc loi ng lm t ma hoc c ci ng) c phn loi da trn kch c ca ht ng.
Tuy nhin hin nay cng cha c h thng phn loi tiu chun, v th tn gi i khi ph thuc vo tng hng sn xut.
Nu bn thch lm bnh v tng c cc cng thc lm bnh ca nc ngoi th bn hn s nhn bit c
s quen thuc v ph bin ca nhng loi ng di y:
1. Granulated sugar: tn gi chung cho cc loi ng s dng ph bin hng ngy.
- Very fne / ultrafne sugar: loi ng ht rt nh, mn, c dng lm cc loi bnh dng bng xp v cookies - nhng
loi bnh cn hn hp bt ng nht v c cha hm lng cht bo cao.
- Sanding sugar/ coarse sugar: loi ng ht to hn, dng rc hoc bao bn ngoi bnh, cookies, c tc dng trang tr.
2. Confectioners / Powder / Icing sugar
Ba tn gi kia l ch chung mt loi ng, ngi Vit quen gi l ng bt. ng nh tn gi, loi ng ny khng c ht
m l dng bt mn, trng tinh nh bt.
3. Brown sugar
Ting Vit c th hiu nm na l ng nu. Tuy nhin cng c rt nhiu loi ng nu. Nu m v nu nht (Dark brown
sugar - Light brown sugar).
C loi qua tinh luyn, c loi cha qua tinh luyn (unrefned dark brown sugar). C nhng cng thc yu cu c th
tn gi 1 loi ng, v d nh ng Demerara (ng nu cha qua tinh luyn, ht to, dng tinh th, mu nu nht, c
ngun gc t vng Demerara, thng c dng nhiu khi ung tr hoc c ph) hay ng Muscovado (ng nu cha
qua tinh luyn, ht nh, mn, mu nu sm, c v gn ging nh mt ma - molasses)
i khi bn cn bt gp nhng tn gi nh frmly packed brown sugar, vy l loi ng no? Thc cht l ch
cch ong lng ng. Do iu kin mi trng m ng c th kh hay m v cng ty loi ng c m ban u cao
hay thp. y ni khi ly ng ny, bn nn nn cht ng ri ly ng n vch yu cu trn cup l c.
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4. Cc loi si-r (syrups)
Syrup l tn gi chung cho cc dng ng lng. Ngoi thnh phn l ng v nc ha tan vi nhau th mt s hp cht
khc cng thm vo to ra hng v ring. (chocolate syrup, strawberry syrup, maple syrup, vv.. )
C nhng loi syrup ph bin thng dng khi lm bnh l:
- Molasses ( VN gi l mt ma): l sn phm cn li sau khi tt c ng c chit xut ra khi cy ma. Mu ca
molassses cng m th mi v cng su v m, thnh phn t ng hn. Molasses gi m cho bnh, gi bnh ti lu hn.
Loi bnh quy gin dng molasses cng nhanh b mm hn.
- Corn syrup: c tc dng to m v mm cho bnh.
- Honey (mt ong): l loi ng lng t nhin, c tc dng gi m cho bnh v to mi thm c bit.
- Malt syrup (mch nha): c s dng nhiu vi khi lm cc loi bnh m c men.
y l trang c tnh c trng
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F. Cc loi ht (nuts) lm bnh
Cc loi ht ng cc, bn thn chng n khng (tc l c
rang hoc sy nhng vn dng nguyn ht) thy ngon ri, dng
lm bnh th li cng thm ngon hn, to nn v thm v bi c
trng cho bnh, cng l nguyn liu trang tr bnh rt p mt.
Tuy nhin gi ca nhng loi ht ny cng khng phi l r, nht l
khi mua nhng nc khng t trng hay sn xut c loi ht
m phi nhp khu nh Vit Nam.
Trong bi chia s ny, mnh tng hp li tn gi v hnh nh ca
nhng loi ht thng dng mai e lm bnh, nhng ngi mi
bt u nghch bnh tri khng quay cung khi bc vo ca
hng bn nguyn liu lm bnh, c th nhn thy l nhn ra ngay
l loi ht no.
Trong cc ca hng, cc loi ht thng c bn di dng nguyn
ht, ch i, ct lt hoc thi vn th. Khi mua v chng cn c
bo qun trong bao b kn v ni kh ro, trnh nh sng.
