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Stage 1 Maths Measurement Time

Outcome: MS1.5 Compares the duration of events using informal methods and reads clocks on the half-hour

Key Ideas: Use informal units to measure and compare the duration of events Name and order the months and seasons of the year Identify the day and date on a calendar Tell time on the hour and half-hour on digital and analog clocks

WORKING MATHEMATICALLY OUTCOME/S Questioning Asks questions that could be explored using mathematics in relation to Stage 1 content Applying Strategies Selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies, or technology to solve a given problem Communicating Uses some mathematical terminology to describe or represent mathematical ideas Reasoning Checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used Reflecting Links mathematical ideas and makes connections with existing knowledge and understanding in relation to Stage 1 content.

Knowledge and Skills Students learn about: estimating and measuring the duration of an event using a repeated informal unit eg the number of times you can clap your hands while the teacher writes your name comparing and ordering the duration of events measured using a repeated informal unit naming and ordering the months of the year recalling the number of days that there are in each month ordering the seasons and naming the months for each season identifying a day and date using a conventional calendar using the terms hour, minute and second using the terms oclock and half-past reading and recording hour and half-hour time on digital and analog clocks

Working Mathematically Students learn to: discuss activities that take one hour, less than an hour, more than an hour (Communicating, Reflecting) indicate when it is thought that an activity has gone for one hour, one minute or one second (Applying Strategies) solve simple everyday problems using problemsolving strategies, including: - trial and error - drawing a diagram (Applying Strategies, Communicating) describe the position of the hands on a clock for the half-hour (Communicating) associate everyday events with particular hour and half-hour times eg We start school at 9 oclock. (Reflecting)





Photograph or have students draw different events during the day. Students sequence these pictures and match them with prepared labels.


Discuss the sequence of events that happen at school, eg Did we have the health hustle before or after lunch? Who used the dressing up clothes after you? What did we do between assembly and lunch? Photograph students at various stages of a construction activity such as building a tower. Students sequence the photographs. List the whole days activities on cardboard, eg Reading, Art, Recess, Maths, Singing, Lunch, Games. Ask questions such as: What did we do after recess?, What did we do before Recess? Students place activities in sequential order.

Make special day books with pages headed, for example, WHAT WE DO ON MONDAY. Make a large desk calendar for classroom display, showing only the name of the day. Seven sticky labels, each with a day of the week printed with a felt pen, could be placed on a cylindrical tin inside a box. Students take turns each morning to rotate the drum to the next day. TODAY IS A loop of paper attached to two rods and placed in a box would allow more information to be displayed, as shown below. YESTERDAY WAS TODAY IS TOMORROW IS Have five large cardboard signs on the classroom wall, each showing a day of the school week. Under each sign, display examples of student work done on that day.



Students draw pictures or write each day in a diary with the name of the day marked at the top. Find story books in the school library related to the telling of time in various cultures, eg Aboriginal Dreamtime, Chinese year cycle, Greek mythology.

Have students bring in baby and preschool photographs of themselves. Students can arrange and display them in interesting ways. (A Guess The Baby game would be an enjoyable way of introducing these activities; students could discuss the ways in which people change as they grow).



Under signs showing the days of the week, record in pictures and in writing the weather for that day. MONDAY Cloudy TUESDAY Sunny WEDNESDAY

Collect simply sequenced comic strips. Cut them into separate frames and have students arrange them in correct sequence. Tell a familiar story out of sequence. Have students retell it in the correct sequence. Make a set of cards for nursery rhymes, eg Humpty Dumpty on the wall, off the wall, all the Kings men. (These cards could be drawn by students.) Ask students to order the cards in the correct story sequence. Computer programs are available that allow students to make comic strips. These can assist with sequencing activities.


Fold a sheet of paper into three columns. Label the top of the paper Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. Have students draw pictures about activities on the three days.
Yellow class made paper puppets Yesterday RECESS Yellow class are having a story Today ART GAMES SINGING Yellow class will be going to the pool Tomorrow READING MATHS

breakfast lunch


morning tea after school

school time tea time

play time home time





Students make predictions and test them using various activities. Drop two suitable objects into water and note which one reaches the bottom of the container first. Drop two balls from the same height and note which one stops bouncing first. Note which of two holed tins filled with dry sand is quicker to empty. Note which of two wind-up toys is quicker to run down.

