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1.1. .

Qu trnh bin i nng lng in thnh nh sng v ngc li trong cc linh


kin bin i quang in c th c gii thch da trn tnh cht ht ca nh sng
v tnh cht lng t ca vt cht.
Theo tnh cht ht ca nh sng, nh sng bao gm nhiu ht gi l photon.
Mi photon mang mt nng lng nht nh c xc nh bng cng thc sau:
Eph = hf
Trong , h l hng s Plank (h= 6,625x10 -34 J.s); f l tn s c photon nh
sng
Nng lng ca nh sng bng tng nng lng ca cc photon (N ph ):
E nh sng = Nph x Eph
Theo tnh cht lng t ca vt cht, vt cht c cu to t cc nguyn t.
Mi nguyn t gm c mt ht nhn, mang in tch dng, c bao quanh bi
cc in t (electron), mang in tch m. Cc in t ny quay quanh ht nhn
theo cc qu o n nh (hnh 1.1) v mang mt mc nng lng nht nh.

Hnh 1.1. M hnh mt nguyn t vi cc in t quay ht nhn vi cc qu o n
nh.

Cc mc nng lng ny l khng lin tc. Mt in t ch c th mang mt
trong cc mc nng lng ri rc ny. Khi in t thay i trng thi nng lng
th n s chuyn t qu o ny sang qu o khc khi quay quanh ht nhn. Trng
thi nng lng ca in t trong mt nguyn t c minh ho qua biu mc
nng lng (energy level diagram) nh hnh 1.2.



Hnh 1.2. Biu mc nng lng (energy level diagram)

Trong biu mc nng lng, trng thi nng lng thp nht ca in t
c gi l trng thi nn (ground state) E0 . y l trng thi n nh ca in t.
Cc trng thi nng lng cao hn ca in t c gi l cc trng thi kch thch
(excited state) c biu din bng cc mc nng lng E1, E2, E3, Cc mc
nng lng ny khng lin tc v cch nhau mt khong nng lng c gi l
di cm nng lng (energy gap) AEij=EjEi (i,j = 0,1,2,3 ). Nh vy, nng
lng mt in t c th l E0, E1, E 2 ch khng nm gia cc mc nng
lng ny.
Mt in t cc trng thi nng lng khc nhau ph thuc vo nhit v
c th c biu din bng hm phn b Boltzmann:

Trong , Ni v N0 l mt in t mc nng lng Ei v mc nng lng
nn E0 , AEi l chnh lch nng lng gia Ei v E0; kB=1,38.10-23 (J/oK) l
hng s Boltzmann, T l nhit tut i o

Lu rng phn b ny xy ra khi cn bng v nhit.

Hnh 1.3. Phn b mt in t theo phn b Boltzmann khi cn bng v nhit

Mt s nhn xt rt ra t hm phn b Boltzmann:
- Mt in t trng thi nng lng thp cao hn so vi mt in t trng
thi nng lng cao: N i > N j (vi i<j)
- Mt in t trng thi nn l ln nht.
- Ti T = 0 oK (nhit khng tuyt i), tan b in t trng thi nn. Khng
c in t trng thi kch thch.
- Khi nhit tng ln, T > 0 oK, cc in t s hp th nng lng do nhit
cung cp (nng lng nhit) v thay i trng thi nng lng, chuyn t mc
nng lng E0 ln cc mc nng lng cao hn. S in t cc mc nng lng
kch thch tng ln khi nhit tng ln.

Mt in t cc mc nng lng khc nhau n nh khi cn bng v nhit
v ng thi vi qu trnh hp th nng lng ca in t (lm tng mt in t
cc mc nng lng cao v gim mt in t mc nn) l qu trnh tr v
trng thi nng lng nn ban u ca cc in t khi cc mc nng lng cao.
Hin tng ny xy ra v trng thi nn l trng thi nng lng bn vng ca in
t. Cc in t khi cc trng thi nng lng kch thch lun c xu hng chuyn
v cc trng thi nng lng thp hn sau mt khong thi gian duy tr trng thi
kch thch. Khong thi gian ny c gi l thi gian sng (lifetime) ca in t.
Thi gian sng thay i ty theo loi vt cht, thng thng trong khong vi nano
giy n vi micro giy.
Khi in t chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao xung trng thi nng lng
thp hn, theo nh lut bo tan nng lng, n s gii phng mt phn nng
lng bng ng chnh lch gia hai mc nng lng. Nng lng c gii
ta ny c th di dng nhit hoc nh sng. Qu trnh ny din ra t nhin v
ngu nhin v y l bn cht t nhin ca vt cht.
1.2. .
Nguyn l bin i quang in trong thng tin quang c thc hin da trn 3
hin tng c minh ho nh trn hnh 1.4.

Hnh 1.4. Cc hin tng bin i qung in (a). Hp th (b). Pht x t pht (c).
Pht x kch thch

a. Hin tng hp th (absorption), hnh 1.4.a, xy ra khi mt photon c nng
lng hf b hp th bi mt in t trng thi nng lng thp E1. Qu trnh ny
ch xy ra khi nng lng hf ca photon bng vi chnh lch nng lng gia
mc nng lng cao v mc nng lng thp ca in t (Eg=E2 E1). Khi xy ra
hin tng hp th, in t s nhn nng lng t photon v chuyn ln trng thi
nng lng cao.
b. Hin tng pht x t pht (spontaneous emission), hnh 1.4.b, xy ra khi mt
in t chuyn trng thi nng lng t mc nng lng cao E2 xung mc nng
lng thp E1 v pht ra mt nng lng Eg=E2 E1 di dng mt photon nh
sng. Qu trnh ny xy ra mt cch t nhin v trng thi nng lng cao E2
khng phi l trng thi nng lng bn vng ca in t.
c. Hin tng pht x kch thch (stimulated emision), hnh 1.4.c, xy ra khi mt
in t ang trng thi nng lng cao E2 b kch thch bi mt photon c nng
lng hf bng vi chnh lch nng lng gia trng thi nng lng cao v
trng thi nng lng thp ca in t (Eg=E2 E1). Khi , in t s chuyn t
trng thi nng lng cao xung trng thi nng lng thp hn v to ra mt
photon c nng lng bng vi nng lng ca photon kch thch ban u. Nh
vy, t mt photon ban u sau khi khi xy ra hin tng pht x kch thch s to
ra hai photon (photon ban u v photon mi c to ra). Photon mi c to ra
c c im: cng tn s, cng pha, cng phn cc v cng hng truyn vi
photon kch thch ban u. y l cc c im ca tnh kt hp (coherent) ca nh
sng. Do vy, nh sng do hin tng pht x kch thch to ra c tnh kt hp.

