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HOA-IV

SIKH ARCHITECTURE
Architecture of Golden temple

The major dates known for construction and reconstruction are as follows:  The first construction took place sometimes between 1588 and 1604A.D.  Subsequent reconstruction took place between 1764 and 1776A.D., following attacks by Ahmad Shah Abdali.  Renovation, and perhaps a major change in the design and fabric, was done by Maharaja Ranjit Singh starting from 1802 and continued through 1839A.D  The decorations are strictly mural paintings with floral patterns interspersed with animal motifs.  The boundary line of the pool was laid in AD 1570. The tank was named Amritsar and the town also came to be called by the same name.  The solid foundation was laid on a level higher than the bottom of the tank with lime and bricks.  Broad walls were built. A bridge connecting the temple with Darshani Deorhi (entrance gate) was constructed over the support of Surang Duraries (aqueducts) mehrabs and dats (arches).

History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5

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HOA-IV

 Instead of building the Hari Mandir on a higher level, it was built on a level lower than the surrounding ground.It has doors facing all four cardinal sides.  The main structure rises from the centre of the sacred pool on a square platform that is 67ft square.  The structure is 40.5 ft square and is approached by a causeway that is 202 ft in length and 21 ft wide.  Functionally and technically a three stories structure. An archway on the western side of the pool opens on to the causeway bordered with balustrades of fretted marble, and lamps set at close intervals on the marble columns.  The building has the lower part in white marble, but the upper part is covered with plates of gilded copper.  The ground floor interior is where the Guru Granth Sahib is placed under a gorgeous canopy, studded with jewels.  The second storey above it is known as Shish Mahal or the Mirror Room. It is designed so as to have just a square opening in the center to view the ground floor, with a narrow circumambulatory around the square opening.  The interior of the Shish Mahal is ornamented with pieces of mirror in various shapes and sizes, skillfully inlaid on the walls with mostly floral designs.  Above the Shish Mahal is another very small square pavilion, surmounted by a low fluted golden dome, lined at its base with a number of smaller domes.  The walls of the two lower stories, forming parapets, terminate with several rounded pinnacles. There are four chhatris or kiosks at the corners.  The combination of large, medium and miniature domes of gilded copper create a dazzling effect. The first plate on the temple was fixed in 1803.  The archway under the Darshani Deorhi was also embellished with sheets of gilded copper by Sangat Singh, the Raja of Jind.  The decorations are strictly mural paintings with floral patterns interspersed with animal motifs. There are about 300 different patterns on the walls, which look like Persian carpets.  The only mural depicting human figures is on the wall behind the northern narrow stairway leading to the top of the shrine, representing Guru Gobind Singh on horseback.

History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5

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the front is covered with silver sheets and the back is inlaid with ivory in geometrical and floral patterns. Then it was fashioned with steel cutters and other implements.  Jaratkari work involved inlaying of coloured cut-stones in marble and is found on the lower portion of the exterior walls of the temple.  Most of the painters and craftsmen.  The raised decorations are mainly floral and abstract.  Gach work is inlaid with coloured glass known as tukri work and is seen on the second story of the Shish Mahal. remained unknown. On the first floor here the Granth Sahib is read continuously. but there are some panels with human figures. gach. it is in the center of the old part of Amritsar. such as lapis lazuli and onyx. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 3 . Gach. also know as the Golden Temple  in Amritsar is the holiest shrine of the Sikh religion. a sort of gypsum. surrounded by a pool of water called the Amrit Sarovar from which the City is named. Today many paintings by Mahant Ishar Singh have been covered over with marble slabs. Most of the exterior upper portions of the walls of the Golden Temple are covered with beaten copper plates. tukri. Sri Harmandir Sahib. A good deal of the old work. has disappeared. It runs around the main shrine and it leads to the to the Har ki Pauri -steps of God. heavily gilded. particularly mural in character.  The ivory inlay work is seen only on the doors of the Darshani Deorhi.  The gate is made of shisham wood. Also known as the Shri Darbar Shaib. The doorframe of the arch is 10ft in height and 8 ft 6 inches in breath. was treated to a paste and applied on the wall like lime. which consists of inlay work in semi-precious stones. jaratkari and ivory inlay. Some of the ivory inlay is coloured green and red.HOA-IV  In addition there is work in embossed copper. Also called pietra dura work.  The Golden Temple sits on a rectangular platform. who worked in various branches of mural arts and its appurtenances in the Golden Temple.  The causeway is connected with a 13 ft wide circumbulatory path.