Students work in pairs. One student performs a task while the other claps and counts the number of claps. Suitable tasks could include touching toes five times, threading twenty beads on a string, bouncing a ball ten times, tying shoe laces, etc. Repeat activities using the pendulum from the next activity



Repeat the types of activities above using three objects. Order the objects in terms of the duration of the event. Each student in a pair engages in a different activity and the lengths of time for the activities are compared. Present the results in pictorial or written form. It takes longer to than to

Make a pendulum from a piece of string with a mass on the end. Students should work in pairs to see how many times the pendulum moves from one extent of its path to the other while a simple task is performed. See above activity. Students could compare on pendulum with another to see if they take the same time to swing. Consider how to make the swing time longer. Does changing the mass have any effect?



Use two small empty bottles, one with a screw cap. Punch a small hole in the cap. Fill the capped bottle with fine, dry sand and invert it into the other bottle or jar. Such egg timers can be made to time different durations by varying the amount of sand used.

Provide opportunities for students to describe everyday experiences in terms of being early, on time or late. Examples could include arrival at school the school bus canteen lunches TV programs arrival at assembly.



Take a house candle and score ten equally spaced marks on its side. Light the candle at the start of a certain activity. When the activity ends, note the number of marks remaining. Hence, find the number of marks that were used. Compare the durations of various activities using this method. Compare the burning rates of candles of different thicknesses. Pins can be stuck into the candle at each mark. The time elapsed is related to the number of pins that drop out.

Ask students to tell about all the things they can think of that take a long time. Repeat for things that take a short time. Write the events on cards and make a display. eg Short time - for a balloon to pop. Long time - for a tree to grow to full height. Note that confusion could result between the speed and duration of an event. Discuss fast things that still take a long time such as a jet plane flying to another country. Investigate slow things which take a short time such as a balloon dropping a short distance onto a table, eating a biscuit, getting dressed.


Use a clean, empty tin. Make a small hole in the bottom of the tin. Place the tin on top of a jar which has vertical sides. Fill the tin with water. Place an adhesive label on the side of the jar and make equally spaced marks so that the level of water can be related to time elapsed.


Place a stick vertically in a sheet of plywood. Place this sundial in an open position and record the shadow position on the plywood at various times of the day, taking care that the sundial is not moved at any time during the day. Discuss the disadvantages and advantages of sundials.


Ask students to suggest other devices which could be made to measure time. Any practical ideas should be investigated and the device constructed.





Teach students the rhyme Thirty days hath September April, June and November. All the rest have thirty-one Excepting February along Which hath but twenty-eight days clear And twenty-nine in each leap year. By placing their two fists together, students may note another method of remembering the number of days in each month. From left to right and avoiding thumbs, match each knuckle and valley with the names of the months in order. Those matched with knuckles have 31 days while the others have 30, except February.

Discuss with students how long they think a minute is. Ask students to sit still until they think one minute has passed. Students try various tasks for a minute while a partner counts and times. Before each activity, students guess how many times they can repeat the activity in one minute, eg: skip, jump or clap write words, names or letters count by ones, fives or tens tie and untie shoe laces. Students could make a graph of results.



Make charts showing which class members were born in each month.


Discuss with students the concept that the duration of one minute is constant, eg ask if one minute of play takes as much time as one minute of push-ups. Discuss the question of whether we can all do the same number of activities in one minute.

On a blank calendar each student records days and dates that have personal or cultural significance. During the year coming events should be highlighted on a wall chart, eg Easter Hat Parade, swimming carnival, Ramadan.


Students are selected to turn on the radio and turn it off again when they estimate that one minute has passed. Another student can judge the closeness of the estimate. Similarly students can close their eyes, run a tap or ring a bell for one minute.


Using a real calendar, preferably one that shows all months on one page, discuss format and function. Consider the order of the months.



One student walks very slowly for one minute. Another walks very quickly for one minute. Students discuss which one walked for the longer period. Repeat for other activities such as clapping slowly and quickly, talking slowly or quickly, etc.

Students should be encouraged to observe the current season, comparing it with past and coming seasons. Discuss characteristic behaviour associated with each season, eg the clothes that we wear, the sports we play, the food we eat. Make wall charts featuring this information. Discuss with students the seasons in other parts of the world, eg Christmas cards showing snow. Make charts showing in which months the various seasons occur in Australia. Read stories about seasons or stories in which a season is important. Ask students to paint a scene from the story. Link with other areas of study through themes. Listen to music written about the seasons (Haydn, Vivaldi, modern composers) and find paintings which depict scenes associated with particular seasons. Ask students to research the ways Australian Aborigines used their knowledge of the day/night sky to measure time and predict seasons.