Hin tng pht x t pht xy ra t nhin do cc in t lun c khuynh hng
chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao xung trng thi n nh c nng lng thp
hn. Cc photon nh sng do hin tng pht x t pht to ra mt cch ngu
nhin theo thi gian v khng gian. Do , pha, tn s, hng truyn cng nh
phn cc ca sng nh sng c to ra cng ngu nhin. V vy, nh sng do hin
tng pht x t pht to ra khng c tnh kt hp.
Hnh 1.5 minh ho cc trng thi thay i nng lng ca in t khi xy ra 3
hin tng bin i quang in nu trn.

Hnh 1.5 Minh ho cc trng thi chuyn i nng lng gi in t v photon

Cc linh kin bin i quang in dng trong thng tin quang s da vo mt
trong cc hin tng ny thc hin qu trnh bin i quang in theo chc
nng ca tng loi linh kin. V d nh:
- Hp th l nguyn l bin i tn hiu nh sng thnh tn hiu in trong cc linh
kin tch sng quang (photodetector)
- Pht x t pht l nguyn l bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu nh sng xy ra
trong LED (Light Emitting Diode). V vy, nh sng do LED pht ra khng c tnh
kt hp.
- Pht x kch thch l nguyn l bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu quang xy ra
trong Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation). Hin
tng ny cng l nguyn l khuch i tn hiu nh sng xy ra trong cc b
khuch i quang (Optical Amplifier). nh sng uc to ra sau Laser cng nh
cc b khuch i quang c tnh kt hp.
Lu rng, trong t nhin, c ba hin tng ny xy ra ng thi vi nhau. Qu
trnh hp th nng lng photon (hin tng hp th) v pht x photon (hin
tng pht x t pht v pht x kch thch) cn bng vi nhau trong iu kin cn
bng v nhit (Khi , phn b in t cc mc nng lng khc nhau l n nh
theo phn b Boltzmann). Ty theo mc ch ng dng ca tng loi kin quang
in, mt trong cc hin tng ny s c tp trung, lm tng kh nng xy ra
di cc iu kin nh hng bn ngoi nhm t c hiu sut cao nht. Chi tit
v cc iu kin ny s c phn tch c th trong phn trnh by cu to v
nguyn l hot ng ca cc linh kin bin i quang in.
1.3.
Trong cht bn dn (cng nh trong cht rn ni chung), cc mc nng lng
vn ri rc nhng chng rt l gn nhau v c xem nh mt vng nng lng
hn l mt nhm cc mc nng lng. Khi nim ny c th c minh ho trong
hnh 1.6 khi mt khong lin tc ca vng nng lng khi c phng to ln s
cho thy n c cu to bi cc mc nng lng ri rc nhau .

Hnh 16 Vng nng lng ca cht bn dn
Trong cht bn dn, cc in t phn b trong hai vng nng lng tch bit
nhau c gi l: vng ha tr (valence band) v vng dn (conduction band).
Vng ha tr l vng nng lng c nng lng thp v l vng nng lng bn
vng ca in t. Cc in t lun c xu hng chuyn v vng ha tr sau mt
khong thi gian sng vng dn. Vng dn l vng nng lng cao hn ca cc
eletron. S dn in ca cht bn dn c thc hin bi cc in t nm vng
dn ny.
Qu trnh bin i quang in xy ra trong cht bn dn cng c gii thch
da trn ba hin tng: hp th (absorption), pht x t pht (spontaneous
emission) v pht x kch thch (stimulated emission) nh trong biu mc nng
lng. Ngha l, iu kin mt in t c th chuyn t trng thi nng lng
thp (vng ha tr) sang trng thi nng lng cao (vng dn) l: nng lng m
in t nhn c phi bng vi chnh lch nng lng gia hai vng nng
lng ha tr v vng dn. Nu nng lng c cung cp khng bng vi bt k
chnh lch nng lng no gia hai vng nng lng ny th qu trnh hp th
cng nh pht x kch thch s khng xy ra.
1.4. Ngun quang bn dn (Semiconductor Light Source).
Ngun quang l linh kin bin i tn hiu in thnh tn hiu nh sng c cng
sut t l vi dng in chy qua n.

* C hai loi ngun quang c s dng trong thng tin quang:
- Diode pht quang LED (Light Emitting Diode)
- Laser (Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation)

* Cc yu cu i vi mt ngun quang s dng trong h thng thng tin quang l:
- C kch thuc nh tng ng vi si quang c th ghp nh sng vo trong si
quang. L tng, nh sng ng ra ca ngun quang phi c tnh nh hng cao.
- Thu nhn tn hiu in ng vo mt cch chnh xc gim s mo dng v
nhiu ln tn hiu. L tng, ngun quang phi tuyn tnh.
- Pht ra nh sng c bc sng ph hp vi vng bc sng m si quang c suy
hao thp v tn sc thp, ng thi linh kin thu quang hot ng hiu qu ti cc
bc sng ny.
- C kh nng iu ch tn hiu mt cch n gin (v d nh iu ch trc tip)
trn di tn rng tri di t tn s m thanh ti di tn gigahezt.
- Hiu sut ghp quang tt gim suy hao ghp t ngun quang vo trong si
quang.
- rng ph hp gim tn sc trong si quang.
- Duy tr mc cng sut ng ra n nh v khng b nh hng nhiu bi cc yu t
mi trng bn ngoi.
- Gi thnh thp v c tin cy cao cnh tranh vi cc k thut truyn dn
khc.
Loi ngun quang c s dng trong thng tin quang l cc loi ngun quang
bn dn v c th p ng c cc yu cu trn. V vy, cu to cng nh nguyn
l hot ng ca ngun quang (cng nh linh kin thu quang) c trnh by trong
phn ny l cc ngun quang bn dn.