 The lower storey is in white marble with the walls decorated with inlaid flower and animal motifs in the pietradura style of the Taj Mahal.HOA-IV  The entrance to the Golden Temple complex is through an ornate archway with intricate inlay work. the reflection of the temple in the tank gives an ethereal atmosphere to the complex.  The upper storey is gold plated.  The main north entrance is under a Victorian clock tower. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 4 .  With the first light of dawn. pointing back to earth to symbolize theSikh´s concern with the problems of this world. the entrance is up a flight of steps and down again to the temple and holy tank. Verses from the Granth Sahib are inscribed on the doorway. Known as the Darshani Deori. each magnificent and captivating.  The Golden Dome (said to be glided with 100 kg of pure gold) is supposed to represent an inverted lotus flower. crowned with a dome (the Golden Dome) shaped like an inverted lotus. The architecture of the golden temple is a blend of the Hindu and Muslim styles. The temple is a two storey marble structure reached by a causeway known as Guru´s Bridge. As the sun shifts. the temple presents myriad views.

with only one opening in the northern side. The façade has an attached pillared marble portico.HOA-IV The Akal Takht. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 5 . the religious governing body of the Sikhs. The building of Sri Akal Takhat is a five storeyed structure with a dome at the top. It consists of a central hall and rooms on both the northern and southern sides. The façade of the monument consisting of four stories including the basement has a semicircular orientation. is the seat of the Shiromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee. next to the Golden Temple. cusped arch opening on a raise plinth in its central part. • • The first floor Divided into three parts. Architecturally speaking the monument is quite complicated in its details of composition and layout. The ground floor • • • larger platform having one hall underneath. The hall is flanked by stairways on its northern and southern side leading to the first floor.

• • The fourth floor It is an extension of the lower central hall and has three foliated arched openings on each of its sides. each supporting an octagonal kiosk surmounted by domes are there on N-E and S-E corner of the floor. there are two chambers having openings to the east and to the central hall. It has same rooms in the south and a gallery in the form of a rectangular room on the northern side. • • • • The second floor Repeats the same scheme of the first floor. • • • • • • A flight of steps spirals in the western wall upto the top The third floor A large hall formed by cusped arches and square pillars. Two beautiful octagonal minarets. supported by decorative brackets & is surmounted by parapet. and galleries on all sides.HOA-IV • • The façade of the central hall has three openings formed by two pillars. • Each of its four corners has a pilaster. Page 6 History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 . On both the sides of this central opening. In the façade. there are nine cusped arched openings The façade terminates into a projected eave supported on pairs of decorative brackets. The facade of this floor is in the form of a gallery formed by side chambers and central pillared openings of the type similar to that of the lower storey • The façade terminates into projected eave.

A larger octagonal structure encloses another structure of the same plan upto the sixth storey. Finally. It is surmounted by an inverted lotus which supports a big Kalasa. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 7 . the revered son of the sixth Guru. Har Gobind. It is 150 feet high. It is constructed on an octagonal plan. The Gurudwara Baba Atal is basically a smadh (cenotaph) to the memory of Baba Atal. • • The monument of Baba Atal is the highest building in the city of Amritsar. Amritsar. thus leaving circumambulatory path in between.HOA-IV • • The room is decorated with a projected ornamental eave and a kiosk on each corner. • The inner sanctuary. there springs a graceful fluted dome with lotus petal base on a circular drum. where the Holy Granth is enshrined rises upto Ninth storey surmounted by the fluted gilded dome. It is located to the S-W of the Golden Temple.

S.Jassa Singh and of other sardars. one in each alternate side. there is a large tank named Kaulsar. The 8th stage has one arched opening on each of its sides The 9th stage has one arched opening in each of its alternate facets. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 8 . The most interesting feature is the projected balconies supported on brackets throughout the exterior walls. in the west. Finally.HOA-IV • • • The outer structure has four rectangular gates. • The top of the 6th storey is in the form of an open octagonal space guarded by balustrade supported on number of pairs of decorative brackets and surmounted by an iron railing. the remaining ones have windows or projected balconies. There are 2 stairways on northern and southern walls leading upto the sixth storey. Within the premises. The exterior walls are relieved by various decorative patterns. and also the mausoleums of Nawab Kapoor Singh. • • • The 7th stage does not have any opening on the exterior excepting a perforated screen throughout. there springs the graceful fluted dome with the inverted lotus supporting Kalasa in the centre.