1. Almond (hnh nhn)
y l loi ht quan trng nht trong lm bnh v c s dng rt ph bin.
dng t nhin, loi ht ny c v nu. Ngoi ra cn c loi ht ty v thnh
trng. Trong cc ca hng thng c hnh nhn nguyn ht, tch i, ct lt,
hoc dng bt.
2. Brazil nuts
Loi ht ny n rt hay, mnh khng bit t th no nhng mi dp Christmas,
cc gi ht tng hp thng c bn rt nhiu trong siu th, v th no cng
c loi ht ny.
3. Cashew (ht iu)
Loi ht ny th ngi VN qu quen thuc ri. Ht iu c s dng trong
lm bnh v trong cc mn n kh nhiu.
4.Hazelnut (ht d)
Loi ht ny nguyn v trng hi ging nh ht d nh thng c VN. Tuy
nhin loi hazelnut ca phng Ty khng phi l ging ht d . Hazelnut
dng lm bnh rt thm ngon.
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5. Chestnut (ht d Trng Khnh)
Da vo hnh dng m mnh on loi ht d ny l loi ngi VN vn gi l ht
d Trng Khnh - ht to, rut khi chn c mu vng m. Qu chestnut trc khi
dng ch bin mn n thng phi luc hoc rang chn ri mi dng c.
6. Coconut (ci da)
Da th qu quen thuc ri Nhng loi bnh c dng n da, a phn da
phi bo si nh, hoc da xay vn. Da c th nguyn dng m hoc c
sy kh. Nhiu cng thc bnh dng cm t desiccated coconut ch loi
da xay/bo vn v c sy kh.
7. Macadamia nut
Loi ht ny khng c tn gi tng ng trong ting Vit, ch bit l n rt
ngon v gi cng rt t.
8. Pecan (ht h o)
y cng l mt loi ht rt t tin, thng ch nhng loi bnh cao cp mi
dm dng n loi ht ny.
9. Peanut (lc / u phng)
Tri ngc vi nhng loi ht t tin trn, lc l loi ht rt ph bin VN v
cng rt r tin. Ngi Vit hay dng lc trong cc mn n. C nhng cng thc
bnh dng lc cng to ra mi thm c trng cho bnh.
10. Pine nut (ht thng)
Loi ht ny ly t qu ca cy thng (loi thng qu to), cng l mt loi ht
khng r. Cc mn bnh ca rt hay dng n loi ht ny.
11. Pistachios (ht d ci)
Loi ht ny hay c s dng trang tr v mu xanh rt hp dn ca n.
Ngi VN gi cng khng cn xa l g vi loi ht ny.
12. Walnut (ht c ch)
Ly t qu c ch. Cng vi almond v hazelnut, y l loi ht rt quan trng
trong lm bnh v walnut c s dng kh nhiu trong cc loi bnh.
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G. Phn bit cc loi pho-mat (cheese)
Cheese l mt sn phm m trong thnh phn c cha nhiu protein v cht bo t sa, thng l cc loi sa b, d,
cu. Cheese c ngun gc t phng Ty, ngi VN vn gi cheese vi tn gi chung l Pho-mt (c l l do cch c
chch i ca t ting Php fromage - c ngha l cheese). C hng trm loi cheese khc nhau trn th gii, c s
dng rt ph bin trong cc mn Ty. Ch n c mn , nu khng c cheese th s khng c th gi l m thc . 2
mn n ni ting nht th gii ca l pasta v pizza s khng tn ti nu thiu cheese. C cu ni, dch i l, nu
nh ngi Php nu n vi nc v ru th ngi nu pasta vi nc v cheese.
C nhng loi cheese c dng ring trong nu n, c nhng loi dng ring cho lm bnh v c nhng loi dng c
cho c lm bnh v nu n. C loi cheese cng v loi cheese mm. Cheese c bn di dng nhng khi cheese ln,
khi nh ng ti, ng hp, ct lt, hoc bo vn. Trong bi vit ny, mnh s im qua nhng loi cheese c dng
ph bin nht.
1. Parmesan
L tn gi tt ca loi cheese Parmigiano-Reggiano. y l loi cheese c
trng nht trong mn pasta. Parmesan l loi cheese cng, lm t sa b v
phi mt ti thiu 1 nm, thng l 2 n 3 nm cheese t chn.
Parmesan c th dng n ngay hoc nu trong cc mn n. Khi n, par-
mesan thng phi bo vn, bo si, thi lt hoc ct thnh vn nh.
2. Cheddar
y cng l mt loi cheese cng, c mu vng nht ng trng, c ngun gc
t lng Cheddar, Somerset, l loi cheese ph bin nht Anh v cng l loi
cheese c tiu th vi s lng ln nht th gii. Cheddar cng lu th
cng sc, thi gian cheddar t chn l t 9 n 24 thng. Cheddar
lt thng dng trong burger, cc loi bnh m sandwich, dng trong cc mn
nng nh pasta nng hay pizza, hoc casserole, rissotto.
3. Mozzarella
Loi cheese ny c ngun gc t Italy, cn c xp chung vo nhm cream
cheese, c lm t sa tru nc hoc sa b. dng ti, mozzarella kh
mm, c mu t trng n ng vng ty theo ch n ung ca con tru
hay b c ly sa. Truyn thng th mozzarella ti c lm v n ngay
trong ngy. Do c m ln nn mozzarella ti c th c bo qun trong
t lnh khong 1 tun. Nhng loi mozzarella c lm kh i bng cch
gim nc v c ct thnh vn nh nh ngy nay c th c bo
qun n 6 tun. Mozzarella l loi cheese khng th thiu trong mn pizza,
sau khi nng mozzarella s chy v to thnh nhng si cheese dai v dnh.
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4.Blue cheese
Tn gi ca loi cheese ny miu t nhng m mu xanh lam, i khi l xanh
xm hoc xanh pha mu lam trong ming cheese. Chnh thnh phn mu xanh lam
ny to nn mi v c trng. Loi cheese ny c lm t sa b, cu hoc sa
d, blue cheese ch l tn gi chung cho hng lot cc loi blue cheese vi nhng
tn gi khc nhau. Loi cheese ny rt thch hp n km vi hoa qu, crackers
(1 loi bnh quy gin) hoc ru vang.
5. Cream cheese
y l loi cheese ti, mu trng, mm, c v cheese nh nhng v hi ngt. y
l nguyn liu chnh v rt quen thuc lm cheesecake. Cream cheese cng c
th c n ti km vi bnh m, cracker, v.v.
6. Mascarpone
Bn thn mascarpone khng phi l cheese, n ch l sn phm c to nn khi
thm mt thnh phn ph gia vo qu trnh tch kem khi sa. Mascarpone mm,
mu trng, ti. lm tiramisu th khng th thiu mascarpone.
7. Ricotta cheese
Ricotta c ngun gc t , c lm t nc tch t sa b hoc cu. Trong qu
trnh tch kem lm cheese c nc c tch ra, v chnh nc ny c s
dng lm ricotta. Loi cheese ny mm, c mu trng, v hi ngt v rt t bo.
Ricotta c a chung lm cc mn dessert ca hoc n km vi cc mn
trng ming khc. Ricotta cng c dng lm cheesecake v nhiu loi cookies.
Pasta v pizza cng c nhng cng thc lm vi ricotta.
Tm thi mnh im qua 7 loi cheese v cream cheese m mnh tng s dng qua nh trn. Trong th gii hng
trm loi cheese th mt t nc khng sn xut cng nh khng nu cc mn n vi cheese nh VN th rt kh
c kinh nghim vi chng, tr khi c i du lch, c sng, hc tp, lm vic cc nc phng Ty hoc i n cc
mn Ty. Nu c bt k c hi no, bn cng ng ngn ngi th v khm ph.
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H. Sa v cc sn phm t sa
Sau nc th sa l mt thnh phn cht lng quan trng nht trong lm bnh. S dng sa trong lm bnh to nn kt
cu p, hng v thm ngon, to mu cho v bnh, tng cht lng cho bnh bi nhng gi tr dinh dng ca sa.
Ngoi sa b l sn phm sa ph bin v quen thuc nht VN th cn c sa d, sa cu, sa tru (nc) - nhng loi
sa ny c s dng nhiu lm cc loi pho-mt. Sa khng ch l mt loi thc ung lin b dng m cn c s
dng trong nu n, cng ging nh cc sn phm khc t sa c dng trong nu n nh pho-mt, b, kem.
Sa th (ly trc tip t ng vt) cn phi c thng qua qu trnh kh trng mi an ton cho vic s dng. Trong bi
vit ny, mnh s im qua tn gi v c tnh ca cc loi sa hin c v nhng sn phm lm t sa ph bin.