Tuy nhin, khng phi cht bn dn no cng c s dng ch to ngun
quang trong thng tin quang. c th c s dng trong thng tin quang, cc
cht bn dn cn phi c di cm nng lng trc tip [3] v rng ca di cm
nng lng ph hp sao cho c th to ra nh sng c bc sng nm trong vng
bc sng hot ng ca thng tin quang.
Khi xy ra qu trnh pht x nh sng, nng lng ca photon pht x bng vi
chnh lch nng lng ca in t khi vng dn v vng ha tr. Do , nng
lng ca photon:
Eph = hc/ = Eg
vi Eg l chnh lch nng lng c in t khi vng dn v vng ha tr.
Khi , nh sng c pht x c bc sng:
= h.c/Eg
Do mi loi vt liu khc nhau s c phn b cc vng nng lng khc nhau
nn c th ni rng bc sng ca nh sng do ngun quang pht ra ch ph thuc
vo vt liu ch to ngun quang.
Trong thng tin quang, nh sng ch c s dng ti 3 ca s bc sng
850nm, 1300n v 1550nm nn vt liu bn dn c s dng ch to ngun
quang phi c di cm nng lng gia vng dn v vng ha tr ph hp vi cc
ca s bc sng hot ng ny.


Hnh 1 i cm nng lng trc tip (b). Di cm nng lng gin tip
Hnh 1.7. biu din mi quan h gia nng lng v ng lng (hay vector
sng) ca in t ti vng dn v vng ha tr ca hai loi bn dn c di cm trc
tip (hnh 1.7.a) v di cm gin tip (hnh 1.7.b). Qua cho thy:
- i vi di cm trc tip, phn y (c nng lng thp) ca vng dn nm i
din vi phn nh (c nng lng cao) ca vng ha tr. Do , cc in t hai
vng ny c ng lng bng nhau.
- i vi di cm gin tip, phn y (c nng lng thp) ca vng dn nm cch
xa so vi phn nh (c nng lng cao) ca vng ha tr. Do , cc in t hai
vng ny c ng lng khng bng nhau bng nhau.
iu kin qu trnh pht x photon xy ra hiu qu trong bn dn l khi xy
ra pht x photon, ng lng (hay vector sng) ca in t (nm vng dn) phi
bng ng lng ca l trng (nm vng ha tr). Khi , ng lng ca in t
c bo tan.
Nh vy c th thy rng, iu kin v bo tan ng lng khi xy ra qu trnh
bin i quang in ch t c vi cc cht bn dn c di cm trc tip. Khi ,
nng lng c pht ra khi cc in t chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao (vng
dn) sang trng thi nng lng thp (vng ha tr) s to ra cc photon. Vi hiu
sut pht x nh sng (pht x t pht v pht x kch thch) ln, cc cht bn dn
c di cm trc tip c th to ra cc ngun quang c cng sut pht quang ln,
hiu qu.
Ngc li, i vi cc cht bn dn c di cm nng lng gin tip, cc nng
lng c to ra do qu trnh chuyn trng thi nng lng ca in t s pht ra
di dng phonon, khng pht x (nonradiation). Nng lng ny c th l nng
lng nhit hay dao ng ca cc phn t.
Nh vy, cht bn dn c s dng ch to ngun quang cn phi c: di
cm trc tip v nng lng chnh lch gia vng dn v vng ha tr phi ph
hp c th to ra bc sng nm trong cc ca s bc sng hot ng trong
thng tin quang.
Thc t cho thy rng, cc bn dn thng thng thuc nhm IV nh Si, Ge,
khng tha hai iu kin trn. Vt liu bn dn c dng ch to ngun quang
trong thng tin quang c to ra bng cch kt hp cc vt liu nhm III (Ga, Al,
) v nhm V (As, P, In, ) nh GaP, GaAsP, AlGaAs, GaAs, InP, InGaAsP

Hnh 18 Bc sng nh sng pht x ca mt s loi bn dn nhm III kt hp
vi nhm V
Hnh 1.8 cho thy: to ra ngun quang c bc sng 850nm ngi ta s
dng bn dn AlGaAs, GaAs hay InP. Bn dn InGaAsP c s dng ch to
ngun quang pht ra nh sng ti ca s bc sng 1300nm v 1550nm. Gi tr ca
bc sng c thay i bng cch thay i t l gia cc cht kt hp trong bn
dn ny In 1-x Ga x As 1-y Py .









2.1. LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE).

V c bn, cu to ca LED c pht trin t diode bn dn, hot ng da
trn tip gip pn c phn cc thun. Qu trnh pht x nh sng xy ra trong
LED da trn hin tng pht x t pht (hnh 2.1). Trn thc t, LED c cu trc
phc tp hn, gm nhiu lp bn dn p ng ng thi cc yu cu k thut
ca mt ngun quang.