Students predict how many push-ups, sit-ups, jumps, etc they can complete in ten seconds. Repeat the activity over 30 seconds. Once students understand the concept that a second is a small unit of time, it can be related to other units of time, eg 60 seconds = 1 minute.


Compile a scrapbook, collage or wall mural with a collection of pictures and sentences written by students to illustrate and describe familiar experiences that take place over an hour, eg TV programs, lunchtime, train trip. See how far a candle burns down in an hour. Have a class activity such as model making or cooking lasting exactly one hour. Discuss activities which take less than or more than one hour.



Are all clocks the same? How are they different? What is the biggest clock you have seen? What types of clocks are there? When do we use clocks? Do all clocks tell the same time? What is another name for the big hand? What is another name for the little hand?




To help develop understanding of clockwise rotation, make a class clock from cardboard. Divide the clock into twelve sectors and colour each sector differently. Label each sector with a students name from the class. Students rotate the hand each day to indicate whose turn it is to do a job. Give the clock a purpose, eg Todays Plant Waterer.

Use a real clock for these activities to enable students to observe the complementary action of the hour and minute hands. Set a clock on 10 oclock, then move the minute hand to the 6, ie half way around the clock. Students should discuss how far around the clock the minute hand has travelled. Repeat this process by resetting the clock at different oclock times and observing both hands. Students should observe the movement of the hour hand and be able to predict where it will be at various half hourly intervals, eg At 10:30 it will be half way between 10 and 11. Discuss activities and events that take about half an hour, eg getting ready for school, eating dinner.



Using a real clock or a geared clock, ask students a question that has an oclock time as the correct answer, eg school starting time. The teacher selects a student to make 9 oclock on the clock face.

Students should have the opportunity to see how time is recorded/measured in digital time as compared to analog time. Compare digital and analog clock faces showing the same time. Are the clocks showing the same time?



Use a set of blank cards. Stamp half of the cards with a clock face and record a time on them. On the other half of the cards corresponding times are written in words.

Using a paper plate, mark the centre and 12, 6, 3 and 9 in their respective positions. Make cards showing the numerals 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10 and 11. Students practise placing these cards in their correct positions. Repeat the activity with twelve numbered cards and no numerals marked on the face. Make short and long hands from cardboard.


Students complete activities in which they match written times, digital times and clock face representations.



Display advertisements, timetables and catalogues showing different digital times.

Informally and over a period of weeks, draw the students attention to specific events, eg lunchtime, library time, and relate these to the time shown on the clock. Teach the students action songs which relate oclock times to specific events. Make displays matching oclock time with specific events.


Students may enjoy creating everyday time problems for other students to solve, eg cooking, travelling and sport themes.


Set an analog clock and a digital clock at five minutes to an hour. Have students watch the clocks, comparing the gradual movements of the analogs hands with the sudden changes of the numerals on the digital clock. Ask students to suggest advantages and disadvantages of each type.

Links English (Talking and Listening) Joins in familiar rhymes, chants and poems from various cultures; participates in partner and small group activities; responds to simple questions
Blank playing cards, various clocks (digital, alarm, analog), clock stamp, magazines, timetables, workcards. Variety of clocks, paper plates, cardboard, puzzles, clear plastic, adhesive cover, clock face, clock face stamp, geared clock.


English (Reading) Follows simple written instructions English (Writing) Chooses appropriate words to label things such as drawings and objects; uses drawings to accompany texts where relevant Science and Technology Some living things change according to the seasons; time can be measured through change and regular events HSIE Identifies the origins of important days and events celebrated by families in other countries; describes and sequences stages and events in their lives; uses historical language of time and change eg old, new, past


digital, analog, longest, shortest, earlier, later, slowest, sand timer, egg timer, water timer, start, finish, year, noon, midday, midnight, month, week, hour, minute, second, an hour ago, next hour, hour before, half an hour, a few minutes, clock, hour hand, minute hand, half-past, quarterpast, calendar, date, first, secondthirty-first, January, February.December

Ask students to observe an activity and indicate when it has gone on for one minute demonstrate things that take about one second, eg closing eyes for one second state activities or events that take one hour, less than an hour and more than an hour rank several activities in terms of time, eg cleaning teeth, cooking a cake, recess state when an hour seems a long time and when it seems a short time.


Were the activities relevant to students interests? Did student-to-student discussion take place?

