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Aurangzeb.docx

Aurangzeb.docx

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Badshahi Masjid (Imperial Mosque

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 Badshahi Mosque (The Imperial mosque of Aurangzeb Alamgir) is situated to the west of the Lahore Fort.  Capable of accommodating over 55,000 worshipers, it is the second largest mosque in Pakistan, after the Faisal Mosque in Islamabad. The architecture and design of the Badshahi Masjid is closely related to the Jama Masjid in Delhi, India, which was built in 1648 by Aurangzeb's father and predecessor, emperor Shah Jahan.  It is built on a raised platform, set on arches, and is considerably elevated above the surface of the ground. The gateway to the east, made of red sand-stone and marble, is approached by a flight of large circular steps, paved with a beautifully variegated stone from Kabul, known as Abri.  The mosque has been built in imitation of the mosque of Al Walid in Mecca.  Above the arched entrance are many small turrets of red sand-stone and marble, and a tablet of white marble on the outer face of this entrance has the inscription, in large letters, below the Kalima of the Muslim creed.  The facade of the archway measures 66 feet, 10 inches long. The arched entrance opens on a large quadrangle, or court-yard, 530 feet long, north and south and 527 feet long east and west, paved with solid bricks, each seat for prayer being decorated with a narrow black marble border.  In the center is a reservoir of water for the ablutions of the faithful. To the west of the square is the mosque itself, the roof of which is surmounted by three superb cupolas, or domes, of white marble, crowned with pinnacles, or spires, of brass, richly guilt.  Under the domes of the mosque is the principal hall, with several arched entrances, facing the east; beyond this is another hall with arched entrances; the centre arch of red sandstone, inlaid with ornamented white marble, is in the form of a massive gateway, and is wide and lofty.  Towards the western extremity, in the compartment beneath the central dome, is a handsome niche, or recess, looking towards Mecca.  Each corner the quadrangle has a minaret of red sand-stone, tall and majestic, towering above every other-object, and seen for many miles. The height of each minaret is 143

its circumference outside 67 feet.  The north enclosure wall of the mosque was laid close to the Ravi River bank. and inside 8.  The interior has rich embellishment in stucco tracery (Manbatkari) and paneling with a fresco touch. all in bold relief.784 ft2).5 feet. specially of loti form motifs in bold relief. as well as marble inlay. funeral prayers can also be offered.  The skyline is furnished by beautiful ornamental merlons inlaid with marble lining adding grace to the perimeter of the mosque. originally intended for the accommodation of the students belonging to the mosque.  The original floor of the courtyard was laid with small kiln-burnt bricks laid in the Mussalah pattern.  The prayer chamber is very deep and is divided into seven compartments by rich engraved arches carried on very heavy piers. 6 inches. divided into two levels: the upper and the lower.  The walls were built with small kiln-burnt bricks laid in kankar.  The north and south of the quadrangle are overshadowed by rows of fine trees and lined with arcaded rooms. Thus a four iwan plan like the earlier Delhi Jamia Masjid could not be adopted here. The steps leading to the prayer chamber and its plinth are in variegated marble.  Access to their summit is gained by a flight of narrow steps of red sand-stone in the interior. .feet. so a majestic gateway could not be provided on that side and. and from the top an interesting view of the Yadgaar-e-Pakistan and the surrounding country is obtained. In the latter.  The exterior is decorated with stone carving as well as marble inlay on red sandstone. The embellishment has Indo-Greek. Central Asian and Indian architectural influence both in technique and motifs. to keep the symmetry the gate had to be omitted on the south wall as well. lime mortar (a kind of hydraulic lime) but have a veneer of red sandstone. There are only two inscriptions in the mosque: •one on the gateway •the other of Kalimah in the prayer chamber under the main high vault. •Courtyard: 528'-8" x 528'-4" (Area: 278.

Its three sided approach steps are 22 in number. 176'-4" high are in four stages and have a contained staircase with 204 steps. neck 9'-6" high. height 32 ft. •Gateway: 66'-7" x 62'-10" x 65 high including domelets. •Central Tank: 50' x 50' x 3' deep (Area: 2. with its main vault 37'-3" x 59'-4" high but with the merlons 74'-6". •Side Domes: Diameter 51'-6" (at bulging 54'-2").825 ft2) •Corner Minars: 67' in circumference.500 ft2) . pinnacle 24 ft and neck 15 ft high. plinth 2'-7". •Central Dome: Diameter 65' at bottom (at bulging 70'-6"). Height above floor 23'-9". vault 21'-6" x 32'-6" high.•Prayer Chamber: 275'-8" x 83'-7" x 50'-6" high. •Side aisles (Dalans): 80 in number. (Area: 22. height 49'. pinnacle 19 ft.

 The courtyard is a rectangle measuring 12.  The floor of the courtyard is paved in white marble. served as his private mosque.02 meters by 2.1 m (20 feet) and except for its three bulbous.  The mosque itself is accessed by a short set of stairs (5 steps) through an arched doorway in the east wall.67 meters (40 feet by 35 feet) comprising three bays each. it is capped by three ribbed domes that are also clad in white marble stone. On the west side of the courtyard is the prayer hall raised on a plinth 1.  This compound wall forms an elevated walkway at the top lined by foliate merlons on all four sides.  This rectangular compound wall aligns itself with the rest of the palace complex while the interior space of the mosque re-orients itself slightly to face precisely west (qibla). on center with each of its three arched bays. as with the rest of the mosque.2 meters by 10.  The outer wall is unornamented but for its merlons and insets. in the Red Fort at Shahjahanabad.  The interior of the hall. Delhi was initiated by the sixth Mughal emperor Aurangzeb .  The compound wall rises to a height of 6.completed in 1663. The prayer hall comprises two aisles and measures 12.  The rubble masonry compound wall was originally faced with red sandstone having square and rectangular recessed panels.The Moti Mosque  The Moti Mosque. and at its center is a rectangular white marble ablution tank measuring 3.1 meters high (3-1/2 feet) and accessed by three short (4 risers) marble flights of stairs.44 meters (10 feet by 8 feet). while the interior face is .2 meters by 9.  The Moti Mosque is contained within a rectangular walled enclosure measuring approximately 22 meters by 15 meters (72 feet by 49 feet) with its longitudinal axis running along the east-west direction. white marble domes and numerous (ca 20) slender minarets terminating in a lotus finial. is completely dressed in white marble. most of the mosque remains hidden from view. with the prayer hall to the west and the other three sides walled-in within the compound wall.14 meters (40 feet by 30 feet).

 Entering the courtyard. These steps are faced in white marble with strips of black marble inlaid into the riser surface.  The east wall of the courtyard reflects a similar bay rhythm as the prayer hall.  The entire wall surface is covered with curvilinear foliate decoration in relief that subtly reflects profiles of the piers and arches of the prayer hall: the cusped pointed arches of the prayer hall are reflected as blind archways in the east wall.  The main entrance doorway to the mosque on the east is through an arched doorway located slightly off center on the east wall. but contains no openings except for the small entrance archway at its center flanked by two protruding piers and an arch spanning above in ornamented relief from the wall. is a straight flight of steps leading to the elevated walkway of the compound wall. one walks through the (very thick) compound wall and is led to a second arched entrance. are four octagonal fauxminarets with tapering profiles that culminate in small octagonal domed chhatris. Adjacent to this archway. Above the level of the cornice.  It is through this second archway that the courtyard space is accessed.  The prayer hall is raised on a plinth faced with horizontal bands of marble relief work at the top and bottom and is reached by four steps each.  The central arch is framed within a rectangular recess of its full height while the two side bays are framed within rectangular recesses of proportionately smaller size. The central bay is larger than the two side bays in height and width and is shaded by a curved Bengali cornice that assumes a horizontal profile on either side. aligning vertically with each pier.  The four piers supporting the arches have an ornate base and capital with a straight shaft.  The entrance is framed within a white marble arched jamb and a door paneled with finely embossed brass sheets.  The three bulbous domes above the prayer hall are supported on tall drums. With the . running straight up north inside the wall thickness of the east wall. with the central arch being taller and wider than the arches flanking it on either side. one faces the three cusped-arch elevation of the prayer hall.completely dressed in white marble with an array of curvilinear floral forms and patterns in relief. Through this doorway. each capped with an inverted lotus flower and a metal finial.

The ablution fountain is a shallow. The merlons on the interior surface of the courtyard are ornamented in floral white marble relief. as compared to the plain rounded plastered merlons on the outside.  The north and south walls of the prayer hall contain slightly recessed rectangular panels . is a three-stepped minbar in white marble.piers of the prayer hall mirrored as pilasters in relief on the east wall.  These eyelets run all around the courtyard space.  These faux minarets are aligned vertically with the pilasters.  The courtyard is paved in white marble with a pattern of squares inlaid in thin strips of black marble. the entire composition appear as a flattened image of the prayer hall. Adjacent to the mihrab. The north wall contains three deeply recessed rectangular windows with intricate marble jaalis placed centrally to each bay rising from the courtyard level to a height of approximately 1. and a continuous herringbone pattern extends from the pilaster through the protruding course up to the base of the faux minarets. each of equal size.  The north and south walls also contain three bays.7 meters (5-1/2 feet). Above this level the bays are plain up to the height of the window lintel.  The top of the east wall terminates with a protruding stone course topped by foliate merlons. probably to fasten rope supports for a temporary roof canopy over the courtyard.  A large three-sided mihrab niche is located in the center of the west wall and is recessed in two planes of cusped arches framed by a larger but shallow arch of the Bengali cornice profile. The protruding course contains eyelets carved in marble at regular intervals. but only as shallow recesses. intricately carved legs in white marble.  The minbar steps are hollowed out and supported on the floor by delicate. Their rhythm is only interrupted by the four faux minarets. towards the north. above which a profusion of floral patterns cover the entire paneled surface.  The three rectangular windows in the north are also reflected in the south wall. On either side of the mihrab. central to each side bay. are smaller arched niches recessed into the west wall. which are similar in profile as those of the prayer hall but capped with a small dome and a finial inside a lotus flower.

Above this level the arches and ceilings are covered with a profusion of floral and tendril-like motifs. . decorated with flower petals arranged radially around their centers.  The walls are also paneled in black marble inlay work.  The three bulbous domes atop the prayer hall are not reflected in the space within. A carved white marble floral wreath in the base and the capital ornaments the otherwise plain shaft.with a diamond-shaped pattern in relief.  The rectangular paneling stops at the height of the lintel consistent with the rest of the space. The bottom of the entire wall surface within the prayer hall is skirted with the floral pattern.  The bulbous vase containing stems of flowers is a theme consistent throughout the prayer hall. The two side bays are roofed by four shallow domes. while their spandrels are replete with floral curvilinear relief work on marble. This level also corresponds to the springing point of the structural arches.  The cusped arches culminate at the top to a point adorned by a floral motif.  The roof is supported on a set of cusped arches spanning in both directions between four cruciform shaped piers. or "sober-relief". This kind of surface ornament is referred to as munabbat-kari.  Black marble inlay adorns the white marble shaft of the piers in concentric rectangular profiles. with the floral patterns emerging at the level of the springing point of the arches. as is the base of the piers.

 Bibi Ka Maqbara is an architectural wonder with intricate designs. however. only the onion dome was built with marble. In fact. The rest is of plaster.  The pavements leading to the mausoleum are flanked by oblong reservoirs. the walls of the Maqbara are a little dusky by contrast.  Somehow.  On close encounter. That is also probably one reason why it is often referred to as the "poor man’s Taj".  They lack the sheen of marble. Thus.  The work was completed in six years and it cost six-and-a half lakh rupees as compared to the 22 lakh and 22 years that the Taj took. . Alam Shah prevailed upon his father who eventually relented. deep green cypresses and gurgling fountains.  Historians record that initially Aurangzeb was not in favour of building a monument as lavish as the Taj.  He blocked the movement of marble from Rajasthan and various other parts of the Mughal Empire. a kind of high quality cement which gives marble-like look and strength to the walls. one realizes that while the Taj is pure white with the coolness and smoothness of the Rajasthan marble.Bibi Ka Maqbara  A monument identical to the Taj stands in Aurangabad in Maharashtra and it is called the Mini Taj of the Deccan.  The walk from the entrance to the monument is dotted with lush lawns. the dome and some parts of the main building are made of marble. The ambience is overwhelmingly that of the Taj.  That is the reason why the Maqbara looks a little dull compared to the Taj. imposing structure and beautifully landscaped Moghal-style garden. an ordinary structure was to be planned but Alam Shah was determined to have a monument to his mother that might vie with the Taj. carved motifs. the rest is plastered with Eastco plaster.

The atmosphere is serene but is laden with the eternal sadness of the ultimate finality. It was not in the main plan. It has its own personality.  It may be like the Taj but it is not its exact replica. giving it symmetry. latticed with colourful motifs and intricate patterns." has a charm and grandeur of its own. Square in shape. a "travesty of the Taj. The main onion dome of the Maqbara is smaller than the dome of the Taj. the Maqbara has four octagonal minarets. Architecture of Bibi Ka Maqbara monument .  These are shorter than the main structure. The mosque. There is only one mosque on the main plinth of the Maqbara while there are two mosques on either side of the Taj.The Bibi’s tomb is decorated moderately. so to say its own identity. At the backdrop of the Maqbara stands the rugged Deccan terrain back. it is said. rocky and infinitely lonely.  Bibi Ka Maqbara. is a later addition.  The off-white structure.

The Mughal Char Bagh and fountains at the center beautiful. The maqbara is a magnificent enclosure measuring around 458m towards North-South and around 275 m towards East-West. Mausoleum: The maqbara rests on a high rise square platform beautifully adorned with four minarets at each corner. There is a huge wall and a small tank located just close to the entrance and beyond that a screened low profile pathway leads one to the monument. which is again made with marble. . There is a mosque right towards the west of the maqbara. The dado level of the maqbara is tiled up with marbles and above the dado level one finds basaltic rocks right up to the dome. thus gardens are designed in a typical pattern. that adorns the maqbara. Tomb: The mortal remains of Dilras Banu Begum or her tomb is placed below the ground level and it is surrounded by an exquisite octagonal marble screen. The mausoleum is additionally accompanied with panels which are decorated with amazing flower designs. There is a small entrance to the tomb by means of a hollow spiral staircase which is presently closed for various reasons. There is a beautiful. The pathway is loaded with series of trees alongside which makes the path symmetrical garden layout increasing its beauty.The marble which was used for the construction of this monument was specifically brought from Jaipur. The minarets are intricately designed and add beauty to the maqbara. Main Entrance: There is a huge main entrance gate on the south of the maqbara which is made of wood and is designed with brass plates. The basaltic tiling is plastered with fine polish thus enhancing its look and is intricately designed with various decorations. One can get a glance of this tomb right from the ground level and also through the exquisite octagonal opening.

The central structure of Bibi ka Maqbara is rectangular whereas of Taj it is square shaped. Though the monument is smaller than Taj Mahal. Aurangzeb or his son Azam Shah? It is said that Azam Shah wanted to build for his mother something as grand as Taj Mahal. It is said that its construction consumed six lakh sixty-six thousand two hundred and thirty-eight rupees. son of Aurangzeb. whereas Bibi ka Maqbara is made of marble and limestone together. The four minarets. However. Many sources say that Aurangzeb built Bibi ka Maqbara for his beloved fourth wife Dilras Banu. It was built as a monument for Dilrasbanu Begam. but somehow. it is said. the Bibi ka Maqbara is a quite smaller edifice. The monument is nestled amidst scenic surroundings with beautiful mountains serving as a picture perfect backdrop. It was built by Nizam of Hyderabad. Its construction was finished in 1679. Prince Ajam Shah. Therefore. it is still a magnificent monument in itself. There is a considerable doubt regarding who actually built the monument. are built from limestone and other ordinary material. Of some interesting episodes relating the Bibi ka . History Bibi ka Maqbara was built approximately in a span of six years. it cannot be ignored that when Bibi ka Maqbara was built. Taj Mahal. Hence Bibi Ka Maqbara is also known as the Taj of Deccan. Resemblance to Taj The monument resembles to one of the Seven Wonders of the World. him building anything such as Bibi ka Maqbara seems unlikely. Also. it is widely believed that Prince Azam Shah was the one who built this mausoleum. He lived in the simplest way.Masjid: There is a mosque right towards the west of the maqbara. So. This masjid closes the entrance to the maqbara from the west side. Taj Mahal is made completely of Marble. Shahajahan built the great Taj Mahal and his grandson. Bibi ka Maqbara Bibi ka Makbara is affectionately called the Taj of the Deccan. Aurangzeb was the emperor of India and at peak of his power. It is said that the architect was told to construct the monument in a similar fashion. The constructions though resemble that of the Taj Mahal. It is important to notice that Aurangzeb was the person followed an unadorned life. built Bibi ka Maqbara. but Aurangzeb was reluctant to spend the great amount of money that would be required. But the fact is that Taj Mahal is much huge and majestic then Bibi Ka Maqbara. who was respectfully called Rabia Ud Durrani. that he had got approved from Aurangzeb enough marble to build the dome and the most part of the central structure. He is infamous for his abhorrence towards artists. Azam Shah’s desire of building the monument totally with marble was never fulfilled. Bibi ka Maqbara is not an exact replica of Taj Mahal but an attempt of imitation was made. which stand in four corners. for her devoutness reminded people of earlier saint Rabia of Basra.

