Industrial Power Systems Handbook

D O N A L D BEEMAN, Editor
Manager, Industriaf P w e r Engineering Industrial Engineering Seclwn General Electric Company, Schenectady, New Yorlc




New York



Ch.UPh?r 1

by Donald Beeman, Alan Graeme Darling,

R. H. Kaufmann

Short-circuit-current Calculating
The determination of short-circuit currents in power distribution systems is just as basic and important as the determination of load currents for the purpose of applying circuit breakers, fuses, and motor starters. The magnitude of the shoncircuit current is often easier to determine than the magnitude of the load current. Calculating procedures have been so greatly simplified compared with the very complicated procedures previously used that now only simple arithmetic is required to determine the short-circuit currents in even the most complicated power systems.

If adequate protection is to he provided for a plant electric system, the size of the electric power system must also be considered to determine how much short-circuit current i t will deliver. This is done so that circuit breakers or fuses may he selected with adequate interrupting capacity (IC). This interrupting capacity should be high enough to open safely the maximum short-circuit current which the power system can cause to flow through a circuit breaker if a short circuit occurs in the feeder or equipment which it protects. The magnitude of the load current is determined by the amount Of work that is being done and hears little relation to the size of the system supplying the load. However, the magnitude of the short-circuit current is somewhat independent of the load and is directly related to the size or



capacity of t,he power source. The larger the apparatus which supplies electric power t o the system, the greater the short-circuit current will be. Take a simple case: A 440-volt three-phase lo-lip motor draws about 13 amp of current a t full load and will draw only this amount whether supplied by a 25-kva or a 2500-kva transformer bank. So, if only thc load currcnts arc considered when selecting motor branch circuit breakers, a 15- or 20-amp circnit, breaker wnuld he specified. However, the size of t,he power system back of the circuit breaker has a real bearing on the amount of the short,-circuit,current. which can flow as a result of a short circuit on the load side of the circuit breaker. Hence, a much larger circuit breaker would be required to handle the short-circuit current from a 2500-kva bank than from a 25-kva bank of transformers. A simple mathematical example is shown in Fig. 1.1. These numbers


IOOV 100 A


~ ~ 1 0O. HM 1S




I00 = 1000- AMPERES 0.1




I000 A 2 1 = 0.01 OHMS

FIG. 1.1

Illustrotion showing that copocity of power source has more effect on rhortcircuit-current magnitude than load.



have been chosen for easy calculation rather than a representation of actual system conditions. The impedance, limiting the flow of load current, consists mainly of the 20 ohms apparent impedance of the motor. If a short circuit occurs at F , the only impedance t o limit the flow of short-circuit current is the transformer impedance (0.1 ohm compared with 20 ohms for the motor); therefore, the short-circuit current is 1000 amp, or 200 times as great as the load current. Unless circuit breaker A can open 1000 amp, the short-circuit current will continue to flow, doing great damage. Suppose the plant grows and a larger transformer, one rated a t 1000 amp, is substituted for the 100-amp unit. A short circuit a t F , (bottom in Fig. 1.1) will now be limited by only 0.01 ohm, the impedance of the larger transformer. Although the load current is still 5 amp, the shortcircuit current will now he 10,000 amp, and circuit breaker A must be able t o open that amount. Consequently it is necessary to coiisider the size of the system supplying the plant as well as the load current, to be sure that circuit breakers or fuses are selected which have adequate interrupting rating for stopping the flow of the short-circuit current. Short-circuit and load currents are analogous t o the flow of xvater in a hydroelectric plant, shoivn in Fig. 1.2. The amount of water that flows under normal conditions is determined by the load on the turbines. Within limits, it makes little difference whether the reservoir behiiid the dam is large or small. This flow of water is comparable to the flow of load current in the distribution system in a factory. On the other hand, if the dam breaks, the amount of water that will flow will depend upon the capacity of the reservoir and will bear little relation to the load on the turbines. Whether the reservoir is large or small will make a great difference in this case. This flow of water is comparable t o the flow of current through a short circuit in the distribution system. The load currents do useful work, like the water that flows down the penstock through the turbine water wheel. The short-circuit currents produce unwanted effects, like the torrent that rushes madly downstream when the dam breaks.

When determining the magnitude of short-circuit currents, it is extremely important that all sources of short-circuit current he considered and that the reactance characteristics of these sources be known. There are three basic sources of short-circuit current: 1. Generators 2. Synchronous motors and synchronous condensers 3. Induction motors



All these can feed shorecircuit current into a short circuit (Fig. 1.3). Generators are driven by turbines, diesel engines, water wheels, or other types of prime movers. When a short circuit occurs on the circuit fed by a generatar, the generator continues t o produce voltage because the field excitation is maintained and the prime mover drives the generator at substantially normal speed. The generated voltage produces a shortcircuit current of a large magnitude which flows from the generator (or generators) to the short circuit. This flow of short-circuit current is limited only by the impedance of the generator and of the circuit between the generator and the short circuit. For a short circuit a t the terminals of the generator, the current from the generator is limited only by its own impedance.

FIG. 1.2

Normal load and short-circuit currents are analogous to the conditions shown in

the hydroelectric plant.






FIG. 1.3

Generators, synchronous motors, and induction motors all produce short-circuit


Synchronous motors are constructed substantially like generators; i.e., they have a field excited by direct current and a stator winding in which alternating current flows. Normally, synchronous motors draw a-c power from the line and convert electric energy to mechanical energy. However, the design of a synchronous motor is so much like that of a generator that electric energy can be produced just as in a generator, by driving the synchronous motor with a prime mover. Actually, during a system short circuit the synchronous motor acts like a generator and delivers shortcircuit current to the system instead of drawing load current from it (Fig. 1 . 4 ) . As soon as a short circuit is established, the voltage on the system is reduced to a very low value. Consequently, the motor stops delivering energy to the mechanical load and starts slowing down. However, the inertia of the load and motor rotor tends to prevent the motor from slowing down. In other words, the rotating energy of the load and rotor drives the synchronous motor just as the prime mover drives a generator.



The synchronous motor then becomes a generator and delivers shortcircuit current for many cycles after the short circuit occurs on the system. . 5 shows an oscillogram of the current delivered by a synchronous Figure 1 motor during a system short circuit. The amount of current depends upon the horsepower, voltage rating, and reactance of the synchronous motor and the reactance of the system to the point of short circuit.


F I G . 1.4

Normally motors draw load current from the source or utility system but produce rhortcircuit current when a short cirw i t occurs in the d a d .



, -


. .-.. .







FIG 5 IBmlowl c e f .. 1 .._ , . .., . l.r o . . .o . . 0s. . cillogrclm of short-circuit current produced by a synchronous motor







The inertia of the load and rotor of an induction motor has exactly the same effect on an induction motor as on a synchronous motor; i.e., it drives the motor after the system short circuit occurs. There is one major difference. The induction motor has no d-c field winding, but there is a flux in the induction motor during normal operation. This flux acts like flux produced by the d-c field winding in the synchronous motor. The field of the induction motor is produced by induction from the stator rather than from the d-c winding. The rotor flux remains normal as long as voltage is applied to the stator from an external source. However, if the external source of voltage is removed suddenly, as it is when a short circuit occurs on the system, the flux in the rotor cannot change instantly. Since the rotor flux cannot decay instantly and the inertia drives the induction motor, a voltage is generated in the stator winding causing a short-circuit current to flow to the short circuit until the rotor flux decays to zero. To illustrate the short-circuit current from an induction motor in a practical case, oscillograms were taken on a woundrotor induction motor rated 150 hp, 440 volts, 60 cycles, three phase, ten poles, 720 rpm. The external rotor resistance was short-circuited in each case, in order that the effect might he similar to that which would he obtained with a low-resistance squirrel-cage induction motor. Figure 1.6 shows the primary current when the machine is initially running light and a solid three-phase short circuit is applied a t a point in the circuit close to its input (stator) terminals a t time TI. The current shown is measured on the motor side of the short circuit; so the shortcircuit current contribution from the source of power does not appear, but only that contributed by the motor. Similar tests made with the machine initially running a t full load show that the short-circuit current produced


FIG. 1.6

Tracer of oxillograms of short-circuit currents produced running a t light load.

by an induction motor



by the motor when short-circuited is substantially the same, regardless of initial loading on the motor. Note that the maximum current occurs in the lowest trace on the oscillogram and is about ten times rated full-load current. The current vanishes almost completely in four cycles, since there is no sustained field current in the rotor to provide flux, as in the case of a synchronous machine. The flux does last long enough to prodnce enough short-circuit current to affect the momentary duty on circuit breakers and the interrupting duty on devices which open within one or two cycles after a short circuit. Hence, the short-circuit current produced by induction motors must he considered in certain calculations. The magnitude of short-circuit current produced by the induction motor depends upon the horsepower, voltage rating, reactance of the motor, and the reactance of the system to the point of short c. "cuit. The machine impedance, effective a t the time of short circuit, cmesponds closely with the impedance a t standstill. Consequently, the i iitial symmetrical value of Short-circuit current is approximately equnl to the full-voltage starting current of the motor.

Transformers are often spoken of as a source of short-circuit current. Strictly speaking, this is not correct, for the transformer merely delivers the short-circuit current generated by generators or motors ahead of the transformer. Transformers merely change the system voltage and mag; nitude of current but generate neither. The short-circuit current delivered by a transformer is determined by its secondary voltage rating and reactance, the reactance of the generators and system to the terminals of the transformer, and the reactance of the circuit from the transformer to the short circuit.

The reactance of a rotating machine is not one simple value as it is for a transformer or a piece of cable, but is complex and variable with time. For example, if a short circuit is applied to the terminals of a generator, the short-circuit current behaves as shown i n Fig. 1.7. The current starts out a t a high value and decays to a steady state after some time has elapsed from the inception of the short cirroit. Since the field excitation voltage and speed have remained snbstantially constant within the short interval of time considered, a change of apparent react,ance of the machine may he assumed, to explain the change in the magnitude of short-circuit current with time. The expression of such variable reactance at any instant after the



occurrence of any short circuit requires a complicated formula involving time as one of the variables. For the sake of simplification in short-circuit calculating procedures for circuit-breaker and relay applications, three values of reactance are assigned to generators and motors, viz., subtransient reactance, transient reactance, and synrhronous reactance. The three reactances can be briefly described as follows: 1. Subtransient reactance X y is the apparent reactance of the stator winding at the instant short circuit occurs, and it determines the current Row during the first few cycles of a short circuit. 2. Transient reactance X i is the apparent initial reactance of the stator winding, if the effect of all amortisseur windings is ignored and only the field winding considered. This reactance determines the current following the period when subtransient reactance is the controlling value. Transient reactance is effective up to 45 see or longer, depending upon the design of the machine. 3. Synchronous reactance X d is the apparent reactance that determines the current flow when a steady-state condition is reached. It is not effective until several seconds after the short circuit occurs; consequently, it has no value in short-circuit calculations for the application of circuit breakers, fuses, and contactors but is useful for relay-setting studies. Figure 1.8 shows the variation of current with time and associates the various reactances mentioned above with the time and current scale. Previous loading has an effect on the total magnitude of short-circuit





FIG. 1.7 Trace of orcillograrn of hart-circuit current produced by a generator.




T I M E (8)

FIG 1.8

Variation of generotor short-circuit current wilh time.

current delivered by a generator. The value of X i or X y generally given by the machine designer is the lowest value obtainable. Hence, its use will show maximum short-circuit current. Certain characteristics of short-circuit currents must he understood before a system analysis can he made.

These terms are used to describe the symmetry of the a-c waves about the zero axis. If the envelopes of the peaks of the current waves are symmetrical about the zero axis, the current is called symmetrical current (Figs. 1.9 and 1.10). If the envelopes of the peaks of the current waves are not symmetrical about the zero axis, the current is called asymmetrical


FIG. 1.9 Symmelrical a-c wove.




FIG, 1.10


d t e r n a t i n g current f r o m a short-circuited generotor.



FIG. 1.11 Asymmetrical (I-c waver. The conditions shown here ore theoreticol a n d ore for the purpose of illustration only. D-C component will r a p i d l y d e c a y to zero i n a c t u a l

FIG. 1.12

Trace of o r c i l l o g r a m of a t y p i c a l short-circuit current



current (Fig. 1.11). The envelope is a line drawn through the peaks of the waves, as shown in Figs. 1.9 to 1.12. For the sake of explanation, many of the illustrations, such as Figs. 1.11, 1.15 to 1.19, show sine waves o f current uniformly offset for several cycles. It should be noted that in practical circuits the amount of asymmetry decreases rapidly after the occurrence of the short circuit in the system. This decrease of asymmetry is shown qualitatively in illustrations such as Figs. 1.12, 1.20, 1.23, and 1.24. Oscillograms show that short-circuit currents are nearly always asymmetrical during the first few cycles after the short circuit occurs. They also show that the asymmetry is maximum at the instant the short circuit occurs and that the current gradually becomes symmetrical a few cycles after the occurrence of the short circuit. The trace of an oscillogram of a typical short-circuit current is shown in Fig. 1.12.

In the usual industrial power systems the applied or generated voltages are of sine-wave form. When a short circuit occurs, substantially s i n e wave short-circuit currents result. For simplicity, the following discussion assumes sine-wave voltages and currents. In ordinary power circuits the resistance of the circuit is negligible compared with the reactance of the circuit. The short-circuit-current power factor is determined by the ratio of resistance and reactance of the circuit only (not of the load). Therefore the short-circuit current in most power circuits lags the internal generator voltage by approximately 90" (see Fig. 1.13). The internal generator voltage is the voltage generated in the stator coils by the field flux. If in a circuit mainly containing reactance a short circuit occurs at the peak of the voltage wave, the short-circuit current would start at zero and trace a sine wave which would be symmetrical ahout the zero axis (Fig. 1.14). This is known as a symmetrical short-circuit current. If in the same circuit (i.e., one containing a large ratio of reactance to resistance) a short circuit occurs at the zero point of the voltage wave, the current will start a t zero but cannot follow a sine wave symmetrically about the zero axis because such a current would be in phase with the voltage. The wave shape must be the same as that of voltage hut 90' behind. That can occur only if the current is displaced from the zero axis, as shown in Fig. 1.15. In this illustration the current is a sine wave and is displaced 90' from the voltage wave and also is displaced from the zero axis. The two cases shown in Figs. 1.14 and 1.15 are extremes. One shows a symmetrical current and the other a completely asymmetricd current.






7 x 0.m










FIG. 1.13

Diagrams Illustrating the phase relations of voltage and short-circuit current.






FIG. 1.14

Symmetric01 short-circuit current and generoted voltage for zero-power-factor


F I G . 1.15

Asymmetrical short-circuit current and generated voltage in zero-power-factor Condition i s theoretical and is shown for illustration purposes only.



If,in a circuit containing only reactance, the short circuit occurs a t any point except a t the peak of the voltage wave, there will be some offset of the current (Fig. 1.16). The amount of offset depends upon the point on the voltage wave at which the short circuit occurs. It may vary from zero (shown in Fig. 1.14) to a maximum (shown in Fig. 1.15). I n circuits containing both reactance and resistance, the s~,?&&,R&!~~ amount of offset of the shortCURRENT circuit current may vary between the same limits as for circuits containing only reactance. However, the point on the voltage wave a t which the short circuit must occur to produce maximum asymmetry dependsupon the ratioof reactance to resistance of the circuit. Maximum asymmetry is obtained when the short circuit occurs a t a time angle equal to 90" 0 (measured forward in degrees from the zero point of the voltage wave) where tangent 0 equals thereASYMMETRICAL actance-to-resistance ratio of FIG. 1.16 Short-circuit current and generated the circuit' The short-circuit voltage in zero-Dower-factor circuit. Short circurrent will be symmetrical cuit occurred between the when the fault occurs 90"from point and peak of the generated voltctge wove. that point onthe voltage wave. This condition i s theoretical and for illustration an example, assumeacir- purporer only. The short-circuit current will gradually become symmetrical in practical cuit that has equal resistance CiTCUit., and reactance, i.e., the reactance-to-resistance ratio is 1. The tangent of 45" is I ; hence, maximum offset is obtained when the short circuit occurs a t 135' from the zero point of the voltage wave (Fig. 1.17).



Asymmetrical alternating currents when treatedas a single current wave are difficult to interpret for circuit-breaker application and relay-setting purposes. Complicated formulas are also required to calculate their magnitude unless resolved into components. The asymmetrical alternating currents are, for circuit-breaker applications and relay-setting




FIG. 1.17 Short-circuit current and generated voltage in circuit with equal reactance and resistance. This condition i s theoretical and is shown for illustration purposes only. The short-circuit current will gradually become symmetrical in practical circuits.

purposes, arbitrarily divided into simple components, which makes it easy to calculate the short-circuit magnitude a t certain significant times after the short circuit occurs. The asymmetrical alternating current behaves exactly as if there were two component currents flowing simultaneously. One is a symmetrical a-c component and the other a d-c component. The sum of those two components a t any instant is equal t o the magnitude of the total asymmetrical a-c wave a t the same instant. The d-c component referred to here is generated within the a-c system with no external source of direct current being considered. I n some cases, particularly in the neighborhood of the d-c railways, direct current from the railways flows through neighboring a-c systems. This type of d-c current is not considered in this discussion or in the calculating procedures which follow. As an example of the resolution of asymmetrical alternating currents into components, refer to Fig. 1.15 which shows an asymmetrical shortcircuit current which is resolved into a symmetrical a-c and a d-c component in Fig. 1.18. If the instantaneous values of the two components (dashed lines) are added a t any instant, the resultant will be that of the asymmetrical current wave.





FIG. 1.18

Theoretical Ihort-circuit-cvrrent wove illustrating components of asymmetrical In practical circuits, d-c component would decay to zero in o few cycler.






FIG. 1.19 Components of asymmetrical short-circuit current in which short circuit occurred at some point between the zero point and p e a k of the generated voltage wave. This is a lhsoretical condition similar to that shown in Fig. 1.18.



As mentioned previously, the examples shown in Figs. 1.13 and 1.18 are for purposes of illustration only. In practical circuits the d-c component decays very rapidly, as shown in Fig. 1.20.

The magnitude of the d-c component depends upon the iustant, the short circuit occurs and may vary from zero, as in Fig. 1.14, to a maximum initial value equal to the peak of the a-c symmetrical compoiieiit, as i n Figs. 1.15 and 1.18. When the short circuit occurs at any other point, such as shown in Fig. 1.19, the initial magnitude of the d-c componciit is equal to the value of the a-c symmct,riral component a t thc instant of short circuit. The above limit,s hold true for the initial magiiitudc of d-c eomporient in a system regardless of the reactance and resistance. Ilowever, the d-c componeut does not continue to flo~v a t a constant value, as shown i n Figs. 1.18 and 1.19, unless there is zero resistauce i i i the circuit.

There is uo d-c voltage in the system t o sustaiu the flax of direct current; therefore the energy represeuted by the dirert. component of current will be dissipated as ZZR loss from the direct current flowiug through the resistance of the circuit. If the circuit had zero resistance, the direct current would flow at a constant value (Figs. 1.18 and 1.19)


FIG. 1.20 Trace of orcillogrom showing decay of d-c component and how orymmetricd short-circuit currenl gradually becomes symmetrical when d-c component diroppearr.

20. all practical circuits have some resistance. The components gives combination of the decaying of d-c and symmetriral a-(* an asymmetrical wave that changes to a symmetriral wave whcti the d-c component has disappeared.19. On the other hand. or circuits have a certain d-c time constant. The rate of decay of the currents is called the decrement. the more IaRloss from the d-c c. zero resistance). However. If the ratio of reactance to resistance is infinite (i. the d-c component takes a definite time to decrease to substantially zero. so the d-c romponent decays as shown in Fig. D-C TIME CONSTANT Often it is said that generators. no reartance). X/R RATIO The X / R ratio is the ratio of the reactance to the resistance of the circuit. 1. In circuits remote from generators. motors. it decays instantly. OF b (APPROX ) C - TIME OF D C COMPONENT CONSTANT I N SECONDS FIG.21 Graphic illustration of time constant.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 19 until the circuit was interrupted. the d-c component never decays. and the d-c component decays more rapidly.e. This refers again to the rate of decay of the d-c compoO C COMPONENT a = 37Y. The theory is the same as opening the circuit of a battery and an inductive coil. FOFany ratio of reactarice to resistance in between these limits. 1. The decrement or rate of decay of the d-c component is proportional to the ratio of reactance to resistance of the complete circuit from generator to short circuit. as shown in Figs. ! I n generators the ratio of subtransient reactance to resistance may be as ?much as 7 0 : l .. . if the ratio is zero (all resistance. 1. as shown in Fig. The higher the resistance in proportion to the reactance.18 and 1. 1.omponent.20. and the energy of the direct current is dissipated sooner. the ratio of reactance to resistance is lower. so it takes several cycles for the d-c component to disappear.

Stated in other terms. only the maximum d-c component is considered. This is merely a guide to how fast the d-c component decays. fuses. but simplified methods have been evolved whereby the d-c component is accounted for by simple multiplying factors. RMS VALUE INCLUDING D-C COMPONENT The rms values of a-c waves are significant since circuit breakers. and motor starters are rated in terms of rrns current or equivalent kva. The d-c time constant is the time. This precise method may he used if desired. the rrns value of the first cycle of current would be j. The maximum rrns value of short-circuit current occurs at a time of about one cycle after short circuit. An approximate rrns value of one cycle of an offset wave whether it is partially or totally offset is expressed by the equation where C = a b = = rrns value of offset or asymmetrical current wave over one cycle rrns value of a-c component value of d-c component at one-half cycle MULTIPLYING FACTOR Calculation of the precise rrns value of an asymmetrical current a t any time after the inception of a short circuit may be very involved.20. it is the time in seconds for the d-c component to reach zero if it continued t o decay a t the same rate it does initially (Fig.18. I n practical circuits there is always some d-c decay during the first cycle. required by the d-c component to reduce to about 37 per cent of its original value a t the instant of short circuit.732 times the rrns value of the a-c component. in seconds. I t is the ratio of the inductance in henrys to the resistance in ohms of the machine or circuit. as shown in Fig. For protective-device application. as in Fig. Accurate decrement factors to account for the d-c component a t any time are required. as well as accurate factors for the rate of change of the apparent reactance of the generators.20 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES nent.21). The multiplying factor converts the rrns value of the symmetrical a-c wave into rms amperes of the asymmetrical wave including a d-c component. 1. since the circuit breaker must be applied to handle the maximum short-circuit current that can occur in a system. If there were no decay in the d-c component. 1. . The magnitude of the d-c component depends upon the point on the voltage wave a t which the short circuit occurs. 1.

25 when the circuit breaker is applied on the average current in three phases.o the bus is through transformers or long lines. the multiplying factor to ralculate the total current at the first half cycle may be reduced to 1.22. that is. such as three to eight cycles corresponding to the interrupting time of circuit breakers. where the supply t. Multiplying factors for this purpose may be taken from the curve in Fig.22 Charts showing multiplying factors to account for decoy of d-c component for various X / R ratio of circuits. t.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 21 In the general case for circuits rated above 600 volts. are required.5.he multiplying factor to calculate the total current at the first half cycle is 1.5 is used. then to account for the d-c component in one phase of a three-phase circuit a multiplying factor to calculate the total current at the first half cycle of 1.2 gives the multiplying factors commonly used for applying e FIG. Table 1. 1. Where single-phase conditions must be considered in circuits GOO volts and less.6 times the rms value of the a-c symmetrical component at the first half cycle. rms current evaluations a t longer time intervals than the first half cycle. For circuits 600 volts and less. For circuits rated 5000 volts or less where there is no local generation. . 1. For some calculations. the multiplying factor to account for d-c component is 1.

This act.23. the total symmetrical short-circuit rurrent is typical of that shown a t the bottom of Fig.. The magnitude of the first few cycles of the t. These factors range from 1 t o 1. At the top of the figure is shown the shortcircuit current from the utility.23.6. The problem of doing this has been simplified by standardized procedures to a poiut xhere t o determine the rms asymmetriral current one need only divide t. it has become a n accessory with no practical significance from this standpoint. therefore. however. as indicated in Fig. a slight decrement. makes it asymmetrical. The d-c component decays t o zero within a few cycles in most indust. For the sake of completeness.ually comes from ut. 1. except that t. as shown in Fig.rical short-circuit rurreiit which for all practical purposes is constant over the first few cycles. There is.hey have a higher rate of decay of the symmetriral component. The d-c component. TOTAL SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT The total symmetrical short-rirruit current is made up of currents from several sourves. The other sources are synchronous motors which act something like plant generators.23. and induction motors whirh have a very rapid rate of dccay of the symmetrical component of current.rial power systems. 1.rial plant. 1. Fig.ility generators. With present AIEE procedures of short-rircuit ralrulations.24. Short-circuit ratio field current t o produce rated voltage a t no load -~ field current t o produce rated current at sustained short circuit No further mention will he made of short-circuit ratio. 1.24. When all these currents are added. Fig.otal symmetrical shortcircuit.he line-to-neutral roltage by the proper reactance . If there are generators in the indust.ribute a symmet. depending upon whether the short-circuit calculation is being made t o determine the interrupting or momentary duty on the short-circuit protective device. that must he determilied for short-circuit protective-derice appliration. but generally the industrial system is small and remote electrically from the utility generators so that the Symmetrical short-rircuit current is substant. offsets the a-c ware and.22 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURREM CALCULATING PROCEDURES short-circuit protective devices. current is further increased by the presence of a d-c compouent. a definition is given here.ially constant. 1. SHORT-CIRCUIT RATIO OF GENERATORS This term is referred t o frequently in short-circuit discussions. It is this total rms asymmetrical short-circuit current. then they cont.

1. panerator. The shape of the total combined currents is illurtmted by the bottom hace. 1.23 Tracer of orcillogramr of rymmetrical short-circuit currents from utility.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 23 RG. . 1.23 plus d-c component. FIG. and induclion motors.24 Arymmelrical short-circuit current from dl sources illustrated in Fig. synchronous motors.

The standard indoor oilless power circuit breakers as used in metal-clad switchgear will be used here t o explain power circuit-breaker ratings. and (4)the circuit breaker to interrupt the short-circuit current in its arc chamber. fuses.. the short-circuit stresses on the circuit breakers and other parts of the circuit are maximum during the first loop of short-circuit current. The few cycles needed for the power circuit breaker to open the circuit and stop the flow of short-circuit current consist of the time required for (1) the protective relays to close their contacts. the rating basis of high-voltage short-circuit protective devices above 600 volts and the rating basis of low-voltage Short-circuit protective devices 600 volts and below. i. (2) the circuit-breaker trip coil to move its plunger to release the breaker operating mechanism.2. During this time. In discussing these rating bases. and for the sake of clarity. BASIS OF RATING A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES The background of the circuit-breaker rating structure as well as the basic characteristics of short-circuit currents must be understood to enable the engineer to select the proper rotating-machine reactances and multiplying factors for the d-c component to determine the sbort-circuitcurrent magnitude for checking the duty on a particular circuit breaker. the current decreases in magnitude because of the . Therefore. the short-circuit current produces high mechanical stresses in the circuit breaker and in other parts of the circuit.CIRCUIT-CURRENT U L C U U l l N G PROCEDURES or impedance and then multiply by the proper multiplying factor from Table 1. (3) the circuit-breaker contacts to part.24 SHORT. These stresses are produced almost instantaneously in phase with the current and vary as the square of the current. or motor starters will perform under conditions where the short-circuit current varies with time. The foregoing discussion showed that t. The circuit-breaker rating structure is complicated because of the time of operation of the circuit breakers after a short circuit occurs. they will be arbitrarily divided into two sections. because of the presence of the d-c component and because the motors contribute the most short-circuit current a t that time. and motor starters is designed to tell the application engineer how circuit breakers. HIGH-VOLTAGE SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES (ABOVE 600 VOLTS) Power-circuit-breaker Rating Basis. The same fundamental principles apply to all other high-voltage power circuit breakers.e. such as momentary duty or interrupting duty. The rating structure of circuit breakers. they are greatest when maximum current is flowing.he short-circuit current is maximum during the first cycle or loop. fuses. During the time from the inception of the short circuit until the circuitbreaker contacts part. Thus.

16 kv 2-4. National Electrical Manufacturers Association (XEMA). an oilless power circuit breaker for metal-clad switchgear rated 4. What Comprises the Circuit-breaker-rating Structure. The fact that the current changes in magnitude with time has led to the establishment of two bases of short-circuit-current ratings on power circuit breakers: (1) the momentary rating or its ability to withstand mechanical stresses due to high short-circuit current and (2) the interrupting rating or its ability t. (Note: 4330 is 4% X 2500.16): the nominal voltage class or classes in which the circuit breaker is rated. the current that the circuit breaker must interrupt.1.1. is generally of less magnitude than the maximum value of the first loop. as explained previously.16 kv 250 mva* has been chosen.76 kv. The complete rating is shown on line 5.85 kv. Maximum design kv (4. Minimum operating kv a t rated mva (3.85) : the minimum voltage a t which the circuit breaker will interrupt its rated mva or in this case it is 3. Table 1. Type of Circuit Breaker (AM-4. are suitable for a 1330-volt system plus 10 per cent for voltage regulation or 4.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 25 decay of the d-c component and the change in motor reactance.and 4800volt circuits) 250 = interrupting rating in mva a t 4.16-kv circuit breakers.rical Engineers (AIEE) standards he referred to.ems operate a t 1330 volts near the substation. At any voltages below this value. To illustrate the various factors that comprise the circuit-breakerrating structure. Consequently. Circuitbreaker-rating structures are revised and changed from time to time. varies among manufacturers. four or five cycles after the inception of t. It is suggested that where specific problems require the latest information on circuit-breaker ratings the applicahlc American Standards Association (ASA). The rircuit-breaker-type designation. for example. starting at the left. 1.16-kv class of circuits (not applicable to 4800. t . 3.16 = for 4.he short circuit.76): the maximum voltage a t which the circuit breaker is designed to operate. column 1. The 4.) Some utility syst. or American Instituteof Elect. (see Appendix).16-250) AM = magne-blast circuit breaker 4. For the sake of completeness the General Electric Company nomenclature is used in this column. the circuit breaker * blegavalt-amperes i. Voltage Rating 2. The remainder of the items are uniform throughout the industry. Rated kv (4. The following will explain the meaning of the several columns of Table 1.o interrupt the flow of short-circuit current within its interrupting element. 4.


It defines the ability of the circuit breaker to withstand the mechanical stresses produced by the very large offset first cycle of the shortcircuit current.500): the maximum current that the circuit breaker will withstand in the closed position for a period of 4 sec to allow for relaying operating time. This is very significant in the rating of power circuit breakers for. 9. 8-9. Insulation Level (Withstand Test) 5 . Short-time Rating 8. Interrupting Ratings 10. Low-frequency rrns kv (19): the 60-cycle high-potential test. This is applied with an impulse generator as a design test. Four-second (37. The rating schedules of power circuit breakers are so proportioned that the momentary rating is about 1. the circuit hreaker will interrupt a maximum of only so many amperes regardless of voltage. Three-phase rated mva (250): the three-phase mva which the circuit breaker will interrupt over a range of voltages from the maximum design kv down t o the minimum operating kv. 10-13.000) : the maximum rms asymmetrical current that a circuit breaker will withstand including short-circuit cnrrents from all sources and motors (induction and synchronous) and the d-c component. This is just as significant a limitation as mva interrupting rating. and therefore is one of the most critical in the application of the circuit breakers. This rating is nnusually significant because the mechanical stresses in the circuit hreaker vary as the square of the current.6 times the maximum interrupting rating amperes. It is the only rating that is affected by the square law. At any voltage less than the minimum operating voltage the product of the maximum kiloampere interrupting rating times the kv times the square root of 3 is less than the mva interrupting rating of the circuit breaker. Current Ratings in Amperes 7. This value is the same as the maximum interrupting rating amperes. 7-9. In this case the .SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 27 is not designed to interrupt the rated mva but will interrupt some value less than rated mva. Continuous 60 cycles (1200 or 2000): the amount of load current which the circuit breaker will carry continuously without exceeding the allowable temperature rise. 5-6. as poiuted out later. Momentary amperes (60. 6. Impulse crest kv (60) : a measure of its ability to withstand lightning and other surges. This rating is independent of operating voltage for a given circuit breaker.

At minimum operating voltage. This current limit determines the minimum kv ) . this maximum rms total interrupting current determines how much the circuit breaker will interrupt in mva. Table 1. i t will not interrupt this much current if the product of current.16 X 35. 12.000): the maximum total rms amperes which the circuit breaker will interrupt a t rated voltage. Interrupting rnva should never be exceeded a t any voltage.16 kv (4. a t a voltage of 2.1. Rated interrupting time (8 cycles on 60-cycle basis): the maximum total time of operation from the instant the trip coil is energized until the circuit breaker has cleared the short circuit. 11.500) : the maximum total rms amperes that the circuit breaker will interrupt regardless of how low the voltage is. Table 1.. What limits the Application of Power Circuit Breakers an on interrupting-and Momentary-duty Basis? In so far as applying power cir- cuit breakers on an interrupting-duty basis is concerned i t can be seen from the foregoing that there are four limits. The product of these must not exceed the rnva interrupting rating a t any operating voltage. because maximum interrupting amperes limit the mva to values less than the rnva rating. Amperes a t rated voltage (35. 1. In this example. Therefore.76 and 3.e.000 x fi = 250 mva).85 kv..e. for example. voltage. At a t which the circuit breaker will interrupt rated mva (column 4 any voltage lower than that given in column 4. and the square root of 3 is greater than the mva interrupting rating.1. this current is 37. Maximum interrupting rating amperes should never be exceeded . Maximum amperes interrupting rating (37. i. 3. These must all be checked for any application.. The circuit breaker will not interrupt this much current a t all voltages. i. 13. this corresponds to 250 mva.e. the maximum design kv.3 kv this corresponds to 150mva.28 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURREM CALCULATING PROCEDURES interrupting rating is 250 rnva between 4.500 amp. in the case of the example used above 35. This limit is sig’nificant only when the operating voltage is between the limits of columns 3 and 4. none of which should be exceeded.85 kv. The mva to be interrupted is obtained by multiplying the kv a t which the circuit breaker operates times the symmetrical current in kiloamperes to be interrupted times the square root of 3. These figures are rounded. the mva which the circuit breaker will interrupt is lower than the rnva rating given in column 10 by an amount proportional to the reduction in operating voltage below the value of column 4. Table 1. It is not significant when the operating voltage is below the limit of column 4. 2. and. This figure is given for information only and does not have a limiting significance of particular interest to the application engineer. i. when the voltage goes below the limit of column 4.000 at 4. Operating voltage should never at any time exceed the limit of column 3. 3.1.