Stage 1 - Maths - Measurement - Mass

Outcome: MS1.4 Estimates, measures, compares and records the masses of two or more objects using informal units

Key Ideas Estimate and measure the mass of an object using an equal arm balance and appropriate informal units Compare and order two or more objects according to mass Record measurements by referring to the number and type of informal units used

WORKING MATHEMATICALLY OUTCOME/S Questioning Asks questions that could be explored using mathematics in relation to Stage 1 content Applying Strategies Selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies, or technology to solve a given problem Communicating Uses some mathematical terminology to describe or represent mathematical ideas Reasoning Checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used Reflecting Links mathematical ideas and makes connections with existing knowledge and understanding in relation to Stage 1 content. Knowledge and Skills Students learn about comparing and ordering the masses of two or more objects by hefting and then checking using an equal arm balance placing two objects on either side of an equal arm balance to obtain a level balance measuring the mass of an object by counting the number of informal units needed to balance the object estimating and recording mass by referring to the number and type of informal units used comparing and ordering the masses of two or more objects using informal units using an equal arm balance to find two collections of objects that have the same mass eg a collection of blocks and a collection of counters calculating differences in mass by measuring and comparing eg The pencil has a mass equal to three blocks and a pair of plastic scissors has a mass of six blocks, so the scissors are three blocks heavier than the pencil. Working Mathematically Students learn to predict whether the measure will be greater or smaller when a different unit is used (Applying Strategies) select an appropriate informal unit to measure the mass of an object and justify the choice (Applying Strategies) solve a variety of problems using problem-solving strategies, including trial and error (Applying Strategies) explain why some informal units are more appropriate in a given situation (Communicating, Reasoning) Ask questions related to the size and mass of objects eg Why is this small wooden block heavier than this empty plastic bottle? (Questioning) recognise that mass is conserved eg the mass of a lump of plasticine remains constant regardless of shape (Reflecting)





Have students walk along the lines of a netball court, a rope on the ground or a balance beam. Ask students how they kept their balance. Ask students to describe what they saw other students doing to keep balanced, eg putting arms out. Have students carry a ball, bucket or heavy book in one hand and walk along a balance beam. Describe how it felt, eg I felt lopsided. What did you need to do to keep balanced?

Opportunities to play with the equal arm balance in a number of settings and with a variety of materials will enhance the students understandings of both mass and the device. The equal arm balance could be part of the classroom shop.



Allow students to play on a see-saw. Have them describe what happens when people of different mass or the same mass get on. What happens when the teacher gets on one end? Have students place buckets of sand on each end. Have them describe the situation and predict what will happen if two equal buckets are placed on one end and three on the other, and so on.

A variety of these could be produced by students or teachers with a minimum outlay. To make accurate comparisons, the pans must be hung at equal distances from the pivot point and the pans and attached string must be identical. An equal arm balance can be constructed using a metre stick with buckets or paper cups as pans. A balance can be made from a coat hanger.


Students heft to decide which is the heavier of two objects. They then predict which pan will drop (and which will rise) when the objects are placed in the balance pans. The objects are then placed in the pans and the students decide which is the heavier.



Using available materials such as a wooden triangular prism and a metre stick, students make a model see-saw. Students make the metre stick or ruler balance on the block. They put small objects on each end and describe what happens. Ask them if they can make a light object balance a heavy object. How?

Experiences should be provided where comparison of mass is made between one object and another object (1 apple, 1 cherry) one object and many objects (1 block, 5 shells) many objects and many objects (5 marbles, 3 blocks). A variety of examples should be given so that quantity does not become linked with mass. When comparing one object with many objects, select examples so that in some cases the one object is lighter than many objects and in other cases the one object is heavier, eg 1 chalkboard eraser and 2 sticks of chalk, 1 empty match box and 3 large bolts.


Provide students with lumps of plasticine. Have students divide each lump so that the two pieces are the same mass. Students check by using a balance or model seesaw. Each student then rolls the two pieces together in the form of a sausage. Ask the student if the sausage has the same mass as the original lump. Does it have the same mass as when it was in two pieces?





Each day have a small group of students (5-6) experiment with the equal arm balance and a variety of materials. Students work with a minimum of direction and record their findings. Continue until all students have had a turn. Have a sharing time to discuss the results and note any findings about balance.


Students find how many corks are needed to balance - two marbles - ten bottle tops - three shells. Students balance three marbles with - plastic counters - paper clips. Do the counters balance the paper clips? Students show how many sticks of chalk are needed to balance five pencils. From many objects provided, students find two that balance. The teacher prepares several mystery boxes. The students find out how many marbles balance - the green box - the red box. Students show which box balances - five marbles - twenty marbles. Provide opportunities for students to obtain a level balance using different types of materials, eg - continuous material (sand, rice, plasticine, water) - large objects (boxes, books, rocks) - small objects (pebbles, marbles). The nature of the material may determine that it can be taken from only one side of the balance. It is not always possible to obtain a balance with an exact number of small objects, eg 5 marbles may weigh less than a box but 6 marbles may be more.