Hnh 2.1. Cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca LED
Khi t hai lp bn dn p v n k nhau, ti lp tip gip pn, cc in t bn
dn n s khuch tn sang bn dn p kt hp vi l trng. Kt qu l, ti lp tip
gip pn to nn mt vng c rt t cc ht mang in (in t hay l trng) c
gi l vng him (depletion region).
Lu rng: p l cht bn dn c tha l trng (mang in tch dng), n l cht
bn dn c tha in t (mang in tch m) nhng c hai cht bn dn ny u
trung ha v in.
Ti vng him, bn dn n mt i mt s cc in t nn mang in tch dng,
cn bn dn p nhn thm mt s in t nn mang in tch m. iu ny to nn
mt in trng V D ngn khng cho cc ht mang in khuch tn qua li gia
bn dn n v p.
Khi phn cc thun (V > V D ) cho bn dn pn nh hnh 3.9, cc in t trong
bn dn n s vt qua vng tip gip pn v chy v pha cc dng ca ngun in
(ng thi cc l trng s v pha cc m ca ngun in), to thnh dng in
chy qua bn dn pn. y l nguyn l hot ng ca diode bn dn.
Trong qu trnh in t t bn dn n chy v in cc dng, cc in t c th
gp cc l trng ti bn dn p (bn dn c tha l trng). Khi , cc in t v l
trng s kt hp vi nhau to lin kt cng ha tr gia cc nguyn t trong bn
dn.
Xt v mt nng lng, khi mt in t kt hp vi l trng c ngha l in t
chuyn t trng thi nng lng cao (vng dn) sang trng thi nng lng thp
(vng ha tr) ging nh hin tng pht x t pht. Khi , theo nh lut bo
tan nng lng, bn dn s pht ra mt nng lng bng vi chnh lch gia
vng dn v vng ha tr. Nu cht bn dn c s dng c di cm nng lng
trc tip th nng lng s c pht ra di dng photon nh sng. y l nguyn
l pht x nh sng ca diode pht quang LED (Light emitting diode).
c tnh P-I ca LED.
Nguyn l hot ng ca LED cho thy rng, s photon pht x ph thuc vo
s in t (do dng in cung cp) chy qua vng tip gip pn, kt hp vi l trng
trong lp bn dn p. Tuy nhin, cn lu rng, khng phi in t no i qua lp
bn dn p cng kt hp vi l trng v khng phi qu trnh kt hp in t l
trng (chuyn trng thi nng lng t vng dn sang vng ha tr) no cng to ra
photon nh sng. Nng lng c to ra ny c th di dng nng lng nhit.
Do vy, s photon c to ra cn ph thuc vo hiu sut lng t ni int
(internal quantum efficient) ca cht bn dn. Hiu sut int c nh ngha l t
s gia s photon c to ra trn s in t c dng in bm vo LED:
qint = Nph / Ne
Cng sut pht quang (nng lng nh sng trn mt n v thi gian) ca LED c
th c xc nh theo s photon pht x nh sau:
P = E/t = Nph .Eph /t= (N e .qint .Eph )/t
Ngoi ra, ta c cng dng in chy qua LED:
I = Ne .e/t
Vi Ne l s in t do dng in cung cp, e l in tch c in t .
Do , mi quan h P-I gia cng sut pht quang v dng in c xc dnh nh
sau:
P = [(qint .Eph )/e].I
Trong cng thc trn, Eph c n v l (J). Nu E ph c tnh bng n v (eV),
th cng sut pht quang:
P(mW) = [(qint .Eph (eV)].I(mA)
Hiu sut lng t ni qint ph thuc vo vt liu bn dn c s dng v cu
trc ca ngun quang. Do , i vi mi loi ngun quang khc nhau s c c
tuyn P-I khc nhau. Cng sut pht quang t l thun vi dng in cung cp v
trong trng hp l tng, c tuyn P-I thay i tuyn tnh nh hnh 2.2.

Hnh 22 c tuyn P-I ca LED
3 c tnh ph ca LED.
Trong thng tin quang, nh sng do ngun quang pht ra khng phi ti mt
bc sng m ti mt khong bc sng. iu ny dn n hin tng tn sc sc
th (chromatic dispersion) lm hn ch c ly v dung lng truyn dn ca tuyn
quang. Tnh cht ny ca ngun quang ni chung v LED ni ring c gii thch
nh sau (hnh 2.3):
- Cc ngun quang trong thng tin quang c ch to t cht bn dn. Do , cc
in t nm trong mt vng nng lng ch khng phi mt mc nng lng.
- Cc in t khi chuyn t cc cc mc nng lng E j trong vng dn xung mc
nng lng E i trong vng ho tr s to ra photon c bc sng:
- Do c nhiu mc nng lng khc nhau trong cc vng nng lng nn s c
nhiu bc sng nh sng c to ra.
- Phn b mt in t trong vng dn v vng ho tr khng u nhau, dn n
cng sut pht quang ti cc bc sng khc nhau khng u nhau.
- Bc sng c cng sut ln nht c gi l bc sng trung tm. Bc sng
ny thay i theo nhit do phn b mt in t trong cc vng nng lng
thay i theo nhit .

Hnh 2.3. Ngun quang bn dn pht ra nh sng trong mt khong bc sng [1]

Hnh 24 c tnh ph ca LED
rng ph ngun quang c nh ngha l khong bc sng nh sng do
ngun quang pht ra c cng sut bng 0.5 ln cng sut nh (hay gim 3 dB).
rng ph ca LED ph thuc vo loi vt liu ch to ngun quang. nh
sng c bc sng 1,3 m do LED ch to bng bn dn InGaAsP c rng ph
t 50-60nm. LED c ch to bng bn dn GaAs (q=850nm) pht ra nh sng
c rng ph hp hn 1,7 ln so vi LED ch to bng bn dn InGaAsP.
2.1.4. Cu trc ca LED.
V cu trc, LED c th c chia lm bn loi:
- LED planar (planar LED)
- LED dome (dome LED)
- LED pht x mt SLED (surface LED)
- LED pht x ra ELED (edge LED)
Trong 4 loi LED ny, LED planar v LED dome khng c s dng trong
thng tin quang v cho d c cu to n gin (xem hnh 2.5 v 2.6) nhng hai loi
LED ny c vng pht quang rng, nh sng pht ra khng c tnh nh hng
c th ghp nh sng vo trong si quang mt cch hiu qu. Thay vo , hai loi
LED ny c s dng trong cc ng dng hin th, quang bo trong cc thit b
in t, TV, n bng hiu