1. Cc sn phm sa ti:
a. Sa ti nguyn kem (whole milk)
y l loi sa ti ly trc tip t con b, khng b loi cht g v cng khng c cht g c thm vo. 88% thnh phn
sa ny l nc, cht bo t sa (cht bo b) chim khong 3.5%.
b. Sa gy (skim milk, non-fat milk)
Loi sa ny c loi i phn ln thnh phn cht bo, cn li ch khong di 0.5%.
c. Sa c hm lng bo thp (low-fat milk)
Sa ny c hm lng cht bo t 0.5%-2%. Sa ny cng vi sa khng bo thng c b sung vitamin A v D
tng gi tr dinh dng.
2. Cc sn phm kem ti (fresh cream)
a. Whipping cream:
C hm lng bo khong 30-40%, chia ra lm 2 loi: light whipping cream (30-35%) v heavy whipping cream (36-40%)
b. Light cream:
Cn c tn gi l table cream hay coffee cream, cha 18-30% hm lng bo, thng l 18%.
c. Half and half:
Kem ti c hm lng bo t 10-18%.
3. Cc sn phm sa c loi nc:
a. Evaporated milk: (sa c khng ng)
Sa ny c loi 60% nc v sau c ng hp.
b. Condensed milk (sa c c ng)
Ging nh loi sa trn nhng c thm vo 1 lng ng ln, khin sa c v ngt m. Sa ny cng c ng
lon hoc hp.
c. Dried whole milk (bt sa)
Rt n gin, y l loi sa nguyn kem c lm kh thnh bt.
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4. Cc sn phm sa ln men v kem sa
a. Kem chua (Sour cream)
Kem chua c ln men bi vi khun axit lactic khin kem tr nn c v c v thm nh. Thnh phn cht bo l 18%.
b. Crme fraiche:
y l 1 dng heavy cream c ln men, c s dng rt rng ri trong ch bin cc loi st trong m thc u do tnh
d hoa tan vo nc st, li thm c mi thm nh rt d chu.
c. Butter milk:
L sa ti dng lng, thng l 1 dng skim milk, c lm chua bi vi khun c cy vo sa. Buttermilk c s
dng trong nhng cng thc cn c sa v chua.
d. Sa chua (yogurt)
L sa cho ln men, kt cu ging nh custard (ngi VN qu quen thuc vi sa chua ri).
5. Pho-mt (cheese)
Loi cheese ph bin c lm t sa v s dng nhiu nht trong lm bnh l cream cheese. Tip l cc loi pho-mt
ca cng c s dng nhiu l Mascarpone, Ricotta.
y l trang c tnh c trng
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I. Cc vn vi trng trong lm bnh
Trng i vi lm bnh l mt nguyn liu thit yu v c s dng thng xuyn vi s lng kh ln. So vi bt hay
ng, 2 nguyn liu cng c s dng vi s lng nhiu, th trng c gi thnh cao hn hn.
cc nc u M v cc nc pht trin khc, trng c phn loi cc cp r rng, ph thuc vo cht lng, ti,
kch c ca trng. Trng s c phn loi AA, A hay B, C, ty theo quy c ca tng nc. VN, mi ngi thng mua
trng trong siu th, hoc d dng hn l ra ch mua trng, th chn trng u da vo kinh nghim v s tin tng vo
li khuyn ca ngi bn.
Trng cng l thnh phn khng th dng ba trong lm bnh. Trong bi vit ny, mnh s tng kt li nhng iu mnh
bit v kinh nghim ca mnh v s dng trng, v cc lu v trng c th trong qu trnh lm bnh.
1. Cu to ca trng
V c bn, trng gm v trng, lng trng v lng . iu ny th ai cng r.
- Lng trng l ngun protein v cht bo. Mu lng m hay nht ph thuc vo ch n ung ca con g.
- Lng trng trng, khi cn sng th trong v c th tan c trong nc. Nhng khi nu chn hoc nh bng ln th
s chuyn thnh mu trng c. y l iu d dng nhn thy.
2. Kch c ca qu trng
Trng khng ch c phn loi da trn cht lng m cn c phn loi theo kch c. Khi lm bnh, chng ta thng
gp nhng lu nh dng trng c to, vv.. Trng c to l loi c s dng ph bin nht trong lm bnh.