Choose an object. Ask students to collect things from around the room that might combine to have the same mass as the object, eg The duster has the same mass as five pieces of chalk and three popsticks. Repeat this activity many times, measuring the mass of different objects in the room and from the playground. Discuss with students why they selected particular informal units. After students have had many opportunities to investigate mass using a variety of informal units, encourage them to use one type of informal unit.


Give the student a box and ask him/her to find its mass. Student: The box has a mass of six bolts. Teacher: Measure and record the mass of the box using screws. Student: The box has a mass of thirteen screws. Discuss and compare results.


Provide a selection of materials suitable as informal units. Ask students to select the most appropriate unit to measure items such as a pen, a box of chalk, a pencil case, a brick, a box of matches and a feather.


Teacher: How many shells balance your pencil case? Student: Thirty shells. Teacher: How many bolts balance your pencil case? Student: Three bolts. Teacher: What will happen if you put thirty shells in one pan and three bolts in the other? Instruct students to place 15 white cubes in one pan and 15 red cubes in the other. Do they balance? What can be said about the mass of the cubes? Build the red cubes into a long, thin shape and the white cubes into a short, fat shape. Will they balance? Do they have the same mass? Check and discuss. Now break the red shape into 15 individual cubes. Will these have the same mass as the short, fat, white shape? Check and comment.


Students guess how many stones, buttons or bolts would be needed to balance something brought by a student for Show and Tell (class news). Record.





The teacher provides two mystery boxes, one red and one green. Ask students to estimate which is the heavier by handling. Students then measure and record the mass of each box using bolts on the balance. Ask students to find the difference between the masses of the objects in terms of bolts. Students place a box in each balance pan. Ask how many bolts will have to be added and to which side in order to make the pans balance. Check by using the balance.

Students are given three objects and have to find which is the heaviest. Allow students to estimate by hefting two at a time, and then check estimates by means of an equal arm balance. With practice, the number of items can be increased. The activity should then be extended to involve the ordering from heaviest to lightest of three objects. Initially, objects could be every day objects of different appearance. Later, three containers of identical appearance could be filled with three different substances, eg sand, corks and flour.



Students are set the task of finding the difference in mass of two objects without finding the mass of either object. Students place one of the two objects in each pan of a balance and add bolts to the higher pan until the pans are level.


Students take two identical containers, one filled with sand and the other with cotton wool. Holding one container in each hand, students decide which is heavier and by how much. Suggest to students that they change hands and estimate again, then check their estimates using a balance. Write a report of the results.

Relate the ordering of mass to everyday situations such as shopping. Consider items sold in various sizes, eg hammers. Consider materials sold in packages of different sizes, eg washing powder. This work could be linked with money problems involving best buys. Discuss goods sold in packets labelled economy size, family size, etc. Discuss the dimensions of packets which make them appear larger. Why is the most efficient shape, the cube, not the most popular shape with manufacturers?



Students try different methods of finding the difference in mass of two containers full of sand and report their results. METHOD 1. Each full container is weighed separately using informal units and the results are used to calculate the difference in mass. METHOD 2. Each container is placed in a balance pan. Informal units are added to the higher side until the pans are level. The difference in mass is the number of informal units that had to be added. METHOD 3. Each container is placed in a balance pan. Sand is removed from the heavier container until the pans are level. The amount of sand removed is a measure of the difference in mass.

Students use informal units to order three objects. Each object in turn is placed on one end of the equal arm balance. An informal unit is chosen and the three masses are determined. Record in a table. The eraser is the heaviest, followed by the ruler and the pencil is lightest.


Students use an equal arm balance to measure the mass of an object in various informal units, eg The box is balanced by three bolts, twenty-five cotton reels or eight marbles.


Students choose everyday objects such as cups, lunches and pencil cases. They choose two objects and judge which is the heavier by handling them. Using a balance and informal units, they determine how much heavier one object is than the other and record, eg My lunch is twelve counters heavier than my pencil case.

English (Talking and Listening) Seeks assistance in doing a task;
Equal arm balance, coat hangers, packets, bags, pencils, eraser, rule, bolts, cotton reels, marbles, nails, stones, Lego bricks, blocks, cubes, sand, rice, beans, flour, bottle tops, shells, gumnuts, leaves.