Hnh 2.5. Cu trc LED planar

Hnh 2.6. Cu trc LED dome
LED pht x mt SLED (Surface LED) l loi LED c nh sng c pht ra
pha mt ca LED. Hnh 2.7 minh ho mt loi SLED, c gi l LED Burrus do
cu trc ca LED c ch to u tin bi Burrus v Dawson. Trong cu trc ny,
vng pht x nh sng (vng pht quang) ca LED c gii hn trong mt vng
hp bng cch s dng mt lp cch in hn ch vng dn in ca tip xc P.
Do , ti vng tch cc ca LED c mt dng in cao dn n hiu sut pht
quang ln. nh sng ca SLED c a vo trong si quang ti pha mt tip xc
N. Ti y, tip xc N v lp nn N c ct b i mt phn c kch thc tng
ng vi si quang. Bng cch ny s hn ch c s hp th photon trong lp N
v tng hiu sut ghp nh sng vo trong si quang. Tuy nhin, vn c mt phn
ln nng lng nh sng c pht ra ngoi vng t si quang. Do , hiu sut
ghp nh sng vo si quang ca SLED khng cao, thp hn so vi ELED.

Hnh 2.7. Cu trc LED Burrus
LED pht x cnh ELED (Edge LED) l loi LED c nh sng pha cnh ca
LED (hnh 2.8). Trong cu trc ny, cc in cc tip xc (bng kim loi) ph kn
mt trn v y ca LED nh sng pht ra trong lp tch cc (active layer) rt
mng. Lp tch cc ny c lm bng cht bn dn c chit sut ln c kp
gia bi hai lp bn dn P v N c chit sut nh hn. Cu trc ny hnh thnh mt
ng dn sng trong ELED. Do vy, nh sng pht ra lp tch cc c gi li v
lan truyn dc theo trong ng dn sng ny. Kt qu l, nh sng c pht ra
hai u ng dn sng, tc l pht x pha cnh ca LED. Si quang s c t
mt u ca lp tch cc ghp nh sng vo. Vi c im cu trc nh vy,
ELED c vng pht sng hp v gc pht quang nh. Do , hiu sut ghp nh
sng vo si quang ln hn so vi SLED.

Hnh 2.8. LED pht x cnh (ELED)
2.2. LASER (LIGHT AMPLIFICATION BY STIMULATED EMISSION OF
RADIATION).
2.2.1. Cu to v nguyn l ho ng ca Laser.
V c bn, cu to ca laser c cc c im sau:
- Cu trc nhiu lp bn dn p, n
- nh sng pht ra v c gi trong lp tch cc (active layer)
- Lp tch cc rt mng, lm bng vt liu c chit sut ln kp gia hai lp P v N
c chit sut nh hn. Cu trc ny to thnh ng dn sng.
- nh sng ca laser pht ra pha cnh, ging nh LED pht x cnh (ELED)
- hai u lp tch cc l hai lp phn x vi h s phn x R <1. Cu trc ny
to thnh hc cng hng Fabry-Perot. nh sng c to ra v phn x qua li
trong hc cng hng ny. Loi laser c cu trc hc cng hng Fabry-Perot ny
c gi l laser Fabry-Perot (hnh 2.9).
- nh sng c a ra ngoi qua mt phn c ct nhn ca mt mt phn x.

Hnh 2.9. Cu trc ca laser Fabry-Perot
Nguyn l hot ng ca Laser da trn hai hin tng:
- Hin tng pht x kch thch: to ra s khuch i nh sng trong Laser. Khi xy
ra hin tng pht x kch thch, photon nh sng kch thch in t vng dn to
ra mt photon th hai. Hai photon ny tip tc qu trnh pht x kch thch to
ra nhiu photon hn na theo cp s nhn. Cc photon ny c to ra c tnh kt
hp (cng tn s, cng pha, cng hng v cng phn cc). Nh vy, nh sng kt
hp c khuch i..
- Hin tng cng hng ca sng nh khi lan truyn trong laser: qu trnh chn
lc tn s (hay bc sng) nh sng. Theo , ch nhng sng nh sng c tn s
(hay bc sng) tha iu kin v pha ca hc cng hng th mi c th lan
truyn v cng hng trong hc cng hng c. Nh vy, s sng nh sng (c
bc sng khc nhau) do laser Fabry-Perot pht x b gii hn, lm gim rng
ph laser so vi LED.
2.2.2. Hc c ng Fabry-Perot.
Hc cng hng Fabry-Perot c to ra bng cch mi bng v song song hai
cnh ca lp tch cc to thnh hai gng phn x c h s phn x R 1 v R 2
(<100%) (hnh 2.9.a). Hc cng hng quang ny, ging nh mt b dao ng hn
l mt b khuch i do qu trnh hi tip dng xy ra khi sng nh sng phn x
qua li gia hai mt phn x t hai u hc cng hng. Khi tn hiu quang
c phn x nhiu ln, khuch i quang xy ra trong hc cng hng.