[2] Structure An interior view of a room in the palace covered in thousands of tiny mirrors. and is constructed of red sandstone and white marble. It was the ancient citadel of the ruling Kachhawa clan of Amber. and is a major tourist attraction in Rajasthan.HOA-IV RAJPUT ARCHITECTURE Amber Fort is located in Amber. blending both Hindu and Muslim (Mughal) elements. and was reputed to be the treasure vault of the Kacchwaha rulers. Amber Fort is known for its unique artistic style. 11 km from Jaipur. and its ornate and breathtaking artistic mastery.  The structure which is known today as "Amber Fort" was initially a palace complex within the original fort of Amber that is today known as Jaigarh Fort. lavish interior influenced by both Hindu and Muslim (Mughal) styles of ornamentation. an ornate. an imposing and rugged defensive structure. It overlooks Maotha Lake. Rajasthan state. India.  Like the entire fort complex. before the capital was shifted to present day Jaipur. is markedly different from its inside. The Fort is unique in that its outside. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 9 .[1] The fort borders the Maota Lake.  Connected to Amber via fortified passages. Amber Fort is also constructed of white and red sandstone. Jaigarh Fort is located on a hill above the Amber complex.

the main courtyard of the Fort where the staircase to the palace is located. and paintings depicting various scenes from daily life. carved entirely from a single piece of coral. However. or from a broad pathway leading to each of the sections. Suraj Pol (Victory) 4.  The pathways are currently used to transport tourists via an elephant ride. Jaleb Chowk was the area where returning armies were paraded back home. Surajpol.[6] 1. Shiva Devi Temple 6. Diwan-i-Am Gate HistoryChowk of architecture and culture – UNIT 5 2. Jaleb 5. Maharaja Man Singh I had worshiped Kali for a victory over the rulers of Bengal. and minute mirror work. Other walls are covered with intricate carvings. The Kali Temple is known for its silver doors with raised reliefs. Sukh niwas Page 10 8.IV Jess/Jai Mandir 3.[5]  Amber Fort is divided into four sections. A tourist curiosity is an image of Ganesha at the temple entrance. The main entrance of Amber Fort.  The accuracy of the legend has not been verified. According to legends. Zenana .HOA-IV  The walls of the interior of the fort are covered with murals. Baradari 9. The legend says that Kali appeared in the Maharaja's dream and ordered him to recover her statue from the Jessore seabed (now in Bangladesh) and place it in an appropriate temple. Each is accessible via large staircases from a central location. made popular for its enormous silver lions.  The origins and purpose of these large lions is still unknown.  In ancient times. Ganesh Pol 7. it is said that the Maharaja recovered the statue from the bed of the sea and created the temple.  Just prior to the palace entrance is a narrow staircase leading to the Kali Temple. frescoes. leads to the Jaleb chowk. mosaic. also known as the Shila Devi Temple.

There is a lattice gallery also. The Goddess appeared in the Maharaja's dream and ordered him to recover her statue lying under sea near Jessore (now in Bangladesh) and install it in a befitting Temple. Shiva Devi Temple 4. Baradari 9. Zenana The fort has 4 sections. Suraj Pol (Victory) Gate 2. Getting back from the temple the main stairways lead to the second courtyard of the fort. that leads to the palace. According to a legend. True enough. Jaleb Chowk 3. Ganesh Pol 7. Here situated is the imposing Diwan-I-Aam. but carved from a single piece of coral. Diwan-i-Am 5. Page 11 History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 . This is a pavilion of double row of columns each capped by an elephant shape. It is a gorgeous temple featuring silver doors with raised relief. each with the premises and one has to climb up through the imposing stairway or else the broad aisle. The main gate Surajpol that leads to the Jaleb chowk. Jess/Jai Mandir 6. "shila" meaning stone slab. after subjugating the enemies the Maharaja recovered the statute from the bed of the sea. Before you enter the palace just towards the right is a sleep aisle and a narrow staircase reaching up to Kali Temple also called Shila Devi Temple famous for its mysterious history and the huge silver lions. Maharaja Man Singh I had worshiped the Goddess for a victory over the rulers of Bengal. which is the main courtyard from where one can walk up the stairway. Like all temples this too has an image of Ganesha on the doorway. where one can ride on the elephant back for royal feel.HOA-IV 1. Jaleb Chowk was also the area where returning armies were welcome and they would display their war earnings to the population at large. Sukh niwas 8. the hall of public audiences where the Maharaja received the populace and their petitions. The temple is called after Shila Devi.

HOA-IV Behind the exquisite and fabulous Ganesh Pol. "pol" meaning gate are located in the residential apartments of the Maharaja. the Hall of Victory is famous for its inlaid panel and dazzling mirror ceiling. The water flowing from the channel wasn't wasted as it was allowed to flow in the garden. On the other side is Sukh Niwas. the residence of pleasure or pleasurable residence. The Jai Mandir. The Zenana or the palace of the women is in the fourth courtyard. The palace has an ivory inlaid sandalwood door. The rooms are though connected through a common corridor are cleverly designed to give each room privacy. A channeled laid for flow of water is an inventive system of cooling. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 12 . From there you can also take pleasure in viewing of the fort rampart and its reflection in the Moata Lake. Much of it had deteriorated with neglect and is under restoration.

Diwan-I-Khas 5. Diwan-I-Am History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 13 .HOA-IV 1. Rajendra Pol 4. Mubarak Mahal 2. Pritam Niwas Chowk 6. Chandra Mahal 7. Sileh Khana 3.

the Mubarak Mahal of Rajasthan. City Palace of Jaipur forms one of the most famous tourist attractions and a major landmark in Jaipur of Rajasthan. Initially. which displays royal attires of the Kings. Raja Jai Singh built the outer wall occupying a huge area. or the Auspicious Palace is converted into a costume gallery.  On display are the two largest silver vessels in the world figured in the Guinness Book of World Records. Shri Govind Dev Temple of Rajasthan and the City Palace Museum of Rajasthan. It has a beautifully carved marble gate with heavy brass doors on either side of this gate.  Today. There lies the Diwan-I-Khas or 'Hall of Private Audience'.HOA-IV The City Palace of Jaipur in Rajasthan or the main palace of Jaipur is an imposing blend of traditional Rajasthan and Mughal architecture. miniature paintings. Mukut Mahal of Rajasthan. astronomical manuscripts in Persian and Sanskrit lies the 'Diwan-EHistory of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Rumi Gate Gateway leading into main courtyard Page 14 . with its intricate decorations in deep red and gold. Afghan and Persian carpets. Mubarak Mahal of Rajasthan. which is divided into a series of gardens. These were used for carrying water from the holy Ganges for personal use. by Madho Singh II on his journey to England. there is a magnificent gateway with a grand door in brass opening to a stately courtyard. built by Maharaja Madho Singh II in the late 19th century to entertain his guests. The beautiful palace was built by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh during his reign. Nakkarkhana-ka-Darwaza. is monumental. City Palace complex of Rajasthan covers a huge area.  Across the paved square. courtyards and buildings. the imposing gateway of the City Palace of Rajasthan guarded by stone elephants. Maharani's Palace of Rajasthan.an open hall with a double row of columns with scalloped arches. Architecture and Layout of the City Palace of Jaipur in Rajasthan  The City Palace complex of Rajasthan houses several palatial structures like Chandra Mahal of Rajasthan.  In the first courtyard is the 'Mubarak Mahal' of Rajasthan.  After crossing the first square.

 The central arch bears a white marble slab on which the date 1837 is inscribed in the Nastaliq script. it is possible to get a panoramic view of the historic city of Lucknow.  From the six-storied minarets crowned by graceful cupolas. Entrance is gained through two successive gateways. its elaborate and harmonious design and its lavish ornamentation. The Jami Masjid. it is quite outstanding in its architectural setting. stands to the south-east of the Chota Imambara. It is rather remarkable in its architectural style. Even though it is smaller than the Bara Imambara. its finish. the largest Nawabi mosque in Lucknow. The second gateway is notable for its three-storied design in which the central arch is balanced by a symmetrical arrangement of smaller arches.  The main entrance to the first enclosure of the Imambara has three arches and faces the Rumi Darwaza.  The structure is crowned by a graceful pediment and conical turrets. Monument of Lucknow Chhota Imambara was built by Muhammad Ali Shah in 1840.HOA-IV Chhota Imambara. This impressive mosque rises above a platform. However.   The Chhota Imambara occupies a rather distinguished position among the Imambaras of Awadh. the largest Nawabi mosque in Lucknow.  Located to the south-east of the Imambara is the Jami Masjid.  The Imambara is erected on a rectangular platform. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 15 . The facade is remarkable for its projecting portico. This gate is certainly a replica of the magnificent gate of Dargah Hazrat Abbas. built by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan. which has five graceful arched openings.  On either side of the channel are symmetrical gardens in which stand two graceful replicas of the Taj Mahal.  The Imambara complex has a remarkable ground plan.  A water channel with a hanging bridge and ornamental waterfalls of yellow and black stones runs through the centre and up to the Imambara. entry into the minarets is no longer allowed.

which is furnished with rare and colourful chandeliers. The domes are decorated in plaster with geometric designs in bold relief. which are lavishly embellished in gold. giving the effect of marble. with an inverted lotus crowned by a pot-finial and crescent. with arched openings and a central dome flanked by cupolas and four independent minarets. The most attractive aspect of the Imambara is its interior.  Opposite this is an identical structure. pilasters and their capitals are also painted in gold.  The brick building is covered with fine white lime plaster.In the courtyard. there can be seen the emblem of Awadh and a large brass fish installed to indicate the direction of the wind.  The graves are fenced with silver railings and covered with a small embroidered Shamina. which was made to balance the entire plan. The facade has white calligraphic ornamentation on a black surface.In the central hall of the Imambara lie the graves of Muhammad Ali Shah and his mother Malika-i-Aliya. Qandils and Kanwals (globe-shaped lamps).Another attractive aspect of this historic building is the replica of the Taj Mahal. Naskh.HOA-IV  The two tiered parapet is decorated with miniature arches and solid domes while the square turrets are crowned with cupolas.  There are also large European mirrors. The building houses the tomb of one of the princesses and is better known as Shahzadi-Ka-Maqbara. built in bricks and covered with chaste white plaster.  The rectangular structure at the side constitutes the main Imambara with a central hall and narrow halls at the rear with recessed Shahnashins. Both the dome and the finial are embellished in gold.  The fluted pillars. Thuluth and Tughra scripts.  The Shiite Durud and other religious texts are represented here in the Arabic. Such finials were popularly used in the domes of the royal buildings and Jami Masjid of Rampur. On one side of the hall is the Mimbar covered with ornamental silver work.  This small but attractive building is raised on a square platform. and ornamental metallic and glass candle-stands.  The roof of the hall is topped by a fluted dome. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 16 . which forms the base of the finials.  These objects are painted in gold to match the bands of relief work and the arched opening.  The western area is occupied by a graceful mosque.  The central domes are crowned with the Kalash (pot).

HOA-IV Elevation of chota imambara ENTRANCE GATEWAY History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 17 .

 This pinnacle became so popular that almost all the later domed buildings were decorated with an umbrella in the form of the crown of Awadh. the Lal Baradari. constructed from 1800-1856.  The complex consisted of the Greater and Lesser Chhatar Manzils. near Kothi Farhat Bakhsh.  The palace was crowned by a golden pinnacle in the form of an umbrella. Ghazi ud Din Haidar completed the unfinished palace on the right bank of the Gomti. gateways and walled areas. The construction of the Chhatar Manzil was begun by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan and finally completed by Ghazi ud Din Haidar. wall paintings. also known as them Farhat Baksh complex. is constructed in the style of the later Nawabi architecture in Lucknow. It has been constructed in a kind of hybrid style and includes both Indo-Muslim as well as European elements in its architectural style. Chhatar Kunwar.  The Gomti River and the Khas Bazar formed the northern and southern edges of the complex. It was earlier built by Nawab Saadat Ali Khan in memory of his mother. Kaisar Pasand and Lakhi Darwaza. Gulistan-i-Iram and Darshan Vilas. The Chhatar Manzil is a Nawabi Palace complex completed by Ghazi ud Din Haidar. are those monuments which belong to the first half of the nineteenth century. the Kothi Farhat Baksh built by Claude Martin. before Awadh was annexed by the British.HOA-IV Chhatar Manzil. particularly Kothi Kaisar Bagh.  The Chhatar Manzil complex essentially comprised of a series of European houses with a central garden and smaller buildings like Baradaris and pavilions. mirrors. The unique feature gave its name to two palaces.  The Iranian carpets.  In the second phase of Nawabi architecture.  These monuments are characterised by a hybrid style. incorporating Indo-Muslim and European elements.the Ban Chhatar Manzil and the Chhoti Chhatar Manzil . Monuments of Lucknow Chhatar Manzil is a Nawabi Palace complex in Lucknow.  Chhatar Manzil complex. portraits and chandeliers which once adorned the History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 18 .built opposite one another. covered passageways.

 They converted the palace into the United Services Club with a library for senior British officials. but General Havelock destroyed them after crushing the freedom-fighters on 25 September 1857. mother of the last king. Wajid Ali Shah. Since 1950. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 19 . After 1857.  The palace was occupied by several members of the royal family of Awadh.HOA-IV palace are now missing. which they sent to England. decorations and hangings. including the favourite Begums Malka Zamani. the palace has been used by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research and the Central Drug Research Institute.  Both the Chhatar Manzils and the surrounding gardens were originally enclosed within boundary walls. the British stripped the palace of all its costly furniture. The elegant marble tank is now buried under the metalled road built by the British. Kudsia Mahal and Malka Kishwar.

However on top of it is a large dome. a smaller dome supported by slender History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 20 . In other words . This projects up from the rest of the roof-line of the palace like a tower of a Gothic cathedral. That style when merged with the native Indian styles . gave rise to a hybrid style called IndoIslamic style or Indo-Saracenic style.HOA-IV MYSORE PALACE Architectural style of Mysore palace is hybrid. However it is metal gilded. This is a five storied tower measuring about 145 feet (45 meters) at the center of the palace. a very typical feature of Islamic/Persian style structures. Many centuries later – by the turn of 19th century – India came under the colonial powers. Further on top of this dome is a domed Chhatri. Islamic and Gothic elements in its design and construction. That brought rise to a further new hybrid style called Indo-Saracenic Revival style. One good example of this style is the Akbar’s abandoned capital Fatehpur Sikri in Uttar Pradesh. The domes for example is an element borrowed from the Islamic school of architecture. To understand the hybrid style. So the name Saracenic. That is. Elements of Hindu styles and Islamic styles merged to form unique school. That is. look at the tallest tower of the palace. The Islamic power in India by the turn of 12th century has a brought a new style of architecture ( largely central Asian style ) to India. A large number of Islamic structures in India during the Mugal era were build in the Sassanian ( Persia ) style.that was the flavor of Victorian rulers) . The palace is made in a style collectively called Indo-Saracenic Revival style. Here the IndoIslamic style is further blended with the Gothic style (. one can see the elements of Hindu. There are many deep pink marble domes projecting at the corners of the palace structure. its design is a mixture of various schools of architecture. Mysore Palace is made in this later style.

HOA-IV pillars projecting up from the large dome. one can spot two more such domed Chhatris at the top on either side of the central arch of the facade. Domed Chhatri is a typical Rajput ( Rajastan ) architectural feature. Between these two domed Chhatris and above the central arch is a sculpture of goddess Gajalakshmi. This is a common feature in Hindu architecture as the goddess Gajalakshmi is considered of wealth. prosperity and abundance. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 21 .

There are three rows of tall windows one over the other on the balconies. The balconies appear three-storied from outside.HOA-IV On the southern and northern extremities of the palace has protruding balconies. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 22 . These resemble that of the ‘jharokha’ one find in the Rajasthani architecture.

Further on either sides are 6 arches (3 each on either sides). one can see the big central archway.  The arches are cusped and of Sassanian in origin. on the whole this does not look like a hotchpotch design at tall. while the bottom is supported by a structural feature in the form a lotus. These are supported by massive pillars. Mysore Palace  Though each of these features are ‘cut and paste’ from various types of architectures. which is the main entrance to the palace building. On either sides of this large archway are two smaller arches. that forms a semi dome. On the other hand this hybrid tower adds to the very character of the aesthetics.  The palace building is entered through a smaller verandah located at the southern side of the palace.  Looking the palace from the facade.HOA-IV Top of the balcony is with deep pink stone. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 23 .

Also at the three sides of the open court are porches to enter the verandah. baring for the ceremonial functions in the palace. The whole court is netted at the top to prevent birds messing the inside. The tinted glasses making a peacock theme over the ceiling were brought from Belgium.HOA-IV Facade of Maysore Palace The main archway mentioned above opens to a wide passage (elephant gate) that finally leads to the expansive central court. At regular intervals are giant window opening to the court. The court mentioned above is open to the sky and an enclosed verandah runs around this court. the balconies . The elephant gate is typically kept closed. Just south of this court is the massive marriage hall (Kalyana Mantapa). This octagonal open hall is brightly decorated. The whole superstructure of this octagonal shaped ceiling and the pillars were specially made by the legendary Scottish foundry Walter MacFarlane & Co. Ltd. Especially noteworthy are the floor tiles. Ceiling fans here (Mysore city got its first electricity supply in 1908 ). History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 24 . Interesting items seen in this court (flanking the porch) are a set of giant lion images casted out of brass. the slender cast iron pillars and the tinted glass ceiling. The porches and the windows are good enough to get a view of the porch.