Offers to assist someone else; Talks and listens to others in small-group and whole-class discussions; Participates in partner and small group activities; responds to simple questions. English (Reading) Follows simple written instructions English (Writing) Chooses appropriate words to label things such as drawings and objects; Uses drawings to accompany texts where relevant


mass, heaviest, as heavy as, lightest, as light as, same mass, different mass, has more mass, has less mass, equal mass, nearly the same, even, uneven, measure

Ask students to choose an appropriate unit to measure a given object, eg light units to measure light objects and heavier units to measure heavy objects guess how many pebbles they would need to balance a small toy car and check using an equal arm balance state what things they would choose to measure the mass of a shell and why.

Were the activities well organised in terms of space, time and resources? How could the activities be improved?

Stage 1 Maths Space and Geometry Position

Term Week
Key Ideas: Represent the position of objects using models and drawings Describe the position of objects using everyday language, including left and right Outcome: SGS1.3 Represents the position of objects using models and drawings and describes using everyday language

WORKING MATHEMATICALLY OUTCOME/S Questioning Asks questions that could be explored using mathematics in relation to Stage 1 content Applying Strategies Selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies, or technology to solve a given problem Communicating Uses some mathematical terminology to describe or represent mathematical ideas Reasoning Checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used Reflecting Links mathematical ideas and makes connections with existing knowledge and understanding in relation to Stage 1 content.

Knowledge and Skills Students learn about making simple models from memory, photographs, drawings or descriptions describing the position of objects in models, photographs and drawings drawing a sketch of a simple model using the terms left and right to describe the position of objects in relation to themselves eg The tree is on my right. describing the path from one location to another on a drawing using drawings to represent the position of objects along a path

Working Mathematically Students learn to give or follow instructions to position objects in models and drawings eg Draw the bird between the two trees. (Communicating) use a diagram to give simple directions (Applying Strategies, Communicating) give or follow simple directions using a diagram or description (Applying Strategies, Communicating) create a path using computer drawing tools (Applying Strategies, Reflecting)

Units of Work:
Week : Model of a Farm In small groups, students make a model of a farm using small toys, pictures and junk materials. Students are asked to describe the position of objects in relation to other objects eg The horses are next to the cows, The stable is behind the farmhouse. Students make a sketch of their model and plan a path the farmer could take each morning to ensure he feeds all of the animals. Students could act out the path on the model and record the path on the sketch. Variation: In pairs, students work on a computer and use simple shapes from a draw program to draw one of their sketched models. A line tool could be used to trace a route or path. Possible questions include: can you sketch a model a friend has constructed? can you describe the position of objects in your model? what objects are on the left of the house? right of the house? Date


Memory Model Students walk around the school observing the main buildings, landmarks and pathways. In small groups, students use blocks, small boxes and junk materials to reconstruct a model of the school from memory. Students are asked to identify the main features of their model eg This is the play equipment. Possible questions include: can you describe the position of features in relation to other features? eg The toilets are next to the play equipment. can you demonstrate and describe the route taken to get to particular parts of the school? can you sketch your model and mark special routes onto your sketch in different colours?



Partner Left and Right In pairs, facing each other, students follow a pattern for clapping eg Clap right hands together, left hands together, then both hands together. Possible questions include: what do you notice when you both clap left hands together? Students learn some dances involving a clapping sequence with students facing each other in pairs eg Heel and Toe Polka. Students could also learn other dances involving linking arms and moving right or left.



Where am I Going? In pairs, Student A sketches a known route and describes it to Student B. Student B then guesses the destination from the described route. Student B checks their guess by looking at the route on the sketch.



Model from a Photograph or Map The teacher accesses an aerial photograph or a tourist-style map eg a map of the zoo, a local town. Students make a simple model from the photograph or map using small toys, blocks and junk materials. Students discuss the position of objects in relation to other objects. Possible questions include: can you plan a route that takes you from one location to another? Discuss the differences and similarities between various routes. Ask: what difficulties did you encounter when you built your model?



Model Town In small groups, students are asked to list the main places in their community eg the supermarket, the fire station, homes, the playground. They then make a simple model of their community using a variety of materials. Students reflect and justify the position of the main places in their community eg The supermarket should be where everyone can get to it. Students could then plan a bus route so that all children can get to school, or plan a fitness walk through the town. Possible questions include: what is the shortest possible route? can you mark the quickest route for the fire engine to reach the school? how can you describe the position of the objects in your model? Find my Special Place In pairs, students select a special place near the classroom or in the school. They write instructions using left and right turns and include references to special features and landmarks to lead to their special place. Students swap instructions and then try to locate their partners special place.