To check the interrupting duty on a power circuit breaker. Momentary current should never be exceeded a t any operating voltage. Since the d-r component is present a t this time. Table 1. Siuce the short-circuit current is maximum a t the first half cycle.25. Where there is short-circuit contribution from motors. 1. In all shortcircuit calculations. a check of the interrupting duty only is necessary. that is.6 times the maximum interrupting rating in rms amperes. it is necessary to account for it by the use of a multiplying factor.1 (minimum operating voltage a t rated mva). and inductiou motors are employed in the reactance diagram. synchronous motors.G. regardless of the type of power circuit breaker involved. Modern power circuit breakers generally have a momeutary rating in rms amperes of 1. the momentary duty and the interrupting duty should both be checked. as outlined in Table 1. This multiplying factor is either 1. The procedure is the same. Therefore. because of variation in relay time and in circuitbreaker operating speed.CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURES 29 even though the product of this current times the voltages times the square root of 3 is less than the interrupting rating in mva. induction motors. As a result. If this is within the circuit-breaker interrupting rating then the maximum Short-circuit current. The fewer cycles required for the circuitbreaker contacts to part. including the d-c component. The time required for the circuit-breaker contacts to part will vary over a considerable range. the relays are assumed to operate instantaneously. synchronous motors. How to Check Interrupting Duty on Power Circuit Breakers. This figure is the controlling one in so far as interrupting duty is involved when the voltage is below that of column 4.5 multiplying factor can be used are shown in Fig. the greater will be the curreut to interrupt.SHORT-CIRCUIT. To account for . Whenever there are motors to be considered in the short-circuit calculations. the generators. it is necessary to consider all sources of short-circuit current. for the purpose of determining interrupting duties. and utility connections. The subtransient reactances of generators. 4 . the momentary rating of the circuit breaker may be exceeded. where there is no short-circuit-current contribution from motors. the short-circuit current should be determined a t the time that the circuit-breaker contacts part. mill be within the momentary rating of the circuit breaker.5 or l.2. before the interrupting rating is exceeded in a given cirruit. the maximum interrupting duty is imposed upon the circuit breaker when the tripping relays operate instantaneously. the short-circuit current must be determined a t the first half cycle to determine the maximum momentary duty on a circuit breaker. Typical circuits where the 1. To determine the short-circuit current a t the first half cycle. How to Check Momentary Duty on Power Circuit Breakers.

.6 MULTIPLYING FACTOR NO GENERATION ON THIS BUS NO GENERATION 2400.0 V BUS (0) T O P L A N T LOAD NO GENERATION IN THE P L A N T TO P LANT L O AD NO GENERATION IN THE P L A N T (b) 13.25 One-line diogrom of carer where the multiplying factor 1.6 KV U U u.5 may be used on circuits rated less than 5 h. tCA 30 1 HIGH VOLTAGE INCOMING LINE SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 2400 4160 4800 VOLT INCOMING L I N E FROM UTILITY $ o.SEPES-DIVEN SEN-RIO-EIELI'.:4600 A6. 1.-L USE 1. 4160 OR (C) TO LOAD FIG.

generator subtransient reactance and synchronous-motor transient reactance are used and induction motors are neglected. These factors are listed in Table 1..1 is not applied until the symmetrical shortcircuit value reaches 500 mva. the same as for allowing for d-c compo- . . a multiplying factor of one (1) is used. etc.26.2. For the sake of standardization. and that of the synchronous motors has changed from the subtransient to the transient condition before the contacts of these circuit breakers part. five-cycle. . such as eight-cycle. it is determined by the simpler approach of specifying the generator and motor reactances and using multiplying factors. the induction-motor contribution has disappeared. the ratio of reactance to resistance is usually so high that there may be considerable d-c component left when the contacts of the standard eight-cycle circuit breaker part. It is assumed for short-circuit-calculation purposes that circuit breakers of all manufacturers. The elapsed time is so long that usually all the d-c component has disappeared. which open the circuit within one or two cycles after the inception of the short circuit. operate substantially the same with regard to contact parting time. there is an exception to this rule. Normally.1is used in determining the total rms short-circuit mva that a circuit breaker may have to interrupt in these large systems.. In industrial plants. The multiplying factor for allowing for d-c component is 1. the multiplying factor of 1. To account for this. . Therefore. i. which open the circuit before the first current peak. . . SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 31 variation in the circuit-breaker operating speed. . High-voltage Fuses. or of the non-current-limiting type. power circuit breakers have been grouped into classes.” To determine the available short-circuit current a t the first cycle for the application of high-voltage fuses. when symmetrical short-circuit interrupting duty is 500 mva or greater. .. The multiplying factor of 1. In very large power systems. use the subtransient reactances of all generators.. 1. Fig. in any one speed grouping. and utility sources and allow for the maximum d-c component.. synchronous motors..e.6.c . eight-cycle circuit breakers are generally used. High-voltage fuses are either of the currentlimiting type. Hence. induction motors.: . in calculating the interrupting duty on commonly used power circuit breakers. Instead of specifying a time a t which the short-circuit current is to he calculated. In such large power systems. This is the current that will flow if the fuse did not open the circuit previously. What d-c component is left is more than offset by the reduction in a-c component due to the increase in reactance of the generators. three-cycle circuit breakers. fuses are rated in terms of “available short-circuit current. all fuse-interrupting ratings are on the basis of maximum rms current that will flow in the first cycle after the short circuit occurs.

.........? i Subtronsient Svbtronrient Svbwmrient Subwoniiont Subhmrient Subtransient i i ..6 1. .... tion ( X / R mtio leu lhm 41 1...... including dl current-limiting fuses....... Above 600 wih ........ I Above 600 volt..... Fuse...... L a r than 5 k. Above 600 volt' Anywhere in system I .. s z s Above 600 volt) 601 to 5000 volh Near generoting station Remote from generating dolion (X/R rotio l e u thon I 0 1 High-voltaqe Fuses 1..000 wlh 1 I Maximum rms ampere interrupting duty Anywhere in system Remote from generoting %to... 1 I 0 I Eight cycle or slower (general case)...2 Condensed Table of Multiplying Factors and Rotating-machine Reactances To Be Used for CaLdatina Swt-dreuit Cunanh for Circuit-breaker................ and Motor.... Any ploee where symmetricmi short-circuit kva i s loss than 500 mva 1 I ..... Above 600 wlh Subtransient Subtransient Momentary duty Generol GOSO..6 1 ....5 Subtransient Subtransient 5 Three-phose I n o interrupting duly All typos...O 1...rtartor Applicdons 1 Generators.......... .. 601 to 15... ..u w TABLE 1.... . ....O Subhqndent 1 Transient 1 Neglect All types........1 frequency changers I Interrupting duty w a C 2 i i ...... Non-current-limiting lypes only... Rva cycle. including dl wrront-limiting fuses...

..... 2400 and 4i60Y Wlh Anywhere in system 1................ 601 10 5000 volts Cirwit b r w b r or contocto~ lype..... 601 lo 5000 volts 0 bywhere in system temote from gener......25 Subtransient Subtianrient Svbtronrienl Subtransient Subtransient Svbtraniient .......... ... Clrcvit b r e e b r or contartor type.6 1............ lion motor stoners........ Low-voltacp furas or fused combination motor z .. 600 volts and below Anywhere in system 600 volt* and below Anywhere in system I ...... Slarte" ..... lion lX/R ratio leis than 101 1.. ...25 1 ...... 2400 and 4160Y Yolh Anywhere in system I .. 600 Volts and Below Interrupting or momentary duty Air circuit breakers or breaker-contactor combino........ 601 to MOO volts .6 CIrmit breaker w conladm l y p e . ...... .....5 Subtransient Subtrmdent Subtransient Subtrmdent Subtransient Subtransient 8 R 0 m Apparatus...... .............0 All horsepower rotingr.......All h e p o w e r ratings....ting 1 1 ....

The three-phase mva interrupting rating has no physical significance. The interrupting rating of fuses in amperes is exactly parallel. some fuses are given interrupting ratings in three-phase mva. 1. See Fig.2). The ampere interrupting rating of high-voltage fuses is the only rating that has any physical significance. WAVE OF AVAILABLE THE FUSE ELEMENTS MELT BEFORE PEAK VALUE OF AVAILABLE SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT I S REACHED 1 FIG. 1.26 Grophic sxplonotion of the current-limiting action of current-limiting fuses. in so far as short-circuit+urent calculations are concerned. because fuses are single-phase devices. each fuse functioning only on the current which passes through it.27 for method o f determining available short-circuit current.34 SHORT-CIRCUIT. For the sake of simplicity of application in systems with power circuit breakers.CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES nent when determining the momentary duty on a power circuit breaker (see Table 1. . to the momentary rating of power circuit breakers.

It is necessary to calculate the current a t only one time for the application of low-voltage air circuit breakers. High-voltoge M o t o r Starters. which causes the d-c component to decay faster than in some high-voltage circuits. In rating low-voltage air circuit breakers. This is due to the generally lower level of reactance-to-resistance ( X I R ) ratio in low-voltage circLits. The multiplying factor for the d-c component is not so high in lowvoltage circuits as in some high-voltage circuits. 5-kv oil circuit breakers were used extensively on 600-volt . low-voltage air circuit breakers are subject to interrupting the current a t the first cycle after short circuit and withstanding the mechanical forces of that rurrent. and the d-c component is considered (see Table 1. the application voltage must he factored in each case. which is somewhat lower than that for the maximum phase. LOW-VOLTAGE CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (600 VOLTS A N D BELOW) low-voltage Air Circuit Breokers. The present designs of low-voltage air circuit breakers differ from those of high-voltage power circuit breakers because they are substantially instantaneous in operation a t currents near their interrupting rating. The contacts often begin to part during the first cycle of current. The current determined should be that of the first halt cycle and should be determined on exactly the same hasis as for checking the momentary duty of high-voltage power circuit breakers. The short-circuit-current calculations for applying these motor starters are the same as those for high-voltage fuses and power circuit breakers. induction motors. High-voltage motor starters generally employ for short-circuit protection either current-limiting fuses or power circuit breakers. For example. Of course.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CAKULATING PROCEDURES 35 These three-phase mva ratings have been selected so they will line u p with power-circuit-breaker ratings. In the 192Os. The generally lower ( X / R ) ratio and the use of an average d-c component for the three phases result in a considerably lower multiplying factor in low-voltage circuits. a high-voltage fuse rated 150 mva and a power circuit breaker rated 150 mva can he applied on the basis of the same short-circuit-current calculations. the average d-c component of the three phases is used. and synrhronous motors are used.2). except for a change in the multiplying factor as discussed in the next paragraph.25 for the average for the three phases. respectively. The multiplying factor has been standardized at 1. Application of High-voltage Oil Circuit Breokers to 600-volt Systems. The suhtransient reactances of generators.5 to account for the d-c component in the maximum phase. This is equivalent t o a multiplier of about 1. Therefore.

5 is used instead of 1. using the same rating base and same method of determining short-circuit duty as is used for low-voltage air circuit breakers. Low-voltage motor starters are of two types: those using fuses and those using air circuit breakers for shortcircuit protection. a multiplying factor of 1. i. The short-circuit / . Those using air circuit breakers for short-circuit protection are applied 04 exactly the same basis as low-voltage air circuit breakers in so far as short-circuit currents are concerned. However. There are no industry standards to follow. utility sources. use the same procedure as for low-voltage air circuit breakers. To check the momentary duty.. use the generator subtransient reactance and utility-source reactance plus the synchronous-motor transient reactance and a multiplying factor of 1. Several low-voltage fuses with published a-c interrupting ratings are appearing on the market. AVAILABLE SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT In determining the short-circuit current.25 multiplying factor is used (see Table 1. Low-voltage M o t o r Starters. but to date the industry has not applied a-c interrupting ratings. Both the momentary duty and interrupting duty must be checked for the oil-circuit-breaker application. Hence. Low-voltage Fuses. but most of these seem to be following air-circuitbreaker standards.e.25 as for low-voltage air circuit breakers. induction motors. Oil-circuit-breaker momentary ratings are based on the maximum current through any one pole.e.2). not on the average current in the three phases which is employed in the rating of low-voltage circuit breakers.. So-called National Electrical Code (NEC) plug and cartridge fuses have no established a-c interrupting ratings.0. i. To determine the interrupting duty. generators. 1.27). the impedance of the circuit protective device connected in the faulty feeder is neglected. Motor starters using fuses for short-circuit protection are applied on exactly the same basisas fuses in so far as short-circuit current is concerned. the procedure will not be repeated here except to point out that the 1. Many tests have been made to determine their a-c interrupting ability.36 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULAnNG PROCEDURES systems. The shortcircuit current is determined by’ assuming that the protective device is shorted out by a bar of zero impedance (Fig. and synchronous motors (subtransient reactance). The procedure for determining short-circuit currents in systems of 600 volts and below is slightly modified for checking duty on oil breakers of the 5-kv class as compared with low-voltage air circuit breakers.

hence this procedure may be followed in short-circuit calculations. regardless of the impedance of the devices themselves.27 Connections for determining available short-circuit current for testing rhort- circuit protective devices. . The procedure for determining the available short-circuit current is based on setting up impedance or reactance diagrams. The impedance of the short-circuit protective device that is nearest the short circuit (electrically) is omitted from the impedance diagram. 0 MOTORS GENERATOR TRANSFORMER CABLE SHORT ClRCUlTED 8 1 J UMPER OF Z E R O IMPEDANCE CABLE SHORT CIRCUIT FIG. Practically all protective devices are so rated and tested for shortcircuit interrupting ability. 1.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 37 current which flows in such a circuit is commonly called available shortcircuit cumat. I t means that one set of short-circuit-current calculations for a given set of conditions is all that is needed for applying any type of protective device. This greatly simplifies the calculations and removes the effect of impedance variations between different types and makes of devices having the same interrupting rating.

4) 2.38 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES HOW TO MAKE A SHORT-CIRCUIT STUDY FOR DETERMINING SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT FORMULAS FOR SHORT-CIRCUIT STUDY' 1.36) kva base 1 3. Converting utility-system reactance to per cent or per-unit ohms reactance on kva base being used in study: a. .5) kva base 1 9f reactance on kva base 2 .1) (kvt)*(lO) (ohms reactance)(kva base) (kv)*(1000) (1. Changing ohms to per cent ohms. convert according to Eq.2) [see Eq. If only the kva interrupting rating of the incoming line breaker is known. If given in short-circuit amperes (rms symmetrical). Changing per cent or per-unit ohms reactance from one kva base to another: % ohms reactance on kva base 2 base 2 . (1.34)] Ohms reactance = ( % reactance)(kv)2(10) = Per-unit ohms reactance kva base per cent ohms reactance 100 (1. If given in per cent ohms reactance on a kva base different than that used in the study. (1. b. etc.6) short-circuit kva of utility system c.kva base 2 X (% ohms reactance on kva base 1) (1.base) (1.3) (1. 54 to 57 for more prr-unit formulas 1 kv = line-to-line kilovolts. convert t o perunit ohms thus: 9i reactance = Yi reactance = kva base used in reactance diagram (short-circuit current) ( d $ ) ( k v rating of system) (1.5). convert to per-unit ohms thus: kva base used in reactance diagram (1.kva X (% ohms reactance on base 1) (1.7) d. * See pp. If given in short-circuit kva.: Per cent (%) ohms reactance Per-unit = = (90 ohms reactance (ohms reactance) (kva.

t kv = line-&line kilovolts.4).10) 0. (1.0-power factor synchronous motors: (1. = 3 (1.12) kva base = 0.SHORTT-CIRCUIT.y? -~ '& (kva base) (line-to-neutral voltage)2 ohms reactance X 1000 kv2 X lo00 ohms reactance 7.18) (1.14) (1.80 (horsepower rating) 5. Determining kva base of motors: EI 4 3 (1.15) (1.0 (horsepower rating) 1.19) .17) (1. ohms impedance or ohms resistance may be substituted for ohms reactance. The final product is then per-unit or per cent ohms impedance or resistance. Changing voltage base when ohms are used: Ohms on basis of voltage 1 - ')* X (ohms on basis of voltage 2) (voltage 2)2 (1.16) . Determining the symmetrical short-circuit current: (100) (kva base) Symmetrical short-circuit current = (% X*)(v%(kvt) kva base (% X*)(&)(kvt) k v t X lo00 ( d ) ( o h m s reactance) * X = reactance or impedanoe. (1.8) 4. 6 .16a) .8-power factor synchronous motor: (1. respectively.11) kva base = 1.9) where E = name-plate voltage rating I = name-plate full-load current rating When motor full-load currents are not known.13) In Eqs. Determining the symmetrical short-circuit kva: Symmetrical short-circuit kva = ~ % X* (kva base) (1.CURRENTCALCULATING PROCEDURES 39 9f ohms reactance - kva base used in reactance diagram kva interrupting rating of incoming line breaker The exact kva base of a motor = (1. use the following kva bases: Induction motors: kva base = horsepower rating (1.1) to (1.

00579 0.193 0.0355 0.14 1.00226 0.00064 0.105 0.00021 3 0.0141 0.579 0.0347 0.00127 0.00435 0.347 0.800 6.6521 0.00086 0.56 0.166 2.0032 0.000695 0.215 2.0105 0.21 1.0755 0.0001 41 0.208 0.000 12.045 0.000755 0.315 0.000378 0.00172 0.0567 0.000574 0.413 0.192 0.05 0.3 5.0172 0.00151 0.000187 0.43 5.4 27.965 0.651 3.302 0.247 0.113 0.0213 0.165 0.0000212 = - 0.833 0.096 0.262 0.17 1.00413 0.0000471 321.02604 0.47 1.172 0.0787 0.800 23.000106 0.42 0.00123 0.OCU 2 K E 2 0.0868 0.000063 6 c R v.5 3.0511 0. 100 .0187 0.286 0.289 0.0063 6.00651 0.00808 128 147 86.00105 0.00289 0.47 0.064 0. K = kv' X 1wO kv' X 10 kv = line-to-line kilovolts t To determine multiplying factors far any other base use figures under 100-kvs base columns multiplied by new base in kva.28 3.604 0.200 l1.0107 0.808 0.000236 0.377 0.17 1.OOO 11.00286 0.0063 0.000547 0.434 0.4166 0.73 0.226 0.138 0.400 4 .00377 0.000525 0.0115 0.104 0.0525 0.151 0.0173 0.000787 0.000825 0.00965 0.000283 0.0283 0.00165 0.7 1.868 0.157 0.868 0.00113 0.001 57 0.00708 0.0378 0. 1 60 4.555 0.000105 I 600 2.72 1.001 92 071 868 217 I38 8.00114 0.900 7.8 55.0031 5 0.302 0.0217 0.21 4.21 1.00386 0.086 0.00104 0.2 83.123 0.127 0.000031 5 * For per-unit. 1 50 Per-""it Per cent Per-""it 200 Per cant Por-un1t Per cent 300 .000 69.500 12.4M) 46.0031 5 0.88 2 0.500 13.0574 0.00247 0.TABLE 1. kva base For per cent.32 0.00945 0.000355 0.63 0.0042 0.__ Per-""it Per cent 500 Per-""it v) c*nt 216Y/125 240 480 '14 73 43.001 93 0.0142 0.00045 0.0825 0.000 37.00711 0.3 Factor ( K ) to Convert Ohms to Per Cent or Per-unit Ohms for Three-phase Circuits* Base kvo 0 L loot P r .01302 0.00208 0.73 0.5 260.00868 0.68 2.386 0.00096 0.114 0.0236 0.00471 2.0000708 2. K kva base .0021 2 0.200 13.00262 0. 0.38 0.277 0.0288 0.71 8.0105 B f I n 2 5 0 0.000142 0.435 0.210 0.4 65.0042 4.0000945 0.604 0.000071 I 0.15 0.00138 0.0695 0.000042 t 4 3 a1 30.00347 0.00576 0.68 2.0021 0.

20) One-line Diagram. 1. The first step in making a short-circuit study is to prepare a one-line diagram showing all sources of short-circuit current.29).28. etc.28). utility ties. M a k e an Impedance or Reactance Diagram. . (Fig. etc. 1. rotary converters. i. Determining the asymmetrical short-circuit current: Asymmetrical short-circuit current = (symmetrical current) (multiplying factor) Asymmetrical short-circuit kva = (symmetrical kva) (multiplying factor) DIAGRAMS (1.29 Reactonce diagram of system shown in Fig.28 e diagram c . synchronous condensers. typical large industrial power system. 1.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 41 8. 1. 1.e. such as transformers. generators. induction motors. synchronous motors. H INFINITE BUSES -SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT GOES THROUGH HERE FIG. The second step is to make an impedance or reactance diagram showing all significant reactances and resistances (Pig. cables. circuit breakers.. In the following pages this will be GENERATOR C I UTILITY SYSTEM TRANS D GENERATOR CABLE E SHORT CIRCUIT LARGE MOTOR CABLE J 480 VOLT MOTORS FIG. and all significant circuit elements..

Short-rircuit-current magnitudes are generally less for line-to-neutral or line-to-line short circuits than for the three-phase short circuits. Thus. circuit voltage.e. see Chap. The foregoing discussion and Table 1.42 SHORT-ClRCUIT.e. Bolted Short Circuits Only Are Considered. In some very large systems where the high-voltage-system neutral is solidly grounded. i. (1) selecting the type and location of the short circuit in the system. maximum short-circuit current flows for a single phase-to-ground short rircuit. generator and large delta-Y transformer secondaries are grounded through a reactor or resistor to limit the short-circuit current for a single line-to-ground short circuit on the system to letis than the value of short-circuit current for a three-phase short circuit. It was felt by some engineers that the current-limiting effect of the arc was pronounced. and (3) deciding whether or not circuit resistance should be convidered. Such a system might be served from a large delta-Y transformer bank or directly from the plant generators. etc. recognizing of course that only reactances will be used in many diagrams. i. Hence the only time that single-phase short-circuit-current calculations need be made is on large high-voltage systems (2400 volts and above) with solidly grounded generator neutrals or where main transformers that supply a plant from a utility are ronnected in delta on the highvoltage side (incoming line) and in Y with solidly grounded neutrals on the low-voltage (load) side.. (2) determining the specific reactance of a given circuit element or machine. the maximum short-circuit current is obtained when a three-phase short circuit occurs.CURRENT CALCULAltNG PROCEDURES referred to as an impedance diagram. These tests showed. SELECTION OF TYPE AND LOCATION OF SHORT CIRCUIT Three-phase Short Circuits Generally Considered. the simple three-phase short-circuitcurrent calculations will suffice for application of short-circuit protective devices in most industrial systems. however. 2. I n most industrial systems.. Unbalanced Short Circuits in Large Power Systems. Several tests have been made to evaluate the effect of arc drop at the point of short circuit in reducing the short-circuit-current magnitude. There are other problems.s and machines considered in the impedance diagram depend upon many factors. whether momentary or interrupting duty are to be checked.y on a given circuit breaker or fuses of a given voltage class. Normally.2 explain when motors are to be considered and what motor reactances are to he used for checking the dut. The circuit element. The calculations of unbalanced short-circuit currents in large power systems can best be done by symmetrical components. that for circuit voltages as low as 300 volts .

1.3 & ?. so short-circuit-current calculations for all circuit voltages are made on the basis of zero impedance at the point of short circuit. whereas arcs have a nonlinear impedance characteristic.4rcs cannot be counted on to limit the flow of short-circuit currents even in louvoltage circuits.30 Location of faults for maximum Short-circuit duty on circuit breakers. . or.s also confirmed modern calculating procedure as an accurate method of estimating the short-circuit-current magnitude in systems of 600 volts and less. This materially simplifies calculation because all other circuit impedances are linear in magnitude. a bolted short circuit. or motor starter when the short circuit occurs at the 4160V.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 43 there may be no substantial difference in the current that flows for a bolted short circuit and when there is an arc of several inches of length. DUTY FOR THESE BREAKERS OCCURS FOR SHORT CIRCUIT HERE r x * + FIG. .SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY ON BREAKERS ON THIS BUS $ E W : R S FOR SHORT CIRCUIT 1 T A&?? Y T T . I I I $? $- MAX. fuse. + r y MAX. At What Point in the System Should the Short Circuit Be Considered to Occur? The maximum short-circuit current will flow through a cir- cuit breaker. These test. in other words.

. The following is a guide to general practice in selecting and representing reactances. or motor starter. These devices. circuit breakers. and other circuit elements of only a few feet in length are so low that they may be neglected without significant error. In circuits rated 600 volts or less. In systems rated above 600 volts. motor. The reactances and resistances are all lineto-neutral values for one phase of a three-phase circuit. only one shortcircuit location (at the terminal of the device) need be considered for checking the duty on a given circuit breaker. circuit breakers. fuse. (Fig. Resistances are included for certain items. should be considered. these values should he used in lieu of the typical reactances in this chapter. circuit breakers..44 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES terminals of the circuit breaker. etc. In all cases. I n systems of more than about 1000 kva on one bus a t 208Y/120 or 240 volts. where there are several transformers or generators paralleled on one bus. should be capable of opening the maximum shortcircuit current that can flow through them. and transformer reactances are used. etc. disconnecting switches. These tables may be used as a basis for assigning values to the various elements of the impedance diagram. It should be remembered that the lower the voltage. etc. U s e R e a c t a n c e s of All S i g n i f i c a n t Circuit E l e m e n t s . the reactances of short bus runs. current transformers. reactance of all circuit components such as short bus runs. Where the reactances of a specific motor. DETERMINING REACTANCES AND RESISTANCES OF CIRCUITS AND MACHINES Typical reactances of circuit elements and machines are given at the end of this chapter. reactances of all components such as current transformers. short bus runs. disconnecting switches.30). However. should be included in the short-circuit study.. generator. generator. reactances of the bus connections will generally be significant and should be considered in short-circuit calculations. or transformer are known. may have a significant hearing on the magnitude of total shortcircuit current. air circuit breakers. 1. current transformers. if properly applied. etc. low-voltage bus runs. Whether or not the reactance of a certain circuit element of a system is significant depends upon the voltage rating of the system where the short circuit occurs. or connections several feet long between a single transformer and its switchgear. the reactances of low-voltage current transformers. Therefore. the reactance of the low-voltage secondary-switchgear section in load-center unit substations with closely coupled transformers and secondary switchgear is not significant for all voltages of 600 volts and below. As a general guide. I n systems of more than about 3000 kva on one bus a t 480 volts or 600 volts. the more effective .

1.31 One-line diagram showing effect of resistance in cable circuits. particularly for large ZORY/lZO-volt or 240-volt systems. the resistance as well as the reactance of the cable circuits should be included in the GENERATOR OF-THESE CIRCUIT ELEMENTS. transformers. and high-capacity buses (above about 1000-amp rating) is so low. . The resistance of all other circuit elements of the high-voltage system (above 600 volts) is usually neglected. However. . That is why extreme care should he used to include all circuit elements in the impedance diagram. that their resistance is not considered. motors. When appreciable lengths of cable are involved in the circuit through which short-circuit current flows in a system of GOO volts or less. compared with their reactance. 1100 FT. Short-circuit calculations are of most value if they reflect accurate answers. because the resistance of these parts has no significant bearing on the total magnitude of short-circuit currents.46 and 1. the resistance of cable circuits is often the predominant part of the total impedance of a cable. . -. I f care is not used. This often results in the adoption of low-voltage switchgear of higher interrupting rating and higher cost than are actually required. FIG. IN GENERAL USF REACTANCE AND RESISTANCE OF THESE ___ -. regardless of their voltage rating. 1. 101 ---(20 FT SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CONSIDERING REACTANCE ONLY :20800 AMPERES SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT CONSIDERING REACTANCE OF A LL PARTS PLUS RESISTANCE OF COW VOLTAGE CABLE = 11500 4MPERES. the calculated reiults will be close to the short-circuit currents obtained in practice. I f care is used in including all reactances. the calculations will result in a value of current far higher than will actually be realized in practice. reactors. When Is Resistance Considered? The resistance of all generators.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENl CALCUUTING PROCEDURES 45 a small impedance is in limiting the short-circuit-current magnitude.47. In systems of 600 volts and less the error of omitting resistances of all parts of the circuit except cables and small ampere rating buses is usually less than 5 per cent. See the example outlined in Figs.

32 One-line diogrtlm of low-voltage secondary network system showing effect of resistance o f cable tie circuits. determine the correct X / R ratio and then use minimum multiplying factor. I n low-voltage systems having considerable lengths of cahle. Where to Use Exact Multiplying Factors. 200 FT 2. I n secondary network systems of 600 volts and less.CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES impedance diagram. T I E CIRCUITS 208 Y / l Z O V O L T S . 1. Hence in these systems where resistance is considered. SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT USING REACTANCE PLUS RESISTANCE OF T I E CIRCUIT= 41000 AMPERES.32 shows the effect of cable resistance in reducing short-circuit current in a typical industrial network. the resistance as well as the reactance of the tie-cable circuits between substation buses should be included in the impedance diagram.46 SHORT-CIRCUIT.CM 3 CONO. the X / R ratio may be so low that the 1. 1.250 M. 1. n n SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT USING REACTANCE ONLY = 51000 AMPERES. CABLES ~~~~~T I N PARALLEL 200 F T FIG.25 multiplying factor would be considerably in error. GUIDE FOR REPRESENTING THE REACTANCE O F A GROUP O F MOTORS A group of motors fed from one substation or from one generating station bus may range in rating from fractional to several thousand horsepower per motor.31 shows the error that might result in neglecting cable resistance. The example of Fig. there are generally numerous small . The example of Fig. All motors that are running at the time a short circuit occurs in the power system contribute short-circuit current and therefore should be taken into consideration. Motors Roted 600 Volts and Below. I n that portion of the power system operating at 600 volts or less.

33 Oiagromr illustrating how to include motors in low-voltage radial systems. 480. 480-. These motors are constantly being turned off and on. or 600 volts a t each generator and/or transformer bus.5% IMPEObNCE O I b G R b M 750 K V b BASE SHORT CIRCUIT EQUIVALENT MOTOR 750 KVb SHORT CIRCUIT El hKVA TO UTILITY SYSTEM REbCTbNCE OF UTILITY SYSTEM REbCTbNCE OF 7 5 0 KVb TRbNSF.33 and 1.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES A? motors. it would be impractical to obtain the characteristics of each small motor and to account for the effect of the impedance of their leads. i. 480. Hence in 208Y/120-volt systems where more accurate data are not available. In systems rated 240..e. 10 systems rated 208Y/120 volts.50% OR FIG. EQUIVILENT MOTOR 375 K V b IMPEObNCE OIbGRbM 750 K V b BASE 2 0 8 Y / 1 2 0 VOLT SYSTEMS 240. . 1. so it is practically impossible to predict which ones will be on the line when a short circuit occurs. I t becomes impractical to represent each small motor in the impedance diagram.34). 600 VOLT SYSTEMS 50 % REACTbNCE OF EQUIVALENT MOTOR 0. 1..25% OR 5. assume that the maximum horsepower of motors runniug a t any one time is equal to the combined kva rating of the stepdown transformer and/or generators supplying that one bus (see Figs. 1. assume a t each generator and/or transformer bus that the maximum horsepower of motors running a t REbCTbNCE OF UTILITY SYSTEM REbCTbNCE OF 7 5 0 K V b TRbNSF. or 000-volt systems. Furthermore. a substantial portion of the load usually consists of lights and a lesser proportion of motor load than in 240-. OR5. the following procedure may be used with satisfactory results for representing the combined reactance of a group of miscellaneous motors operating a t 600 volts or less. TO UTILITY SYSTEM QOW. Where more accurate data are not available. 2.s 25 % REbCTbNCE OF EQUIVALENT MOTOR 0. under about 50 hp.

e data are available. T o account for these variables. Check carefully the mot.5 and in making short-circuit st.o 50 per cent of the combined rating of all stepdown trausformers and/or generators supplying power to that one bus. no specific ratio of induction t o synchronous motors or no specific number of motors which prcduce unusually high short-circuit current.14. For large commercial buildings the 50 per cent figure may be too low. 1. a n average motor reitctance ihcluding leads is assumed t o be 25 per cent for the purpose of preparing application tables like Table 1. Diagram illustrating how lo include motors in lowvoltage secondary network . 750 KVA T -480 VOLTS A 500 KVA 750 KVA 500 KVA v EQUIVALENT MOTORS WOULD BE 250 KVA AND 375 K VA FOR 280Y/120 VOLT SECONDARY SYSTEM FIG.s has been set fort. Where the division between synchronous and iuduction motors is known. This figure is between the values of 28 per cent for induction mot. It will he noted that the average motor reactance of 25 per cent is based on the transformer or supply-generator kva rating.33. I n the generalized rases referred t o in paragraphs 1 and 2 . T h e reactances given in Table 1.14.40 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES any one time is equal t.ors and 21 per cent for synchronous motors given in Table 1.14 are based on motor kva ratings and not supply transformer or generator ratings.udies where no more accurat. then more accurate calculations can be made by using the assumed motor reactances of Table 1. 1.34 rvrternr.h. Fig.or load on all large 208Y/120-volt systems.

a-c welders. it is often found desirable t o group these larger motors iii one group arid represent them by one reartaiire in the impedance diagram. solderitig irons. Hovever. in large plants like steel mills. generally the total comhitied horsepower rat. High-voltage motors (rated 2200 volts and ahove) are generally larger in horsepower rating thau motors on systems operating under 600 volts.. These largcr motors may have a much more significant hearing on short-circuit-current magnitudes than smaller motors. therefore.12). therefore. appliances. when the full-load current is not known. these larger motors are generally lumped in with the smaller motors and the complete group is represented as one equivalent motor i t i the impedance diagram. or (1.e. allowing for diversity. it is necessary t o obtain an equivalent kva rating of the individual or group of motors. of all mot. the total installed horsepower of motors connected t..ors 011 t. more exact determinatiou of the reactances of the larger motors is in order. arid other devices which produce no short-circuit curreiit. i..ors running a t one time ix-ould trot produce short-circuit currents in excess of the values obtained when using the ahore assumptions. Synchrouous and induction motors need not be segregated when combining the motors in these low-voltage systems. . l l ) . paper mills. because lorn-voltage air circuit breakers operr so fast that only the current flow duritig the first half cycle is considered. Whether considering motors individually or in groups. This can be done precisely for large motors by Eq. The latter equations are used when considering a single reactance t o represent a group of miscellaneous motors. regardless of voltage rating of the motors. I n systems of 000 volts or Icss. Therefore. mot. only suhtraiisient reactances ( X y ) of marhiiies are considered. and.he order of several hundred horsepomerj are usually few i n number and represent only a small portion of the tot. ( l . (1. where there are numerous motors of several huridred horsepower each.lO). etc.9) or can be approximated hy Eq.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 49 Although a portion of the load connected to a bus rated GOO voks or less may be heaters. (l. the large motors (i.o such a bus is geiierally much greater than the kva rating of the supply transformers and generators. Motors Rated above 600 connected horsepower. it is often foutid convetiient t o represent each large high-voltage motor individually in the impedance diagram. Individual motors of several thousand horsepoitrer should be coiisidered individually and their reactances accurately determined hefore starting the short-circuit study. However.e.