Hnh 2.10. Hc cng hng Fabry-Perot
Mt sng nh sng pht x trong lp tch cc c th tn ti v c khuch i
trong hc cng hng khi tha iu kin v pha ca sng nh sng. Khi , sng
nh sng phi hnh thnh nn sng ng gia hai mt phn x ca hc cng hng
(hnh 3.18.c). Hay ni cch khc l xy ra cng hng ca sng nh sng. Cc
sng ng ny ch tn ti ti cc tn s m khong cch gia hai mt phn x bng
bi s ca na bc sng:
L = q.(2n/)
Trong , l bc sng nh sng, n l chit sut ca lp tch cc, q l s nguyn
(q = 1,2,3, )
Hay ni cch khc, sng nh sng c th tn ti v khuch i c trong hc
cng hng ca laser Fabry-Perot c bc sng:
= q.(2n/L)
Cc bc sng ny khng lin tc nhau v c xc nh bi s nguyn q. Mi
mt bc sng ny to nn mt mode sng do laser pht ra vi khong cch gia
hai mode sng k nhau:
A = 2n/L
3 khuc i quang.
Xt mt sng nh sng phn x qua li trong hc cng hng nh hnh 2.11

Hnh 211 ng sut ca nh sng khi lan truyn v phn x qua li trong hc
cng hng Fabry-Perot
Trong qu trnh lan truyn trong hc cng hng, nng lng ca sng nh
sng chu nhng nh hng nh sau:
- Suy hao xy ra trong hc cng hng do hin tng hp th photon, hin tng
tn x nh sng, c biu din bi h s suy hao .
- li trong hc cng hng do hin tng pht x kch thch, c biu din
bi h s khuch i g
- Suy hao xy ra ti hai mt phn x c h s phn x R1 v R2 (R1, R2 <1)
Nu gi P(0) l cng sut ca nh sng ti mt phn x R 1 th cng sut thu
c sau khi lan truyn c mt chu k trong hc cng hng (lan truyn dc
theo hc cng hng, phn x ti mt phn x R2 , truyn ngc v v phn x ti
mt phn x R1 ) l:

iu kin mt sng nh sng c khuch i trong hc cng hng l:
li khuch i phi ln hn tng cc suy hao khi sng nh sng thc hin mt chu
k phn x qua li gia hai mt phn x. Ni cch khc, cng sut nh sng xt ti
mt im no trong hc cng hng sau khi nh sng thc hin mt chu k
phn x qua li trong hc cng hng phi ln cng sut nh sng trc khi
truyn.

Nh vy, iu kin nh sng c khuch i trong qu trnh lan truyn v
phn x qua li gia hai hc cng hng l li do pht x kch thch phi ln
hn so vi suy hao do hp th. iu ny c ngha l, s photon c to ra do
pht x kch thch (v pht x t pht) phi nhiu hn s photon b hp th:
N spontaneous + N stimulated > N absorption (*)
Trong , N absorption l s photon b hp th, N spontaneous v N stimulated l s
photon c to ra do cc hin tng pht x t pht v pht x kch thch.
iu kin (*) c th t c khi s in t trng thi nng lng cao N 2
(nm vng dn), phi nhiu hn s in t trng thi nng lng thp N 1 (nm
vng ha tr). iu kin ny c gi l trng thi nghch o mt (population
inversion) v iu kin bnh thng ( trng thi cn bng v nhit), mt ca
cc in t ti cc mc nng lng khc nhau c phn b theo hm phn b
Boltzmann (s in t trng thi nng lng thp N 1 lun cao hn so vi s
in t trng thi nng lng cao N 2 ).
Do vy, c th t c trng thi nghch o mt cn phi cung cp nng
lng t bn ngoi ln lm tng s in t trng thi nng lng cao. Qu
trnh ny c gi l qu trnh bm (pumping). Ty theo loi vt liu ch to
ngun quang hay khuch i quang, c nhiu phng php bm khc nhau nh
dng nh sng, trng sng v tuyn tn s cao, dng in i vi laser bn
dn, ngun bm ny c cung cp di dng dng in.
Dng in cung cp cho laser cng ln th s in t vng dn cng nhiu.
Dng in ti thiu t c trng thi nghch o nng , iu kin c th
xy ra qu trnh khuch i nh sng, c gi l dng ngng.
Gi tr ca dng ngng ph thuc vo tnh cht khuch i v suy hao ca vt
liu bn dn v cu trc ca hc cng hng.
4 c tnh ph ca Laser Fabry-Perot
Ph ca Laser Fabry-Perot l tng hp ca ph li khuch i ca qu trnh
pht x kch thch xy ra trong lp tch cc ca laser (ph thuc vo loi vt liu
ch to ngun quang nh ph ca LED) v c tnh chn lc tn s ca hc cng
hng.

Hnh 2.12. Ph ca Laser Fabry-Perot
Kt qu t hnh 2.12 cho thy, nh sng ng ra ca laser ch gii hn trong
cc mode nm trong rng ph ca ng cong khuch i. Ngoi ra, theo nh
ngha rng ph (3dB) ca ngun quang, ch cc mode sng nm trong gii hn
3dB mi cn c quan tm.
Do cc tn s cng hng (cc mode sng) c gi tr ph thuc vo chiu di L
ca hc hng (iu kin =q.(2n/L)) nm theo trc dc (longitudinal axis) ca
hc cng hng ca laser nn cc mode ny c gi l cc mode dc
(longitudinal mode). Ph ca nh sng do laser Fabry-Perot pht ra c nhiu mode
nn loi laser ny c gi l laser a mode MLM (Multi Longitudinal Mode).
5 c tnh ca laser
2.2.5.1. h th t ca laser:
S thay i theo thi gian ca mt in t n (1/m3) v mt photon s (1/m3)
trong laser c biu din bi h cc phng trnh tc (rate equations) sau :