On the Left, On the Right The teacher and students identify a variety of situations where left and right always apply. Possible situations include: when entering our toilets, girls are on the left and boys are on the right. on the left side of the chalkboard are reading groups and on the right side of the chalkboard is mathematics. the left-hand door goes to the office, the right-hand door goes to the staffroom.



Left Foot, Right Foot Students make re-usable tags from coloured lengths of wool, a strip of fabric or pipe cleaners that can be attached to shoelaces when playing games or dancing. A coloured tag can be attached to clothing with a safety pin to mark the left or right side of the body. Students participate in activities involving left and right concepts, such as: kicking a ball using the left or right foot only. dancing the Hokey Pokey. acting out songs and rhymes that use left or right body parts. Moving to the Left or Right The teacher identifies situations that are part of normal routine where the students turn left or right to reach a destination. For example, Turn right off the assembly area to go to our room, Turn right at the corner to go to the library. In pairs, students record a series of instructions using left and right to move around the school and then back to the classroom. They give the instructions to another pair of students to follow. Students then discuss the effectiveness of their instructions.





Left Hand, Right Hand Students make re-usable wrist tags or bracelets in an identifying colour to use when playing games and dancing eg lemon for left and red for right. Students participate in games and dances involving left and right concepts eg catch and throw a ball using the left or right hand only. Spreadsheet Directions Part A In pairs, students work on the computer using a spreadsheet program. Student A puts their name or initials in a cell. Student B chooses a different cell on the page, and puts their name or initials in it. The students take turns in finding a path from A to B, by using the arrow keys and placing an in every cell they have used to create the path. Possible questions include: can you find a longer /shorter path? can you write directions for a stepped path? is there a more direct route? can you create a path with 20 steps? Variation: Students use other computer drawing programs or tools to create paths and designs such as regular or irregular shapes. Part B Students plan a path using grid paper and write directions using terms up, down, left, right and across. In pairs at the computer, students open a spreadsheet program. Student A tells Student B where to put the Xs for the start and finish positions. While Student A gives directions, Student B plots the path by placing an x in every cell using the arrow keys to move. Student A checks Student Bs path on the computer against previously drawn one on grid paper. They then swap roles.




Resources: aerial photo or tourist-style map; materials to make a simple model; Lego; toys, pictures and junk materials to make a model of a farm; blocks; small boxes; wrist tags; balls; Hokey Pokey music; grid paper; computer; spreadsheet program

Language: position, describe, left, right, between, path, map, above, across, along, around, after, back, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, centre, close, down, far, forward, further, further away, here, in, in front of, inside, into, last, low, middle, near, next, next to, on, onto, on top, turn, under, underneath, up, upside down, chart, direction, route, sketch, turn, backwards When you get to the seats turn left and keep walking. I went forward about ten steps and then turned around the corner of the building.

Links: Two-dimensional Space PDHPE



Stage 1 Maths Number Chance

Outcome: NS1.5 Recognises and describes the element of chance in everyday events

Key Ideas: Recognise the element of chance in familiar daily activities Use familiar language to describe the element of chance

WORKING MATHEMATICALLY OUTCOME/S Questioning Asks questions that could be explored using mathematics in relation to Stage 1 content Applying Strategies Selects and uses appropriate mental or written strategies, or technology to solve a given problem Communicating Uses some mathematical terminology to describe or represent mathematical ideas Reasoning Checks the accuracy of a statement and explains the reasoning used Reflecting Links mathematical ideas and makes connections with existing knowledge and understanding in relation to Stage 1 content.

Knowledge and Skills Students learn about

Working Mathematically Students learn to

using familiar language to describe chance describe familiar events as being possible events eg might, certain, probably, likely, or impossible (Communicating) unlikely describe possible outcomes in everyday recognising and describing the element of situations chance in familiar activities eg I might eg deciding what might occur in a story play with my friend after school. before the ending of a book (Communicating, Reflecting) distinguishing between possible and impossible events predict what might occur during the next lesson in class or in the near future eg comparing familiar events and describing predict How many people might come to them as being more or less likely to your party?; How likely is it to rain if happen there are no clouds in the sky? (Reflecting)

Units of Work
Week : Questioning Students are encouraged to ask questions about the likelihood of events happening eg Is Mr Benton coming up to visit our class?, Is Stans mum going to have a baby boy or girl? Extension: Students write questions using the terms likely and unlikely. Date


What might happen? The teacher reads a picture book to the class and stops before the end of the book. Students are asked to predict what might happen next in the story. Students discuss how likely or unlikely their predictions are eg Do you think she will fall onto a haystack? Extension: Each student draws and writes a statement about their prediction.