Lacking these data.50 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES I n high-voltage systems. Completing the Impedance Diagram. and utility supply of system shown in one-line diagram form in Fig.28.35.35 One-line representation by a reactance connected to a zero imof generator or motor in impedance pedance bus or so-called “infinite bus. This bus represents the internal voltage of the generators and motors. motors. complete motor data may not be available. buses. the mechanirs of making the impedance diagram and of determining the short-circuit-current magnitude are as follows.” diogmm. 1. 1. The second step is to add the reactance of cables. the connected horsepower is assumed to he equal t o the generator and/or transformer capacity supplying a given highvoltage bus. The generators and motors flG. current transformers. If the reactance of the leads between the transformer and/or generator bus and the motors is significant. circuit GENERATOR OR MOTOR OF ZERO IMPEDANCE Treatment of Sources of Short-circuit Current.36. 1. The first REPRESENT IMPEDANCE OF step in making an impedance diagram GENERATOR OR MOTOR. 7 are treated as if they comprised a generator of zero reactance plus an external reactor to represent the reactance of the EXTERNAL TO machine windings. .36 Representation of reactances of generators. transformers. 1. Fig. MAKING THE IMPEDANCE DIAGRAM After it has been decided what elements of the one-line diagram are to be considered in the impedance diagram. 1. is torepresent every generator and motor or groups of motors and utility supply FIG. Fig. the reactanre of these leads should be included.

1. O t ~0. top of Fig.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 51 breakers. or per-unit ohms to represent the various circuit impedances in the impedance diagram.04V STEP NO i COMBINE SERIES REACTANCES H +1+J ' I C+D=0. 5 + 4 + 0 . Choice of Ohms. 0 8 3 -o. 5 +5. 4 I XR COMBINE PARALLEL REACTANCES X o . etc.04+0. Per Cent Ohms.0 X. 1. B .19 2 . 2 + 0 . in their proper location to complete the impedance diagram.36+0.G AND I H + I = _' + L + I XI F G H + I + J I + .40% +I I+ 2. INFINITE BUS INFINITE BUS SHORT CIRCUIT 6. .3=12.10% COMBINE PARALLEL REACTANCES STEP NO.37. 3 COMBINE SERIES REACTANCES X t = XI + E = 0.10~ 12._ 3 + p-j=j 2 .AND E STEP NO.04'0. The next step is to decide whether to use ohms.37 Complete reaclomce diagram for system shown in Fig.3698 STEP N 0 . 5 + 0 . B C+D ' 0 . bining reactances into o single resultant value.1 + 1 + L+XI A X.28. switches.3 RESULTANT SINGLE REACTANCE X I ~ 0. 4 0 025 0.19% = 2 .0+0.0805 % O ~ z Steps for com- FIG.15~0. or Per-unit Ohms Method. A . 1.783 X =0. per cent ohms...:! J) F.'40t -= I XI 2. AND IC+D) 1 l +i .

first mentally determine the ratio of one to the other. ohms to per-unit ohms. Any convenient number may be selected for the base number. The comparison can be aided by selection of the base number which will illustrate the comparison best. Thus. the number 93 might have been selected as the base.00 22. For example.52 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES Ohms are generally not used because of the difficulty of converting ohms from one voltage base to another without error and because of the very small numbers.20 The value of a per-unit system is particularly useful when comparing * From material originally Company. J. Finison.65 Each number in the second column is a per-unit part of the base number.17 0. N o notation will he made when that is done as it will be obvious.oo I. In the foregoing example.-rams these are converted to per-unit. A per-unit value is a ratio: a number (1. In many of the examples in this book. the assumed or given impedance or reactance data are listed in per cent. The Per-unit System for Electrical Calculations. to compare the numbers. if it is desired to show how much larger each uumber is when compared with the smallest number. ( I Base 93 125 560 2053 I . for the columns below. In the second column this is already accomplished. which make accurate and easy calculation more difficult than the per cent or per-unit system.21) Per-unit = base number ~~ The base number is also called unit value since in the per-unit system it has a value of 1.4) show how to convert ohms to per cent ohms.22 1 . iormrrly of General Ekctrir . base voltage is also called unit voltage.1) to (1. a base of 560 is used: Number 93 125 560 2053 Per-unit Volue with 560 as a Base 0. In the first column. This would then be obtained as follows: Per-""it Valve Number with 93 ( I .oo 3. prepared by H. Equations (1. or unity. hut in the reactance dia.35 6.* A per-unit system is a means of expressing numbers for ease in comparing them.

For a simple example.04. Early in arithmetic one learns to determine the interest by multiplying the principal by 0. it is necessary to select numbers arbitrarily for the following: Base volts Base amperes . this repeated conversion may invite errors. In effect it is safer and more convenient to say that interest is a t the rate of 0. Impedances of electric apparatus are usually given in per cent. In a complex calculation. It is thus necessary to remember to convert to the per-unit value before using the figure. In a per-unit system as used for expressing electrical quantities of voltage. and impedance.91 Per Cent. divide by 100. I t is usually convenient to convert these figures immediately to per-unit by dividing by 100 and thereafter do all calculating in terms of per-unit rather than attempt to remember always during the calculations whether a number should or should not be multiplied or divided by 100 to obtain the true value.SHORT-CIRCUIT. Just as the per cent system has a symbol (%) to designate that a given number is expressed in terms of per cent (as 6%) so also does the per-unit system have a symbol. Symbol. Selection of Base Number. Obviously per cent and per-unit systems are similar.22) Thus to change per cent to per-unit. a transformer which has an impedance of 6 per cent has an impedance of 0.06 per-unit is written as 0. The per cent system is somewhat more difficult to work with and more subject to possible error since it must always be remembered that the numbers have been arbitrarily multiplied by 100. current.06 per-unit. example : Norm01 "0th Volts during motor starting Core A 2300 For 2020 Cole B 460 420 The above figures in themselves have little significance until they are compared each with its normal condition as follows: Vollr during starting per-unit of normal 0. The symbol for per-unit is (%). Per cent = a number base number x 100 (1.06 91.88 0. money may draw interest a t the rate of 4 per cent per year.04 per-unit. For example.CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 53 numbers that are similarly related to two different base numbers. The per cent system is obtained by multiplying the per-unit value arbitrarily by 100 to keep many frequently used per-unit values expressed as whole integers. By definition. Thus 0.

30) 4 X base kv hase volts Base ohms = (1.26) base ohms In practice it is more convenient to select: Base volts Base kva The base values of other quant.23) base amperes where base kva is single-phase kva and base volts is single-phase volts.23) base a m p z s Using the selected base values.28) base kv base volts Base ohms = (1.27) base volts base kva Base amperes = (1. Per-unit Ohms. and hase ohms is per phase.29) X base voks base kva Base amperes = (1. without first determining base ohms.24) base volts amperes Per-unit amperes = (1. Hence. for a single-phase system.23) base amperes Base ohms = 4 . all parts of an electric circuit or system may be expressed in per-unit terms as follows: volts Per-unit volts = (1.25) base amperes ohms Per-unit ohms = (1. For a three-phase system: base kva X 1000 Bme amperes = (1. base volts Base ohms = (1.ities are thus automatically fixed.31) X base amperes where base kva is three-phase kva. base volts is line-to-line. E z=- I base volts (1.54 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES Do not then in addition arbitrarily select base ohms since it has already been fixed by the first two selections because of Ohm’s law. In practice i t is desirable to convert directly from ohms to per-unit ohms. By Ohm’s law. base kva X 1000 Base amperes = (1.

. to per cent or per-unit ohms reactance on the chosen base. Usual Base Numbers for System Studies. After choosing the kva base.3. (1.1) or (1.3).26) to obtain ohms Per-unit ohms = (base volts)e/(base kva X 1000) ohms X base kva X 1000 Per-unit ohms = (1. and kv is line-to-line voltage. or a convenient round number such as 1000.2) or Table 1.) ohms'X base kva X 1000 Per-unit ohms = (base volts)2 ohms X base kva Per-unit ohms = (1. to obtain base volts Base ohms = (base kva X 1000)/base volts (base volts)P B a s e ohms = bsse (1.34) (base kv)2 X 1000 where base kva is single-phase kva and base kv is single-phase kv.OOO kva. 10. convert ohmic reactance of cables. using Eq. (1. Convert the above expressions to these bases to obtain ohms X base kva X 1000 X 3 Per-unit ohms = (base volts X d z .26) base ohms Substitute Eq.27) (which gives the base amperes) into Eq. If ohms reactance is used.000. (1. In system studies it is usually desirable to select as the base voltage the nominal-system voltage or the voltage rating of the generators and supply transformers. Base kva will usually be selected as the kva rating of one of the machines or transformers in the system. kva is three-phase kva. wires. When dealing with a three-phase system. etc.33) (base voltd2 ohms X base kva Per-unit ohms = (1. (1. current transformers. or 100.35) (base kv)* X 1000 where ohms are per phase. the next step is to choose a kva base. convert all per cent reactances to ohms by Eq.32) into Eq. (1.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 55 Substitute Eq. i t is usual to select three-phase kva and line-to-line volts for the base values.23).32) kva x 1000 By definition: ohms Per-unit ohms = (1. Where two systems of differing voltage are interconnected through a . If per cent or per-unit ohms reactance is used.3 . (1.

For example.) Base ohms and base amperes for the two systems will thus he correspondingly different.56 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES transformer. a machine rated a t one voltage may actually be used i n a circuit a t a different voltage. and their reactances must be converted to the common base. amperes. 25 (5.5) or (1.38 onother.6 1 0 0 0 233 115 5 190 6 .5 I . Once the system values are expressed as per-unit values. generators. Per-unit ohms on kva base 2 . the two interconnected systems may be treated as a single system and any calculations necessary carried out.36) Similarly. select a common kva base for both systems and the rated voltage of each system as its own base voltage. chosen for the study by means of Eq. Only in reconverting the per-unit values of the results to actual voltage and current values is i t necessary t o remember t h a t two different voltages actually existed in the system. and motors is given in per cent on their own kva rating.YKVA MOTOR o(lOOO KVA) 13800 VOLTS PRIMARY RATING 13200 VOLTS SECONDARY RATING 2300 VOLTS 2400 VOLTS TRANSFORMER RATIO= 1 3 200/2400=5. and ohms from one value to .base kva base kva 1 x (per-unit ohms on kva base 1) (1.5? FIG.5 (A)HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEM ( 8 )LOW VOLTAGE SYSTEM BASE VOLTS BASE KVA EASE AMPS BASE OHMS RATIO (A1 (El 5. and it may be desirable t o express it in terms of a different base kva. (These base voltages must have the same ratio t o each other as the turn ratio of the transformer connecting the two systems. Method of converting bore volts.o - 13 800 2500 I000 41. Its per-unit impedance must thus be changed to a new base voltage. the reactance of devices like transformers. 1.38 shows a typical example. Change of Base Number. Frequently the impedance of a circuit element may be expressed in terms of a particuiar base kva. kva. GENERATOR 1000 KVA I0.36). (1. Figure 1.

(1. In some cases the utility engineers will give the short-circuit kva or current that the utility system will deliver a t the plant site. (1. or incoming-line breaker interrupting rating to per cent reactance on the kva base used in the reactance diagram. etc.(old base volt. This can be done either by .8) and (1.5).4).4).8) and to per-unit by Eqs. (1..6). To do this. If so. If only the kva interrupting rating of the incoming line circuit breaker is known. (1. (1. Thus: Per-unit ohms on new base volts . current. In otker cases. use also Eq. I f per-unit is desired. i. SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES DETERMINING THE EQUIVALENT SYSTEM IMPEDANCE O R REACTANCE After completing the impedance diagram and inserting the values of reactance or impedance for each part of the diagram.4).e. the ohms impedance of the cable in the 2400-volt circuit must be multiplied by 48O2/24OO2to convert it to ohms on a 480-volt base. (1. are used as the voltage base for short-circuit-current calculations. For example. Representing the Utility Supply System.7) and (1.37) and (1. (1. In these cases to convert short-circuit kva. The utility system must be represented by a reactance in the impedance diagram. Sometimes this utility-system reactance is available in per cent on a certain base. The transformer ratings. (1. and not system ratings. (1. if the short-circuit current is being calculated in a 480-volt system (supplied by transformers rated 480-volt secondary) fed through a cable and a transformer from a 2400-volt system.37) Per-unit ohms on old base volts (new base volts)* and Per-unit ohms on new base volts = per-unit ohms on old base volts (old base volts)2 (1. it is necessary to reduce this network to one equivalent value. convert to per cent by Eq. When using ohms instead of per cent or per-unit in the impedance diagram. if different from transformer rating. it is important to convert the ohmic values to a common voltage base by Eq. only the interrupting capacity of the incoming-line circuit breaker is known..s)* (1. If given short-circuit amperes (rms symmetrical).13). 240.n Reference to Eq.38) may be used for per cent ohms as well as perunit ohms. it is merely necessary to convert this value to the common base used in the impedance diagram. convert to per cent by using Eq.35) shows that per-unit ohms is inversely proportional to the square of base volts. Converting Ohms to a Common Voltage Base.38) (new base volts)2 Equations (1.7) and to per-unit by Eqs. proceed as follows: If given short-circuit kva. use Eq. convert to per cent by Eq. 480.

z = m wherej = 4 7 2.39. Adding series reactance of circuits where resistance is neglected add reactances arithmetically.37 and 1. Combining parallel reactances. this method will be covered in sufficient detail to enable solving the short-circuit problems commonly encountered. The procedure for using calculating boards is beyond the scope of this book.e. + x2 + xa = x.58 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES longhand calculation or with the aid of a calculating board. and z2 XI = 21 (d(z2) 22 + (1.. zo = equivalent reactance For two reactances only x. = equivalent reactance z.39) x.. 2 2 +-+-+ -+E XI 2. Arbitrary values of reactance have been assigned to the various branches. Longhand methods of combining reactances vary in some respects.40) 1 For combining several parallel reactances 1 1 1 1 1 -=_ 2 . Use of Calculating Boards. A-c calculating boards have boxes to represent both the resistance and reactance of a circuit. Combining the various branches of the diagram is merely a question of reducing two or more series reactances to one value and reducing two or more parallel reactances to one value until one single equivalent value is obtained. the d-c calculating board cannot be used readily. refer to Figs. To illustrate the principles involved. Longhand Method of Combining Reactances. Combining reactance and resistance to determine impedance. 1. 2. Since so few engineers have access to calculating hoards and must use longhand methods. For exact calculating-board solutions of problems factoring resistance and reactance. i. In most cases where resistance is a significant factor and must be considered. The following shows how to combine reactances and resistances. and x 3 = reactances of circuit components zs= equivalent reactance 3. in some problems involving resistance. the a-c calculating board may he employed. certain approximations can be made to obtain reasonably accurate answers on d-c calculating boards. z2. However. A d-c calculating board will permit accurate solution of all short-circuit problems where reactance only is considered. 1.41) . z=r+jz (1. (1.




Some systems are such that they cannot he reduced by merely combining series and parallel rgactances. For example, take the one-line diagram of a circuit as show in upper left-hand corner of Fig. 1.39. The reactance diagram is shown the ypper righehand corner of Fig. 1.39. In addition to combining serieszind parallel reactances, it is necessary to TI, Pzr T , and C1to an equivaconvert a triangle of reactances such as PI, lent Y of reactances by the formulas of Fig. 1.40. By these conversions,





+ a c + be




a b + a c + bc


A8 A+B+C


A = ob+oc+bc


FIG. 1.40 Formula for converting a triangle or delta of three impedances to a Y of three equivalent impedances, and vice verso.

any commonly encountered system reactance diagram can be reduced to one equivalent reactance. Combining Impedances. Sometimes i t is desirable to consider the resistance and reactance of a circuit. This involves combining impedances. The procedure for combining impedances is outlined here. The combining of parallel impedances necessitates multiplication and division of impedances (complex quantities) and is outlined here. Adding Series Impedances. When two or more impedances are in series, the resistance and reactance components are added separately to combine the series into one equivalent value. Refer to Fig. 1.41. The three series impedances are
z1 = TI jzl za = 72 i jxa

zz = Tp

+ + ja





FIG. 1.41

Example illustrating the combining

of series impedances.

The equivalent impedance
2 %=

rl VZ 73 j(z1 Using the numerical values of Fig. 1.41,
= = = 21 =

+ + +

+ zz+ 4


1+ j 2
2 +j3 0.5 + j l


+ 2 + 0.5) + j ( 2 + 3 + 1) = 3.5 + j G

The above is applicable when impedances are expressed in ohms, perunit or per cent. Combining Parallel Impedances. Parallel impedances may be reduced to one equivalent impedance as follows (see Fig. 1.42):



FIG. 1.42

Example illustrating L e combining

of parallel impedances.



(1) Reduce the per cent values of resistance and reactance in each of the given parallel circuits to a per-unit basis by dividing per cent figures by 100 or convert the per cent values to ohms. Per cent values can be used in the following if the multiplier 100 is applied properly, e.g.,


(Branch 1) 0.05 (Branch 2) 0.008
2% =

0.15 0.108

(2) Calculate the impedance squared z2 of each circuit


(Branch 1) rlz (Branch 2) r 2

+ = ZI', e.g., 0 .052+ 0.1547-0>25 + zz2= zz2, e.g., 0.008z+ 0.108* = 0.0117


2 '


(3) Obtain the ratios of r/z' of each circuit Tl 0.05 (Branch 1) -' , e.g., = 2.0 21 0.025 rz (Branch 2) -, e.g., 0.0°8 - 0.683 z'2 0.0117

(4) Add the foregoing
r / z z = Ga = 2.683

(5) Obtain the ratios of x/z* for each circuit 21 0.15 (Branch 1) -2 e.g., -= 6 21 0.025 XP 0.108 (Branch 2) e.g., -= 9.2 22 0.0117 (6) Add the foregoing
7 j






(7) Ya2 = 02

+ Ba2,e.g., = 2.683' + 15.24 = 238.2
= =

(8) r a
(9) xa

= =


Ga e.g., BJ e.g.,

Y 3 '


- 0.0112

15" = 0.0642 __ 238.2 The foregoing may be tabulated for convenience in solving a number of parallel pairs of circuits: r z z4 = r' z2 r/z' 2/22 (Branch 1) 00 0 0 0 (Branch 2) 00 0 0 0 (Branch 3, etc.) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) By addition- Go( )Bo( )


The combination of the circuits results in



Any number of parallel circuits may be accommodated by additional horizontal columns as fo branch 1 and branch 2, etc., their resultant (r/z2)’s and (x/z2)’s heling added to obtain G O and Bo. Multiplying and Dividing Impedances. Two impedmces may be multiplied as per the following equations:






TI +jXl

ZP = T S

= r8 jxa 2 3 = (TI jXl)(Tt = (TIT2 - 2 1 2 2 ) 13 = (nrz - XIXZ) j a = j(r1zz rczJ

+j x , + +

+ +







Two impedances may be divided according to the following equations:

TI +j x , =-x-


+j x 2


- jxt

- jxt


After the reactance diagram has been reduced to a single value, the value of symmetrical short-circuit kva can be determined by Eq. (1.14), (1.15), or (1.16). To determine the symmetrical short-circuit current, use Eq. (1.17), ( l . l S ) , or (1.19). Equations (1.14) to (1.19) do not allow for any d-c component. Table 1.4 gives figures for converting kva to amperes. Apply Proper Multiplying Factor. The final step is to apply the proper multiplying factor from Table 1.2. To determine the total rms short-circuit current or kva, use Eq. (1.20).



Three phore
line-to-line, volh

Amperes per Kva
Amperes rer phase per kvo
"0 wire

Amperes ier phase per kva

V d h

c or d-l

Amperes er kro or d-c kw

1 1 0 115 120 180 I99 208 220 230 240 440 460 480 550 575 600 1,100 1,150 1,200 2,200 2,300 2,400 3.300 3.450 3,600 3,800 4,000 4.160 6,600 6.900 7.200 11,000 11,500 12,000

5.25 5.02 4.81 3.21 2.90 2.78 2.63 2.51 2.41 1.31
I .25

13.200 13,800 14,400 22,000 23,000 24,000 33,000 34,500 36,000 44,000 46,000 48,000 66,000 69,000 72,000

0.0437 0.0419 0.0401 0.0263 0.0251 0.0241 0.0175 0.0167 0.0160 0.0131 0.0125 0.0120 0.00875 0.00838 0.00803 0.00525 0.00502 0.00481 0.00437 0.0041 9 0.00401 0.00375 0.00359 0.00344 0.00263 0.00251 0.00241 0.00175 0.00167 0.00160

24 48 110 115 120 125 220 230 240 250 275 300 440 460 480

41.7 20.8

8.70 8.33 8.00 4.55 4.35 4.17 4.00 3.64 3.33 2.27 2.17 2.08

1.20 1.05 1 .oo 0.962 0.525 0.502 0.481 0.263 0.251 0.241 0.175 0.167 0.160 0.152 0.144 0.138 0.0875 0.0838 0.0803 0.0525 0.0502 0.0481

I I0.000
1 I5.000

120,000 132,000 138,000 144,000 154,000 161,000 168,000 220,000 230,000 240,000

550 575 600
650 750 1,200 1,500 2,200 2,300 2,400 3,000

I .82
I .74 1.67

1.54 1.33 0.833 0.666 0.455 0.435 0.417 0.333

330,000 345,000 360,000






The redurtion of impedance diagrams to a single value of impedance can he greatly simplified by using equivalent circuits for duplex reactors and three-winding transformers. Equivalent Circuit for Duplex Reactors. The duplex reactor consists of two sections of winding per phase on the same core, with a t a p brought out from the junction point. The current ratings and reactances of the two sections arc generally equal. Aside from the midtap connections, whirh necessitate a total of nine leads, the construction is similar to that of the series reactor. If 1, and l2 are the self-inductances ( X , and X , are the corresponding reactances) of the individual sections, and f c is the “coupling factor” of the mutual inductance betmeen sections, then the simplified equivalent







FIG. 1.43

One-line diagram and equivalent circuit for duplex reactor.



circuit for the duplex reactor is as shown in Fig. 1.43. For preliminary calculations, an average figure off. = 0.5 should give results of sufficient accuracy. Equivalent Circuit of Three-winding Transformer. When making short-circuit calculations of power systems which include three-winding transformers, there is a question on how to use the designer's reactance values. Designers give reactance values between pairs of windings. Figure 1.44A shows a three-winding transformer, and Fig. 1.44B shows its equivalent circuit. The following equations are easily derived and are the proper ones to use in short-circuit studies:

, .+ x .=x 2 + Xec xs = 2 + x,=









All reactance6 must be on same kva base. NOTE:The equivalent circuit and equations for a four-winding transformer are more complicated and will not he evident by simple analogy from Eq. (1.46).





F I G . 1.44 (A1

One-line diagram and (61 equivalent circuit diagram of three-winding


The following examples are indicative of methods of applying the shortcircuit-current calculating procedures outlined in the foregoing. Systems 600 Volts and Below. The system shown in Fig. 1.45 involves one source of supply through a transformer from a primary system. The kva base for the short-circuit calculations is taken as the kva
*NOTE: Numbers in parentheses in Figs. 1.45 and 1.47 to 1.50 refer to numbers of formulas used.






0.25 Yt



750 KVA 5.5 x x (0.055%)

? T ? ?



loo,ooo 750 - 0.0075%


0.0625 1




1x=--XI XI% +x2-0.0625t025 0.0625XC125-0,05% T



750 - yj;xo,4&


o,050 18,000 X 1.25"22.500 AMPERES ASYMMETRICAL (1.201


F I G .1.45 Illustration of procedure for calculation of short-circuit currents in radial loadcenter system.



rating of the transformer. The kva of the connected motors is assumed to be 750 with an equivalent reactance of 25 per cent. Only reactances are used in these calculations. This problem is the type on which Table 1.5 is based. Large 208Y/120-volt Systems. Problems, particularly those involving secondary-network systems in the downtown area of the large cities or in large buildings, require the determination of the short-circuit current on a 208Y/120-volt basis. In these systems it is particularly important that the reactance of all circuit elements, however small, be taken into account, as they have a much more significant effect in reducing the short-circuit current a t 208Y/120 volts than a t 480 or 600 volts.



CHANNEL B U $ - 4 0 0 0 A


y Z


1 3 2 0 0 - 2 1 6 ~ / I 2 5 VOLTS


nus o'






FIG. 1.46 Arrmgement of equipment for large 208Y/120-volt spot network system.



The equipment for this example is arrauged as shoirn iir Fig. 1.46. The one-line diagram is shown in Fig. 1.47.4 which iurludes the hayir reartanre data on the circuit elemenk. The impedauce diagram is shown i n Fig. 1.47B. Figure 1.47C shows the condensed diagram to illustrate t,he relative distribution of reactance in the system. It will be noted t,hat the overhead bus R has 70 per cent as much impedance as the romhinatiotr of all the transformers an8,huses ahead of it,. Elimiiiatiug this item would cause a serious error in t h magnitude of short-circuit, curretit. The intermediate steps etween Figs. 1.47H and 1.47C can be worked out by followiug t h e f a oing text. The short circuit is located just ahead of the maiii 4000-amp circuit breaker as this determiires the available short-circuit, curreut, which this circuit breaker must interrupt. As pointed out previously, air circuit breakers are applied 011 the basis of availahle rurreiit, and therefore \\.heir calculat,ing the short,-rirruit duty oil them, t,he impedalire of t,he rirciiit breaker is not included. Large High-voltage Power System. T h e examplc shown in Fig. 1.48 i s typical of what might, be eucouritered i n a steel mill. The kva base chosen is 100,000 kva. Precise data are available 011 large motors and are used in the short,-circuit, st,udy. Since the large mot,ors roiistitute only part of the motor load, the remaining motor load is estimated. For short circuits on the 22-kv system t,he motor load is assumed to be equal to the capacity supplying each 22-kv bus, or 62,500 k r a aiid 20,000 kva. Should more precise data be available regarding ronnevted mot,or load, these data should be used for simulating motor ront,ribution for faults on the 22-kv system. In t,his example, the connected horsepower 011 the 6.0-kv bus mas known t,o be as shown in t,he diagram. To check the momentary dut,y at F , 011the KY-kv bus, the primary system should be represented by its equivalrut, subt,raiisieiit reartaure nf 12.2 per cent. For interrupting d u t y on the 6.9-kv bus, t,he primary syst,em should be represented by a reartanre equivalent t o the iirterruptirig duty on t,he 22-kv system, or 17.5 per cent. These large complicated syst,ems should he set up 011 a calculating board to enable accurate ausivers t,o he obtained easily.



A common p r a h c e is t o use single-phase trausformers roiiuected to three-phase primary systems t,o supply single-phase loiv-voltage power for welders and for lightirrg rircuits in some of the older syst,ems. When determining the short-circuit current a t the serondaries of these transformers, it, is necessary t o use the proper impedance t o represerrt the primary system. I n three-phase short-circuit calculations, the reactance



FIG. 1.47

One-line diogram, reactance diagram,



and short-circuit-current calculation procedure for spot network system show in Fig. 1.46.






of a conductor is the reactance from the center of the condurtor to the theoretical neutral. Assume that for eaeh phase the rurrent leaves on the phase conductor and returus through the neutral. In a three-phase short circuit, the three currents balance; so there is no rurrent flowing in the neutral. With single-phase line-to-line short cirruits, the eurreut leaves on one phase conductor and returns ou the other. Therefore this rurrent sees the reactance of two condurtors as beiug in series. Heure, for siuglephase tramformers conuected line-to-hie on the primary, twire the primary system impedance must be used to represent it in a true relation to the rest of the circuit. The remaining calculatious are essentially the same as for three-phase circuits using the transformer and loiv-voltagecircuit reactances. Single-phase tramformers used for supplying 120/240-volt single-phase lighting circuits usually have the midtap available for ronnerting to threemire neutral and ground by the user and are usually relatively low iu kva. These small transformers have a relatively high resistatire-t~reactance ratio compared with three-phase trausformers of a higher seroridaryvoltage rating and of larger kva rating.

4 t L





TOTAL X ~ 0 . 0 4 %



:0 . 0 1 %


1 % '

o , 0 4 ~ ~ , , e o :%:26000 AMP SYMMETRICAL 0.0192 11.18 MODIFIED)

1.25 X 26000

= 32500


FIG. 1.49

Short-circuit-current calculating procedure for single-phase two-wire 480-volt


7 5 .

The most severe short-circuit condition in this case is a line-to-neutral short circuit because it involves a much higher primary-to-secondary turn ratio than does a line-to-line short circuit. Hence, this is the basis on which protective equipment should be selected. Since the reactance and resistance of the transformers are given on the basis of a full winding, it is necessary to convert to the proper values when only one-half the secondary winding is involved as is the case when a line-to-line neutral short circuit occurs. The reactance is increased by a factor of 1.2 and the resistance by a factor of 1.41. Therefore, the published reactances and resistances of these transformers are multiplied by those figures. Figure 1.49 shows a typical example where reactance only is used, as would be the case for a relatively large 480-volt transformer supplying a welder circuit. I n these calculations it is necessary to use twire the lineto-neutral reactance of the primary system. In the example of Fig. 1.50 use twice the line-to-neutral reactance of the primary. Use the proper



100 000 KV4 3 PH4SE SH& ClRCUlT DUTY

120,240-V )IR X = :3 1.2 % X ON ,. FULL ,. WINDING 84SIs

B4SE 5 0 KV4



TR4NS X 0036% PRIM4RI SYSTEM RE4Cl4NGE ON 4 SINGLE PH45E B451S~00a)5X2iOO019~ H4LF WlNDlNG RE4CT4NCE OF TRMIYORMER42 XO0310036X TWW R 00172% 'I RESIST4NCE " .' ~144X0012~001720/1




II 61

1.25 X 10300

I2900 4MPS ASYMHETRICbL 11.201

F I G . 1 .SO

Short-circuit-current colculating procedure for single-phase three-wire 120/24Q.volt system.



reactance and resistance for line-to-neutral short circuit a t the secondary of the transformer. In both cases there is assumed to be no motor feedback.

To make short-circuit protective equipment application easier, particularly in circuits of 60 volts or less, many charts, tables, and curves have been prepared to eliminate the necessity for detailed calculations. Some of the more usef 1 ones are presented here.


% ? ] -' "

Standard low-voltage unit substations so widely used have standard transformer section impedance and voltage ratings. Hence, the secondary short-circuit currents available can be easily tabulated, as shown in Tables 1.5 and 1.6. The available short-circuit duty may be read directly from the table as a function of transformer kva, secondary voltage, and available primary short-circuit kva. Example of Use of Table 1.5. Assume a lonn-kva unit substation for 480-volt power service having an available SHORT CIRCUIT primary short-circuit capacity of 150,000 kva. " 2 x, See 480-volt application table. Follow FIG. 1.51 0 n e - k diagram the vertical column under the 1000-kva suhshowing location of short circuit station rating down to the 150,000-kvaavailfor determinotion of short-circuit able primary three-phase short-circuit kva currents shown in Table 1.5. line in thetable. The availableshort-circuit current a t the 480-volt bus is indicated as 30,400 amp.

The unit substation application Tables 1.5 and 1.6 make it easy to determine the short-circuit current a t the main unit substation bus. By the use of the simple estimating curves the short-circuit, current at the end of the secondary feeders can he easily determined too. Henre these tables and the curves shown in Figs. 1.52 and 1.53 make it easy quickly to estimate the short-circuit current a t any point in a secondary system 600 volts and less fed by standard load-center unit substations. The curves are for 60-cycle operation. Figure 1.52 is for cable cirruits and Fig. 1.53 for bus feeders. m The results are in terms of the three-phase average asymmetrical r value during the first cycle corresponding with the basis of rating for low-



voltage air circuit breakers. The effect of circuit resistance both in increasing the impedanre and speeding the decay of the d-c component 'has been included. The range of operat,ing conditions encompassed is as follows: System operating voltage (nominal) : ZOSY/lZO volts, three phase, four wire; or 208 volts, three phase, three wire 480 volts, three phase, three wire; or 480Y/27' volts, three phase, four wire 600 volts, three phase, three wire Short-circuit-current magnitudes: 10,000 t o 100,000 amp Feeder-circuit construction : Three-conductor cable, No. 4 Awg to 500 MCM Busway, plug-in bus of representative designs in current ratings from 225 to 800 amp. Interlared loiv-reactance feeder bus (LVD) rated 2,000 amp, t,hrec phase (four bars per phase).

FIG. 1.52


Chart for determining short-circuit current a t end of cable circuit consisting of three-conductor cable in conduit or interlocked-armor cable (60cycler).

Substotion kra rclting


Available Short- circuit C u r r e n t f r o m ' t o n d a r d T h r e e - p h a s e Unit S u b s t o t i o n s


Substation kva rating

Available Primary threephase

rmal current, en

1 1 I I I 1 1
750 1000 I500






Normol current, amp

Fi.C"it kw



417 270 722 361 542

1 1 1 1 1 1
2080 2780 4170 1203




15.1 15,6 15.8 16.0 16.1 16.2 19.7 20.6 21.0 21.2 21.5 21.7



Total low-voltoge short-circuit Curlenh, thousands of amperes







' $

50.000 100.000 150.000 250,000 500.000 42.3 46.8 48.5 50.0 51.3 52.5 48.7 61.3 74.5 80.0 85.5 90.0 9.4 9.6 9.7 9.7 9.8 9.8 11.2 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.8 53.3 60.4 63.3 65.9 67.9 70.2


10.3 10.4 10.4 10.5 10.5

12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6

15.9 16.5 16.7 16.9 17.1 17.2

20.7 21.7 22.1 22.4 22.6 22.9

32.4 35.0 36.0 36.8 37.5 38.1

5.0 5.0

31.1 33.3 34.2 34.9 35.5 36.1

41.3 45.1 46.6 48.0 49.0 50. I

52.2 58.3 60.8 63.0 64.8 66.7

71.2 82.5 87.5 92.0 95.9 100.0





or different voltoge bare, multiply short-circuit current values in table by NOTE: 3. For differed wltmge hose. I tipiy 9 208 240 the ratio values in toble by the ralio naw voltoge n o r *olt.*e NOTE: 2 . Motor short-circuit current contribution is 2 . 5 times the transformer normal NOTE: 4 . Motor short-circuit current-contribution is 5 . 0 t i m n lhe t m n r current for 50% connected motors. former norm01 current for 100% connected moton.


4.0 4.5 5.0 5 . 5 5.5 5.5












54): 1. The type Required Data.53 are the following: 1. System operating voltage 2. designations refer to General Electric Company bus I60 cycles). 2. Length and construction of the feeder circuit 4.53 Chart for determining short-circuit current (it end of feeder bur. The basic data needed to enable the use of Figs. 1. Connected motor load at the feeder terminal Procedure for Use of Figs. The evaluation of feeder terminal short-circuit current involves only four simple steps (see Fig. 1. Locate the magnitude of source-end short-circuit current on the proper left-hand operating voltage scale. 3. . 1. From this starting point move along to the right following along a curve or an interpolation between adjacent curves until the desired length of specific feeder construction (horizontal scales) is reached. Available short-circuit current at the source bus (average asymmetrical) 3. Project the latter point horizontally to the left and read the shortcircuit current contributed by the feeder on the same scale as used in 1.52 and 1. 1.52 and 1.53.80 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES FIG.

etc. A feeder circuit composed of two or more identical circuits in parallel can be readily treated by making a correction in the apparent length. 1 i I .54 Example rhowing how to use the charts of Fig.53. that of three circuits in parallel will be identical to that of a single circuit of one-third the length. . 1.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 81 4. 1. I t Y H k-- I .52 and 1. Add the feeder terminal connected motor-current contribution (five times the sum total of the motor full-load current). ./CP)OICI I I I_ l 850 l I FEEDER L m m " I FIG. The impedance presented by a feeder consisting of two circuits in parallel will be identical to that of a sing16 circuit of half the length. MODIFICATIONS FOR SPECIAL CONDITIONS Parallel Circuit Feeders. divide the true feeder length by the number of circuits in parallel and proceed on the basis of single-circuit data. In the case of parallel circuit feeders.

2 times the full-winding reactance.0 18. ..1 45.5 1.1 35. . 5 1 4 2 . no motor feedbaek.2 .9 43. 1. 4.0 5.0 13.6 12.4 14.9 10. while the half-winding resistance was taken as 1. The full-winding per cent impedance and per cent resistances m e given in Table 1..25 137.9 17.9 18.6 6. ornperes a1 240 volts 833 1042 I I 1388 12083 Tolo1 lox-vollage shw-circuil c ~ ~ r e nlhousandr l.3 I 37.4 31.7 50. The d-e offset multiplier for the first half eycle was taken as 1.000 Unlimited Transformei full-winding impadançe: Per cent R .2 39.8 10. on full kva base... Consequently.0 __ 1.4 68.3 13.5 1.1 I 28.3 6.000 500. not line-to-neutral.7 24. Fig.e. The only source of power connected to the secondary bus is one transformer of the capaeity indicated. 5. 2.0 3. 1.21 3.2 13..6 6.0 49.4 1. lhe olhei opon-circuiled .0 3.9 16.25.5 1.0 . 6.44 times the full-winding resistance.2 44.000 100.5 Available primary lhree-phose hoil-circull kro I I 1 50 75 208 313 15.0 5.5 60.3 46.8 6..2 1. 23. i. It is sssumed that the 120/240-volt units will supply lighting loads only.6 41.9 10. allows eansiderahly more short-çireuit current to flow than a short circuit involving the full seeondary minding (terminals X i to X d .- A short circuit invalving one of the secondrtry half windings (terminals Xi to X 2 ai terminals X. For the worst case.9 6.21 3.9 10. 7.9 34.20.7 6. A salid half-winding short cireuit at the tcrminals (scc Fig. 2 176. the single-phasr short-cireuit capaeity is me-half the threephase primsry short-circuit capacity. The half-winding reactance was taken as 1.5 23. Per cent 2.25. 1.7 I 35. of rms omperes for m e 120-volt winding short-circuited.4 22.8 17.8 10.5 5.5 9.1 100 150 1 1 I 1 200 250 333 500 104 I 1 I 1 I 1 156 417 625 Normal eurrenl.6.5 41. Primary three-phase short-eircuit capacities vsrying from 25.0 48.9 40.4 1.2 13.5 17.1 25.0 71. The eonditions on whieh the tables are hased are summsrizcd below: 1.51).7 10.3 150.3 13. 3 .5 .51.2 I 32.7 47.000 kva to unlimited kva.000 50.0 3.21 3. 3 1 5 1 . and this value has bem used in thc celculations.5 3.. the circuit-hreaker seleetions are based on the half-winding value of shortcircuit current.9 1 3 5 .000 6.1 73. to X . 8 1 4 7 . . ) .000 250. This worst csse involves the assumption t h a t the primary of the transformer is connected line-to-line on the high-voltage system.8 36.8 33.

For intermediate valuesof cable size locate the horizontal scale points for the desired length of adjacent cable sizes which are charted. For example. 4 Awg . To evaluate the effect of a 100... Using the answer derived from 1 as the source short-circuit-current value for section 2. a No. 130% of lhe acluol feeder Imglh ... Results obtained from the estimating curves without correction can be safely used to select protective interrupters. 2... 4 Awg.. 2 / 0 A r g ....SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 83 Feeders Consisting of Different Circuit Construction in Series. 110% of lhe amal feeder lmglh . No.. 1. a closer approximation of the actual value can be obtained by increasing the apparent feeder length to account for the higher impedance of single-conductor feeder circuits. No. Results obtained for sections beyond the first will be somewhat on the conservative side (higher than the true short-circuit-current value). 3/0Awg cable based on Fig. 250 M C M ..f t run of No. 2/0Awg and a 250-MCM. .... 3. No. 1. No correction Use an Appored Lenglh of Both the 60-cycle resistance and reactance of a three-single-conductor cable feeder in conduit are greater than those of a three-conductor cable feeder in conduit or steel armor in the ratios reflected in the accompanying table: . 2/0-scale and on the 250-MCM scale. The true X / R ratio at the source terminals of any feeder section beyond the first will necessarily be less than 12 since no feeder construction exhibits an X / R ratio as high as 12. A point midway between these two points will closely represent 100 ft of No... Interpolation for Intermediate Cable Conductor Sizes. Evaluate the short-circuit current a t the end of the first section of common feeder construction in the standard manner. and interpolate between these values. 120% of the o c h d feeder lenglh . proceed in the standard manner t o evaluate the shortcircuit current a t the end of the second section. 3/O-Awg conductor.. If desired... Three Single-conductor Cables in Conduit.52.. 3/O-Awg conductor is about midway between a No. 2/0 Awg and No. locate the 100-ft point on the No. . 250 MCM.. Conductor Sirs 500 M C M .... Make an independent evaluation of each common circuit construction starting at the source end.. . Using the answer derived from 2 as the source short-circuit-current value for the third section. proceed in the standard manner to evaluate the short-circuit current a t the end of the third section. Specific cable feeder length scales have been inscribed for conductor sizes of 500 MCM. This follows from the fact that the basic analysis assumes an X / R ratio of 12 a t the source end of the feeder.

. may be used with safety for the selection of protective interrupters.53....52 and 1.. I i 25 106 102 I 1 5 0 150 150 N OTE: Spaced open-wire circuits should be treated by conventional calculation procedures.. such as outlined under Circuit AnalysisGeneral Case..... The curves. Results obtained from the curves...53..P"**E 6 0 C I C L E S SHORT CIRCUIT C W l R E N T i 4CCOOAYP 2 5 0 YCY 3IC INTERLOCKED ARMOR CABLES IN PARALLEL FIG.. 7% I Reactance. The true short-circuit-current value for a two-wire single-phase circuit operating at line-to-line voltage will be about 87 per cent of the t h r e e phase evaluation..4Awg .... No. . Note that feeder circuit resistance is not appreciably affected by frequency.. Figs.. are restricted t o 60-cycle operation. 1.84 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES Conductor sire Residence. . Single-phase Circuits.. Frequency.... a suitable one is given under Circuit AnalysisGeneral Case....55 System diagram used as on example to illustrate the determination of short-circuit currenk a t the end of feeder circuits. 2/0 A w g . .52 and 1. .. while reactance varies directly with frequency.. conventional calculations should be used.. Yo I 500MCM No. 1. UhIN SOURCE BUS 48O"OLTS .... Figs.. For operating frequencies other than 60 cycles. 1.

000 amp Motor ront.56.000) Feeder lengt. Short-circuit current at bus A ? Source short-cirruit current = 40. 4 feeder length scales-Ko. Contribution via feeder cable = 11.25 x & z. at the main bus 1. bus A = 5 X 310 = 1.550 amp (say 25. 1. problem involved in resolving short-circuit-current magnitudes in low-voltage feeder systems is outlined in Fig.550 24. 210 and KO. 1.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 85 Example of Application-Fig. = 1. low-voltage short-circuit current. 4 to No.2). by 1. Since main low-voltage source systems exhibit a n X / R rat.55. 250-MCM feeder of about.GENERAL CASE The circuit.ion via feeder cable = 23. +jX.8G5 amp ~ ~ Short-circuit current a t bus B? Source short-circuit current for section 2 = 24. it. is standard convention t o multiply the symmet.rical short.25 X I symm = .52 (4GO-volt short-circuit current scale.550 amp 315 Motor contribution.25 E Short-circuit current = 1. bus R = 5 X G 3 = 315 Short-circuit current bus R = 11.-rirruit.h scale) : Contribut.s are expressed in terms of three-phase average asymmetrical rms amperes during the first cycle of currcnt flwv.000 amp Motor contribution.ribution. . 1.000 amp Equivalent single cable feeder length = 1595 = 75 ft From curve Fig.h = 75 f t From curve (4GO-volt short-circuit current scale) interpolate between the 7 5 f t point on .X - v5 z* z . current.25 t o obtain the short-circuit current a t the main buses (this corresponds with a n X / R ratio of 12) (see Table 1. 2/0. 10. 2 about onethird of the way from Xo.25 E short-circuit current = Considering the source system X / R ratio 12 E short-circuit current (A + jl) = R.=4 x 1. bus R = 5 X 03 = Short-circuit current bus A = 24.To. Therefore. I n general.315 amp ~ CIRCUIT ANALYSIS.

... 2. R.... / R .. and the three-phase average assymmetrical rms value may be taken as five times the motor full-load rated amperes..... j ( X ... 1.02 I . Izi Rt + + + + + _- +XI) M is the factor to account for d-c offset and is a direct function of the X . K ... XI ... .. ..x. j X . R. is the local motor contribution.s I:* s 1 : ! l Ii6 2 1... ratio a t end of feeder = x.. (impedance to end of feeder) = R.. X .56 One-line diagram for rhortcircuit-current calculation ot the end of feeder circuits-genernl core. I 1 I I I 1 1. Available short-circuit current at X = I.. + 61 2 -SOURCE SVSTEY IMPEDANCE Rg+ j X s OHMS/PHASE '1 I MAIN LOW-VOLTaGE BUS :'I \J 4 FEE0ER:Zf:Rf tjxf OHMSIPHASE IFROH TABLES) LOAD VAIL4ELE SHORT ClRCUlT CURRENT DESIRED HERE IS'CURRENT CONTRIBUTION FROM SOURCE *"STEM ly*CURRENT CONTRlBUTlON FROM LCCAL YOTORS FIG. / R .... ratio XdRt ratio. (three-phase avg assymmetrical rms) I.86 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 2 .. (obtained from reference tables) = R.

Where I J I . I I 4 I R CABLE X FIG.7 to 1. 1. is the available short circuit a t the source end of the cable and I .10.2 R2 .000 amp rms asymmetrical 15.000 amp. 25. 2 / I . 50. The equation is L E= ~ Z 2 1 .000. The tables give the length L of cable a t various voltages which would change the available short-circuit current from I . the shortcircuit current a t the end of the cable of length L.000. to I . Standard protective-device rating levels are: 100.57 Equivalent circuit for determining cable lengths given in Tables 1.000 amp rms asymmetrical 75. 1.000 amp t o 5000. a general expression for the length of cable t o limit the short-circuit current can be derived.X 221. and 50.57 and using the nomenclature of Fig.000.000 amp rms asymmetrical 50. 15.000 amp rms asymmetrical 5000 amp rms asymmetrical The tables show how long a cable with a given con<w%orsize is required to reduce the short-circuit current from 25. where I . From the equivalent circuit per phase shown in Fig.000. is large or R is small.000 amp rms asymmetrical 25. or 100.9.6 l o 1. These calculations were based on the assumptions that the impedance hack of the beginning of the cable is primarily reactive and that the fault i s symmetrical for all three phases. 1.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 07 TABLES SHOWING EFFECl OF CABLE LENGTH Another useful way of showing the effect of length of cable in reducing short-circuit currents is given in the Tables 1. the equation reduces to .57. These show how much cable length is required to reduce the short-circuit current from one protective-device rating level to another for circuits GOO volts and less.

1 32.88 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES In these equations R is the resistance. X is the reactance. ft 26.. .6 69.0 237.8 91 . No.7 128.0 109.0 308.0 206.4 64.8 144. the only values in the right-hand column of Tables 1. .1 171. No.0 706.0 1072.5 13.8 114. .2 87.2 100.. for example. .3 14.4 17. 1 Awg to 250 MCM were put in the table for comparative purposes..4 170.3 263. 110 Awg .0 42.7 7.8 149.0 190..0 50.6 63. 6 Awg 69. For any voltage not given.9 28.6 63.1 192.4 31.0 333. Tables 1. No.000 amp (I. 2 A w g .7 Lirnitina Effect of Cable on Short-circuit Currents at 400 Volts.0 :::: I 1 : .0 7. Conductor size Coble length 1.0 606. that a t 50. 3.0 402.1 86.0 5. 10 A w g .e.10 that have any practical significance are the two at the bottom of the column.8 175.3 11.5 271.9 42.7 69.0 384.3 131 . i t will be noted.8 75. No. No.5 110.3 8. 3/0 Awg .0 592.0 827.7 18.0 723..8 5.0 038. 250MCM. . 4/0 Awg. No.6 67.0 497.8 36.0 126. No.5 468.0 75.9 55. the length is directly proportional to the voltage where L.1 146. The values above that are of academic interest only.5 .9 9. There are certain minimum sizes of conductors and hence certain minimum lengths of cable necessary a t various values of I. Lo = length a t voltage Eo The lengths L for all conductor sizes from No.0 171.000-amp interrupting rating low-voltage air circuit breaker will protect is No. the length a t the new voltage is t o the length a t a given voltage as the new voltage is to the given voltage. I 44.8 34. and Z is the impedance of the cable per unit length.0 I . . .0 775.3 28.5 407.O 111. 12 Awg No.8 162.7 to 1. 14 A x g No.0 890. i..0 564. 2 ' 0A x g . 4 A w g .1 - - - 3. Referring to Chap.5 265. .0 852.7 91 .0 180. __ 2. TABLE 1.5 165.5 106.0 290.0 990. = avail le short-circu: I f = short-circuit current urrent in kiloamperes a t source end of cable kiloamperes ior short circuit a t end of cable of length L .0 122.0 254.4 110. = length a t voltage E.O 159. Hence. .0 960.2 127. .4 11.0 9... No.0 56.0 81.5 43.5 27..7 43.2 184.0 962.4 21.. to keep the cable from being damaged before the protective circuit breaker operates.5 267.5 4. 8 Awg No.8 38.4 21.4 22.8 228.10) the minimum size cable which a 50.0 488.7 to 1. I Awg .1 14.2 53. N e .2 21. 4/0 Awg .8 135.0 664..0 42.

1 51.7 7.. = I1 = availab short-c . = short-circuit current in kiloamperrs for short circuit a t end of cahlc of length L I.4 154...5 9. I 68.9 3.. 356.6 7.8 232.8 10.8 3. 8 A x g .0 .3 !33.0 0.0 17. . 1 Awg No...2 30.5 140. 34._ 66.2 87..3 __ 11. 771 .310.o 396.4 34...6 144.5 21. No.0 663.0 .3 11..5 289.0 105. 17.8 29.0 416..3 22.4 116.... 2 Axg.0 474.. 374.2 40. 132.1 164.2 14.8 72..6 A x g No.8 limiting Effect of Cable on Short-circuit Currents at 480 Volts.7 8.6 136.0 73.4 3.0 331.lOAwg No. 532.5 237.6 22....4 I .8 80. 101.8 9. No.8 44.0 89.1 25.4 2.. 452.2 17.. .5 8. .5 391.3 160.4 27.3 14.0 108. Three Phase Three Single-conductor Cables in a Mmnetic Dud I. No.6 55. 21. 226..9 58.1 52.3. No. 12 Awg..--...8 190.5 36.4 __ 11.5 44... Conductor 25 5 / 1 25 5 / 50 5 i l 50 5 ~ 50 2 5 100 5~ / 100 I5 sire No.4 . . ft 2.3 6.3 45. 6 Axg.. 4/0 Awg ..4 51. 203.8 6.0 . 1 0 A w g No. 713.0 47. = .5 341 .7 106.1 .7 44.6 2.0 621. No. O 5.5 63.5 384.0 768..7 13.4 42. 250MCM -.1 25.3 27. ~ Cable length 1.4 34.4 22.3 242...9 5.12Axg No..0 682.4 60.8 97.3 37.. 10.8 117...4 34.1 54.. 1 4 A x g No.6 4.7 21. .0 7.6 91.8 ... 210 Awg .2 88....o I .5 18.2 25.1 214....9 44..0 17.2 3..5 430.. No.9 4.0 4. 8 Awg No.7 16....1 ...2 39.7 ~ __ I .9 60..8 57.7 03.5 .0 216.0 .5 .0 579......SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 89 TABLE 1.4 5.4 48. 250 M C M .9 34.0 9.0 11..7 8.0 127.available short-circuit currcnt in kiloampercs at source end of eahle I .9 limiting Effect of Cable on Short-circuit Currents a t 240 Volts.0 ._.8 9.9 55.4 17. 42.0 7.1 ...4 85.0 .2 11. No.__.8 195. No..7 .4 8.9 64. 4 Axg.3 11.2 17.0 566. Three Phase Three Single-conductor Cables in a Mmgnetic Duct 100 100 50 25 Conduclor *i*e I ~ - Cable length 1.9 26... 1/0 Awg No.5 5..0 .__..3 7. 110 A x g No..0 ..6 0...8 4.5 3. . I 91..2 108._.5 210.5 2...0 283..8 ..7 5....2 14..5 321.3 77.1 '0. 85.5 35..4 163.4 6...7 51.6 43. No.8 70.5 30.3 .5 52. ...8 No.5 115....385. 27.0 793. . 4/0 Axg.0 199.5 50. . I.6 22.. I 82. ..0 1.5 27.2 183.8 68.0 34. I 4 Awg.8 55. 2/0 A w g .9 40. .0 19.. 153. 4 A x g No.7 73. . fl - ~ ~ .. 3/0 Awg .7 88..5 266.9 3.0 . No..7 7..0 860.0 101.4 64.. .1 50..1 34..._ 187.0 .2 69.6 .2 5.3 105.7 1..0 17... 266.2 32.0 4.4 2. 3/0 A x g No..1 485.short rcuit current kiloampcrcs i S O I I I ~ Pcnd of uit current in kiloarnperPs for short circuit at m i l of c - - TABLE 1...5 3. 308..0 123...0 246.6 107. 54. 2 A w g ..0 .3 28.. I A x g No.3 .4 102.1 76.0 .5 .7 5.0 832....0 3.9 7.4 11.2 - I.8 69..

4 169. No...PO SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES TABLE 1...2 9. No. .... and transformers should be obtained from the manufacturer..0 9. h -9.5 11..6 2. No..8 I..4 66...2 62.5 55. 14 Awg..3 17. . 2/0 Awg.3 245.2 59..9 4. the most accurate reactance data available should always be used..4 172.3 26.0 3 .5 11.1 24..5 172. Such approximate data as are commonly used are given in Tables 1... .3 17.7 51.0 59...2 38.2 15. 4 Awg. 19..0 132.7 .3 67.5 15. 6 Awg.9 6.3 14.3 139.8 1..31. No.0 2..1 6.7 106. 4/0 Awg.5 210. 1 Awg No.. 25 50 I I lo: 9.0 7.0 287..9 18.9 60.9 - REACTANCE AND RESISTANCE DATA FOR MACHINES AND CIRCUITS When making short-circuit calculations. .. 10 Awg.10 Limiting Effect of Cable an Short-circuit Currents ot 208 Volts.3 205. as for a proposed plant or in many older plants where the time and work required to obtain such data from the manufacturers make it impractical to do so..1 10..0 3. 8 Awg.. . .6 4.7 71.9 19.0 133..0 13. Many short-circuit studies must he made without such specific data available.5 269.9 38..8 22...4 92.1 5.0 295. No.2 22..7 14.0 0.I 3. In particular... The most applicable reactances should be selected from these tables......3 14..6 92.5 19.0 50.6 7.. .3 2.1 196. .4 162.0 230.8 59. Three Phase Three Single-condudor Cables in a Magnetic Duct 25 5 Conductor sire No.6 44.8 115.5 143.2 91.4 94. ...8 2 1 .2 141.3 1 7 .5 29.2 56. .9 26. ....3 11.9 7.8 7.5 3. 250 MCM.6 i4.9 2. No... . . . Since a great many short-circuit calculations fall in this category..... .8 23.. reactauce of specific generators.2 4.7 38..3 31.4 28.3 9.. 2 Awg.4 23..0 57.5 160.6 38. 12 Awg. .5 334..0 100 25 100 50 lG Cable length 1.0 L51.5 1.9 12.11 to 1.4 37.0 100. 0 4.. ..4 88.7 14.. 310 Awg.1 42...4 44..4 50. it is desirable to use approximate reactance data.1 31.0 79. .5 15.9 45.. No. No.5 64.. . 110 Awg No.0 23..0 308. larger motors.5 82. No.

.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 91 APPROXIMATE MACHINE REACTANCESdO CYCLES Large Induction Motors... TABLE 1.... Synchmnoui condenrers..... ............ 250 d t s dc...... ........ ......... 23 30 40 a Nearly all salient-pole generators built by General Electric Company since 1935 have amortisseur windings...................1 1 Range M-t 15-25 Common 20 TABLE 1......... ............................ leu... ........................ * With rated voltage and frequency applied..... 15-35 25-45 10-25 10-35 18-35 17-22 28-38 10-20 15-25 25-45 25 35 18 14 27 ....... 14 poles or more.url: 12 poles 0. . For shunt-wound converters add 7 per cent.12 Approximate Reactances of 60-cycle Synchronous Machines Per Cent Vdues on Moshino Kva Roting I I Salient-polo cpnerotors (without amortirre........................11 (in per cent on own kva base).. Add transformer reactance: For compound-wound converters add 12 per cent... 10 33 15 20 30 15-30 20-40 25-60 Synchronous motor^' 6 pole 8-14 pole I 6 pole or more... ....... Synchronwi converterd 600 v d h dc......... 14polnoimne Salient-pole ganomton~ (with amortiiseur): 12 pole* or In.......... ............ These data are useful for estimating reactances of individual large motors of several hundred or several thoumnd horsepower..... ..... The approximate short-circuit reactance of an induction motor (or induction generator) in per cent on its own kva base may be taken as Per cent X : = 100 times normal stalled rotor current* The reactance of such a machine will generally be approximately as given in Table 1.. ....................

.0 8.0 9..0 9..5 7.5 9...0 10..800 1.0 9..0 9. .... ..5 8..5 7.. 625 to 18..400 4...562 1.400 4 .0 16.900 240 480 600 2......5 8. . ..857 1.0 9. ...92 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES TABLE 1.160 6...0 10. .g* rating __ 1200 rpm ~ 3600 rpm 625 500 240 480 600 2.5 9.1 60 240 480 600 2.5 14..400 4..0 10..5 7.5 - .900 240 480 600 781 625 .0 16..5 15. ...5 8.0 9...250 1..5 14.160 6.. ..5 8.5 8. .. ..900 240-4.0 7..900 1. ...0 8.. .0 16. .400 4...0 16.5 9.400 4.8 power facer w rating Volt..5 14..900 13.0 8...5 9.0 9.ling 0. 1 60 6... .0 8.400 4.5 15.160 6. 15.5 11.5 5..0 10.5 6.5 7......5 15.. . .900 240 480 600 2...5 14..5 9.500 ...13 Approximate Reactance of General Electric Company Turbine Generators. 14.250 240 480 600 2.0 10. 16.0 2.5 7.0 16..160 6. ..0 14. ..000 .750 Kva K w . .5 9..160 6.5 875 937 700 750 1.

5 7 .000 4.000 600 2.500 13.0 8.0 9. 8 power facto.5 9.400/4.0 8.500 13.0 10.5 8.500 13.0 10.5 9.800 480 600 2.400 2.800 .5 8 .900 I 1.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 93 rABLE 1.0 10. Vdtoge ‘ding X&‘ 3600 rpm 2. 625 to 18.400 2. 5 10.900 11.500-13. 0 10.400 2.800 480 600 2.5 10.160 6.5 9.500 5.400/4.160 6.400 4. 5 3750 3.13 Approximate Reactance of General Electric Company Turhine Generators.400 2.5 10.0 10.160 6.400/4.0 7 .5 12.400/4.160 6.5 10.5 9.0 9 . 5 7.0 3. (Continued) Kvn rating :w ‘atin( 0 .500 10.900 1 1.0 9.5 9.0 9.000 480 600 2.500 13.500 2.0 10.160 6.250 5.5 9.400 2.0 9.900 l1.800 P .0 1 0 .000 6.0 8.800 480 600 2.375 3.0 9.0 9.400/4.750 Kva.5 8.900 I 1.000 4.125 2.800 480 600 2. 5 7.500 13.900 11.160 6.5 8. 5 10.0 8.

500 12.400 2.750 Kva.375 7.400/4.160 6.0' 11.5 9. Voltage rating X .000 2.500 10.94 SHORT.0' 9.8 power f.5 9. (Continued) w rating Kvo rotinp 0.400/4. - TABLE 1.160 6.5 9.800 9.5 9.900 1 1.900 11. 3600 rpm 7.5 psig hydrogen pressure.500 6.0 10.400 2. per rent per cent 28' 21 34' 27* 20 15 26 21 1 29 35 25 31 I * Based on AIEE Standard No.800 6.800 2.500 13.500 13.0' 11.500 13.13 Approximate Reactance of General Electric Company Turbine Generators.0 9.14 I Reactances Based on Kvo of Connected Motors 1 Tranrient Itern Motor rotings ond connections reactance I 600 "0th or lessinduction 600 volts or lewynchronous l i t e m 1 end 2 indude motor leads1 600 volh or l e u i n d u c t i o n 600 volts or les-ynchronour litems 3 and 4 indude motor leads and step-down bansformen1 Motors above 600 voltinduction Motors above 600 volt-ynchronwr Motors above 600 volh-indudon Motors o b w e 600 voltriynchromur litems 7 and 8 include stepdown transformers1 I 1 Xi.5 10. - .000 * 0. 20.500 13.800 2.0 10.900 11.0 11.Ct0.000 i 8750 15.0 9. 625 to 18.900 11.160 6.400/4.5 9.0 9.0 8.CIRCUIT~CURRENTCALCULATING PROCEDURES TABLE 1.0 8.

............SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 95 Assumed Motor Reactances.. per cent Installed motor k w to source kva (excluding SPW")... . Rolling mills........ In such cases Table 1........ Commercial ond offiso............. Intermittent operotiom. Some typical ratios of total plant motor load which are usable in preliminary work are given in Table 1.......... ...Group of Small Motors....16.... ...14 is used to account for a large number of small induction and synchronous motors.... .. por cent P I .. .. ............ reflnerier.... Paper (excluding grinder mobs).. In many short-circuit studies.. either induction or synchronous.... TABLE 1. 3 Continuous PIOLOS (cement..... Approximate relations of energized to installed motors and of energized motors to source (transformer and/or generator) capacity are given in Table 1.. are not known precisely... The proportions of synchronous and induction motors (at all voltages) should be known for short-circuit investigations. textile). Semicontinuous (paper. 100 90 80 75 110 110 1 67 215 400 .......... Rubber and rolling mills..15.. par cent Plant Induction Sydrnnom Cement Machine shops ond IexHIe. rubberl.15 Rotio of Induction and Synchronous Motors Motor mio....... The kva of the motors which are energized at one time varies also with the type of plant and should be investigated for the more complete studies................... the short-circuit contribution from these motors must be estimated........ ....16 Rotio of Energized and Instolled Motors Energized motor kva to insbled motor k w ........ 40 85 50 67 50 60 15 50 33 50 TABLE 1... However.. .. .... the number and size of motors..

where such data cannot be obtained.2 3.3 3. a function of the spacing between conductor centers and the conductor diameter.o I.8 3 5 10 15 25 37> 50 75 100 1.0 2.6 I . 240/480. TABLE 1.3 R Per.8 4. This assumption is useful because transformer name-plate data include impedance and not reactance. Reactance. generally speaking.5 2. 7200/12.7 2.5 1. cent X Per cent z ~2.7 5.8 1.600 volts- High voltage: 2400/416OY volts and 2400/4800/8320Y "Olt. I n the usual short-circuit study.5 3.3 2.7 2. Knowing the conductor spacing and diameter.7 I .6 1. 3 2. the transformer reactance and impedance may be assumed t o be the same without causing significant error for transformer banks above 300 kva.2 1.7 3. the values given in Tables 1.6 4. ow voltage.3 I.47OY v01b ow voltage: 120/240.600 volts60 yclos 60 cycles Per cent R Per cent Per cent Per cent X z 2.2 1 67 250 333 500 1.7 1.6 2.2 2. However.0 4.96 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES APPROXIMATE IMPEDANCE O F TRANSFORMERS The impedance of transformers ronsidered in a short-circuit study should be obtained from the name platc or the manufacturer.19 may be used in short-rircuit studies for estimating the short-circuit currents in the usual case.4 I .17 Approximate Resistance.2 1. and Impedance of Single-phase Distribution Transformers High voltage. 120/240.3 I.o APPROXIMATE REACTANCE A N D RESISTANCE O F CABLES The reactance of a cable circuit is.6 5.240/480.0 1 .1 2.1 3. the reactance of three-conductor .17 to 1.

0 .. .. 5 . per cent ...06..0 .18 Approximate Impedance of 60-cycle Power Transformers IAbovs 500 Kva) Impedance at kvo bole equal lo 55 C rating of largest Capacity winding for Inwlotion doss. . . ..19 Approximate Reactance o f Load-center-type Transformers....25 .5 p ~ ccnt r for 150 kva snd b&w and varips from approxirnatdy 1 down to 0.... .SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 97 TABLE 1.. Thc p ~ c r m t resistance on the hase given above rangrs from 1. I 5 or lower 6 9 .. D 2s ( + K) X = reactance. 0 .. TABLE 1.0 5.. D = diameter of ronductors.. For standard strand construction K = 0....... .. k r Self-cooled or Forced-oil cooled rating. ...5 - Kro Range Il256-l50 225-500 750-2000 * Per cent resistance on own kva base is apptoiirnatcly 1.0 5..... ..023 log. 15 or lower 3 4 . I 5 or lower 138..0. 15orlower I 5 or lower. I 5 o r lower 9 2 . per Cenl High voltage Low voltage woter-cooled rating.0 down to 0.... I 5 or lower I 15. I5 or lower 4 6 . . ohms per 1000 ft at 60 ryrlrs.... in...... use the imppdancr of thc next higher listpd insulation class. For transforrncrs with a load-ratio control add 0. K = a rocffirient dependent upon ratio of iriside diameter of a ronductor to outside diameter of condurtors... .. in........ 15 or lower ... 60 Cycles (Three-phase) 15-kv Maximum Primary Voltage 600-volt Maximum Secondarr Voltaoe Per cent Reactance on O w n K r o Bore* 3...... 5% 5% 6 6% 7 7% 8 856 For high-voltagr insulation elassrs intermediatr of those given..8 p ~ c r m t on ratings above 150 kva cables in nonmagnetir ducts and without maglietic binders can be determined by the formula X = 0.5 prr ccnt to the vaIu?s IistFd abovc crcrpt in those eases in which a IOWPY impedaner has heen sprrifirtl... 25.. S = spacing of couductors (center t o center). 0 ...

-- -- .00490 0. N .1972 0.00461 0.00468 0.00427 0.00400 0. No.98 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES This formula does not take into account any increase of reactance due t o the spiraling of the strands.0171 0.00480 0..00469 0.00850 0. . 0. 350 M C M .00412 0.00280 0.00598 0. . No. .00336 0.00640 0.00438 0.3135 0..00333 0..00482 0.1240 0. but it may amount to 1 to 2 per cent in small single-conductor cables. 6 Awg No.02000 0.00700 0.0312 0..00520 0.00295 0.00391 0.0100 0.Z/OAwg.0779 0.00450 0. Reactance.1972 0.00495 0.3135 0.01 054 0. Cable insulation thickness varies with different types of insulation for a cable of a given voltage class.00284 0. . TABLE 1. I Awg.00608 0. The approximate reactances of cables taking into account these variables are shown in Tables 1.00346 * Based on 75 C.0203 0.. 300 M C M . 3/0 Awg No.00327 0.00304 0.00486 0.0318 0. The effect of irregular spacing of the conductors and of magnetic binder causes an increase of reactance of single-conductor cables.00208 .0163 0.20 Approximate Resistance.01296 0.00460 0..00658 0.00292 0.3135 0.0779 0. 14 Awg.0500 0. .00625 0. 750 MCM.00800 0.00513 0.1240 0.0106 0.00448 0.00469 0. No.0493 0.00316 0.0031 0 0.00359 0. No.00354 0.00340 0. .1240 0.04899 0.0140 0..0498 0.00860 0.00344 0.00520 0.00547 0. No. 4 Awg O .00687 0.19720 0. ohms per 100 fi Coble size R' X R ' X Z No.00778 0.01606 0.03140 0.00342 0.00632 0.0125 0.0131 0.00986 0. 2 Awg .00575 0.00419 0. .00765 0. 0. 12 Awg No.00362 0.00500 0. 400MCM..1972 0. 0. 500MCM.00456 0.12410 0. ohms per 100 fi Three single-conductor cables per dud.00322 0.00638 0.0322 0.00704 0.07460 0. compared with otherwise equivalent three-conductor cables.20 t o 1.00510 0..00551 0.00557 . No. 8 Awg No.00721 0.d/OAwg 25OMCM.00462 0.3 1352 0.0197 0. 10 Awg.l/OAwg.00474 0.0157 0.0209 0.22.0782 0.. Such increase is usually negligible in three-conductor cables and in large single-conductor cables.00866 0. ..0071 0 0.0117 0. and Impedance of 600-volt Cables in Magnetic Ducts per 100 Ft Three-conductor cable including interlocked armor cablo.

conductor cable including interlocked armor cable. 2/0 Awg . No.00525 0..00363 1 0.1240 0. Fo&r for conesting reactancn. Based (1 7 5 c.02017 0. No.005745 0.0779 0.003562 0.01061 0..0503 0.0779 0.00506 0.00520 0.004619 0. 350MCM.007535 0.006527 0.21 Approrimote Resistance. . 300 MCM.0143 0.0157 0. and Impedance of 5000-volt Cables in Magnetic Ducts per 100 Ft Three.00400 0.00657 0.3135 0.00690 0. 10 Awwg.0197 0.00681 0.83 11 750 MCM 0.. R* X z 0..22 Correction Factors for Nonmagnetic Ducts Single-condudor a b l e . l 4 t o No.0119 0.00519 0. ohms per 100 ft Cable size ___.8 I 1.0212 0.3135 0.00280 No. 500 MCM.003723 No.00567 0.0203 0.0131 0.3/0 A x @ .0493 0.. No.003964 0.00460 0. 0.00640 0.07808 0.93 0.0101 0..005791 0. .1240 0.003477 0.00292 0.004941 0.condudor cobler per duct.0125 0.00800 0.006664 0.00to 250 MCM 1 30010 500 MCM 0.004923 0.00700 0.005299 0.0312 0.610 No.96 I 0.1240 0.00609 0.00969 O.00354 0.. 2 A x g . 8 Awg No.3135 0.00419 0.008785 0. 0 Awg 1 No.00788 0.00461 0. -- --- TABLE 1.00623 0.005308 0.003585 0.00351 8 0.00208 . 0.0781 0.0163 0. 0.00514 0.04944 0.00802 R' X z 0. 1 Awg.00359 0.0 0.00588 0.00535 0. .. . dl rizor of cable No. No.00877 0.003792 0..00735 0.00529 0.0100 0. .00551 0.72 .00611 0. 400 MCM. 14 Awg No. .03154 0. Reactance.0106 0.004439 0. 750 MCM.003436 0.004366 0.4/0 Awg. 8 A x g I I Focton for correcting redrlmces No.0173 0. ohms per 100 ft Three dngle.01304 0.00748 0. 6 A w g .SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 99 TABLE 1.0325 0.003344 0. 250 MCM.0498 0.00545 0.01619 0.00495 0. 110 Awg No. .0318 0. No.3291 0.003677 0.4Arg.003088 0.00547 No.1241 0.00860 0..OO8M 0. .00474 0.

. 4 to 1 Awg Three single-condudor cables in iron conduit....179 0.. No......2 I 14...194 ~l 0.318 Three single-conductor coblei in iron conduit...160 ~ 6... I f 0 to No.075 0..02 0.538 0...581 0.7 0..5 9. 85 11....8 0....0955 Cable size.0176 51 0. ......358 0...74 1..159 0...22 Correction Factors for Nonmagnetic Ducts.....19 0.100 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES TABLE 1...52 0.98 TABLE 1...07 0........63 ..0205 Cable Sire...8 cable Three-conductor cable in nonmag58.6 0..0237 0...222 0.85 0.... Three-conductor cable in nonmognetic duct...11 .. N o ~orreclion i s required for interlocked armor......23 Per Cent Reactance of Typical Three-phase Cable Circuits Per Cent Reactance of 1000 Circuit Feet on o 1000-kva nose System roltoge 1 ! 1 230 460 24.... Three-conductor cable in iron conduit or interlocked armored coble Three-conductor cobie in nonmognetic duct.. __ . 68 ..87 1.. ... 250 to 750 MCM ~ Three ringlo-conductor cables in ironconduit....... I 11....8 1 y 9.4 15.6 18 2.. .72 10..400 j 4..5 23..0 1 I 575 ~ 0. Three-conductor cable in iron conduit or interlocked armored cable. Factors for correcting resistances Factor for correcting reoctancer...... 54.. 410 Awg I 92.2 0. 1 ! 0. No..... (Continued) Three-conductor Cables Determine correct Z from corrected d ~ eof i X and R.9 8.. di sizes of coble No...0943 0...3 Three-conductor coble in iron conduit or interlocked armored I 71. ..955 0.. 00 Awg No.... ..0276 0..1 13... 15..0818 .... 14 to No...800 Cqble sire. 98. 61...8 17.... 0000 Awg to 750 MCM 0..0796 0.024 14..173 0...5 netic duct.85 8.......669 0.477 2.........3 13.900 I 1 I 13..4 12....4 0...

012 0.023 0. TABLE 1..20 t o 1.. Ohms p e l 1000 Ft 0.. The Design of Bus-bar Indust.4 4. Amp 250 400 600 800 1000 Resistance........4 45. APPROXIMATE REACTANCE O F BUS B A R S 6 0 CYCLES Unlike cable circuits the resistance of bus-bar circuits is so low compared with the reactance that the resistances of bus bars may he neglected in all a-c short-circuit calculations without significant error.... . . ..G2 or Tables 1.24 and 1. amp 240 1 I 480 24. There haye been many papers written on the subject of bus-bar reactance calculations..9 600 Plvg-in type: Upto600 60110 1000 Lox-impedance type: Upto600 60110 1000 135010 1600 2000 . TABLE 1. and a complete bibliography is included in t. For practical short-circuit calculations...016 0..0055 .0073 I350 1600 2000 0..7 1.8 7.......0096 0.. Higgins.hc 1945 A I E E Transactions. 64...3 2. Vol. 98. page 385.. ... by T ..114 0.....7 1.24 Reactance of Typical Three-phase Low-voltage Copper Busway Circuits Per cent reoctonce of 1000 circuit feet on D 1000-kva base System voltage Butuoy rating.25...6 11. the reactance of bus bars may be taken from Figs...8 10.....25 Resistance of Typical Copper Busway Circuits Current Capacity of Bvsroy...2 17..SHORT.6 15.... .....J. 1.rial Distribution System: An Epitomization of Available Data.3 2.2 Although not gcnerally used in short-circuit calculations the resistance of typical copper busway circuits is giveu in Table 1..... the values given in Tables 1.7 1.0 7.033 0..2 10.7 15..8 62.CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 101 Where more precise data are not available.23 may be used in short-circuit-current calculations without significant error..58 to 1....25..... ..

1.102 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES FIG. 1. FIG. spacing of rectangular bur bars I 6 0 cycler). spacing of rectangular bus bars 160 cycler).58 Chart showing reactance V I . .59 Chart showing reactance VI.

SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES FIG. 1.60 Chart showing reactance Y I . . spacing of rectangular bus bars (60cycled.

Reactances and resistances may be taken from Table 1. of the conductors as follows: ~ . and C are the distances.I -A. two typical crossarm arrangements are shown in Fig.I - ~ The resistance of overhead lines may not always he neglected without significant error. the equivalent spacing is exprcssed by the formula + A X t ( X C where A . center t o center. The arrangements used in practice will vary from system t o system.4 t o 13. therefore resistance should be considered in short-circuit calculations for short circuits a t the ends of such long overhead lines.8 k v with small conductors 250 MCM or less have significant resistance compared to reactance.104 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES FIG. In general. 1. B .ors.63.26 for small .B . Resistance should he considered in all low-voltage (600 volts or less) overhead lines. spacing of channel bus bars I60 cycler). the equivalent spacing is the distance between conduct. REACTANCE A N D RESISTANCE OF OVERHEAD LINES To assist in obtaining the conductor spacings. but hecause of space limitations only these two are shown.62 Chart showing reactance VI. long runs of overhead lines (several miles) at 2. For ordinary t. For ordinary single-phase circuits.hree-phase circuits. 1.

63 Spocing of pins on four.and six-pin crossarms for vie in calculating line reoctance on 2400/4160-Y or 48OO-volt circuits.27 includes the usual variations as well as “average ohms per mile” which are normally satisfactory for quick estimating work. . 1.P I N CROSSARM AND SPOOL. 1. Table 1. transmissiodine reactance varies over quite a narrow range. Very large conductors. used to carry unusually large amounts of power for short distances.65 for spacings up t o 20 ft. Under usual application conditions. have abnormally low reactance so that this tahlr is not applicable.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 105 spacings (up t o 8 ft) and from Figs.P I N CROSSA-M FIG.TYPE SECONDARY RACK 6 . L--- 67“ 4 .64 and 1.

64 Chart showing poritive-phaie-sequence reactonce of transmission lines using hard-drown stranded copper conducton (60cycle). .106 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES FIG. 1.

1.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURfS 107 POSITIVE SEQUENCE 60 CYCLE EQUIVALENTA SPACING OF CONDUCTORS IN FEET FIG.65 Chart ahowing poritive-pha**. reactance of trammission liner uting .requence ACSR conductors (60cycler).


.6880. . .8 29.6 40... I i O A w g t a 2 5 0 M C M 155 i8520238....5 5..8 No.tion class.75 TABLE 1.70 69 115 138 161 220 287 14 8 16 20 20 40 0.65 0.75 0. .64 0. .4 300 lo 750 MCM.061 . 134 1631180 33.4loN0.1Awg 180208~22345.5 26.235 0.8 __. 4 Awg 250 MCM No.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCUUTING PROCEDURES I 0 9 TABLE 1..846. Wire sire 301 3 6 1 42 Per cent reoctance of I000 c i r ~ u i feet l on D 1000-kvo bore N0.156. ft ohms per mile lslrmded ~ o p p e i l 5 2... .19 0. I 2. size conductors.052.. 1 Awg 0.28 Reactance of Typical Three-phase Medium.70-0.. ~ 6 ~ 1 2 ~ 6 /1 12 8 1~ 1 8 1 d / I 2 / 1 8 1 301 I".5 250 MCM No.258 0.61 0..80 both copper and oluminum 411 UIUDI sizes 0.5 40. 4 1 0 Awg No.64 0.833. .06 0.724. 4 Awg 400 MCM No. spocing of Reoctonce.and Low-voltage Distribution Circuits* ~ System Yoiloge.028..75 0..335.067 1.87 0.65 __ 3.625 0. . kv Approximate equi*o1ent dell.. .27 Approximate Equivalent Delta Spacing and Average Reactance r M i l e of Three-phase 60-cycle Transmission Lines Normal tronrmiirion Line in.732.286 0. 2 Awg 500 MCM No.5 46 4.550..74 0..0 21.77 0..8 45.5 4 23 34..7620.1 28.ul. 230 ~ 460 575 Equivalent delta spacing. .77 0. 6 Awg ~15 0. .073 2..65 0.

000 33. Kv line.800 22.160 6. respectively.000080ohm per pole at fiO rycles.age circuits (600 volts and below) is of the order of magnitude ranging from 0.2 continuous rating of circuit breaker in amperes The reactance of lever switches and disconnecting switches for low-volt.110 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES Volts (line-to-lid Equivalent dslto spacing.0 29.Equirdent delta rpmcing. however.0". APPROXIMATE REACTANCE O F CURRENT TRANSFORMERS These data are useful o~ily for calculation of short-circuit currents ill circuits rat.5 20.0 APPROXIMATE REACTANCE O F LOW-VOLTAGE ClRCUll BREAKERS A N D DISCONNECTING SWITCHES In some low-voltage circuit calculations. the reactance in ohms of a circuit breaker may be taken as 0. depending upon the rating and design.000 12 12 I8 I8 30 30 36 42 48 54 44 66 I10 112 I54 220 5.for sizes ranging from 4000 to 400 amp. design. in. The reactance of circuit breakers varies greatly. For approximation. a sirigle value of reactance applicable to a variety of current transformers cannot be given. Approximate data on renctarice a t 60 cycles for current transformers of . the reactance of such switching equipment may be significant. Therefore. The reactance of current transformers depends 011 their current rating and design arid varies over a wide range. Current Transformers with Primary Circuits of t h e Wound Type.300 4.000050 to 0.0 16. and phase spacing of the switches.5 8. ft * 115 230 460 575 2. depending on the ampere rating.900 13.ed 600 volts and below. to.

For higher burdens.00032 0. WC12. with or ait.00012 These values are also representative of t. rated a t 5000 volts: JW1. T h e reactauce depends on the spacing bctweeu phases.hree-phase short circuits. but the increase is far less than that occurring a t normal currents. and WF12.000 Amp Current Rating of Primary Winding.00022 0.000070 ohm a t currents within the range from 10. WC15-5000 volts. covering current ratings from 100 t o 800 amp based on tests at short-circuit currents.0017 100 I50 200 250 300 400 500 0. Ohms 0. JW4.000 volt 1.ude of 0. The value given is t. such as t. berause of the reduced mutual inductance between primary and secondary windings. Strictly speaking.30.500 volt JSI-15. since a COILsiderable amount of air flux links the primary bar conductor.hout d-c component. the impedance referred t o the primary side will be somewhat increased. The values in Table 1.30 apply t o t.rical amperes. Reactances for other designs of current transformers of the wound primary type may be estimated by applying the folloming approximate factors t o the values of Table 1. the react.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES Ill type W. reprcserit. WFI.. KC60 7500 volts.hat for !&in. the reactance in the three phascs will .30 KF85-7.30. The reactance values based on low burden are conservative fur calculations of maximum short-circuit current.h the t.ransformers with a serondary burden of I volt-amp or less at 5 amp or a t normal i:urrent.ransformers side by side.00050 600 800 0.000 to 55.8 0.0010 0.000 rms symmct.4 Current Transformers Having a Bar-type Primary Conductor. TABLE 1.arice has an approximate order of magnit. JW6.he order of magnitude of the reactance for current transformers of the following types. Referred to Primary Winding Approximate Values at Short-circuit Cvrrenh with D-C Component.ings from 1000 t o 4000 amp.30 Over-all Reactance of Type W Current Transformers. phase spacirig an average value for the three phascs for t. WF6. JW14. Amp Reactance (11 60 Cycles.00019 0. are given in Table 1. Type of Current Transformer Foctor to Be Applied to Reactance Vduer in Table 1.ypes bS2-GO0 volts.000 t o over 80. Rms Symmetrical Component Ronging from 15.00066 0.0035 0. For bar-type current transformers with currerit rat.

. the impedance is higher than at neutral. The voltage drop through the reactor at rated current and frequency divided hy the line-to-neutral voltage of the circuit gives the per-unit reactance on the current rating of the reactor.. considering its length. ....... . 0. ...I12 SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES he unequal i n a side-by-side assembly of current transformers.C REACTORS AND FEEDER REGULATORS The reactance is proportional t o the rating.. .... 0....15 .. and shape... size... of core.. ...31 Short-circuit ImDedance of Feeder Reaulators of I No. (This will also he the per-nnit reactance on the kva rating of the circuit if the rated reactor current is the same as the rated current of the circuit.101 _ _ Step Step.800 Allrolings to160omp Over 160arnp O..O+ 0...0 . phoier Circ. TABLE 1.85 1 .. .O(lCt(l"L* C ~ C ...65 0. Kva of r.....g"l. and the spacing between phases...... !- Min Avg Max ~ _ 2400 to _ -~~ I? I0 I or 3 Ior3 ..O+ . of Type Per cent . Step... but for short-circuit-current calculations an average value can ordinarily be used without serious error... I n d w . 0 0 _____ 4800 96 Amp rO~Y1..) The reactanre of a given step regulator is modified by the position of the tap changer and becomes a maximum a t maximum voltage boost. "Oil.k No....... To say that the reactance for bar-type transformers is equal to the air reactance of the primary conductor... ~ _ _ _ _ O. while at maximum buck.. is a fair approximation.6 0. 1 3 3 1 I 2400 lo 3 13. Indue.7 1. It is minimum at neutral position. APPROXIMATE REACTANCE O F A .....tol Ion base of rd . .

February. pp. Efec. Simplifird Calmlation ai Fault Currmts. 1121-1136. Vol... Trans. A I I * X Committee Ilrport. A I E E . l!)41. AIEE Committw Rrport. 1433. 65. Simplifird Calculation of Fault Currents. 113:3-11:35. 3. 1912. 4-C Short Cirrriit Caleiilating Procdure for Lon--roltage Systems. Vol. Trans. Fault Voltngr Drop and ImpPdanre a t Short-circuit Ciirrmts in Low Voltngr Circuits.. ‘I‘mns. A I E E . 60. 67. A. 0. 2. 4. GO.. 1948. pp. 509-511. AlEE’. pp. p. Srhurig. A I E C Committee Rrport. G. 1941.SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATING PROCEDURES 113 REFERENCES 1. 479-486. Simplified Calculation of Fault Currents. . Darling. Revision Made to AIICI: Report. Trans. 5.. Vol. 194d. Simplified Calculation of Fault Currents. Vol. G I . Octobrr. E k e . Emf. 6.pp. E’ng. A I E E . It. p. 1942.

C. 1. While this procedure is built up from base fundamentals." vol.igators and authors. it is suggested that reference be made t o a more elaborate texthook* which explores the full field of application more completely. It has been common practire t o consider an alternating voltage or alternating current to he composed of two components a t right angles t.. Inc. For other possihlc applications of symmetrical-component analysis such as the determination of unbalanced currents in certain circuits or machines. This analysis technique is used extensively by power-system invest. it is aimed expressly a t the solutiori of electricalsystcm short-circuit problems. POIVPI Systrrns. 1943. "Cirruit Analysis of A.o the determination of short-circuit currents. nor is it necessary t h a t the components be 90" apart. It should he evident that the process is not limited to two quantities. Kaufmann Symmetrical Components as Applied to Short-circuit-current Calculation on Three-phase Systems The unhalanred circuit problems eucountered in short-circuit analysis can be resolved by using symmetrical-component analysis. Developed in this chapter are concepts and procedures for the application of symmetrical-romponent aualysis t. NPWYork. THE USE O F COMPONENTS The separation of an electrical vector quantity into components t o simplify computation procedure is familiar t o all. *Edith Clark?.Chapter 2 by R. H.o each other. I14 . John W i k y & Sons.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 115 For example.2. 2. the voltage drop in the A JWVL Nl phase depends not only on the current in the A phase but on the current in the other two phases as well.)Z = IIZ + I. It is applicable so long as the equations are linear (as they will be in electrical-cirruit work). had the impressed voltage been applied with opposite sequence (. + I2 + I3 = I Thus there is 110 mystery about the use of components. although there are some relationships of which we are sure. With normal rated voltage and light load the current will he of the order of one-fourth or one-third rated value. Under the conditions of balanced currents of sequence ARC there will be balanred terminal voltages of sequence ABC.1 could he represented as a firm fixed value.25 or 1/0.% I. On the other hand. etc. What I Z drop will be produced in the -1phase because of a current I . SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS If the Z per phase as illustrated in Fig.1 A simple i y m m e t r i c d rotor t o be turning a t normal speed in ryrtem.4CB). Assume the FIG. Consider the induction-motor impedance diagram of Fig. 2.333 or three or four per-unit (300 or 400 per cent). i t is evident that this would he equivalent t o . + I. = I or as E provided that = (I1 + +IJZ 1 2 = I1Z + I2Z + IaZ I. +I. Under this condition all three phases appear t o have identical impedances of 1/0. alone? That is a tough one. take the expression E = IZ It is entirely valid t o express this as E provided that = (I. E = IZ I = EY I. the direction produced by an impressed voltage of sequence ARC. Since the conductors of the three phases are magnetiz I A -b cally coupled. 2. the circuit analysis would be-simple. = ZJ.

I .' InZn _ = I. Case 2 .. The displacement angle must be a multiple of 120" since the three phases of a three-phase system are separated by 120". and Ic is 120° behind I. There is one significant observation.116 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS plugging. but this time the application of rated voltage would cause currents of about six times rated value. . is 360" behind I . Inductionvoltage drop in phase B and also with the effect motor impedance dioof currents I . the impedance voltage drop in the A phase will bear the same relationship to the current in the A phase as the impedance drop in phase B bears to the current in phase B and as the impedance drop in phase C hears to the current in phase C . I .16 perunit. I. is 120' behind I . or 16 per cent.. There mould he a balanced set of currents. C . = Z B = Z c . .. Thus the effective impedance will appear to be identical i n all three phases.. Case 3.Z. but its value is now $6 = 0. These are two very important facts which emphasize the value of symmetrical components. This is shown in the following three cases using currents for illustration. BZB _ I_ _ ICZC I C IS Thus Z . In other words. and I c . and Ic is 360" behind I.. the effect of currents I s and I . on the voltage drop in phase A will be identical with the effect of currents I . I . Or expressing this symbolically. and I c Z c are separated by the same angles as I. This also identities the fact that the impedance voltage drops I a Z A . and I . kJ! '. So long as the three currents are equal and separated by the same angular displacement. on the voltage drop in phase grcm. I . that is. POSSIBLE SYMMETRICAL COMBINATIONS There are but three possible symmetrical combinations in a three-phase system in which the three phase quantities are equal and separated by the same angle. and I . The effect of mutual winding coupling alone may make the effective impedance per phase as low as 16 per cent or as high as 300 or 400 per cent. is 240' behind I. Case 1. on the 'IG. the impedance appears to be the same in all three phases. is 240" behind I d and I .

Henceforth reference will he made to case 1 as the positive-sequence component denoted by a suhscript 1 characterized by three equal vectors 120' apart in the normal sequenre A R C .3. The circulation of any one of the three symmktrical three-phase current patterns in a symmetrical three-phase circuit. .hree-phase systems) and may be applied to voltages as well as currents. 1.he three symmetrical three-phase voltage patterns on the circuit will give rise to a balanced three-phase current whose sequence patterti is ideutical with that of the voltage.eriaed by three equal vectors 120" apart hut with a sequence A C B opposite normal. the application of any one of t. 3. Current flow of one sequence pattern produces voltage drops of the same sequence pattern only. the impedance can he regarded as a definite fixed quantity identical in all three phases. 2. the two important properties of these three symmetrical components are repeated. 2. This then is the significance and identity of the symmetrical components (of which there are three types in t. yields a balanced three-phase impedance voltage drop whose sequence pattern is identical with that of the current pattern. Ic CASE I lPOSlTlVE SEOUENCEl CASE 2 (NEGATIVE SEWENCE) CASE 3 (ZERO SEOUENCE) FIG. Even a t the risk of unnecessary repetition. 2. Applied voltage of one sequence pattern produces currents of the same sequence pat. Likewise. even though the phase windings are mutually coupled. For each sequence pattern.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 117 The vector relationships represented by these three cases of symmetrical displarement are shown in Fig. and to rase 3 as the zero-sequence component denoted by a subscript 0 chararterized by three equal vectors with zero angular separation (in phase with each other).tern only. to rase 2 as the negative-sequence component denoted by a subscript 2 charact.3 Symmetrical patterns of current.

leaving the actual resolution until the final solution is approached. . . Its use parallels the use of j as a 90" advance operator. Invariably it will be found that combinations of operations appear modifying a particular vector which can be directly reduced t o much simpler form. 0-12 O+j1. 4 Functions of the 120' operator 0.118 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS THE OPERATOR 0 I n the application of symmetrical-component analysis there will be repeated need t o shift a particular vector by multiples of 120". Particularly in analytical studies it will be advisable merely to indicate the desired operation.5tJO.866 / / /71:a2 / I/ / I / // a3 0.5tj0.866 \ 1.732 -02 0.e..866 :I a FIG. aIb would mean a vector of the same magnitude as labut advanced 120'. while azZbwould mean a vector of the same magiiitude as Ib but advanced 240'.5 Ir-0. The small letter a is used to indicate an angular advance of 120' in the vector t o which it is appended. -50. or often simply vanish.5-~0. 1.866 \+ //' / / f . i. 2 .

( .5 .0. Comparing the operators j and a in more detail to explain Fig. 1-a then becomes 1 . 2.and zerosequence systems.i would be 0 jl.I C240* ADVANCE 0 240c 1200 FIG. + + 4 + RESOLUTION OF SEQUENCE C O M P O N E N T S It develops that any possible patt.866. 2. . the answers will he 3 for the positive-sequence system and zero for the negative. 2. when multiplied hy . But if first the B-phase quantity is advanced 240" and the C-phase quantity advanced 120". multiplied by u2 it hecomes . 2.5 j0.866) = 1.erri of three-phase currents or threephase voltages can be resolved exactly into rombinatioris of the three types of symmetrical components.0. the answer will be zero for the positive-sequence and negative-scquence systems and 3 for the zero-sequence system. Some properties of the three symmetrical-sequence components will he of interest in showing the nature of their independence and the manner in mhirh they may he separated. Referring to Fig.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 119 The significance of commonly encountered combinations of a operators is indicated in Fig. That same vector multiplied by a becomes (in terms of j ) . the vector s u m will then be zero for ADVANCE B 120" . if the vertor sum of the three vectors of each component is made.5 it will he seen that.5 . For instance (az-a)Iswould indicate a vector fl times as large as la and advanced 270' in angle.4.5 Properties of rymmetriccll-component quantitiei. If first the B-phase quantity is advanced 120' and the C phase advanced 240" and the vector sum then evaluated.866 or an advance of 270" and times as large. Fig. 2.j0. a vector 1 t o the right on the horizontal.866.j0.5 jO.4.4.0.

IA I..0 = I. + I.. This suggests that the three sequence components have independent degrees of freedom. I C 1= aI..I20 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS the positive-sequence system. 11 + a l a + a21c I. 11 1-2 = + a2Ia+ aIc 3 Sinre each of thc sequence systems is symmetrical. = 1. I. and I . it can be expected that whatever negative-sequence and zero-sequence component were coutained therein would add u p to zero... 1. three for the negative-sequence system. + I.. Suppose that the three actual line currents I. = = 3 In similar fashion hy first advancing the B-phase current 240' and the C-phase rurrent 120' the sum should then he three times the negativesequeuce component in the A phase. + a Z I c 3I.= all. 2. negative. I.3 to cherk the angular positiou of phase components. + a z I B+ a I c = 3I. 3 I. and l c are added vectorially. Zero sequence: Id Positive sequenre: = Ih0 = 1. it may be expected that whatever positive-sequence and negative-sequence component were contained therein would add u p to zero.. If I. + a l ..40' and then added. and the sum should thus he three times the positive-sequence component. and zero. I. are to he resolved into three balanced-sequence components of types positive. and the answer should he three times the value of the zero-sequence component. and zero for the zero-sequence system. Refer to Fig.. + a l e + a21c 2 = = IS.0 Pi + I s + I c = = 3 If the B-phase currerit is first advanced 120' and the C-phase current 2. one can immediately identify the corresponding comporierits in the other phases.0 + I B + I c 31. a21A I S 3 aIA a21a 3 + + alc + + Ic ..

11 romprise each of the three component systems now have been dekiiicd.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 121 Srgativc sequence: I. The sum of all t..1.. Several fuiidamental equatioiis and commonly used relationships are listed i n Tahle 2. + a2IB+ a l e 3 .hree systems of symmetrical components.urrctits whii. + azIc + I . in symmetrical circuits.\I1 three i. = I. and further it. + 1.hree compotrcnt currents of each phase should equal the original actual phase the three actual line currents (or voltages) into t. + = = ? > >$(O + 0 + 3Ic) = Ic 1 hus a means now has been devised of separat. has bee11shown that the sum of the three component quantities of earh phase does exactly equal the original true line current (or voltage). I ) + IB(a* + a + 1) + I c ( 1 + 1 + 1) I. Phase il : Phase 1 3: I B = + la? f + I I I+ a l c + aIr -t I . + I d + a21e + IC a'IA + a l a + IC + I. IbO .. + I c 3 3 3 = >SIA(aP + a + 1) + I a ( l + 1 + 1) + I c ( a + a2 + 1) !5(0 + 31.a?IA Phase C: Ic = + I. + I c 3 3 3 4$IA(a + az + . + 0) = I B = Ib.. INDEPENDENCE O F SEQUENCE SYSTEMS The fact has been developed that. currents of one sequence produce voltages of the same sequence only and likewise . + I .

Thus in Fig.agc drops added t o get the total voltage drop. I n other words. and the zero-sequence drops will he of cqual magnitude and of zero the actual currents were resolved into symmetrical componcnt... = a.e. Thus the voltage drops in impedances can be separately evaluated for earh sequence componerit of current and the resulting volt. The positivesequence drops will all be of equal magnitude and of positive sequence. Thus t. Phase C: = a21. + I. positive-sequence voltages.. impedances can he regarded as having a definite fixed value identical in all three phases.OZ.122 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS impressed voltages of one sequence produce currents of like sequence only. + aIa2Zr+ I. Phase B : (IZ). The application of these principles t o the solution of unbalanced-load problems now may he studied. hut a simpler attack is possible from concepts already acquired.1 the t. there is no mutual coupling between scquence systems. Here for the first time the advantage of the symmetrical-component approach can be appraised. Similar expressions could he written for the other two phases.I. there seemed no alternate t o thc use of self atid mutual impedances in each phase. and positive-sequence impedances. Z.Z.Zn + aZIa2Zz + I. = IdZI + I.. That is. poshive-sequence currents.Z. may he altogether different from Z2 or Zo. the negative-sequence drops will all be of equal magnitude and of ncgative sequence. howcver.otal impedance drop f current flow is across the impedance Z in the direction o Phase A : (IZ). At this point note that under balanced-load (wnditioiis the current is entirely of positive sequence. Therefore. Thus identical voltages will be generated in each phase minding except that the B phase mill be 120' behind the A phase arid the C phase will he 120" behind the B phase. It seems appropriate at this point to review some physical concepts of the three compi~neutsystems. The impedauce values in the three component systems may he widely different. 2. For each symmetrical-compoiierit system.he usual solution of balanced operation is really a special case iiivolving only the positive-sequence system. Unt..oZO (IZ). . i. The winding pattern in the A phase will he repeated in the B phasc 120 electrical degrees later and i n the C phase 240 electrical degrees later. All source machines generate only positive-sequence vokage.Z.

I c known. Eb.and zero-sequence voltages result from the impedance drop produced by the flow of negative.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 123 TABLE 2.1 Fundamental Equations With line currents I A . and E.a n d zero-sequence components of current. sequence currents are 1.0 = In + Is + I c = I. generated vithin halaneed-winding rotating machines are entirely positive sequence. negative. On the other hand. Generally.. positive-sequence voltages will he greatest at the source machines and diminish as one moves toward the short circuit.. I*. = I d 3 NOTE: Voltages E. Commonly Used Relationships: Negative.and zero-sequence voltages will he greatest a t the .

etc. In the per-unit system. motors. 10. 1. . Currents are expressed as a fraction of an arbitrarily assigned circuit current. For such currents to flow a t all it is evident that the electrical neutral must be connected to a fourth conductor or ground. Positive-sequence voltages and currents produce (and are associated with) magnetic fields within rotating machines which rotate in the same direction as normal rotational dirertion. The latter thus produce machine torques tending to slow down a motor rotor. 52. The value of the per-unit system is a t once apparent.. Unit base voltage and current are arbitrarily assigned a t some one part of the system. the currents add up numerically at the neutral ronnection and become 31. p. Being in phase. Zero-sequence currents are in phase in all three conductors. very little of which crosses the air gap to enter the rotor. and the positive-sequence electrical quantities must produce a torque equal to the load torque plus that resulting from the negative-sequence current if normal running speed is to be maintained.0 in the neutral circuit. i.000. Zero-sequence current will rarely be found in motors since the motor neutral is almost never grounded. The per-unit impedances define the fraction of base voltage which will be produced by the flow of unit base current. it will be found desirable to adopt the per-unit system. Only two quantities can be arbitrarily assigned. Unit values of all other quantities become fixed as soon as the first two are assigned. The values of unit voltage and current at other partsof the system become those which would result from the turn ratio of interconnecting transformers. and transformers when expressed in per-unit on their own rating as a reference base assume almost a constant numerical * S e e Chap. potentials are expressed as a fraction of an arbitrarily assigned line-to-neutral voltage (usually the normal operating voltage).124 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENT5 FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS short-circuit point and diminish as one approaches the source machines. PER-UNIT SYSTEM' While symmetrical-component analysis is valid regardless of the system o f units used. Negative-sequence voltages and currents produce (and are associated with) magnetic fields in rotating machines which rotate in a direction opposite to normal rotation. Zero-sequence currents produce a stationary pulsating magnetic field in the rotating machine stator winding which is predominantly of stator-leakage character. base voltage and base kva or base voltage and base current. The impedances of generators.e. This base current is usually selected to correspond with a convenient round-number kva such as 1000.

the numerical value of Z would vary widely wit. Also. in the per-unit system a particular per-unit value of current flowing into one side of a transformer comes out the other side as the same per-unit value. ..7.o - E.6 Typical symmetrical three-phase circuit. Iai(Zoi + Z L I+ Z + Zr...2 + Z - T ~ I~O(200 + ZLO + ZTO) It will be useful to draw the individual sequence circuits such as indicated on Fig. for a complete list of equations relating ~er-unit values. page 54. . If expressed in ohms.he simple cirruit arrangement shoivu in Fig. 1A-h vb I6 -w V0 tc * vc FIG.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 125 value throughout a wide range of physical size and voltage rating.".." E + T .0 it cau he seen that oue can directly evaluate (in terms of the A phase) Positive sequence: E..05 per-unit (6 per cent) on its own rat.. 1 = 0 0 = = = I.A .(Zci v .. . Zero sequence: Combined : Ti" = v . 2. SYSTEM APPLICATION The approarh to circuit problems consists of writing the relations existing between geuerated voltages and impedance drops in the usual conventional manner except that three sequelice systems may he involved..(zoo t z t o+ zTd + + + + + I.o(Zo0 + + Zro) + T~ Za..) 8 .. .h 110 sigu of any common denominator.Z... For example.(zol zLl zr. 2. 1. In t. ZL.. the impedance of a transformer mill be about 0. Xote that the circuit for the positive sequence is ZG "WY ZL Ec/ ". + + + v. Val Segative sequence: = = r. .ing as a base quite independent of size or voltage rating... 2..dZm ZL2 ZTJ Tio* -ra2(zGs zL2 zr2) ZLO vm0 = -r. + + ZTd v. Refer to Chap. 0 + ve/02 + v.I(ZC.

100 (ZGO+ Z L O t Z T O I t YO0 = FIG. Only positive-sequenre quantities are involved. partirular types of approach. Line-to-ground 4.~+z.126 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS N I 262 z L2 zT2 102- Vaz I- SEQUENCE1 E a = 101 ( Z G I + Z ~ I + Z T ~ I ~ V O I 0 = 102 ( Z G Z t Z L 2 1 Z T Z 1 t V A = v o l t v02+v00 VO2 0 . Double line-to-ground THREE-PHASE SHORT CIRCUITS The three-phase short-circuit condition represents a balanced threephase short circuit on the system. Line-to-line 3. and useful equivalent circuits have been discovered vhich lead to a solution in the simplest manner.7 E o . hence only the positive-sequence impedance system will be needed.rical-component analysis.I o l ( Z G l t Z L l tZT11-102 (ZGZ+ZLZ+ZTZI -1w ~~tz.6 (in terms of the A phase) identically that which mould be used alone for balanced-load prohlems.l Equivalenl sequence circuits of Fig. two additional circuits are involved (negative and zero sequence) which appear about the same evcept that there are no generated voltages therein and the respective sequence impedances are used. In the treatment of unbalanced loads. Generalized solutions of problems presented in short-circuit studies of three-phase systems (circuit-breaker selection or relay appliration) include the following forms of short circuits: 1. 2. TYPE OF APPROACH Through experience in the application of symmet. appropriate selection of reference phase. 2. Three-phase 2. The solution thus simplifies to an analysis of a single-rircuit .

make Zx = 0 Reference phase: L4 I . 2.. total Z I I s = a21A I . 2.. 2. per phase.9: Balanced operation [ ( l ) (2) (3) tied together] For balanced load Z. make Z... Ic = = a21A all The solution becomes simply I. using phase A as the reference. = I. 1. = I.10.9 Equivalent circuit for three-phore short-circuit analysis.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 127 network involving only positive-sequence impedances and is done in the familiar conventional mariner as follows.8 and 2. = aIn FIG. using Figs. For thrce-phase short circuit.-2 I I 2. as illustrated in Fig. +ZX IS= 0216 IC = o h FIG. . = z. 2..3 zx .-v/JI. LINE-TO-LINE SHORT CIRCUITS The generalized solution works out in the simplest manner by considering the short circuit t o exist between the B and C phases. _ _ __ ~ __-_-POSITIVE SEQUENCE N + _c 1 I Ib=lol EO v . = ~ E. +zx E. = Z. I.8 Actual three-phore circuit pattern.


+ z. 3 I. . .a21.0 + a l l a -_ a I= s _ (az-a)Is _ . 2.azI.I . + z* 6 = z .__ I.and (‘-phase ronductors at the short rircuit. for I a 2 and collecting terms .( a Z . = + l a z = (a‘-a) z .1Z1 . The magnitude of total rurrent in the B..a21.*ZZ V .or C-phase conductor is times as much as either of the components. 3 =o The positive..-Ic mz - B.and negative-sequence currents in the A phase will he diametrirally opposite sinre + aIll + a l l .SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 129 So zer(i-sequenre rurrent is involved since Ian = I* + I.0 + aIs . (a2-a)E.all. + 5 .a21.Z1 . 1 z 1 IdZ9 = IG1(Z.Z... .ZI . = -Id The solution now hinges 011 the equality of voltage on the B.. ~ I./(Z.a ) ( .aI. ) is in series with the negative-sequence impedance system Z.aI. 3 3 3 (a-a’) I . . . = (a2-a)I.aIo2Zz = aE. ~ aE. The portion of the solution which contains the circuit parameters E. Also i t is noted that in the reference phase A the negative-sequence current is the negative of the positive-sequenre rurrent. ) suggests an equivalent circuit in whichthe positive-sequence system Z (containing the driving voltage E ..zZz To make V” = ITc a2E... I n most applications.? = Id = I.I.aI.. ) Z 2 E . = .o+ 3 I* . (a-aa)IB . + d l . E.I . + a I c . This leads t o an equivalent circuit connertion shown in Fig.Z. = aE.lZ1 . = al... and impedance Z . Substituting .11. . =1 . only + 6 . Z .aIa1 la. V B = a2E. -~ 3 3 3 I.. ZJ + + la.

V ( . Suppose the linc-to-line impedance t o be Z F . + z . ~ v3 . 4 solid line-to-line fault at. + ( Z F / 2 ) + z*+ ( Z P / 2 ) = En = 4 1 P . ) = V ( .. EG Resolving further. in which case 110 attentioil need bc given the relative phase angle between this current and the refereure voltage. I . (I) open For a line-to-line impcdance Z F . . 2. ) ] .8 and 2.ude is of interest. make ZX = 0 Reference phase: A (Bourrdary conditions: I .onsidering the systcm to he extended through an additional symmetriral branch containing an impedance ZF/" per phase.+ z. E. POSITIVE SEQUENCE I I I NEGATIVE SEQUENCE Iai I I I I 22 Val va 2 zF/2 -"W& N * . The same generalized siilution ran bc applied to a rase in vhich the short circuit contains impedanre. 2. .-j + z. The solution is as follows.+v'AVP zF/2 1a2FIG.ion (line B to line C ) ( 2 ) connected to (3).11: Line-to-line connect. make ZX = Z F / ~ For a line-to-line short rircuit. . = . = 0. using Figs.I c . the end of this branch produres the efleot nf an impedance Z P ronnerted line-to-line on the basic system. F z1+ z.1 1 Equivalent circuit for line-to-line short-circuit analysis.I. the solution hecomes simply Is = z.130 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSlEMS the magiiit. This can be simulated by i.

IMPOHTANT SOTF:: Zero-sequence current flows through the neutral impedance Z. The boundary conditions whirh must be satisficd at. SOTE: Circuit is symmctrical except for short-rircuit connect. 2. I. = o Ig = o Ic = o . are Solution. + + + . Since Z. exist. Thrir equivalent Zomill be three times the value of Z . = I J i V-1 0 = IOZZl v . ..12 for circuit conditions. This mill he of Zo t o represent the neutral impedance Z true of all circuit impedances appearing in the neutral conductor. = = 0 0 The relat.hat phase on which the short circuit. 3Zn EOUIVALENT SEQUENCE CIRCUITS I N TERMS OF T H E A PHASE FIG. = 0 I.ionships which prevail in the symmetrical part of the system are E .s.oZ0 v 0 .ions. inserted in each phase..SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 131 LINE-TO-GROUND SHORT CIRCUITS Refer to Fig.1 2 Circuits involved in line-to-ground short-circuit analysis. Zn { + : % : ID+ L-0 SHORT CIRCUIT ON PHASE A vc - IB+ IC+ BOUNDARY CONDITIONS vp. the corrert value . 2 0 = I. but in Z . .12. v. The three sequence circuits are defined in defined as the impedance per phase. mill be 3 2 . 2. the magnitude is 31a0. The simplest solution is arrived at by sclecting as the reference phase t. Thus thc voltage drop will be three timcs as much as would be produred by Z . the short circuit. 2.

. = I d + + + + I ..u = 0 = a21. = E.132 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS Equating these to satisfy boundary conditions. Only if the individual component currents are equal and 120' apart in both the B and C phases could this be possible. + I. I C = I.I. I. . + z*+ z. = 0 (a' a 1)1.0 0 = = =0 = = = IC from l e gives l a.I...o = 0 I.1 + al. This suggests that the solution can he made in terms of an equivalent circuit in whirh the generated voltage E.. I. .I . I ( Z I I - + Z .ZO Ea = I . = V-1 I. = + + + Thus: i d = I. = 1.I . = IS.. and Z o in series.Io2Zs . . gives IB= a21a1 al... into the V Aequation gives Substituting v. This fact might have been evident by the geometry of line currents at the short circuit. . = I..z 1-2 (a2-a)I.. is Ia1. + Ian a21.. + Van E.. = (az-a)lal + (a-a2)ia2 +0 = 0 (a2-a)I.. Since 1-1= i 0 2 = Ia0 there is no conflict with Kirchhoff's law at the junction between the individual sequence networks.I*.. + Zu) E. .Z. The equivalent-circuit concept is helpful even when .IZI + I d 2 + 1.oZo This still suggests the series ronnection of the three networks hut recognizes that the current in Z . It is more accurate to think of this to he in the form Ea = I.. V .oZo + I.. = = Substituting t. The important result is the equivalent-circuit concept by which the sequence networks ran he interconnected to yield an answer for the value of I.1-1 I. and IaO = I. - I. in Z 2 is lo2. Z 2 .n al. is impressed on the three impedanre networks Z. 4 I... + a21a2+ 1. = I.".l o i Z i .. Subtracting + V. and in Zois Io0. The sum of the three component currents in the B and i n the C phase must be zero.u 0 + Ic2 + I.his result into I . = 0 .1 aI. But this would mean that in the A phase the component currents would be equal and in phase.z ... .l I.Z%.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 133 the solution is to be obtained by numerical computation.13.14 t Equivalent circuit for line-to-ground short-circuit analysis. the value of current in the fault (I. ZERO SEQUENCE N _---__-__zo VVAv “20 1 I . Where t.. = 31. LUSETHESAME PROCEDURE FIG. 2. .) is Knowing the value of I 10 = I A = 1 . . the procedure outliiied above is modified as shown in Fig.. . 1 +2 . 2.1 3 External impedance in the line-to-ground connection. THbT I + : BEYOND THIS IMPEDANCE RESULTS IN ZFCONNECTED LINE-TO-GROUND..1 whirh is t.THE INCLUSION OF ZF IN THESE PHASES PRODUCES NO ERROR. ZF -1 I I Iao FIG. hut it is of partirular importance if use is to he made of a d-e or an a-e network analyzer (calcuiating hoard).here is impedance in the short circuit or in the neutral path. z ..he equivalent circuit. 1 + I.. 2.RCJlT OF ZF PER PhASE LZFI’ZF~=ZFO=ZFI A SOLID SHORT CIRCUIT TO GRD NOTE: SINCE I B = I c = O . .* + * .hree times the current found directly from t. I : - I L-G CONNECTION THROUGH IMPEDANCE ZF M 4 G h E TnE SYSTEM S EXTEhDED THRObGh Q BALAhCED C..

he .he normal running impedanre ( i t 1 the order of 100 per cent.wo artions are taking place in the synchronous machine.. = Vao = E.134 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS Summarizing. (3) open For a line-to-ground impedance Z. = 0 Referenee phase: A [Boundary conditions: I .. For a line-to-ground short-circuit. For the first cyrle of short-circuit current. t. = 0. V(.14 and 2. = I. 2. ( 1 ) open. Induced field currents are decaying. the subtransient rcact.= I. Zx = 0 Reference phase: A [Boundary conditions: I .8) Line-to-neutral connection (line A to ground) (1) zonnected to ground. the solution becomes (see Figs. ) = 0 1 I..wo. The effective pi)sitive-sr(ioetice reactance is consequently influenced by time.) = 0 1 v. I.erns which rotat. - I. and t. I A = = + z* + zo + 32" + 3 2 . Positive-sequence currents are associated with mmf patt. I d f Id + Id z. = v..o = E.2+ 32. ZC = 0. During t.) = V(.Z.15: Double line-to-ground solid fault (line B t o C to ground) (2) and (3) connected to ground.. make Z . V ( ..ransient effects have decreased t o negligible proportions and the transient reactance of synrhronons marhines is i t i control while the effective impedance of induction marhines has inrreased to a value close to t. ZI = Other Cases. z. The equivalent circuits by which other common circuit conditions can be evaluated are worked out in a similar manner as. + Z? + zo + 3z. = 0. make Zx = Z . a double line-to-ground fault would he solved as follows using Figs. 3E. serond or t.. Within a few cycles the subt.he next. + Z" ~ ZZO Rotating-machine Characteristics. 2.e at synchrouous speed in the normal rotational dirertion.ance of synchronous machines and the standstill reactance of induction machines apply. 011 its o\vn base). for example.8 and 2. (2) open.

H 3 the high-tension system will lead the lowtension system by 30'. 2.andards also st. 2.and negative-sequence impedauces are equal as are those of all stationary winding circuits. but it will he well t o recognize that special treatment will be needed t o obtain correct results in such cases. H. Standard convention has agreed that the terminals designated H . This displacement is the result of winding geometry and is not of the . The positive.erminals HI. Negative.ion of a n automatic voltage regulator.and zero-sequence impedances of rotating machines car1 he considered as remaining constant regardless of the duration of shortcircuit-current flow.16.-1 I I ZERO SEOVENCE +--A VOO I 100FIG.1 5 Equivalent circuit for double line-to-ground short-circuit analysis.. effective machirie reactance is approaching the synohrooous reactance. so a considerable number of typical comhinations are defined in Fig.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS - I35 POSITIVE SEOUENCE I I ' FI I $+EO & z v l: Iai+ . The effective voltage ahead of synchronous reactance is approaching the value established by the steady-state field current and may he influenced by the operat.. and X I shall be those which are only 30" apart. There is an inevitahle phase displacement hetween the highand low-tension line circuits. Present st. TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS The zero-sequence circuit produced by various transformer connections is often a source of trouble. There is one tricky aspect associated with Y-delta or delta-Y transformers.ate that when operated with electrical sequence A B C ou t. Rarely nil1 it be neressary to evaluate short-circuit-current magnitudes for prolonged time intervals.


Zero-sequence current cannot flow in the circuit t o a deltt-connected 11-inding (see Fig.IN' assuriated with terminals H. . 2. Y Winding Connections. Delto Winding Connection. Thus the zerosequence circuit is always interrupted at a juiirt. it ivill then be possible t o identify understandably the serosequetirc circuits of more complicated practical transformer connections..18 A circuit connecting with an ungrounded Y-connected transformer winding. FIG. H . so a considerable number of typical combinations are defined in Fig. l3y reason of these fa&.18).SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 137 nature of an impedanre voltage displacement angle. Iao - FIG. Thus if the standard transformer is operated with reversed sequence.17 A circuit connecting with ( I delta-connected transformer winding. By first examining the zero-sequence properties of simple winding patterns. . even though zerosequenre current can flow within the closed delta circuit. The zero-sequence circuit produced by various transformer couiiectious is ofben a source of trouhle.. electrical sequence .17) sinre there is no eleetrical conuection t o ground by which it could return. while the negativesequenre mrrent i n the high-tension -cirruit will be retarded 30". the high-tension system will lag t. 2. i. as is defined in Table 2. 2.uugrounded. HI. 2. Tronsformer Zero-sequence Circuits. the positivesequenre rurrerit and voltage iii the high-tension circuit will be advanced 30" with respect to that i n the low-tension circuit. Zero-sequence current cannot flow in a cirruit ronnerted to a Y-connected winding if the neutral is not grounded (see Fig.ion with a delta-connected minding..1G.2. in a Y-delta or delta-Y transformer with standard ronnertions operating with normal sequence. 2. Thus the zero-sequence circuit will be interrupted at the jurirtion with a Y-connected winding if the neutral is.e.he low-tension system by 30".

. H I will hc 30" behind X . I:.. H . PHASE SHIFT I N A-> OR )-ATRANSFORHER Standard. with opposite phase sequence. 1. = -jr o.and low-tension line currents in B slightly different manner so as to simplify the associated phase shift opcration. = i i I b . 30" ahead of X I Many investigators pwfer to exprrss the relationship hetween high. = + j ~ * . = -j1tIs = +I. = -jZo1 = -jib. I:. 1:. H I 30" ahead of X I I:. = +jI-* = +j1bx z. Standard. for example. the transformation ratio must also he factared in.2 Transformer Phase Shift With standard d-lta-Y or Y-delta transformms. H I 30" behind X . = +jZO ZC I. z : Z ' r2 = +I<> = -jIa9 NOTE: If currents w e not in per-unit.138 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS TABLE 2... H I (high voltage) will hc 30" shcad of X I (law voltage) for normal phase sequence..

2. . A n exception to this rulc is presented hy the thrce-phase core-type design whose construction is as indicated in Fig. which is low enough to have practical significance. 2. the primary zerosequence current is limited t o the magnetizing current of the core (in t.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS I39 Zero-sequence current. 2. Since there are no external core legs between upper and lower core yokes (as would exist in a shell type of three-phase design). 2000 per cent on the transformer rating.20. The magnetizing reactance c represented by this flux path FIG. (the same as the normal positive sequence ZT).21. 2. 50 per cent on the t.19 A circuit connecting with 0 grounded Y-connected tronrformer winding. (see~Fig.he secondary windings can he caused t o flow in the direct. Kote. in a circuit connect. the zero-sequenre flux must return largely through the air. If the secondary currents in Fig.ransformer rating.h is in phase in the same direction in all three core legs.iori iiidicat.19).ed t o a grounded-neutral Y-connected winding can flow if zero-sequence rurrent.. The flow of zerosequence current. but thecrossover to t. in the primary windirig produces magnetic flux whii. that the zero-sequence currents are not repeated in the outgoing line circuit but are short-circuited within the delta winding.ed by the secoridary arrows.he core yoke at both the topand bottom isdirectly through air. 2. The closed delta provides a circuit for t h e flow of zero-sequence current. F I G . 2.t y p e tronrusually he in the order of 30 to . however. The steel tank walls provide a fairly low reluctance path forpart ofthereturn circuit. .19 cannot flow. This represents a Z O of ahout. which for practical purposes may he regarded as infinite. The impedance presented to the flow of current is the interminding impedance Z.-. Zero-sequence current in a circuit connected to a grounded-neutral Y-connected winding can flow if another set of transformer wiridiiigs is connected in delta as in Fig.he order of 5 per cent of rated current for 100 per cent impressed voltage).20 The three-phase c k . in t.

23 is illustrated a particular typical syst.4-kv system radiating from bus L1. is obtained which would then look like Fig. 2. showing an interruption of the zero-sequence circuit by an open gap. 2.22. The transformer simply inbroduces a series impedance in t. 2. 2. By this method one ran be constantly aware that a break in the cirruit was intentional and not the result of an oversight. I n this case the tramformer t. When drawing zero-sequence circuits for extensive systems. Circuit Resolution Example. The first step involves a resolution of equivalent impedances by which the entire hulk system t o the left of hus L4 is expressed as a single equivalent impedanre.o designate transformers in the manner shown in Fig.or negative-sequence current. . it is a good plan t.16. I n Fig. 2.21 FIG. Some of the more rommon ones are identified in Fig. the equivalent zerosequence circuits for the usual transformer connections can he directly resolved. FIG. etc..he zero-sequence circuit which in magnitude is identiral with the normal positive-sequence impedance Zr.22 A circuit connecting with a grounded Y-connected transformer winding with another grounded Y winding on t h e same core structure. In many cases A circuit connecting with a grounded Y-connected transformer winding with a delta winding on the same core structure. 2.140 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 111 a Y-Y-connected transformer& b&L neut. as in Fig.em. until firially a single equivalent impedance value connecting with bus L . and zero-sequenre circuits is also portrayed. Suppose that the immediate problem concerns the evaluation of various performance qualities on the 2.rals grounded. The resuking composition of the positive-. With this understanding of elemental behavior.ransfers zero-sequence current from primary circuit t o a serondary circuit in the same manner that it transfers positive.16. zero-sequence current can flow if the 'reflected zero-sequence current in the other winding finds a closed circuit at some point along the connected circuit.24. 2. negative-. This would be accomplished by successively paralleling.

SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 141 i t vill he at onre apparent that the impedanre of transformer T swill he the major rontrolling impedance in the circuit from Ai'. 2.23 Typical system example. .. I n this case it may be entirely reasonable t o consider that rated voltage is sustained on the high-tension side. or consider the short-circuit rapacity at the hightension terminals to be about equal t o the interrupting rating of the MOT MOT .S.

2.8. . are only rarely used. 2.25. and E'. Provision is made in the network analyzer directly to measure current in or voltage across individual branches of all three networks. 2. It will be of interest t o note that the zero-sequence system is quite discontinuous.23 might he set up on the d-a or a-c network analyzer. The circuits for obtaining 10 or Eo alone are frequent. each individual sequence circuit would be tapped at the point PI. 2. or a particular sequence quantity excluded.142 SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS switching equipment on the bus M.24 Simplification of Fig. 2.14.. Possible applications would be (1) making a single-roil voltage regulator responsive t o positive-sequence voltage of F I G . which is typical of practical systems. For each sequence system the correct impedance network is that obtained from the tap lead P I and it.s own neutral bus N . Measurement of Individual Components. 2.15).ral system. line-to-line rated transformers and secondary loading resistors should he used t o avoid overvoltage hazards. The circuits for individually segregating the sequence quantities I .) The delt.23 for study of performance on bur 14. (In applying potential transformers for measuring EO on an urigrounded neut.a-connected current transformer circuit (which excludes l o in the output) is useful in providing internal-short-circuit protection for grounding transformers. T o examine an operating characteristic at the point P I . used. For comprehensive studies of extensive system networks.11. the equivalent sequence circuits shown in Fig.9. The interconnections between sequence networks will he governed by the type of unbalance (see Figs. Useful measurement connections by which a particular sequence quantity may be independently resolved. 2. are identified 011 Fig. In the present illustrative problem the zero-sequence system associated with bus L 4 is independent of that on bus M2. 2. some such approximation will be required in practically every problem since the actual line interconnections will otherwise extend over the entire electrical distribution system of several states. 2.

It is of interest t o note that the usual open-delta line-to-line connected in the secondary.VIOI NEG4TIVE SEQUENCE VOLTAGE l i = mR A T I O I ZERO SEO'lENCE POS!TIVE SEQUENCE JO 8661 NOTE .25 Measuring circuits for segregating specific components. 2.8" INTERCWNGING LINES B B C METER WILL READ Vo2 FIG.SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS FOR THREE-PHASE SYSTEMS 143 the three-phase system. . potential transformer application excludes go C U RR E N T ZERO SEQUENCE IK=CTR. ( 2 ) providiug a protective relay which will trip if the sustained negative-sequence voltage exceeds a preassigned value.

and r~ombinat. 1 atid 2.ion.s has heen dispelled by actual measurements of short-circuit currents of over 100. When systems are so designed. the maximum short-circuit current at any point should he less than the short-circuit rating of the equipment applied at that piiint. I n other cases. using the methods outlined in Chaps. dist.h led to the installation of inadequate short-circuit prot. Nariy former fallarious ideas w1iir. one cannot be sure thitt adequate short-rircuit protcrtion is provided. it is common t o speak of them as having adequate short-circuit protert.000 amp a t this voltage. These rdrulat. For example. First accurately determine the available short-circuit currents a t all sigriificant poir1t.s hare beerr dispellcd. 2 .ing procedures have been verified by many tests on actual systems and in short-cirruit testing lahoratories. Kaufrnann Selection of A-C Short-circuit Protective Devices and Circuit Equipment HOW TO BE SURE OF ADEQUATE SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTION To design an industrial power distribution system adequate from a short-cirruit st.s in t. ouly about 20. they are said t o have adequate int. L ' i i t i l t. s\ritvhes aiid fuses. Horn can one be sure that. Iiistall only short-circuit protect.iou motor starters of known adequate I44 .000 amp maximum short-circuit rurreiit could he obtairied at -180 rolt.andpoiiit. the idea that. H.o follow: 1.errupting capacity (IC).he magnitude of short-cirruit currcnt is known. a plant.Chapter 3 by Donald Beernan and R.ribution system is adequate for all short-circuit eonditions? Mere are the steps t.he system.ive devires such as circuit breakers.ectire devires arid circuit elemerit.

arid new transformers were added t o the bus t o supply the added load. Many systems which have been operating for years have never had a major short circuit.hat short circuits never occur. as the stresses increase as the square of the shortcircuit-magnitudes. Short-circuit stresses must be checked too.ion becomes and the greater the possibility of major short cir- . the weaker the insulat. the cirruit breakers will become too small from ail interrupting standpoint when capacity is added. Operators of these systems have come to believe t. 111 many cases no thought was given t o t. so they do not bother about interrupting rating of rircuit breakers. However. 11 t o 15).e. as the plants grew. The older the system grows. 4. and only small transformers were required t o supply the plant. Use circuit elements of known adequate shortcircuit-current rating. Do not he complacent. Often this added short-circuit current was sufficient t o bring the total short-circuit current beyond the rating of those existing circuit breakers. Main and auxiliary switchboards in hundreds of plants in operation today were installed years ago when the plants were small. If the system is installed with circuit breakers that are large enough only for present requirements. through oversight nothing was done about it. Equipment of adequate short-circuit rating can be obtained t o meet the requirements of all industries when proper consideration is given t o system design from a short-circuit-protectiorr standpoint. Prepare for load growth. This belief compares with the assumption that fire insurance is not necessary because the factory has never burned down. This higher short-circuit current imposed added interrupting duty on the old circuit breakers when they were required t o clear a faulty feeder cable. the available shortcircuit current also iiirreased. Consequently.o consider the effect of increased short-circuit currents has heeti one of the most common causes of many of the older installations being unsafe. However. breakers because t. Hovever. The power demand was limited then. more power was needed.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 145 interrupting sating.hey carried their load currents satisfactorily.y of the power supply inrreased. Future expansion can be accomplished at practically no added expense in the initial installation by employing a modern poiver-distribution-system layout (see Chaps.he circuit. 3. At t h a t time the switchboards may possibly have been adeqnat. the capacit. Xew feeders were added t o carry the new load. leaving the plant vulnerable t o a major shutdown if a fault occurred which one of these old circuit breakers failed t o clear. when new transformers were added. The system should be designed and the circuit breakers should be selected on a hasis that will enable expaiisioii without exceeding the circuit-breaker interrupting ratings. Failure t.

so it may pay real dividends not t o be complacent ahout short-circuit conditions. adequate circuit prot.ertive equipment is necessary throughout the ent.enance involves continually repairing and replacing weak parts hefore they fail. In the engineering approach a study is made to determine riiiim which was part of the distribution system..hink of running a boiler indefinitely just hecause “ i t had never failed. The cost of a loss due t o a failure then is far more than it would have been to modernize the switchgear oil a planned step-by-step basis. a fire resulted and completely destroyed the switch house.he failed circuit hreaker and thus drop all the load instead of just the one * ion. the circuit breaker attempted to open the circuit hut did not havetheability todoso.ems. so the same intelligent engineering approach should be used in providing safe.he smallest motor or light. An inadequate circuit breaker mas mounted in a svit. Good luck over a period of years may give a false assurance that failures are never going t. .146 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT cuits. An Example of W h a t Can Happen When Available Short-circuit Currents Exceed the Interrupting Rating of Short-circuit Protective Devices. the plant investment can be more adequately protected and undue risks eliminated. No one would t. 5. Use an engineering approach. adeyuat.ive nature. the circuit breaker failed. Luck might change for the worse tomorrow.he electric system and remedy them hefore a major shutdown occurs. The results of the failure of an inadequate circuit breaker can he as serious as a boiler failure. Thus.ain to cause a major shutdown with possible damage t o other propert. As a result. rating of the circuit breaker i n the switch house. load on the fauky hranch.e circuit breakers as is used with other machinery even thongh one has heen lucky enough over a period of years t o avoid the failure of an inadequate circuit breaker. The circuit breakers too are often inadequate in these old syst.-protection prohlem is approached on an engineering basis instead of depending on good luck. A short circuit occurred in the outgoing rable. good luck eventually runs out as it has in so many cases. i. finding the weak spots and correcting them before a failure does occur.y as well as loss of production.” Preventive maint. with attendant financial and production loss. This meant unnecessary loss of prodwt‘ Second. To have a safe power system with low maintenance cost and high service continuity.o occur.he weak spots in t. blew up.ire system from the place where the power system enters the plant down t o t. The engineering approach is of a prevent. but. the circuit breaker at the source had t o clear the fault in t. when a short circuit does occur it is almost cert. The short-circuit duty was well above the interrupt. If the short-circuit. and when it did two things happened.e. First.

h house had already hcen rcplaced mit. One can never tell how long hia luck will last wii. Ariother important function of mnst short-circuit.e unes. erigineer had ri~cogriizetl the inadequacy of the circuit hrcakers in this swit.her circuit breakers in this switi.ant. It.1 Rerull of foilure of inodequote oil circuit breaker on heovy short circuit. Fortunately the switrh house was isolated from nl. The irony of this fiiilurc was that. One of the most house aiid was replacing t.nry of what happened hotter thaii ii book of mords could.her I~uildit~gs. is that t h e shorteircuit protective device be adequate for the service. may rim out sooner tliaii one thinks.n provide adequate short-circuit prntertinn for an industrial power syst.1.h inat1t. llad this fsilurc ocwrrcd i n a fiict.ory tiuilding. fuses.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 147 FIG. SELECTION O F THE TYPE O F SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICE 1 here are marly features t o he cnnsitlered in t. The ot. T o m( requirements fully and eomplctcly for both circuit switching and short- r l . The adrqiuicy of circuit breakers. Ihe picture.em. 3. 3.hey also provide a means of switehi!ig circuits nder normal operat. prot ive devices is that t. Fig.liey \wre destroyed too. or motor st. and t.ers can be determined from t h e procedures outlined in Chaps.e circuit breakers or fuses.e ones. the plant. I and 2. tells the st. and orily the switrh house burned dn\vn.hem with adequat. the damage could have been much more cxLensive.he sr?lcvtioii of shortcircuit protective devices t.irig conditions.

the probability of single phasing of three-phase circuits is eliminated from a practical standpoint in so far as the circuit protective equipment is concerned. open all ungrounded conductors of a circuit. Fuses Some motor starters are used for short-circuit protection. A modern circuit breaker meets all the basic requirements listed above. Circuit breakers in general are suitable for elec- . Eliminates Single Phasing.e.. It combines in one unit a device for safely switching the circuit under normal as well as abnormal load conditions and t o automatically open abnormal rurrents up t o its interrupting rating. Electrical Operation. in all except a few special cases where single-phase switching is used in transmission-line circuits. 3. 2. The adjustment is either in the built-in tripping devices or in the relays associated with the circuit breakers. a protective and switching device should fulfill the following basic specifications: 1. More detailed comparisons are made on the basis of syst. There are two fundamental devices that are commonly used for or have as one of their functions short-circuit protection. CIRCUIT BREAKERS-GENERAL M e e t s All Requirements.ems voltage classes. It can safely open any current within its interrupting rating. The total time t o operate under various overcurrent conditions is adjustable for practically all circuit breakers. Therefore. Circuit breakers 2.148 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT circuit protection. These are: 1. Adjustable Tripping Time and Pickup. It should safely open any current that may flow through i t up t o the interrupting rating of the device. i t is capable of automatically opening any current which is above the pick-up setting of the tripping device and below its interrupting rating. The adjustability of time of operation makes the circuit breaker ideally suited t o selective operation as is required for circuit protective service in a system. It is designed and rated to be capable of heirig safely closed in on any current within its momentary rating (some oil circuit breakers do not fully meet this requirement). (1) 600 volts and below and (2) above 600 volts. A basic comparison of fuses and circuit breakers will be made and their area of application outlined. Circuit breakers. It should be capable of being safely closed in on any load current or short-circuit current within the momentary rating of the device. hut in general these have either circuit hreakers or fuses as the short-circuit protective element. When proper relays or tripping devices are applied. i. It should automatically interrupt the flow of abnormal currents u p t o the interrupting rating of the device.