Theo tiu chun ca M, khng tnh v trng, th khi lng trung bnh ca 1 qu trng c phn loi l to (large egg)
nh sau:
- C qu: 47g
- Lng trng ring: 28g
- Lng ring: 19g
3. Chc nng ca trng i vi bnh
- Protein trong trng gp phn to nn cu trc cho bnh v c tnh ca protein l ng v cng li khi gp nhit .
V th, nu s dng vi t l khng hp l, nhiu trng s lm cho bnh cng hoc dai.
- T l nc trong trng l kh cao nn trng s to m cho bnh.
- Trng to mi v v thm cho bnh.
- Trng nh bng to nn l kh v bng kh, c tc dng lm bnh n bng xp.
- Lng trng c dng qut ln b mt bnh (nh bnh m chng hn) to mu sc hp dn hn cho bnh.
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4. Kinh nghim bo qun trng
- Vi nhng ngi hay lm bnh th vic mua sn v d tr trng trong nh l vic rt bnh thng tn cng mua
nhiu ln v tin s dng bt c khi no cn n.
- Mua trng v, trng ni kh ro, thong kh, mt m, trnh tip xc vi nc v mi t thc phm khc. (V trng
mng manh s hp th mi).
- Khi mua trng vi s lng nhiu th nn trnh trng ngoi qu lu. Nu sau 1 tun vn cha dng ht trng th
nn ct trng vo t lnh.
5. Lu khi s dng trng lm bnh
- Trng phi c nhit phng. Nu ly trng bo qun trong t lnh ra th cn trng ngoi cho bt lnh.
- Vi cng thc yu cu tch ring lng trng v lng th cn tch cn thn, khng lng trng b dnh lng .
- Cc yu t nh hng n kh nng nh bng lng trng trng:
+ Trng km ti nn mt kh nng bng cng, v th rt kh hoc khng th nh bng c. Thng thng, trng nh
mt to l s bng cng d dng.
+ Lng trng b dnh nc hoc dnh lng ; u ng hoc que nh khng kh, khng sch cng nh hng n vic
nh bng trng.
Hy vng nhng chia s trn s gip ch c phn no cho mi ngi i vi vic s dng trng trong nu n ni chung
v lm bnh ni ring.
y l trang c tnh c trng
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K. Tn gi v phn bit cc loi bnh phng Ty
Ngi Vit thng hay gi chung cc loi bnh vi nguyn liu chnh l bt m v nng trong l nng vi nhng danh t
chung nh bnh ngt, bnh u. Cc loi bnh ngt ngy nay c ngun gc t phng Ty, c th l c vng chu u sau
sang M, ch ko phi nh nhiu ngi lm tng Php l ci ni bt ngun cc sn phm bnh m bnh ngt. Nu truy
tm ngun gc mt cch chi li th phi k n cng lao ca nhng ngi Ai Cp v Hy Lp c pht minh ra l nng,
v hng th k sau, l cng lao ca t tin ngi Rome.
Trong bi vit ny mnh cng khng nh tm hiu su xa g v kha cnh ngun gc lch s m ch dm khim tn a ra
nhng cch phn bit c bn v tn gi cc loi bnh u M vn cng ngy cng hp dn vi nhiu ngi Vit mun c
n th v lm th. Mnh cng ch c th nhc n tn gi chung ca cc loi bnh quen thuc, cn tn gi ring th c rt
rt nhiu mnh cng khng th bit c ht.
Tt c cc sn phm lin quan n vic s dng bt, trng, cht bo v nng ln c gi chung l PASTRY. V th, ngi
u bp chuyn ph trch vic lm ra nhng sn phm ny c gi l Pastry Chef. T cake m ngi Vit hay gi l
bnh ngt ch l 1 mng rt hp trong Pastry m thi.
1. Bread - Bnh m
Phn bit 2 loi:
- Bnh m thng: (lean yeast bread) thnh phn ch c bt v nc, c th c dng men hoc khng dng men, v th
c loi bnh m cn qua qu trnh n ln men v c loi khng qua qu trnh ny.
- Bnh m ngt: (rich yeast bread) t ngt c dch kh phin din, y l nhng loi bnh m ngoi bt, nc, men,
c s dng thm cc thnh phn khc nh ng, cht bo, sa, bt sa, v th bnh m c thm nhiu mi v thm ngon
v kt cu khc vi bnh m thng.
2. Quick bread - Bnh m nhanh
- y l tn gi chung cho cc loi bnh-dng-bnh-m nhng khng qua cng on v ln men t nhin (khong vi
ting) m dng cc cht ha hc gy tc dng n nhanh, v th lm rt nhanh. Quick bread cng thng c kt cu mm
hn v rich hn, khng c c dai nh vi bnh m n bng men t nhin.