That is. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 25 . to show the king’s guests to the palace during those days the details of the festival. On the first floor there are two major halls. there are pillars. The rows of massive pillars are the special attraction of this hall. Each of the 26 paintings’ theme is a function or ceremony related to Dasara . One is for the public hall and the other is a private audience hall.HOA-IV The walls facing this open hall are painted with large oil paintings depicting the Mysore Dasara. bold and intricate found in any palace in India. So is the ceiling around the Durbar Hall in the first floor. the capitals are beautifully carved with hard granite. This was operated by mechanical means installed at the roof. On the south and north of the eastern portion are the galleries for the courtiers. The images are properly labeled and one can get the idea of pomp with which it was held. If looked closer. One of the many features where the local tradition of craftsmanship is shown at its best is in the woodwork. On the rosewood doors. First floor has the Durbar lift. To protect tampering (by doubtful visitors!) such inlay works are protected with transparent perplex overlay. these are ivory chips embedded onto the surface of the rosewood. Probably that was the very idea of including such paintings in the palace. You can easily notice this in the massive doors carved out of teak (yellow-brown) and rosewood (coffee colored). In the ground floor of the palace. At first it may look like intricate painting on the door. The eastern side is open and gives a panoramic view of the garden in front of the palace. This too is a present blend of native and gothic styles. the squinch (where the pillar meets the ceiling ) and the domical ceiling above the verandah. Durbar Hall (the Diwan-e-Am) is a huge open hall along the width of the palace on the first floor. Ceiling in the room showcase a row of silver and glass chairs. a great deal of plaster work on the ceiling. This woodwork in teak are one of the massive. frames and lintels with finely done inlay work.

This illuminates the hall lavishly. a lot traditional and can give a great insight into the life of those times. Also number of temples can be dotted around the palace campus. Various bright semiprecious stones are embedded on the marble flooring to create interesting motifs. This rectangular hall has an intricately designed tinted glass ceiling. the ceiling around this portion has some massive and boldly executed woodwork in teak. Between the gateways and the palace is a sprawling garden. These light plays do wonders on the otherwise brightly painted pillared Durbar Hall. On can see a great deal of this work on the Taj Mahal of Agra ( hence the name Agra work). On the floor . Otherwise the throne is kept in safe custody. This too is a museum exhibiting a number of artifacts used in the palace. between the pillars are the embedded inlay work – Pietra dura. The one located at the east is the largest of the four gateways. This is made in a more human scale. Another important architectural feature of the palace is its gateways and the walls. The private audience hall called Ambavilasa ( the Diwan-e-Khas ) is the most decorative of all the areas in the palace. Like mentioned earlier . It is unlikely that one would find the thrown in the hall unless it is visited during the days of Dasara festival.that is popularly known as Agra work. The living palace where the family lived is located right behind the main palace. History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 26 .HOA-IV On the western wall of the Durbar Hall is a row of paintings. Most of it is mythical themes from Hindu pantheon. This is where the golden Throne of Mysore is positioned.

was the main Palace where the king lived. The building. Tirumalai Nayak Palace at Madurai was considered to be one of the wonders of the South. Islamic and European styles.[1] King Thirumalai Nayak Palace Entrance way History The Nayaks of Madurai ruled this former Kingdom from 1545 till 1740’s and Thirumalai Nayak (1623History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 27 . In its heyday. This Palace was built with the help of an Italian Architect and is a classic fusion of Dravidian.HOA-IV Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal. one of the Madurai Nayak rulers in 1636 AD in the city of Madurai. which can be seen today. The original Palace Complex was four times bigger than the present structure.MADURAI Mannar Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal Main Inner Corridor of Thirumalai Nayakkar Mahal Palace Thirumalai Nayak Palace is a 17th century palace was built by King Thirumalai Nayak. India.

HOA-IV History of architecture and culture IV – UNIT 5 Page 28 .

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