Wide Choice of Current Ratings. When the circuit. inspection and some maintenance may be required after each duty cycle at or near their interrupting rating. Minimum Temperature Effect. greater accuracy as a function of ambient t. Of course. Furthermore. Interrupting levels are available from 5000 to 100. Trip-coil ratings run from 15 amp up. etc. Wide Selection of Time-current Characteristics.he interrupting element. Most circuit-breaker time overcurrent tripping devices and relays are not appreciably affected by temperature.000 mva at higher voltages. * * Refer to applicable NEMA standards. . These permit the application engineer to apply them on a sound safe basis and within their rating. Or the relays may he specially designed to protect transformers or any ot. Various types of relays with special characteristics to meet particular service requirements can be used with circuit breakers to broaden their scope of application.her piece of equipment or circuit. Circuit breakers are made under rigid industry standards which prescribe complete interrupting ratings for them and methods of test for establishing interrupting ratings. hence the same protection is afforded all the time. Proper derating factors must be applied for repetitive-duty cycles and high-altitude applications.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT I49 trical operation. remote operation. Circuit breakers in general are not so fast in operation a t high overcurrents as are most fuses.hermal conditions to activate them. But fundamentally the circuit breaker does permit repeated operations without destroying itself or affecting the accuracy of operatirlg time.emperature can be maintained than by devices that depend upon t. openings are repeated a few cycles or seconds apart. Circuit breakers are available up to 4000 amp cont. Circuit breakers can repeatedly open abnormal currents without destroying t. Same Degree of Protection after Operation. there is little likelihood of affecting calibration of time and pickup settings. time-delay overcurrent relays which match motor-heating curves can be used to enable the circuit breaker to be used for motor starting and running and short-circuit protection. auxiliary circuits are available on practically all electrically operated circuit breakers for the control of external auxiliary or process circuits.000 amp a t GOO volts or less and from 15 mva to 25. Repeated Operations. derating factors must be applied. Moderate Operating Speed. For example. Since when a circuit breaker operates it does not destroy itself. This makes the circuit breaker and its associated relays almost universally applicable as a short-circuit protective and switching device . Hence. Rigid Industry Standards.inuous current rating at GOO volts and less and up to 1200 to 5000 amp a t higher voltages. which means they can be used for automatic control.

let us assume that it takes $6 see only to close and open a switch manually. At 1000 amp. an interrupter switch might he rated to make 20. When the switch is in the closed position. Generally Do Not M e e t All Requiremsnts. Whenever the circuit interruption takes place in two separate devices which are * E-rated fuses will carry their rated eurrmt eontinuouslv and blow in 5 to 10 min at 200 to 264 per cent of rated current. One of the first and foremost considerations is that fuses in themselves do not meet the basic requirements for a complete short-circuit protective device. 3. In this combination the fuse provides the ability to open ahnorma1 currents automatically. To illustrat.o safely close in on short-circuit currents up to the interrupt. etc. and the switch vould be required to open 1000 amp. While fuses have their proper applications. or ten times its rating. may not be adequate on moderate values of current.2.ion with a properly rated interrupter or safety switch. For example. for example.000 amp momentarily. . The operation of fuses in combination with interrupter switches at moderate overcurrents imposes problems not easily overcome.150 A-C SHORT.000 rating of the fuse. This switch. An operator may close the switch and open it within 36 see. Before selecting fuses in place of circuit breakers..CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND ClRClllT EQUIPMENT FUSESGENERAL Fuses are often considered for circuit protection because of their low first cost. Should there be a moderate overload when the switch is opened and closed rapidly. The switch should provide the ability to open load currents and moderate overcurrents which are below the blowing point of the fuse and should provide the ability t. and to open 100 amp. carry 20. the switch would have to open perhaps several times its rating because the operation took place so quickly that the fuse did not have time to melt. the blowing time of the fuse may be 3 see. The fuse would not have had time to melt. This area is represented by the crosshatched section of Fig.2.. as there may well be because of connected motors. one must look rarefully a t the fuse picture in general and then more closely a t specific fuses to see how many of the hasic requirements are met. it should be able to carry safely whatever current the fuse will pass. The fundamentals of the problem can be seen by referring to Fig.e one phase of the problem. 3. when used with a 100-amp E-rated fuse* or even a much smaller rated fuse. T o meet the basic requirements it is necessary that a fuse other than a n oil-fuse cutout be used in conjunct. Fuses alone (except t.he oil-fuse cutouts) do not incorporate any switching means to permit closing in on high currents or to switch load currents. there are certain general characteristics and limitations which must be recognized and considered as well as cost.

3. BASIC CHARACTERISTICS O F FUSES Possible Single Phasing. Fuses are single-phase devices. one fuse may blow. FIG. This will give the fuse a chance to melt on moderate overcurrents before the switch is again opened. therefore. When fuses are used. It may not completely isolate a faulty circuit. As a precautionary measure for increased safety. Nonadjustable Tripping Time or Pickup. the switch element of fused switches should be closed with a fast positive action and not opened immediately. leaving a multiphase circuit supplied with only singlephase power.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 151 interdependent on each other for complete functioning over a wide range of currents. their pickup setting and time-current setting are changed by changing the size or type of fuse.. there is always this problem of operation on moderate overloads which is much more difficult t o overcome than operation a t very high short circuits where the time for the fuse to clear is very short. AMPERES Interrupter-switch rating and fuse time-current characteristics showing performonce on moderate overcurrent.2 .

the upper limit of fuse ratings is in t. Fuses are generally limited in size hecause of thermal considerations. the choice of shape of time-current characteristics is very limited for coordination purposes. Certain types of fuses have removable links which permit salvaging part of the fuse after it has blown. Fuses are generally divided into two classes: (1) non-current-limiting and (2) current-limiting. The current-limiting fuses possess two important advantages. Non-current-limiting fuses also operate faster than circuit breakers at currents near their interrupting rating. Also. they limit the damage due to the flow of short-circuit current. Because fuses are thermal devices. The fast operat. Replacement cost of fuses varies widely. Fuses are thermal devices. care must be taken to replace a blown fuse with one of the same rating and characteristics. (2) They actually limit the shortcircuit-current magnitude to far less than the available short-circuit current. once they have operated. makes it difficult and often impossible to coordinate them with other short-circuit protective devices located beyond the fuse in the circuit. Because the interrupter destroys itself. Choice of Current Ratings.ion of most types of fuses. Fuses.he range of 100 to 400 amp. as current-limiting fuses become larger . therefore. depending on type and size of fuse. This effect in fuses is much greater than in relays or circuit-breaker tripping elements. This current-limiting ability is one of the most useful characteristics of the fuses in branch-circuit protection. Affected by Ambient Temperature. Therefore. There is always the danger that if no fuses are available short bars or wires may be inserted to keep power on. all protection may be lost. their operation is subject t o variation due t o ambient temperature changes. Protection M a y Be Reduced or Lost after Operation. thereby allowing the use of smaller conductors and equipment in branch circuits. fuses in general are best suited for branch-circuit protection where they need not operate selectively with other protective devices between the fuse and the load.152 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT Limited Choice of Characteristics. Otherwise. Nonrepetitive Operation. particularly for branch-circuit protection: ( 1 ) Berause of extremely fast operation. For circuits above 600 volts. Large fuses may produce so much heat that ventilation and mounting become severe problems. protection may he lost. It is less important in high-voltage circuits. however. Fuses are now available for low voltages (600 volts and less) up to 4000 amp. Fast Operating Speed. must be replaced. When this is done.

See further disrussion nuder voltage classification. economirs is a factor. Mechanical Simplicity a t Low Current Ratings. that standardized levels of interrupting ratings are not set up.andards may be available in the future. circuit breakers are generally considered the only acceptable protective devices by most engineers for all'lorations in industrial plants where switching and short-rirruit protectioii is required except for some hranch circuits and control circuits and motor starters. AS a result many hazardous syst. if built. These factors involve mainly coordination with relay time-current characteristics or the time-current characteristics of built-in devices on circuit breakers (see Chap. CIRCUIT BREAKERS VS. There are other factors in the selection of fuses for overcurrent protection. it is secondary to the technical considerations noted above and secondary to select. Besides the technical roiisiderations. as most branch circuits are of small rurrent rating anyway. t o have the necessary momentary and interrupting the devire that has an adequate interrupting rating for t. . fuses that technical ronsiderations are lost sight of. the techniral ronsideratious certainly favor the rirruit breakers in most rases. loses its advantage of mechanical simplicity. there is a tendency to get so involved in economic issues in the selection of circuit breakers vs. Fuses above 600 volts are made according to indnstry st. 9).andardsesrept. particularly in low-voltage circuits. fuses. Fuses and their associated switches for low-current circuits. Fuses and switches are preferred for some hranch rircuits because of the fast operation of the fuse.. It is for that reason and because the technical cansiderations vary somewhat with voltage that the technical considerations are reviewed in further detail as a function of voltage class. Because of this. the handirap of having to use small ratings to get effective rurreut-limiting artion is not so pronounred. For higher current circuits t. While cost is very important. although surh st.e.y. i. FUSES-GENERAL I 1 1 selecting circuit breakers YS. Sinre the current-limiting ability of fuses is most useful in branch-circuit protection. Berause there may he in some cases a wide difference in rost between circuit hreakers and fuses. they lose more and more of their current-limiting ability. a saving that may soon be lost because of the poor performance and higher maintenanre of inadequate equipment.he servire.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT I53 and larger. Industry Standards.he switrh. about 200 amp or less. Low-voltage fuses have no a-c interrupting standards. are simpler mechanically than circuit breakers.ems are installed to save a few dollars in first cost.

LARGE AIR CIRCUIT BREAKERS Description.000 75.000 4. 3. 2.000 I00. and various shapes of time-current characteristics are available. Fig. consists of a n operating mechanism. 200. The large air circuit breaker..9 are typical.000-3. an arc interrupter. 3. rm.275. 150.) Application. amp a. and usually a built-in overrurrent tripping device. .' omp ~ 1nterrvpting roting.000 __.__. 175.3.. contacts.000 50. The ratings available are listed in Table 3. 3.1. availability in highcurrent-carrying and interrupting and momentary ratings. These circuit breakers are characterized by their sturdy construction.000-3.000 600 volts 15-225 35-600 200-1. .11 is an example of a high-quality safety switch and fuse. Molded-case circuit breakers of which those shown in Fig.000 75. secondary feeders. there are three commonly used types of short-circuit protective devices for protecting main power circuits.000 50.000 30-225 150-600 60+1. ample electrical clearances.000 35. .000 600 volts _____ and below 240 voitl 241-480 volts 25-225 100-600 400-1. .. 3. 225.000-3.000 60.000 * Standai rating8 are 15. 250. ~ ~ 30.35. 25.ymmetric.000 75.000 150. .000 100. There are panel boards which are used for protection of small branch circuits.90.000 25. These circuit breakers are intended primarily for application in main switchboards where pou'er may be generated a t low voltage . 3. 125.000 l00.000 _____ 240 volts and below 241-480 volts 25. 100.000 4. TABLE 3.> . -__. The tripping devices are adjustable as to their pickup setting and operating time.I54 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES A N D CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR SYSTEMS 600 VOLTS AND LESS For low-voltage systems rated 600 volts or less. Large air circuit breakers (sometimes referred to as magnetic circuit breakers) of which the one shown in Fig.3 is typical. 50.600 2.1 Ratings of Low-voltage Large Air Circuit Breakers for A-C Service Range l r i p . Fused safety switches of which the one shown in Fig. These devices are 1.600 2.600 2.000 4.70.d ratings. and branch circuits.. . 20. These are used mainly in lighting and in small power systems and employ either small molded-case-type circuit breakers or fuses as their overcurrent protective means.

Selective tripping systems. therefore. Fig. as stated above.5.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES A N D CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 155 FIG. highest quality protection is desired or electrical operation is required. particularly where there is moderately repetitive duty imposed.he highest qualit. or where it may he received from the utility at low voltage and for the secondary svitchgear of load-center unit substations or in main subdistribution centers. Selective Tripping vs. suitable for many more operations. are those in which the circuit breakers are set to trip selectively so that the one nearest the fault operates first so that only the faulty portion of the circuit is deenergized. These circuit breakers have longer life built into them than do other types of low-voltage circuit breakers and are.y device is required and where special time-current characteristics are necessary for coordination.3 Large air circuil breakers mounted in drawout metal-enclosed low-voltoge rwifchgear. 3. Large air circuit breakers may be used either in selective tripping systems or in cascade systems. They are particularly applicable for braneh-circuit protection for larger loads over 200 amp or for smaller loads where. that is. I n this case all circuit breakers should have adequate interrupting ratings. They are also applicable for individual branch-circuit prokction where t. 3. 3. their rating should be equal to or greater than the short-circuit duty a t the . Fig. Cascading.4.

6 and 3. Figs. .A / n l nUNIT LOAD CENTER SUBSTATION 3 Y MAIN SECONDARY BREAKER SU0 . 3. 9. circuit breakers may he used under certain circumstances beyond their interrupting rating. its rating is equal to or greater than the short-circuit duty imposed a t the point of application. that is. There are additional problems of selecting the time-current settings which are discussed more fully in Chap. I n cascaded operation.7. 3. The feeder circuit breakers (commonly referred to in application tables as the B circuit breaker) in this case.156 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND ClRCUlT EQUIPMENT point of application. This applies where the main circuit breaker (commonly referred to in application tables as the A' circuit breaker) has adequate interrupting rating. Fig. The total kva of connected synchronous motors should not exceed 25 per cent of the supply transformer or I A GENERATOR A . 3.4 MOTOR WELDER 200 HP One-line diogrom showing typical applications of large air circuit breakers.6.DISTRI0UTlON CENTER FURNACE LOAD ELECTRICALLY OPERATED FIG. may be used to twice their interrupting rating provided that the following conditions are met.

3.5 One-line diagram showing large air circuit breakers applied in selective tripping system.000 DMP INTERRUPTING FEEDER CIRCUIT EREDKERS RDTED 50. their instantaneous tripping attachment must be set t o operate when the current through the backed-up or B circuit breakers is not more than 80 per cent of the interrupting rating of the backed-up or B circuit breakers. .000AMP INTERRUPTING SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY DT THIS POINT 50. This ensures that the main circuit breakers will operate whenever the short-circuit duty exceeds the interrupting rating of the B circuit breakers. Time settings of overcurrent trip elements must be properly set to obtain selectivity. - & 1500 KVA LOAD CENTER UNIT SUESTDTION A MDIN CIRCUIT BREAKER RATE0 DT LEAST 50.000 DMP RMS ASYMMETRICDL WOOD DMP FROM THE TRANSFORMER DND 9000 DMP FROM THE MOTORS ERANCH FEEDER CIRCUIT BREDK- +FEEDER SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY DT THIS POINT 32.000 DMP RMS DSYMMETRICDL / CABLE 7 /I' ERDNCH FEEDER CIRCUIT V SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY DT THIS POINT 22000 DMP RMS DSYMMETRICDL ~UE-BU~ A * )BREDKERS RATED 25000 DMP INTERRUPTING NOTE: SHORT CIRCUIT LEVELS DT SUB E u s s E s n REDUCED DUE FEEDER CAELE IMPEDDNCE am FIG. In addition t o the main circuit breakers having adequate interrupting ratings.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECnVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT I57 generator rating.

.400 amp rms asymmetrical. the motor contribution may not come through the main circuit breaker. 6 One-line diagram showing large oir circuit breakers applied in cascade with only one source of low-voltage power.000AMP RMS ASYMMETRICAL NOTE: INSTANTANEOUS TRIP ELEMENT ON MPIN BREAKER A MUST BE SET TO TRIP AT 16400 AMP THIS IS 0.000 amp interrupting rating. the main A' circuitbreaker instantaneous trip setting may be less than 80 per cent of the backed-up circuit-breaker interrupting rating because the main A' circuit breaker must trip instantaneously when the total rms asymmetrical shortcircuit current through the backed-up circuit breaker is 80 per cent or more of the interrupting rating of the backed-up B circuit breaker. 3.000 amp rms asymmetrical.8 OF 2 0 5 0 0 AMP 20500 AMP IS THE CURRENT FLOWING FROM THE MAIN TRANSFORMER THRU BREAKER A WHEN CURRENT FLOWING THRU FEEDER BREAKER 0 I S 25.500 or 16. For example. It makes no difference whether the circuit breaker is applied a t the bus or a t some point remote from the bus.6 if the backed-up or B circuit breakers are rated 25. Therefore. Motor contribution must be considered.000 amp from the main source and 9000 amp from the motors. The main-source circuit breaker must trip instantaneously a t 0. the interrupting duty a t the circuit breaker ahead. such as circuit breakers B' in Fig. in Fig. When the backed-up circuit breakers are applied a t points remote from the bus.7. the short-circuit duty a t the point of application of the B circuit breaker should not exceed 50. 3 . This may he made up of 41.000 AMP THE R A y i N G O F B R E A K E d B FIG. However.158 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT I &I500 i KVA LOAD CENTER UNIT SUBSTATION MAGNETIC TYPE I MOTOR CONTRIBUTION 9000AMP I ' I SHORT CIRCUIT DUTY AT THIS POINT 50. The duty including motor contribution should not exceed twice the interrupting rating of the backed-up circuit breaker. 3.8 X 20.

Another qnalification is that the circuit breakers must be of the same manufacture and of similar characteristics. 3. may be in excess of twice the interrupting rating of the backed-up B' circuit breaker. Circuit breakers operating a t beyond their interrupting rating in cascade mustbe inspected after each operation and may require more than normal maintenance after interrupting currents beyond their rating even though the main circuit breaker does open. Circuit breakers of two widely different interrupting f &I000 -UNIT KVA LObD CENTER SUBSTATION I I I I -knunar NOTE! INSTbNTANEWS T R I P E L E M E N T ON FEEDER B R E I K E R B MUST BE SET bT 12000 bMP(OQ X I 5 0 0 0 1 snom CIRCUIT DUTY HERE 26000 AMP RMS ISYMUETRICbL I FIG. but because of cable impedance the shortcircuit current a t the point of application of the backed-up circuit breaker B' must be limited to twice its interrupting rating.7 One-line diagram showing large air circuit breakers in cascade applied remote from the main source of power.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 159 B in Fig. 3. Feeder circuit breakersshould be electrically operated because the forces incident to closing against short circuits in excess of the circuit-breaker rating may preclude successful manual closing.7. .

smaller feeder circuit breakers are used than in the selective system.000 25.000 75.000 120.2 which shows the maximum interrupting rating circuit breaker which can he used to back up any given interrupting rating feeder circuit breaker.. The ratio of the columns may be more than 2 : 1.000 75. Amp Rmr 25.000 amp. and 18.8 shows what the various instantaneous overcurrent trip settings of the main circuit breakers should be for a given case. The higher interrupting duty in the main circuit breaker often comes about because of having t o select it for continuous current-carrying rating rather than interrupting rating.000 15.8. Regardless of the interrupting rating of the main circuit breaker.000 150. As a guide to this. In the cascaded system. refer to Table 3. When the total current reaches 40. that the service reliability of a cascaded system is poorer than that of a selective system because in a cascaded system. 8000 amp. . Fig. This application has proved satisfactory from a service-reliability standpoint for many industrial processes.000 50. the current delivered by these various sources is 6000 amp. The interrupting rating of the B circuit breakers is 50. All main A' circuit breakers (i.000 100. TABLE 3. 3.000 30. the following rule applies. Cascaded operation is a means of lowering the cost of short-circuit protection in secondary systems. The example in Fig.000 60.000 amp.000 15. however.000 50. therefore this differential favors the cascaded system from an economic standpoint.000 100. the main circuit breaker is tripped out and service on all feeders served by that main circuit breaker or breakers is lost until the service is restored by reclosing the main circuit breaker.000 15.000 Where there are two or more sources of current to a bus with cascaded feeder rircuit breakers.160 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTEtTlVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT ratings cannot be cascaded. A : ) must be tripped instantaneously when the total short-circuit current through the hacked-up B circuit breaker exceeds 80 per cent of its interrupting ratings. The rule is that the instantaneous setting must be proportioned t o the short-circuit current delivered through the main circuit breaker in question. the duty cannot exceed twice the interrupting rating of the cascaded B feeder circuit breaker.800 amp. whenever a feeder short circuit draws a current in excess of 80 per cent of the interrupting rating of the feeder circuit breaker. The motor contribution is 7200 amp. 3. Amp Rmr Minimum Interrupting Rating of Coscaded Feeder Circuit Breaker B. A : .000 25. All currents are rms asymmetrical. I t must be recognized.e. A : .2 Range of Large Air Circuit Breakers Which Can Be Cascaded with Each Other Main Circuit Breaker A' Interrupting Rating.

8 OF ITS RATING I.8 One-line diogram showing lorge air circuil breakers in cascade wilh more ihan m e source of power to ihe main low-volloge bur.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE OEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 161 However. THE CURRENT FLOWING IN THIS CASE AND THE INSTANTANEOUS TRIP ELEMENT SETTINGSX ON BREAKERS ~ ) . selective tripping is generally considered essential.000 AMP R M S ASYMMETRICAL 18.E.3.000 AMP R M S ASYMMETRICAL FIG.000AMP WHEN TOTAL CURRENT THRU BREAKER B IS 0. 3. ARE:- r MOTOR CONTR IBUTION 7200 AMP THIS FAULT DRAWS 40. three-phase and single-phase. 0 AMP 0 0 Y TOTAL SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENTAT THIS POINT 100. As a guide t o selertion of Iarge air circuit breakers for selective or cascade service. see Tablc 3. 40. "'2 8 d j MUST TRIP. e A . d:3J) 7 4 7 .000 AMP BREAKERS n'i. Selection of Large Air Circuit Breakers. mhere critica1 processes are iiivolved. . n . .

& Con- .000 13. once.700 16.388 2. __ Norm0 load Recommended interrupting rating of o i r c i r w i t breaker (see flgurer above) 208Y/120 Volts. I 1.350' 9.000 13.400 2. Three Phoie I ompore.780 4.Zmpe.m bJ TABLE 3.. amp A " load A' per CeP ! 8.3 Air-circuit-breaker Application Tables-Cascade System and Selective System 600 Volts ond Less Ratings required for equipment for Ironsformer and feeder circ~itl.900 150000 I00000 50000 100.170 95. Transalone 5 z 5 A > 100% ti""O"l :".100 50.O"t Kvo Imped. . with selection of circuit breaker 8 on basis of cascade sydsm and selective trip system.900 3. rmr amp (average three-phase 3 rn 2 Recommended interrupting rating of air circuit breaker (see flgures above) Tmnsformer rating. I ____________ __ c 112. three-phore Norm.000 1 ' 1 'I.) 240 Volts.400 11. Three Phase Short-circuit current. Other fadois than short-circuit duty ore important in the selection of circuit breakers for selective trionine.080 2.200 1.750 50.800 I . Refer to monvfocturer for other lirnitotions.5 150 4 225 1 4 5 5 300 500 750 ~ 5% 313 417 625 834 1. rrni amp (overage three-phase .600 21 500 7 5 0 0 0 ca+ B 6 releccode ti*= trip c? . load Short-circuit current.000 17.550 50.


s. MOLDED-CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERS Malded-case circuit breakers. The XEMA Standards that. Ratings Available. Also marly functions cannot. and in some cases they are adjustable.9.I64 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT Standards.hey are mounted in a molded plastic case. .s.9 Molded-care air circvit breakers mounted in a panel board.hem electrically operated or t o provide large numbers of auxiliary swit.he electrical &ararrces t h a t large air circuit breakers have. are smaller in dimension. SG3-1951.4. These circuit.ches. is not easy t o make t. They are distinguished from large air circuit hrcakcrs primarily because of the fact that t. FIG. Fig. 3. be huilt into these smaller molded-case circuit-breaker tripping elements that can be huilt into the large air circuit-breaker tripping e1ement. breakers have built-in trip element. apply to all large air circuit breakers are KO. It. less sturdily constructed. 3. Ratings are available as given in Table 3. and do not have t.

43). .10 One-line diagram showing where molded-core air circuit breakers can be applied in a low-voltage power distribution system. Xeither are they suitable for cascading vith ot. Application. the moldedcase circuit breakers find application for branch-circuit. 3. These circuit breakers are not suitable for cascade operation wit.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 165 I &75D KVA MAX CIRCUIT CASE MOLDED BREAKERS A 1 : LOAD CENTER SUBSTATION WITH MAGNETIC CIRCUIT BREAKERS { 1h 1 ) I 1 I I +MOLDED ) CASE BREAKERS I N PLUG-IN DEVICE INDIVIDUAL MOLDED CASE BREAKERS DISTRIBUTION CENTER MOLDED CASE BREAKERS FIG. Fig.h large air circuit breakers berause they operate so fast that the large air circuit breakers are not able to protect them (see iVEhlA Standards for Large Air Circuit Breakers. They also find applicabion on the secondaries of some small light-duty Ioadcenter unit substations. Because of their small size and lower cost. Section SG3-3. This conclusion mas reached after exhaustive tests. protection where the interrupting duty is within their interrupting rating.her moldedcase circuit breakers. Not Suitable for Cascade Operation. 3.10.

225.000 50.000 25. These fuses practically a11 corisist.4 Interrupting Rotings of Molded-cose Circuit Breakers for A-C Service Interrupling iatingi.h as manufactured by the Trumhull Components Department of the General Electric Company.000 35.000 20. Fig. To be specific in the follomiiig discussion of the improved types of fuses and switches. These ratings run from as low as a few amperes up t o . FUSED SWITCHES Fused switches.of a fusible link enclosed in a cylindrical cartridge with connectors a t each end t o slip into the fuse clips of the switch. 3. There are severa1 types of fuses available. 150. the portion of Table 3.000 25. typical of which is the General Electric type EJ-6 fuse shomn in the smitch in Fig. At preseiit there are no applicable NEMA standards for molded-case air circuit breakers.166 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT Selection of Interrupting Ratings. TABLE 3.000 25. 125. 200. Ratings Availoble. As a guide.000 15-100 15-100 125-225 125-225 125-600 )O. Xew and improved designs of fuses and switches for low-voltage service have been developed recently.000 ~- 7. consist of an interrupter switch and a fuse mouuted on a common base and usualiy in a metal enclosure.4 gives the interrupting ratings as defined by applicable NEMA standards.11.3 referring t o circuit hreakers for selective operation may be used mhere the continuous current is less than 600 amp and iiiterrupting duty is within the available ratings of molded-case circuit breakers.000 15. The fuses are mainly of the currentlimiting high interrupting capacity silver-sand type. the type HCI smitch and EJ-6fuseivill beused.500 20.000 30. There are many types and varieties available.11. The most common variety is the standard N E C (Kational Electrical Code) cartridge fuses. There is a wide variety of lon-voltage fuses and switches available. 3. Typical of the improved switches is t. 250.he type HCI switc.000 25. Standards. r m i amp orymmetrical 240 ~ o l t s and below i Range of trip-coil rrrtingr amp 241-480 volts 600 ~ 0 1 1 s I 15.000 15. 175. Table 3.

All small hiRh-interrupting-ability loix~-voltage fuses are current.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 167 FIG.lie type IICI switch and E.000 l00.heir action. and from this staidpoint they are partieiilarly well suited t o branch-circuit . Cnfortunately most.o be specifio.l i m i t i n g Fuses (1954) EJ-6 Type HCI switch II I Type EJ-6 fuses Volts ! -I.5. of them do not have short-cirruit rat. 200 Amperes Volts 1 lnterrvpling ability of combination HCI rwilch and EJ-6 fuse.. several hiindred amperes.1 1 High-copocity interrupting (HCI) enclosed switch with high interrupting-rating current-limiting silver-rand fuses (EJ-6). 3.000 Application.000 100. The preserit availahle data are listed in Table 3.5 I n t e r r u p t i n g Ability of Type HCI Switches and C u r r e n t . Again.000 100. amp byml I Amperes 15-20-30 100. TABLE 3.J-6 fuse will be used t.ings assigned. t. t.o illusirate a-c short-circuit abilities which have hem established hy in t. hence are very fast in their operation.

12 One-line diagram showing whsre safety switches m d fuses may be applied as the lost protective device in low-voltage distribution circuits.6 FUSES FIG. 3.168 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMEW L - LOAD CENTER UNIT SUBSTATION INDIVIDUAL WALL MOUNTED H C I SWITCHES AND E J . .


So. bulletin. These are: 1. Information on st.000 amp. Power circuit breakers 2. Enclosed Switch Standards. This current-limiting feature.ype HCI switch and EJ-G fuse combination has high interrupting rating arid is current-limit.aridards for enclosed switches (safety switches) may be obtained from IJnderwriters Laboratories. I n the first place. can protect small switching devices. I n the second place. The use of an EJ-G current-limiting fuse and the HCI switch rated 30 amp would provide adequate short-circuit protection. or not applicable from an engineeriug in its operation which enables it to beusedin many places where molded-case circuit breakers would not have adequate interrupting rating and where large air circuit breakers would be too expensive.e 350-MCM cable.000 amp. in addition to protecting small wires in systems of high short-circuit-current capacity. a 100. too large. Standards.000 amp interrupting rating. It is for this reason that the type HCI switch can he used with type EJ-6 fuses 011 circuits where the available short-cirruit-current duty is as high as 100.ion is not generally suitable for main feeder circuit protection because of the fact that it is difficult to make the fast current-limiting fuses operate selectively with other overcurrent protective devices that would be in the circuit between the fuse and the load. For example. a circuit breaker for a 30-amp circuit fed from a certain lowvoltage bus may require a circuit breaker with 100. the size required to withstand 100. Power fuses . Incorporated. The switch and fuse comhinat.000-amp interrupting rating circuit breaker cannot be built with a 30-amp trip coil that will withstand the short-circuit forces or heating.I70 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT will withstand 9000 amp rms for 0. Incorporated. the 30-amp fuse vill protect a wire which will be required to carry 30-amp load current. The wire or cable mould have t o be of the order of 350 MCM t o withstand the short-circuit current. Information for standards on fuses may be obtained from the Underwriters Laboratories. The t. 42-78. Standard for Enclosed Switches or NEMA Publication No. SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR SYSTEMS ABOVE 600 VOLTS There are in general two types of short-circuit protective equipment available for systems above G O 0 volts. Standard for Fuses.2 cycle. bulletin. any 30-amp load devire mould not have terminals that would accommodat. and the currentlimiting effect of the fuse mould enable a wire of smaller size t o be used.

ation t. In indoor metal-enclosed switehgear of the st.ypc for circuits 13. For the sake of the discussion here relative to d e c t i o n of equipment>fiom a short. oil circuit breakers are most commonly used.4.-rircuit standpoint.1 (Chap.14.he nil or oilless type.t o 13. Complete listings of power circuit breakers can he found iii the latest copy of S E R l A Standards SG&l954. T h e circuit.ype circuit breaker. I).8-kv t. I n the field 2. The available ratings of this type of circuit breaker are given in Table 1. . Fig.A kv for outdoor switchgear.8 kv. I n the field above 11.5 kv.ypc and the nillcss type. sho\rn i n Fig. but basically they are divided into the oil t.15.CIRCUlT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 171 POWER CIRCUIT BREAKERS There are many types of power circuit breakers availahle.A-C SHORT. breakers most comtnonly used in industrial plants are the oilless or air type.14. 3.4 kv up to over 300 kv and in interruptirig ratings from 15 mva up to 25. 3.000 mva. Ratings Available.8 L o 34.4 to 13. FIG. 3.14 Typical ille err (air) power circuit breaker ar wed in metal-clad switchgear for c i t w i t s rated 2.he oilless-type cirruit breaker. it makes no difference whcthcr the rircirit breakers are of t. Fig. High-voltage power circuit breakers are availahle in ratings from 2. the air-type circuit breakers are in general superseding the oil-type vircuit breakers. 3. has largely superseded t h e oil-t.

It should be noted that compared with contact.4 kv up t.o the highest a-c voltages in use today.arting duty within the limitations outlined by the manufacturer. are suitable for motor-st. Power circuit breakers are applicable anywhere in the syst. 3. They combine all the essential characteristics for circuit switching and protect. They are also applirable at. loral switching points and for protection of primary branch circuits (see Fig. Certain of the power circuit breakers. Motor Starting or Other Repetitive Duty.16).ors the principal limitation of power circuit breakers for motor-starting duty is the degree of repetitive duty that can be withstood. 01 used in circuits rated above 15 kv.172 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT FIG.15 Outdoor frome-type oil circuit breaker This circuit breoker i s rated 34. Contactors are designed for more operations and longer life under severe operating duty cycles than are power circuit breakers.cms rated 2.5 kv. Application. .ion and therefore may be used at main buses supplied by generators or transformers or i n connection with unit substations. particularly the oilless type. 3.

A-C SHORT-CIPCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES ANO CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 173 Selection of Interrupting Ratings. The selection of interrupting ratings of power circuit breakers for industrial applications is out. I Q Q P T TYWI I 69 KV OUTDOOR POWER C I R C U I T BREAKERS GENERATOR GENERATOR CIRCUIT BREAKER TRANSFORMER SECONDARY CIRCUIT BREAKER ! ' MAlN FEEDER CIRCUIT BREAKER A AHEAD O F L I N E OF L I M I T A M P MOTOR STARTERS LARGE OU HIGH VOLTAGE MOTORS FIG. .lined in Chap. A detailed description of the various faetors to consider in applying oilless eircuit breakers as used in metal-clad switchgear is given there. 1.16 One-line diogrorn rhowing where oilless power circuit breakerr in metal-clad rwitchgeclr and outdoor power cirwit brecikerr may be applied in industrial power dirtribution ryrtemr. 3.

3.ypes of fuses. 3.17 Typical high-voltage (above 600 volts1 power furer: Ifeft) current-limiting nonenpulrion silver-rand type. 3.ion i s the oil-fuse cutout. 3. .ics in urban and suburban areas.18. generally speaking.17 which are for high-rapacity power circuits. These t. Poiver circuit breakers are eovered by NEMA Standards SG1-19% POWER FUSES A N D OIL-FUSE CUTOUTS There are many types of power fuses available for circuits rated 2.hemselves into three categories. divide t.4 kv and above. The second type that is slightly differeni.119. FIG. which i s really a combination of a cntout and a fuse immersed in a container of oil.174 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT Standards. typical examples of which are shown in Fig. (right] "on-current-limiting expulsion outdoor type. The third type of fuse is used mainly in distribntion cutouts for overhead opcir-wire outdoor distriliutioii systems of utilit. Fig. Fig. i n construct. The first is the power fuse.


Fig. Fig. 3. Fig. and the “boric acid’’ fuse with mountings without current-interrupting ability are often used with power fuses.ching and protecting section of a load-center unit substation (see Chap.17(left). i. Interrupter Switches and Fuses. I n general.20. 3. when the longer time delay is obtained. power fuses divide thcmselves into two classes. The oil-fused cutouts combine in one unit the fuse and the interrupter switching element.General. Open-structure switches or disconnect. 3. Typical of the current-limiting category are the silver-sand fuses. However. in some cases where coordination is required. These are not suitable for indoor application because of the hazard of the expelled hot gases. Interrupter switches are desirable for this application because they have interrupting ratings usually in the range of 100 to 400 amp. 3. However. and the “boric acid” fuse without a condenser and the “liquid fuse”.. Typical applications are in motor starters and ahead of primaries of transformers stepping down to a lower voltage. expel hot gases when they operate. All types of power fuses operate faster than power circuit breakers a t or near their interrupting ratings.176 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT The last type of fuse mentioned is applicable toindustrial power systems for outdoor installations only where the interrupting rating is less than the duty on the system. 3. A further classification is that some are expulsion type. 3.. Such fuses are the expulsion fuse.18. Fig. they are generally employed as the last circuit protective device in each voltage level in a primary power system. Because of the fast operating time of the fuses.e. Interrupter slyitches and fuses and oil-fused cutouts find wide application in industrial plants as the primary swit.e. 11). The silver-sand fuse.17(right). Fig. Application of Fuses in O p e n Switching Structures. is often the preferred type of fuse for power circuits because of its fast operating time and currentlimiting ability. as shown in Fig. Application. Nonexpulsiori-type power fuses suitable for indoor use are often applied in a metal enclosure with an interrupter switch to form a switch-and-fuse cornbination for high-voltage circuits. 3.17(left). These can be considered for isolation purposes only. the benefits of reduction of damage to the circuit through which shortcircuit current passes is lost to a large degree.17(right). as well as the “boric acid” fuses and “liquid” power fuses. Hazards in operations are materially increased in this . Typical of the nonexpulsion type are the silver-sand fuse. it may be necessary to use non-current-limiting types of fuses which have longer time delay. and therefore the combination of the plain switch and fuse cannot be used as a load-switching device. the expulsion fuses.17(left). i. This fuse is not metal-enclosed and is not for indoor installation. currentlimiting and non-current-limiting. Typical of the non-current-limiting type are the oil-fuse cutout. Plain disconnecting switches are generally not satisfactory for this service because they have no interrupting ability. Fig.