Never-ever Book Students are asked to contribute a page to a book about the things that never ever happen eg It never ever rains cats and dogs. Students share their page with a friend.



Weather In the playground, students observe the weather. They discuss how sunny, cloudy, cold or hot it is. From these observations students are asked: - do you think it is likely or unlikely to rain? - do you think it is likely to be very hot tomorrow? Daily predictions of the next days weather are recorded on a weather chart or calendar. They are then compared to observations on the day. What might you see? Students are divided into four groups. Each group is given a picture depicting a particular environment eg snow, forest, outback, coastline. The groups are asked to imagine they are in a house in their environment and to list the things they would see in their yard. In turn, each group states an item on their list. Other students discuss the chance of finding the same item in their environment.





Will it happen tomorrow? Students are shown pictures of children doing a variety of activities eg eating lunch, playing in the rain, using a calculator, and visiting the zoo. Students discuss whether the activity might happen, will probably happen, or is unlikely to happen tomorrow. Students are encouraged to discuss any differences in opinion.



Likely or not? The teacher prepares cards with always, likely, unlikely and never on them and orders them on the floor. They pose the question: How likely is it that someone in another class has a vegemite sandwich today? Students stand behind the chance card that they think is the best answer to the question and explain their reasons. Students survey one or more classes and find out whether their prediction was accurate. Possible/Impossible Students discuss and record things that they consider: - possible eg being cloudy the next day - impossible eg raining cows. Students share their ideas, discuss any differences in opinion and form a display under the headings possible and impossible.





Dice Games Students are asked: - which number is the hardest to get when a dice is rolled? - how could you find out if you are right? - what is the chance of getting a 6? Students are given a die to test their theory, and then record their findings for a given number of rolls eg 30. Variation: The teacher poses the scenario: If I put 6 number cards in a hat and picked them out one at a time, recorded the number and put it back in the hat, would there be an equal chance of each number being picked? Students discuss their predictions and then test by doing the activity.



Is the Game Fair? In pairs, each student rolls a dice in turn and moves a marker along a number line marked from 1 to 50. One student follows the rule Double the number shown on the dice. The other student follows the rule Add 4 to the number shown on the dice. The winner is the first student to reach 50. Students discuss the fairness of the game.



Is it fair? Students write their names on a small sheet of paper. The names are placed in a hat to choose who will be the leader of the line. The teacher draws out one name and the students are asked to discuss if this is fair and whether everyone has the same chance. Names are put back after each draw. This activity is continued over a week and students test predictions, record and discuss.



What chance? Students are invited to express their opinions about the chance of finding various items in the playground at lunchtime eg a chip packet, a shopping trolley, a relative. Students discuss any differences in opinion. For example, Ellen might say it would be impossible to see her mother in the playground at lunchtime. Another student could challenge this thinking by stating that Ellens mother could arrive as a surprise. Variation: Students sit in a circle. One student, holding a ball or beanbag, begins by making a statement such as The principal will visit the class today. The ball or beanbag is passed to the next student and this indicates it is now their turn to talk. This student agrees or disagrees with the statement eg No, the principal wont visit today. I saw her walking to another room. The next student in the circle is passed the ball or beanbag and contributes a statement that agrees or disagrees eg The principal could visit our room after she has visited the other room.



Knock Knock Students brainstorm a list of possible people who could knock at the classroom door eg the principal, a teacher, a primary child, an infants child, a mother, a father, a grandmother, a grandfather. Students write the names on cards. As a class, students discuss and rate people from least likely to knock to most likely to knock. During the day the students record who comes to the door. At the end of the day, students discuss the findings. Variation: In small groups, students discuss and rate the people from least likely to knock to most likely to knock. The students report back to the class, justifying their choices.


Resources: dice, paper, picture books, hat, number line, counters, weather stamps, weather chart, calendar, environment pictures, activity pictures

Language: might, certain, probably, likely, unlikely, possible, impossible, predict, maybe, might not, will happen, will not happen, can happen, cannot happen, good chance, poor chance, fair, not fair, could happen, never I dont think that will ever happen. It could possibly rain tomorrow. It might happen.

Links: Whole Numbers Addition and Subtraction Data Evaluation: