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Compensatory jurisprudence starts in natural law where law refers to certain kinds of rules formed to limit or control the

human behavior or conduct. According to Salmond A wrong is simply a wrong act- An act contrary to rule of right and justice. A synonym of it is injury, in its true and primary sense of injuria, though by a modern perversion of meaning this term has acquired the secondary sense of harm or damages whether rightful or wrongful and whether inflicted by human agency or not. Civil and criminal law not only punishes the wrong doer but also provides remedy for the loss or damages suffer by the innocent person. Austin says that sanction should be provided in both civil and criminal law. According to Salmond, civil law is the law of the state or the land, the law of lawyers and the law of courts. People come to the court for justice with the rights vested upon them. Justice should be provided to them in both forms by punishing the criminal and providing adequate amount of compensation for the loss occurred. Salomond points out if civil proceedings result in a judgment for damages or in a judgment for payment of a debt or penalty or in injunction or decree for specific restitution or specific performance or in an order for the delivery of possession of land or in a decree of divorce or in an order of mandamus, prohibition or in a writ of habeas corpus or in other forms of relief known as civil. Criminal proceedings may result in an order against the accused to make restitution or compensation. In civil justice the rights enforced by civil proceeding are of two kinds primary rights and sanctioning rights. Primary rights are those rights which exist as such. Sanctioning or remedial rights are those rights which came into being after the violation of primary rights. Sanctioning rights are of two types first the right to compensate by damages by wrongdoer or second the right to exact the imposition of pecuniary penalty on the wrongdoer by penal law. In penal law not only punishment is given but remedy is also provided. Sanction according to Austin as law may be true of a monarchical police state, but it cannot be applied to a modern democratic country whose machinery is employed for service of people.