Surrounding the mausoleum is a beautiful garden. it is octagonal and its ceiling dome shaped. He was told they were for the construction of a monument. From inside. it demonstrates the competence of Indian Artists in 17th century. Its smooth white walls are attractive and its large gate and dome shaped inner portion of the ceiling has intriguing design involving intricate patterns. It said that he had ordered in the early 19th century the dismantling of the whole structure when he had seen it. Taj Mahal and owing to it of Bibi ka Maqbara. An octagonal gallery presents the view of the actual tomb. He had witness hundreds of bullock carts carrying marble. A museum displaying artifacts of Mughal period and some sculptures found during archeological excavation is also present here. there are gorgeous designs and motifs carved in marble. lies in their simple but artistic structure. The overall ambiance of this place makes you wistful. The tomb or Rabia Durrani lies in the center of the mausoleum. Most of the portions of this structure including complete dome are made of marble. present a fantastic view from the outside. He built the mosque standing besides the central building as a penance. The entrance gate of the Bibi ka Maqbara is another fine structure within itself. Fortunately. His. Silence within this chamber is entrancing. you spot it from some distance and it immediately grabs your attention. which resides at the bottom. having delicate bastions on its corners.Maqbara. This monument can be spotted even from the tall buildings that exist on the other end of the city. surrounds the monument and the beautiful garden around it. Latticed windows and vents have intricate patterns. The main Mausoleum of Bibi ka Maqbara is rectangular. to feel the serenity of the surroundings. These are made of completely of limestone. one is of Nizam Sikandar Jahan. there are symmetrically built pavements. which was his capital. A walk from here provides a grand view of Bibi ka Maqbara. The onion shaped marble dome and the four minarets that enclose the central structure. A long rectangular wall. A stroll through the gardens offers various angles of Bibi ka Maqbara. plan was to carry the Bibi ka Maqbara to Hyderabad. he had realized the jeopardy of his plan within time and called off the command. This chamber is truly magnificent. Four tall minarets enclose the mausoleum. To amble through it. the rest is limestone. This wall is well adorned and it demonstrates the artistic masonry of Mughal periods. . virtually impossible. The pavement that leads to the mausoleum lies on the sides of an oblong pool with beautiful fountains. As you approach the Bibi ka Maqbara. The Structure The majestic structure of Bibi ka Maqbara is the most distinguished landmark of Aurangabad. Walls here have beautiful chisel-work. Another interesting tale is that of a European traveler. The beauty of both. There is a mosque present here which was built later during the Nizam rule. Atop it is a large dome surrounded by four smaller domes. who had passed through these regions while the Bibi ka Maqbara was being built.

The Shalimar Gardens is a Persian garden and it was built by the Mughal emperor Shahjahan in Lahore. which discharge into wide marble pools. surrounded by a high brick wall. Architecture The Shalimar Gardens are laid out in the form of an oblong parallelogram. The gardens measure 658 meters north to south and 258 meters east to west. rise 410 fountains. meaning Laughing canal was brought from Rajpot (present day Madhpur in India). which is famous for its intricate fretwork. a distance of over 161 kilometers. . The three terraces have names in Urdu as follows:    The upper terrace named Farah Baksh meaning Bestower of Pleasure. This garden was made on the concept of Char Bhagh. It is a credit to the creativity of Mughal engineers that even today scientists are unable to comprehensive The distribution of the fountains is as follows:   The upper level terrace has 105 fountains. The middle level terrace has 152 fountains. modern day Pakistan. Shalimar Gardens was included as a UNESCO World Heritage Site along with the Lahore Fort. The canal intersected the Gardens and discharged into a large marble basin in the middle terrace. Construction began in 1641 CE (1051 AH) and was completed the following year. a canal named Shah Nahar meaning Royal canal. later also known as Hansti nahar. The three level terraces of the Gardens The Gardens have been laid out from south to north in three descending terraces. and from the canal. Shah Nahar : Irrigation of the Gardens To irrigate the Gardens. The lower terrace named Hayat Baksh meaning Bestower of life. The middle terrace named Faiz Baksh meaning Bestower of Goodness. which are elevated by 4–5 metres (13-15 feet) above one another. 410 fountains From this basin. In 1981.

  The lower level terrace has 153 fountains. The buildings of the Gardens include:    Sawan Bhadum-pavilions Naqar buildings Khana and its Aramgah or Resting place Khawabgah of Begum Sahib or Dream place of the emperor's wife    Khwabgah or chambers Sleeping  Baradaries or summer pavilions to enjoy the coolness created by the Gardens' fountains Diwan-e-Khas-o-Aam or Hall of special & ordinary audience with the emperor   Hammam or Royal bath The Aiwan or Grand hall  Two gateways and minarets in the corners of the Gardens . All combined. The Gardens have 5 water cascades including the great marble cascade and Sawan Bhadoon. the Gardens therefore have 410 fountains.

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