- Quick breads bao gm cc loi bnh vi tn gi nh: muffns, scones, loaf bread, coffee cakes.
+ Muffns: c dng ging chic bnh nh hnh cc, c th c trong cc giy hoc khng cn. Muffns ngt hoc mn
u c.
+ Scone: dng hnh nn, hnh tam gic bt.
+ Loaf: hnh khi ch nht
+ Coffee cake: lm vi khun trn, vung, ch nht, vv..
3. Bnh khng dng l nng
y l nhng loi bnh dng phng php rn bng cht bo. Cc loi ph bin:
- Doughnuts (donut): bnh ngt c hnh bnh xe trn, lm chn bng cch rn ngp du.
- Pancake: bnh rn cho lm chn bng cch qut lp du/b mng ln mt cho, bnh dt, mng.
- Crepe: gn ging nh pancake nhng c trng mng hn rt nhiu.
- Waffes: bnh c dng mng, dt v thng lm vo khun ring.
- Fritters: bnh c v ngt v mn ty nguyn liu s dng, khng c hnh dng c nh, lm chn bng rn ngp du.
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4. Pie v tart
Hai loi bnh ny d b nhm ln vi nhau.
- Pie: bnh v kn c cha nhn bn trong, tt c gi chung l v pie. Bt cho v pie c chia lm 2 phn, 1 phn cn
mng lm , xp nhn bn trong, ri phn cn li cn mng ph ln trn, gn kn cc mp v xin thng vi ch trn
v b mt hi thot ra trong qu trnh nng.
- Tart: bnh ko c v, nng h phn nhn. Tart l 1 dng c bit ca pie m ko cn 1 lp v bc kn nhn.
C c tart v pie ngt hoc mn.
5. Cake (bnh bng lan)
Tn gi chung cho cc loi bnh ngt c hm lng cht bo v ngt cao nht trong cc sn phm bnh nng l. Lm
bnh dng cake i hi nhiu s chnh xc v cn ong nguyn liu. Cu trc bnh thng l mm, xp, nhiu hng v
v bnh cake c nng v trnh by di nhiu hnh dng khc nhau.
- Cupcake: l mt trong nhiu cch trnh by ca cake, bnh dng nh, ng trong nhng chic cup giy xinh xn.
- Chiffon, angel food, devil food: l dng bnh bng xp mm c to thnh nh vic nh bng lng trng v lng
ring bit. Bnh c nng trong khun tube.
+ Chiffon: dng du n lm thnh phn cht bo trong bnh. C lng trng v u c s dng nhng tch ring
trong qu trnh lm.
+ Angel food: ch dng lng trng nh bng, khng c cht bo. Bnh nh v trng nh bng.
+ Devil food: bnh c mu en chocolate, dng b lm cht bo. L mt dng bnh dng b (butter cake)
- Pound cake: Bnh c hm lng cht bo v ng u cao, tn gi ch cc nguyn liu chnh u c khi lng
1 pound Anh, khong 454g. Bnh ny thng c kt cu nng v c hn bnh dng bng xp. Bnh lm trong khun
loaf hoc khun bundt.
- Cheesecake: thnh phn ch yu ca bnh l cream cheese. Bt c s dng rt t hoc khng s dng.
6. Cookies
T cookie c ngha l bnh nh - small cake. C loi cookie c lm t hn hp bt kh ging nh vi cake, nhng trong
phn ln trng hp, cookie c hm lng nc thp. Cookie rt a dng, c loi mm, m, kh, gin, dai, xp, cng.
y l trang c tnh c trng
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L. La chn l nng ph hp nhu cu s dng
L nng l mt vt dng khng th thiu trong cn
bp hin i, c bit vi nhng ngi thch t lm
cc mn nng hoc lm bnh ti nh.
Vit Nam l nng khng thng dng bng cc
nc phng Ty do nhng khc bit trong c trng
m thc. Tuy nhin ngy nay l nng xut hin ngy
mt nhiu hn trong nhng cn bp gia nh. Khi bn
chn mua l nng, ngoi thng hiu, cng cn ch
n nhng c im ca tng loi l c c s
la chn thch hp.
Nhin liu: Hin nay ph bin l l dng in, tuy nhin cng c 1 s loi l s dng gas. Vi tnh hnh gi in
tng cao th l dng gas ang c nhiu ngi quan tm hn.