Phng trnh (1) cho thy nhng yu t nh hng n mt in t trong
vng tch cc ca laser nh sau:
- Mt in t tng khi c nhiu in t (do dng in cung cp) c bm vo
vng tch cc. Qu trnh ny c biu din bng biu thc (J/ed) vi J(A/m2) l
mt dng in, e = 1,6 x 10-19 (C) l in tch ca in t, d l dy ca vng
tch cc.
- Mt in t gim khi c nhiu in t ti hp vi l trng (chuyn trng thi
nng lng t vng dn xung vng ha tr). Qu trnh ny xy ra do hin tng
pht x t pht, biu din bng biu thc (n/tsp ) vi tsp l thi gian sng ca in
t (khi xy ra hin tng pht x t pht) v hin tng pht x kch thch, c
biu din bng biu thc (Dns) vi D l hng s biu din cho kh nng pht x
kch thch, cng nh li khuch i g, trong laser.
D = vg/n = (c/n ri ).g/n (3)
vi v l vn tc nh sng tryn trong lp tch cc c chit sut n ri.
Qua cho thy, kh nng pht x kch thch (to ra li trong laser) trong
laser ph thuc vo loi bn dn, mt in t v photon trong vng tch cc.
Phng trnh (2) cho thy nhng yu t nh hng n mt photon trong vng
tch cc ca laser nh sau:
- Mt photon trng thi pht x laser (lasing mode) tng khi c nhiu photon
pht x do hin tng pht x kch thch. Qu trnh nay biu din bi biu thc
(Dns).
- Mt photon cng ln mt lng nh do hin tng pht x t pht. Qu trnh
nay biu din bi biu thc (n/tsp ). Trong h s rt nh cho thy rng c rt
t photon pht x t pht di chuyn cng hng vi cc photon pht x kch thch
trong vng tch cc.
- Mt photon gim do s hp th xy ra trong vng tch cc v do nh sng pht
x ra ngoi laser. Qu trnh ny biu din bi biu thc (-s/tph ) vi tph l thi gian
sng ca photon tc l thi gian tn ti ca photon trong vng tch cc.
Vi phng trnh tc , nhiu tnh cht v p ng ca laser theo thi gian c
th c xc nh. Bng cch thay i cc gi tr ca (dn/dt) v (ds/dt) trong h
phng trnh (1) v (2) ta c c tnh cht ca laser trng thi tnh (steady-
state) v trng thi ng (dynamic- state) khi dng in kch thch thay i theo
thi gian.
2.2.5.2. Tr th th a laser.
Trng thi tnh ca laser c xc nh khi mt in t v mt photon
trong lp tch cc khng thay i theo thi gian dn/dt=0 v ds/dt=0. Bng cch
ny, ta c th xc nh c iu kin ngng (dng ngng I th ) v mi quan h
gia dng n kch thch I v cng sut pht quang ca laser khi I > I th.
Ti trng thi ngung, ta c dn/dt=0 v ds/dt=0, J=Jth , n=n th , s<0. H phng
trnh tc c th c vit li nh sau:

T phng trnh (3) ta c :

T phng trnh (5) v (6) suy ra:

T phng trnh (4), (5) v (7) suy ra:

Vi I l h s giam (confinement factor) ca laser biu din cho vic cc photon
c giam gi trong vng tch cc (lm tng hiu sut pht x kch thch). I ph
thuc vo cu trc ca laser. l h s suy hao ca vt liu bn dn.
Ta thy, trong phng trnh (9) trn, J th ph thuc vo chiu di ca vng tch
cc d, vn tc truyn nh sng trong hc cng hng v=c/n ri , h s giam I, h s
pht x kch thch D, thi gian sng ca in t tsp l cc h s ph thuc vo vt
liu bn dn, cu to v cu trc ca laser. Do , mt dng in ngng c th
c xc nh bng cng thc n gin sau:

Vi |=(edvI)/(Dtsp ) l h s ph thuc vo cu trc ca laser. | c gi tr thay
i t 3x10 -3 (cm/A) n 1.5x10 -2 (cm/A) ty theo loi laser.
Mt lu quan trng l, khi hot ng ch trn mc ngng (I>I th ), mt
in t trng thi tnh vng dn, n, bng vi mt in t mc ngng,
n th . Nguyn do l v khi dng in kch thch tng, mt in t vng dn
tng s lm tng s pht x kch thch. Khi , cc photon vng dn s b kch
thch v chuyn trng thi nng lng t vng dn sang vng ha tr, to ra cc
photon nh sng. Kt qu l, dng in kch thch tng s tng cng sut pht
quang nhng khng lm tng mt in t vng dn. Hin tng ny c gi
l clamping.
Vi lu trn, mi quan h gia dng in kch thch v cng sut pht quang
trng thi tnh khi I>I th c th c xc nh t cc phng trnh tc vi
dn/dt=0. Kt qu l:
s = (1/Dn th )[(J-J th )/ed] = (tph /ed)[J-J th ] (11)
Kt qu trn cho thy, s photon c to ra ch pht x laser (I>I th ) t l
thun vi chnh lch gia mt dng in kch thch v mt dng in ti
mc ngng. Mi quan h ny l tuyn tnh.
2.2.5.3. Tr th ng ca laser
Trng thi ng ca laser xy ra khi dng in kch thch thay i theo thi
gian. Hot ng iu ch tn hiu nh (dng in kch thch nm trong khong
tuyn tnh ca c tuyn P-I ca laser) l trng hp laser hot ng trng thi
ny. Khi , mt in t v mt photon trong vng tch cc c biu din
di dng:

Vi n0 v s0 l mt in t v mt photon trng thi tnh, on(t) v os(t)
c to r khi iu ch dng in kch thch.
Khi , phng trnh tc tr thnh phng trnh vi phn bc hai biu din dao
ng tt dn ca on(t).

vi _ = Dn0 + 1/tsp l h s tt dn ca laser, er = D.(nth .s0 )^1/2 l tn s dao ng
tt dn, n th l mt in t ti mc ngng.
Gii phng trnh vi phn bc hai (14), ta c kt qu:

vi v gi tr gn ng c p dng
S bin i ca mt in t theo thi gian os(t) cng c xc nh theo cch
tng t.
Hnh 2.13 biu din mt in t v mt photon thay i theo thi gian khi
dng in c iu ch dng s ly t cc kt qu ca phng trnh tc . Kt
qu cho thy, mt in t v mt photon thay i nh dao ng tt dn. Do
t l vi mt photon, cng sut nh sng pht x cng c p ng tng t nh
vy nhng vi t l khc.

Hnh 213 p ng ca mt dng in v mt photon khi dng in c
iu ch dng s
Kt qu t hnh 2.13 cho thy rng:
- C mt khong thi gian tr trc khi laser bt u pht x nh sng sau khi xung
iu ch c thc hin (khong 1,5ns trong hnh 2.13)
- Dao ng tt dn ko di khong 8ns trc khi mt photon t trng thi n
nh.
Hin tng thi gian tr v dao ng tt dn trn l khng th trnh khi i vi
laser nhng c th c hn ch bng cch dng dng phn cc DC, I b . Thi gian
tr t d oc xc nh bng cng thc sau:

Vi t l thi gian sng c in t, I p l cng dng in iu ch
2.2.5.4. th u ch ca laser
C hai phng php iu ch tn hiu s dng laser: iu ch s v iu ch
tng t. Trong iu ch s, mc logic 0 v mc logic 1 c biu din bi chu k
ti v sng ca tn hiu quang. t c iu ny, dng in kch thch s thay
i theo tn hiu thng tin t gi tr di mc ngng n gi tr trn mc ngng
(hnh 2.14.a). Trong k thut iu ch tng t, dng in kch thch thay i trong
khong tuyn tnh ca c tuyn P-I trnh lm mo dng tn hiu quang ng ra
(hnh 2.14.b). iu ny t c bng cch s dng dng phn cc DC, I b , cng
vi dng tn hiu in.

Hnh 2.14. (a). iu ch tn hiu s v (b). iu ch tn hiu tng t
Mt cch l tng, tn hiu quang ng ra ca laser phi c dng ging v thay
i tc thi theo thi gian vi tn hiu in ng vo. Tuy nhin, trn thc t, lun
c thi gian tr tn hiu quang p ng vi dng in ng vo v tn hiu b mo
dng do c tnh ng ca laser nh trnh by trong phn trn. iu ny lm hn
ch tc iu ch (hay tc bit) ca tn hiu khi s dng dng tn hiu in
iu ch trc tip laser (k thut iu ch theo cng IM (Intensity
Modulation))
c tnh ng ca laser cho thy rng khi s dng k thut iu ch theo cng
IM, gii hn trn ca tc iu ch ca laser c xc nh bi tn s dao
ng tt dn.

Do s0 /n l hiu sut lng t ni, phng trnh trn cho thy rng er ph thuc
vo thi gian sng ca photon v ph thuc vo li (cng nh cng sut) ca
laser. Do , phng trnh trn c th vit li nh sau:

Vi M l hng s, P l cng sut pht quang ca laser.
Phng trnh trn cho thy rng, tn s iu ch cng cao khi cng sut pht
quang ca laser cng ln v thi gian sng ca photon cng ngn.
2.2.5.5. Nhiu trong Laser
Nhiu trong laser xy ra khi tn hiu quang pht ra khng n nh v cng sut
pht quang, bc sng pht quang cng nh rng ph khi iu kin hot ng
ca laser khng thay i. Nguyn nhn gy ra nhiu bao gm cc loi sau:
Nhiu lng t (quantum noise) l loi nhiu c to ra do s ngu nhin v
ri rc trong qu trnh pht x photon nh sng (pht x t pht v pht x kch
thch). y l bn cht t nhin ca ngun quang. Nhiu lng t lm cho cng
sut pht quang ng ra b dao ng, khng n nh. N ph thuc vo:
- Tn s iu ch ca tnh hiu quang: tn s cng cao nh hng cng ln
- Ngun quang a mode hay n mode: nh hng nhiu hn i vi laser a
mode. y l u im ca ngun quang n mode so vi ngun quang a mode
khi s dng trong cc h thng truyn dn quang tc cao.
- Dng in phn cc: nhiu gim khi dng in phn cc ln hn dng ngng
ca laser
S khng n nh ca ngun quang xy ra do:
- Ngun quang cht lng km hoc do suy gim theo thi gian s dng.
- c tnh k thut ca ngun quang thay i khi dng in cung cp thay i.
i vi laser n mode, tn s (hay bc sng) nh sng ca mode pht x tng
ln khi dng in tng ln (hnh 2.15). S dch chuyn ny khng l hm lin tc
ca dng in nhng s xy ra khi dng in thay i 1-2mA. Tn s dch chuyn
khong 100MHz-1GHz trn 1mA dng in kch thch. Hin tng ny cn c
gi l chirp.

Hnh 2.15. Nh mode trong lser n mode v ph bc sng di khi cng sut
ng r tng
Tn s dch chuyn rt b so vi tn s trung tm ca sng nh sng (1GHz so
vi 1x10^14 Hz, t l 0,001% ) nn nh hng ca chirp khng nhiu i vi cc
h thng thng tin quang truyn mt bc sng. Tuy nhin, nh hng ca chirp
tng ln ng k khi ngun quang c s dng trong cc h thng thng tin
quang i hi s chnh xc ca ph sng nh sng nh trong h thng coherent hay
h thng ghp knh theo bc sng WDM c khong cch gia cc knh hp.
khc phc hin tng ny, ngi ta khng iu ch trc tip laser bng dng tn
hiu in m s dng k thut iu ch ngoi (external modulation).
S phn x ca nh sng vo ngun quang do nh sng phn x ngc v ti cc
connector, mi hn hay do tn x Rayleigh xy ra trong si quang Khi , nh
sng phn x s c khuch i trong vng tch cc v pht x ra ngoi laser cng
vi tn hiu quang, gy ra nhiu. Do vy, suy hao phn hi (return loss) l mt
thng s quan trng trong si quang v c th nh hng cht lng ca tuyn
quang. khc phc loi nhiu ny, ngi ta thng dng cc b cch ly quang
(optical isolator)
Nhiu thnh phn (partition noise) trong cc ngun quang a mode xy ra khi
cc mode c pht ra khng n nh. S thay i ca nhit lm thay i phn
b cng sut gia cc mode dc (longitudinal mode) (xem hnh 2.16). iu ny
lm tng tn sc trn ng truyn.

Hnh 2.16. Nhiu thnh phn trong ngun quang a mode










CHNG III: LINH KIN THU QUANG