Lp t: C 2 loi l chnh
- L gn vo t bp: Loi l ny c gn c nh vo h thng t bp ca nh bn, thng l di bp un. u im
ca loi l ny l nhit n nh, s dng rt tin li. Tuy nhin bn phi c gian bp kh rng mi c th lp c loi
l ny.
-L bn: Loi ny ph bin hn l gn c nh. Bn c th mua n a phn cc ca hng siu th in my. Loi l
ny bn c th t bt c u trong bp. Gi thnh loi l ny kh r so vi l gn c nh. Tuy nhin nhit ca loi
l ny thng khng n nh v h thng cch nhit kh n gin gim gi thnh. Bn c th tm mua nhng loi l
gi nhit tt hn nhng gi cng khng h thua km l gn c nh.
Cc loi l (mnh khng dch ra ting Vit tn gi ca cc l ny, v ting Vit khng c t tng ng biu t chnh xc
ngha v cng dng ca l).
1. Toaster Oven: Loi l nng c rt nh ny ch yu dng lm nng bnh m n sng. Loi ny c th dng nng
1 s mn tht c vi s lng t do dung tch ca n ch chng 10l. Tuy nhin bn khng th tnh chuyn lm bnh vi loi
l ny.
2. Convention Oven: y l loi l ph bin nht vi dung tch trong khong 20-40l. L ny thng c 2 ngun nhit trn
di. Bn c th iu chnh nhit , thi gian, la chn ngun nhit.
3. Convection Oven: Loi l ny khng c nhiu khc bit so vi l Convention, tuy nhin trong l c thm qut gip
kh nng trong l lu thng. Khi , nhit trong l s u hn, thi gian nng cng s ngn hn. Gi ca loi l ny cao
hn l Convention.
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4.Cc tnh nng khc
- n: Gip cho bn quan st bnh d dng hn
- Phun hi nc: Mt s loi bnh nh bnh m Php cn phi phun hi v bnh p v gin hn. Loi l ny l l tng
cho nhng ai hay lm bnh m
- Cch nhit gm: Mt s loi l ngun nhit c bc bi cc lp gm, khin cho nhit ca l c n nh hn. Tuy
nhin thi gian bt cho l nng s lu hn
- Chng dnh: Bn trong l c ph 1 lp chng dnh gip cho vic lau dn l d dng hn
Trn y l mt s iu cn lu khi bn chn mua l nng. Nu nh nhu cu ca bn ch mc lm nng bnh, hay thi
thong nng cc mn mn th bn c th mua bt c loi l no. Tuy nhin nu nh bn m lm bnh, th bn cn phi
mua l vi nhng chc nng ti thiu l:
- C 2 ngun nhit (trn di), la chn c ngun nhit.
- iu chnh c nhit , thi gian.
- Nhit ti a ca l phi trn 200 C.
- Dung tch t 20 lt tr ln.
Trn y l nhng tng kt ca mnh sau 1 thi gian dng l lm cc mn nng v c bit l lm bnh, nhn ra c
nhng tin li v bt li ca tng loi l khc nhau, v cng dn lng chu ng ci l hin c mnh mua khi cn thiu
hiu bit v thiu kinh ph.
Hy vng bi vit ny s gip ch cho nhng ai ang c nh tm mua l bn c c s la chn thch hp cho mc ch
s dng ca mnh.
y l trang c tnh c trng
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kokotaru
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M.Cch thay th cc nguyn liu
Nu bn cn . . . Bn c th dng
1 cup self-rising four 1 cup bt m a dng + 1 tsp baking powder +1/2 tsp mui
1 cup cake four 1 cup bt m a dng (tr) 2 tbs bt
1 cup bt m a dng 1 cup cake four + 2 tbs
1 tsp baking powder 1/2 tsp cream of tartar + 1/4 tsp baking soda
1 tsp bt ng 2 tbs bt m a dng
1 tbs bt nng 1-1/2 tbs bt m a dng
2 qu trng to 3 qu trng nh
1 cup kem chua (sour cream) 1 cup sa chua khng ng
1 cup buttermilk 1 tbs dm trng hoc nc ct chanh vng + 1 cup (bt 1 tbs) sa ti
1 cup mt ong 1-1/4 cups ng + 1/4 cup nc
y l trang c tnh c trng
N c thac mac khc, xin vo
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