A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 177 type of appliration. FIG. Failure may result eveti though there is a fuse in series with such switches. That is the reason that such applications should be limited t o outdoor structures Ivhere the operator is a considerable distance from the disconnecting switch when operating it. 3. The use of such isolatiug switches i n series with fuses in indoor metal-enclosed structures is not coilsidered safe practice bemuse of thc proximity of the operator to t.20 One-line diagram rhowing where high-voltage (above 600 may be applied in industrial power distribution systems.he sivitrh and the possibility of the operator inadvertently operating the switch under roiiditions i u which the switch will hare to interrupt or close in on currents ronsiderably beyond its ability. 33 K V P UTDOOR TYPE FUSE SMALL POWER IyTy\ TRANSFORMER I LIMITING AHEAD OF SMALL LOAD CENTER UNIT SUBSTATIONSUSE INTERRUPTER SWITCH AND POWER FUSE OR FUSED OIL CUTOUTS. VOllS) Power .

Since the ratings of fuses are not too well st. the most common variety being t.hose which have a n interrupting rating of only ten times normal rated current.21 Typical lowvoltage 1600 volts and below) combination motor starter with current-limiting silver-rand furer for short-circuit protection. and Current-limit. Power fuses are covered by S E M A Standards. These are completely inadequate for short-circuit protection and must have addit.-circuit protective device such as a fuse or circuit breaker FIG.andardized. When a short. The combination motor starter 3 .178 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT Selecting Fuse-interrupting ratings may also be considered. MOTOR STARTERS There are in general three kinds of motor starters: 1 . and select a fuse whose interrupting rating is greater than the duty imposed. Publication S(2-1954. 1. Cutouts. The circuit breaker Contactors are in general of two types. Standards. The contactor 2. I’orer Fuses. refer t o t h e fuse manufacturer for complete data before applying fuses. 3. and AIEE Standards S o .ional short-circuit protection provided b y either fuses or circuit breakers. Fuses are generally rated in amperes interrupting Resistors. CMculate the short-circuit duty in rms amperes asymmetrical at the first half cycle as outliiied in Chap. Equivalent three-phase iiiterrupt. 25. .

When used as motor starters.act.errupt an available short-circuit current equal t.he cout.21).arter can successfully irit. Since these devices contain fuses as the short-circuit protective element.ion between t.22 Typicalhighfuses are for short-circuit protection only.000 amp rms asymmetrical wheri equipped wit.or starter and using type E.inct advantage in limiting damage in the motors when a failure occurs.he conta.22).4 kv and 250 mva iting rilver-rand power a t kv aud up t o 5 kv. . breakers as short-circuit protective devices. may be appIied up to their momentary and int. usually a moldedcase-type circuit breaker. Since the FIG. breaker.ctor. The select. In systems 600 volts and less there are t w i types of cornhination motor starters.ion mot.itch alirad of t. Circuits 600 Volts and Less (Fig.16 kv.he mot. the combination motor starter commonly used consists of current-limiting silver-sand fuses and contactors with the fuses mount.ed in disconnecting-type supports and placed in a metal enclosure s o interlocked that the fuses cannot be disconneeted unless the coritactor is in the open position.rical.hese two is based mainly on the fuudamerital differelice betveen fuses and circuit. These motor starters have inter.000 amp rms asymmet.errupting rat. they are t.or starters are limited to a maximum duty of 15. 3.iiig.starter using current-limrupting ratings of 150 mva at fuses. and therefore the fast operating time of the fuse is a very dist. and the other a circuit.h high-interrupt. In this way the disconnecting fuse mounting has no current to 4. The first employs a fuse disconnecting sm. For circuits of 2. Circuits above 600 Volts ( (2. ahead of currentlimiting fiises.he system. The fused combinatirin motor starters have an over-all interrupting ahility so that the combination motorst.he last protective device. both employing the same type of cont. From a short-circuit standpoint they furel for short-circuit protection. suit. This is for a short circuit outside ” the case of t.8 kv) running overload relays should he provided in the bin tio motor motor st. it forms what is commonly called a combination motor starter.000 or 25.o 50. The fast operating time of the fuse also permits low settings on other relays further back in t. 3. they are naturally best suited t o application as the last protective device in the circuit.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 179 is used in comhinatiori with contactors. The molded-case circuit-breaker comhiiiat.or.

The effect should be limited to a moderate reduction in useful cable life (possibly 1 per cent of normal life).resses (heating) on all component. It is important to note that the abnormal temperature persists much longer than t. disconnecting switches. as \veil as circuit breakers. POWER-CABLE SELECTION FROM A SHORT-CIRCUIT STANDPOINT Multiple-conductor power cables possess high mechanical strength because of the compact conductor lay and the continuous concentric binding arsist.180 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT SELECTION O F CONDUCTORS AND OTHER CIRCUIT COMPONENTS FROM A SHORT-CIRCUIT STANDPOINT The floiv of short-circuit current in an electric system imposes mechanical and thermal st.000 amp in a KO.her current-carrying parts of the electric system during short-circuit-rurrent flow.s.he duration of short-circuit-current flow. At a slightly higher temperature (approximately 175 C). This is not true with regard to thermal effects. from a short-circuit. ot. fuses. fuses. At somewhat higher temperatures large quantities of combustible vapors are expelled which increases the risk of explosion and fire.sof the system through which such currents flow. the flow of 20.egration of organic materials may occur. Power-system short-circuit-current magnitudes. the abrupt elevation in conductor temperature will be limited only by the ability of the conductor metal to absorb the heat developed. Temperature limits. and short-circuit protective device interrupting time should be coordinated to avoid severe permanent damage to cable insulation during an interval of short-circuit-current flow in the system. KOlimit on mechanical stresses in such cables has been assigned. In common with ot. accompanied by smoke and combustible vapors. (2) as the conductor cross section becomes smaller.her than circuit breakers. Reasonable maximum-peak transient temperatures for various cable insulations and operating potentials have been designated and in general are approximately 150 C (see Table 3. and (3) as the duration of current flow becomes greater.-current standpoint.o aid in the selection of circuit component. current transformers. 4/0-Awg copper conductor will elevate the . bus bars. and motor starters. The magnitude of the temperature increase is greater (1) as the current magnitude becomes greater (as the square of the current). The following is intended t.6). This includes cables. feeder-conductor cross section. and motor starters. destructive disint. For example.ed many times by armor or lead sheath.

.... ...........**......... ...... single conductor or three conductor............. 1 5 8 I5 1 5 8 I5 lmpregnalod paper (did)..... t Actual operating temperature may be lompr because of consprvative application or a favorable ambient temperature... .... type R (1947 code specification)....... I40 135 I30 125 Type R*. kv copper temp. ... I 5 8 I5 85 85 84 77 85 85 85 81 85 85 85 8 1 60 60 I50 145 135 120 I50 I45 140 135 Impregnated paper (slid)....... C Vc type V or VL.................. ........... On the basis that all heat produced by shortcircuit-current flow is initially absorbed by the rondurtor metal (wbirh .............. I 5 8 15 T i p s RH 60 60 75 75 75 80 80 80 80 I40 135 130 125 I50 145 140 1 5 8 1 5 8 15 Coronol ............... three mnductor.............. single conductor............6 Conductor Rated Maximum Continuous Operating Temperature and Peak Transient (Momentary) Temperature for Various Types and Operating Voltages lollogl MOX lronrienl Cable type d. With the current then redured to zero. * Applies to new - - I50 145 I40 I30 Conductor H e a t i n g . about 1000 see d l be required for the copper temperature to return to 75 C in a 30 C ambient................... TABLE 3....A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 181 copper temperature from an initial temperature of 75 C to 150 C i i i ahout 34 see.....

. 250 mva .. w 150 m w 250 m w 500 m w No... No... No.... 3 / 0 A w g No........ 1 Awg ....000-35. 1/0 Awg .000-6..000 100... 750 mvo 5 0 m r o ...000 9....... 2/0 No...000 30.. No.000 35.....000 300 M C M 350 M C M 300 M C M 400 M C M 600 M C M 800 M C M 400 M C M 600 MCM 800 M C M I000 M C M Short-circuit current.......500-4. 3/0 Awg 300 M C M 5o..000 6... 1 Awg No........ 2 Awg No.500-15..500 4.25 X rymmetricall 1..... 100 mva 150 m w .000 35..m 75..000 15.000-8..... 1 Awg 50 mvo . 2 Awg ..000 10..000-9...000 20...... No.. amp Interrupting kvo at Duration of hort-sircuit current (1........500-5..000 25.. I50 mva No... No...... 3 / 0 A w r 00 m No..000 . 75 m w N o .......... 4 Awg . 4 Awg .. No... 4 Awg 4 Awg 1 Awg 2/0 Awg 4/0 AWQ No....000 No... 2/0 Awr . No.I82 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT TABLE 3. 2/0 Awg No.......... 2 Awg 2 Awg 2 Awg 2 Awg No..........000-30.....000-7....000..... trip) >g s*c No........... 2 A w g 25 mva 50 m w ...000-25... 8 Awg No.. No. No............ 1/0 A w g No..500 12.... 2 Awg .5 to 2 cycles linrt. 100 mva ... 4/0 AWI 250 M C M 300 M C M 350MCM 350 MCM 400 MCM 500 MCM 600 MCM 500 M C M 600 M C M 750 M C M 750 M C M .. 3/0 Awg No.OOO 15.000 5.000 8..... No...... No....... 2 Awg No......... No.. No. 4/0 Awg 250 M C M Na 3/0 Awg No.... 250 mvo No... 25mvo ...500 3... No......000-4......... 50 mva . I Awg No.... No.000 4.... 2 Awg No............ 2/0 No. ... omp ~ ~~ 11... No....... No..0 x symmetricoll 3.000-40. Low-voltoge Air-circuit-breaker Protection Short-circuit current.... 4/0 Awg 300 M C M 300 MCM 400 M C M .........7 Quick Estimating Table o f Minimum Conductor Sire' A....000-3.. 1 Awg No..12. 1/0 Awg No. 5.000 25......000 I0. 1 Awg 1 Awg I / O Awg 2/0 Awg Awg Awg Awg No. 6 A w g ....000-20.... 1/0 Awg No.. 500 mvm ....000-1 0. 3 / 0 No...000 7. 4 Awg ..... No..

) It may be more convenient to make an artificial correction in current. a rough approximation of permissible current duration may he made on the basis of the same limiting temperatures as for copper.7.23. and proceed on the chart (Fig. the permissible duration of short-circuit-current flow will he 45 per cent of that for copper.ion.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQVIPMENT 183 has been proved to be valid for canductor sizes of No. C T 2= final copper temperature. 3. shown in Fig. Rms Current. for several typical ratios of circuit 60-cycle reactance * B. minimum safe conductor size is given in Table 3.23. W. A. The permissible time for various ternperature ranges can be quickly evaluated with the aid of the auxiliary curve B . 3. 3. . but to a lesser extent as the interval of current flow becomes longer. For Aluminum. In the absence of abnormal local heating. these relationships are presented graphically in the large chart in Fig. subject to application conditions as shown. (For a particular current and conductor cross section. The appropriate factor K . The temporary d-c component encountered in a-c circuits increases the rms current. materials and methods which laboratory tests and experience have proved to be satisfactory. 1946. AIEE Technical I’sper. the conductor heating is governed by the following: For Copper: duration of current flow. For quick estimating purposes. Short-time Current Ratings for Aircraft Wire and = = = t I Cable. 3.23) as if the conductor were copper. see rms amperes during entire interval of current flow em conductor cross sect. There are available. The problem of joining and terminating aluminum conductors without creating local “hot spots” deserves very careful attention. however. cir mils T I= initial copper temperature. 8 Awg or larger*). Fig.23. by which the symmetrical current value shall be multiplied to determine the true rms current is given in chart A . Consider the current to be 150 per cent of the actual value.Jones and J. Seott. C To simplify a n application. Rms current as used here is defined as the root-rneansquare value for the total interval of short-circuit-current flow.


) for the more common application conditions are K . As the current magnitude increases toward the maximum interrupting ability of the fuse. -8. Fuses (Current-limiting) . the magnitude of Z't approaches a fixed value (approximately) for a particular fuse ampere rating. the duration of current flow will be governed by the timedelay relay or trip coil plus the inherent delay in the circuit breaker. Conservative factors ( K . The minimum time duration of short-circuit-current flow in a rircuit protected by a circuit breaker tripped by an instantaneous element will vary with the type of circuit breaker used.23. Data accumulated indicate that a fuse (of the types mentioned in this paragraph) whose ampere rating is not greater than 1. Circuit X / R ratio is generally not known and requires numerous circuit constants for an evaluation. When interruption is purposely delayed by time-delay relays or timedelay trip coils. 3. eight cycle.5 "I.0 tion of 35 sec or more Short-circuit Protective-device Interrupting Time. Circuit Breakers. = 1. instantaneously tripped K I = 1 . 3.5 times the conductor continuous-current rating will protect against dangerous conductor . This is equivalent to a fixed temperature rise in a particular size of conductor. 1 Any industrial power-distribution problem with current duraK . Current-limiting fuses (silver-sand and National Electrical Code low voltage) tend progressively to limit the time interval of current flow to lesser values as the magnitude of current increases. Short-time bhort-circuit) heating limits of copper cables and correlation of current and time to elevate the copper temperature from 75 to 150 C (dlheat is oirumed to be stored in the copped.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT 18. F I G .23 to resistance (distribution circuits will generally fall in thc region of X / R = 10 or less).25 Low-voltage circuit breakers tripped instantaneously Power circuit breakers. = 1. Typical values are shown in the lower left-hand corner of the large chart in Fig.

5 . 6 Awg Awg Awg Awg Awg temperature rise because of the flow of short-circuit current when protected by silver-sand fuses. F. 10 Awg No.lle. Fuses (Nou-current-limiting). 3/0 Awg No. Evaluate the symmetrical short-circuit current or currents that may be critiral. 3 Awg No.8 Silver-sand Fuse Protection at High Overcurrents Based on Copper Conductor Fuse roting. Apply the rms correction factor to allom for the d-c component for each time interval involved. 0 No. A transformer feeder cable is being selected to accommodate a 1000-kva 2.8 shows the wire sizes which will have less than 75 C conductor TABLE 3. 1. 10 No. Non-current-limiting fuses accomplish current interruption at a normal current zero. and thus the current conduction time cannot be reduced below that of the first current loop of short-circuit-(. 4.ransformer (240 amp) indirates a rahle conductor of 250 MCM. Applications should thus recognize one cycle as the minimum time of short-circuit-current flow. it is advisable to rorreet for the exart temperature range (see Table 3.t wire RH insulation protected 30 60 I00 IS0 200 No. If an oversize ronduetor is considered. amp Small~t wire normally vied.106 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DNICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT temperatures for severe overcurrents up to the maximum interrupting rating of the fuse. 14 No. The rated current of the t. I2 No. Make an initial check on the current-time chart for the smallest conductor size being considered (permissible time should exceed shortcircuit protective-device interrupting time). 6 Awg No. but the continuous-load rursent is to remain fixed.6 and temperature-range correction curve). EXAMPLES Example 1. advantage can be taken of the lower initial ronductor temperature.4-kv transformer. If critical. Sm. 2. 3. Define the short-circuit protertive device clearing time at this or these current magnitudes.urrent flow which may be as much as about one cycle of the power frequenry. Application Procedure. The trans- . Table 3. 1/0 Awg No.

The permissible time (read on the bottom scale) is indicated to be 12 sec (75 to 150 C hasis).000 amp Time duration = 1.y of 1000 kva is desired (113 amp). 5 time-lever setting v i t h 250/5-amp rurrent transformers.000 X 1. 3.23. Instantaneous attachments are not planned. Example 3.000 symmetrical rms amperes). 3. locate the intersection of the horizontal 3900-amp line and the 250-MCM conductor diagonal line.2/0-Awg coronol cable run is being considered.000 amp Case 1. X 3900 = 1.000 See preceding text for explanation of 1. Feeder circuits are t o be run from a 480-volt 60-cycle load-center unit substation at which point the short-circuit duty is 25.5 cycles) a t currents in excess of fifteen times the normal rating? solulion: Symmetrical current = 20. (From published time-current curves) Circuit-breaker operating time = 8 cycles .000-amp interrupting rating air circuit breaker which trips instantarieously (1.000 amp (20. ( X / R ratio of 10 and time of 5 sec) Henre.5 cycles Rms amperes = 20. A continuous load caparit.25 factor K . Line relaying is to consist of standard time-overcurrent relays on the &amp tap and S o .000 amp.000-amp line and the vertical 1.A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT I87 former iri question is good for full short-circuit current (sixteen times normal) for 5 sec.1 Awg. Example 2.23. locate the intersection of the horizontal 25. the total rms amperes affecting cable heating = K .000 amp Relay operating time = 50 cycles. The minimum size conductor (75 to 150 C basis) whose curve is above the intersection is a KO. The duration of this current as defined by the conditions of the problem is 5 sec. 3. but could be used if set at 3000-amp line current. Solution: Rms symmetrical amperes = rated current X 16 = 240 x 16 = 3900 amp. No instantaneous attachment on relay Rms symmetrical short-circuit current = 25. It is desired that the feeder cable have the same ability. K 1 = 1. and a KO. The 250-MCM cable will adequately meet the 5-sec requirement. A 4-kv feeder is t o be run from a substation at which the symmetrical short-circuit current is 25. What is the smallest reasonable feeder conductor size based on the use of a 25.25 = 25. Assume X / R ratio = 10 or less From chart A of Fig.23. Solution: Symmetriral short-circuit current = 25. On the large rhart of Fig.5-cycle line.0 X 3900 = 3900 amp On the large rhart of Fig.

Instantaneous attachment. 3.000 = 1. However. K 1 = 1 Hence.6). he checked: (1) a current of 3000 amp and time delay of overcurrent relay (just below the operating current of the instantaneous element) and (2) the maximum current with instantaneous relay operation. X 25. 3. total rms amperes affecting cable heating = KI X 25.23 for X / R ratio of 10 and time of 7 1 cycles. instantaneous relay operation will be obtained. the relay time a t 3000 line amperes is 66 cycles.0 X 3000 = 3000 amp. K . The intersection of 3000 amp and 71 cycles on the large chart of Fig.23.000 = 1. 3/0-Awg conductor is adequate. making a total time of 66 8 = 74 cycles. 2/0-Awg conductor is amply large to carry the 3000 amp for 74 cycles. 2. At the maximum current.1 X 25. 3.23 indicates a No. ambient temperature = 40 C. + + . Two point.500 amp. a Xo.000 = 27. From published relay data.23. 1.000 = 25.g cycle plus circuitbreaker time 8 cycles. Therefore. locate the intersection of the 25. K I = 1. Case 2.rols the cable size. Total rms current affecting cable heating = K .0 X 25. Total rms amperes affecting cable heating = KI X 3000 = 1. Rated continuous current for No. The intersection of the 27. 3.23 s h o m that a Xo.000 amp On the large chart of Fig.000-amp horizontal line and t. or 836 cycles. 2/0-Amg conductor is inadequate. Rated conductor temperature coronol cable = 80 C (see Table 3. a No. circuit-breaker time is 8 cycles. 3. 4/0-Awg conductor (75 to 150 C basis) and shows that point 2 cont.40 = 40 C.or mould operate at less than rated temperature. A specific check may show that a KO.he 58-cycle vertical line.500-amp horizontal line and the 84g-cycle vertical line on the large chart of Fig. 3/0-Awg coronol cable = 185 amp. = 1.1. The temperature rise will be roughly proportional to the square of the current. From chart A of Fig. Xormal temperature rise produced by rated current = 80 .188 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT Total time = 50 8 = 58 cycles Assume X / R ratio = 15 or less From chart A of Fig. on relay set to operate at and above 3000 line amperes. The smallest conductor whose curve lies above this intersection is a 500 MCM. For 8>i-cycle time interval.s must. 4/0-Awg conduct. The total current duration will be the relay time ?.


6 cycles. 4.5-cycle requirement. Knowlton (editor-in-chief).23. From the large chart of Fig.h edition of “Standard Handbook for Elect. McGraw-Hill Book Company.13. 3. From detail chart B . . 2. The permissible time corrected t o a 64 to 145 C basis is K X 6. Melting point of copper is 1083 C. Resistance of 1 cu cm of copper at 0 C is 1.”* * A .13 X 6. Therefore. Chap.” 8th ed. 3/O-Awg conductor would fail t o meet the 8. Ambient temperature is 40 C. Temperature-resistance coefficient of copper a t 0 C is 1/234. 3. the correction factor K for an initial conductor temperature of 64 C and final of 145 C is K = 1. 3/0-Awg conductor operating a t 143 amp would he expected to be ( g ) ’ (full-load rise) + ambient = = 63. Radiatiou may be neglected because of the short time involved.7 = 1.7 cycles. 4.21. the normal conductor temperature of a No. the permissible time for 27.190 A-C SHORT-CIRCUIT PROTECTIVE DEVICES AND CIRCUIT EQUIPMENT Hence. 3.500 amp in No.589 microhms. 3/0-Awg conductor (75 to 150 C basis) is 6. or 64 C The maximum momentary temperature for coronol at 5 kv is 145 C (see Table 3.8 C.. Data are an adaptation from the eight. 3.6). The curves are based on the folloiving assumptions: 1. 1949.rical Engineers. h e .7 = 7. . 5. S e w York. Fig. FUSING CURRENT TIME FOR COPPER CONDUCTORS The fusing current time curves for copper conductors are shown in Fig. a No. “Standard Handhook for Electrical Engineers. E. 4/O-Awg conductor is the correct selection since a No.23.

The voltage variations allowable and the methods which can be used in the design of a power system to keep the variations within acceptable limits are discussed. General Electric Company. l e w Haven. Eliason. Capehart. This voltage should bewithin acceptable limits-equal to the rated voltage of this equipment. R. Boice. N.Chapter 4 by W. formerly in Industrial Pawcr Enginwring. Methods of calculating these voltage drops are presented in this chapter.. Conn. A llowable Variations. The standard voltage ratings for utilization equipment are discussed in this chapter. F. General Electric Company. made substantial contributions to the material in this chapter: W. Reduction of Variations. 191 . Ohio. Crites and Maynord N . General Electric Company. Cincinnati.Y. K. * The following men. Halberg* Voltage-Standard Ratings. General Electric Company. along with the standard voltage ratings for power generation and distribution equipment. Sehenectady. R. KOpractical power system can maintain voltage a t rated value a t the utilization equipment a t all times. Calculation of Drops The purpose of any industrial power system is to maintain voltage a t the terminals of power-using equipment. D. I t is necessary to calculate the voltage drop in the power system for steady-state conditions and during the starting of the larger motors to determine whether or not the voltage mill remain within acceptable limits. J.

rat.hese changes that have taken pla(. t. There is logic in this in that the voltage rating of transformers. aud it is the voltage to which the operating characteristics are referred.ions are applied t o help in understairding the system-voltage disussion in the following sections. 1‘JIU. Possibly if the industry were starting over again.iticatioii mould be made that simple. 2.1 it is evident that care must tie exercised in using the proper voltage ident..200 volts.192 V O L T A G F S T A N D A R D RATINGS.he voltage drop between source arid load.o know v h y the voltage designat. 117.em voltages listed.age-identification structure is summarized iu Table 4.1) rated 13. of t. voltages were ini. Motors connerted directly to the 13.ems grew. vokage ident. and (in some cases) lamps. . Since most plants are supplied by transformers. As a result. For each of the nominal syst.1.ings are generally higher than utilization-eiiuipment vnltagc rat.ings of various pieces of apparatus used in the system before start. as syst. tem voltage could have that same value. consider a 13. The generators would be rated 13. Then. transformer arid generator voltage rat. Transformers stepping power down from transmission voltage would have secondary windings (I?.he voltage rat.800-volt bus would lie rated 13. motors.ings.800 volts. 4.800 volts.1) rated 13. When speaking of systems. supply equipment will have a higher voltage rating than utilization equipment..heir no-load rating. of course. the rated voltage is used. N I X l’uhliration lo. S E M A I’ulilirstion l o . for cxam* For a iiirthrr rrpansion of t h i s srihjpet F W l < I ~ ~ I . This means that in a 480-volt system. The problem of proper identification would be easier if all apparatus of a given voltage class had the same vokage rating. 4. But.800-volt system. is t. VARIATIONS. When speaking of a discussion on system-voltage problems so t h a t the proper voltage identification can be used throughout. the concept has beeri acceptcd that. t.e over a period of years. transformers. \lay. It is also necessary t. CALCULATION OF DROPS VOLTAGE DESIGNATIONS * It is necessary t o have a n understanding of the voltage names of systems and t. T o illustrate the use of Table 4. Transformers steppiug power down t o utilization vokage in load-center substations would have primary mindings (C.he term n o m i n a l s y s t e m vollage is used for convenient designation of systems and circuits t o define the voltage class. A l’refrrrrd Voltage I h t i n g s of :\(: Systrrris and Equipmmt.X 1 5 MKPport. Some fundamental rules are as follo\vs : 1.800 volts.ifiration for each piece of equipmelit as well as for the system.hed up t o compensate for t. Therefore. for example. Fig.he table gives voltage ratings of generators. The volt.1. R-6. Fig. From the foregoing summary and Table 4.ed voltage is not an applicable term because various piwes of equipment in a given system often have different voltage ratings.

.age drop. the ti'aiisformer steppiiig dowi from the iitility voltage ofteii hnil a ratiiig of 2400 volts oii the secoiidary.1 Typicol industrial plont power ryrtern . the voltage at the motors is reasoiiably iiear thc iiame-platc ratiiig iii the average system. I n older types of distrihiitioii systems it i m s commoii prartire to use step-doivii trmçformers irith a Iower primary voltage ratiiig thaii thc transformers which ivould siipply that systcm. aiid the traiisformer steppiiig doi\-ii to the utilizatioii voltage of 480 or 240 volts had a ratiiig of 2300 volts oii tlie primar?. as INCOMING 4 \ MASTER U N I T SUBSTATION ( P R I M A R Y SUBSTATIONI (IF USEDI WINDING u 1 ( A I P R I M A R I WINDING m l SECONDARY X P L A N T P R I M A R Y D I S T R I B U T I D N VDLTAGE LOAD C E N T E R U N I T SUBSTATION (SECONDARY SUBSTATION IN FACTORYI PRIMARY WINDING WINDING FIG. aiid judirioiis m e of taps i i i traiisformers. Part of this ditrereiicc: is compeiisated for by voltage drop iii the traiisformer aiid in the distributioii system betiveeii the traiisformers aiid the motors. 4. For example. CALCULATION OF DROPS 193.he motors irould have a ratiiig of 440 volts. VARIATIONS.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. in general. ple. transforniers or geiierators supplying motors ivoiild have a ratiiig of 480 volts whereas t. Therefore. Becausc of the desigii of preseiit-day systems n-itli smaller drgi'ers of volt. the prartirc is.

..000 69.000 I I0. 4. i~rc prcferrrd s y s t m valtagrs.000 13.118..1) shows a t y p i i d method of distributing power in industrial plants and will be used as referenre to identify some portions of the systems and equipment referred to.800' 23.... t o use the same voltage rating for all traiisformer windings connected t o a given system voltage....800 67... The transformers have a voltage rating for each xindiiig. RATED VOLTAGES OF TRANSFORMERS Transformer voltage ratings are hased on the no-load values. .160 120 or 120/240 I20 or 120/240 I20 or 120/240 240 or 120/240 240 or 120/240 240 or 120/240 208Y/120 208Y/120 208Y/120 Three-phase Systems 120 240 I20 230 115 118or120 208Y/120' 240 480* 600 2 . This is true whether the transformers are stepping down to this system or steppiug down from this system.1.300 4.900 34.800 6.. motors to opprste on -IltiO-.200 volts.. GWC-..900 12.400 43.900 12..200 13.. or W ~ P ~ P Y a srlwtion P ~ oi voltngr can l i p ~ n a d rthrsr ..194 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. These are .800 22..900 12.800 6..200 I .160 4.000 34. 4 0 0 ' 4 . VARIATIONS.000 13...400 4.000 13..500 46....400 4. 600 2..OOO * In ~ P I Vinstallations.000 4. resp2ctively.800-volt systrins should Iw rntcil 4000.900* 12. ..800 .500 13..1 No min0 I system Boric Pattern of Voltage Identification Transformer secondory rated voltage Transformer primary rated voltage Motor and control rated rottoget L. (i(iO0.600 6.800 13. The one-line diagram (Fig.200 13.800 6.....000 13.400 4.000 1 1 5.200 13.800 6.. and the ratio of primary to secondary rated wltages is equal t o the turn ratio.. 1 6 0 ' 4.000 20sY/l20 240 480 600 2. t Specifying t h e w valiirs for motor voltsgcs is itnportarrt: For rated YoltDge Genordor rated voltage *olt.. CALCULATION OF DROPS evident from Table 4. or 1:1.. TABLE 4. ..600 11...200 13. or 120 236 220 440 165 2... . . .160 4..800 208 or 120 240 480 220 or 208 208.. 208Y/120 240 480 600 2.... or 18..

Kv 6. 6. 4. 33.8 4.1. Volt. Fig.2.4 k v .ing of the primary substation transformers (top.VOLTAGSSTANDARD RATINGS. or 0e1ox. 4. 4. 12. Fig. The standard primary-winding ( A .8.8.9. top substation). For instance. What then are standard transformer voltage ratings for industrial plants? First.9 4.2 Transformer Secondary Voltage Ratings ( I ) . .he industrial plants for stepping down from plant primary distribution voltage to utilization voltage.ions and transformers are 13. The familiar designations 115. Standard rat. 34.9 kv.9. 4. and 23 kv refer to the classes of insulation used with these transformers. 67. The most common are four 255 per cent taps.1. 13.4 kv. 69. Fig. Fig.16 2.1) voltage ratings of load-center unit substations are 13. When secondary ratings were boosted to multiples of 120 volts. TABLE 4. Fig. consider primary or master unit substations and transformers which step down from some voltage above 15 kv to plant primary distribution voltage.8. 4. 4. and 22. 4. the high side rating was raised to maintain the same turn ratio.ings are listed in Table 4. Secondary-winding ( B .8. Fig. 4.2. 12. and 2. 46. VARIATIONS. two above . Therefore.ed above.1). bottom substation) used in t.400-2400.16. 34. 13. 600 IY or delta1 400 IY or delta1 240 208Y/l20 All standard unit substation transformers have taps in the primery winding to allow compensation for voltages that vary from the transformer rating. CALCULATION OF DROPS 195 the voltages a t which characteristics are measured.1) i s the same as the secondary voltage rat. 6. Note that the primary voltage rating of this class of transformers (bottom.4.1) voltage ratings of this class of industrial substat.1) Supplying Utilizoti0n Equipment Roted Above 600 Volts. The primary-winding (C. 4.4 Supplying Utilization Equipment Roled 600 Volt. the list belox includes only voltages below 15 kv. 4.2. the plant. The voltage ratings of secondary substations in the plant which supply motors and other utilization equipment are divided into two classesthose for serving utilization equipment above 600 volts and those for serving utilization equipment below BOO volts. As stat. S e x t consider transformers in load-center unit substations (see Fig. 4. and 2. 4. which is generally below 15 kv (see Fig. primary voltage is usually less than 15 kv.000-2300 volts was once a standard rating. These are the actual transformer-minding ratings. Thc corresponding present-day transformer would be rated 34.16.1) voltage ratings of this class of substation and transformers are 110. 43. They are derived from the old rating structure based on secondary ratings in multiples of 115 volts.8.5.

age systems.ratisformer voltage ratings have long been expressed by various symbolic met. Two rated kva 5 per cent below normal t. 480 volts. windings may have series-parallel connections. These and other complex arrangements make exact identification desirable.he slant (/). Used to separate the voltage ratings of separate windings in a specific transformer. Used t o separate voltages t o be applied to or obtained from the same windiug.heir rated voltage when the voltage on the 480-volt system is below 480 volts as it normally vill be. the X. In general terms. when in the following discussion a transformer is referred t o as having.o allow for operation of 120-volt lamps near t. for example. I t vould he very cumbersome to refer to all five of these ratios in all discussions. transformers are 600 volts. Such methods are essential because t o fully describe the \\-indings of transformers often would require a fairly lengthy paragraph. and the Y. To further a consistent use of symbols.s. a rating of 2400-480 volt. giving a total adjustment of plus or minus 5 per cent.age ratings for t. The standard primary volt. arid 240 volts.o rci~ommenda standard transformer “shorthand. t. Comhined light arid power systems are frequently used where motors are supplied a t 180 volts.hese light. their uses are as follows: Dash (-).raiisformerwill still be referred to as a 2100-480-volt transformer. TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE REPRESENTATIONS Transformer voltage designations become rather complex. and lights are supplied at 120 volts from the same 480-volt system. For illstance. These variables in t. such as 3400-volt transformers which are suitable for line-toneutral operation OIL 4160-volt systems. X.h KERIA and ASh standards have been established t. aiid the standard secondary vohage ratings are 208Y/120 volts and 120/240 volts. the t.hat is Y-connected. a transformer actually has five different ratios. t!sed t o designat. VARIATIONS.aps in the primary winding. Slant ( I ) .. The absence of .hods. the discussion will apply equally well whether the transformer is operated 00 the cenher t a p or other taps. CALCULATION OF DROPS aiid two below normal.196 VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS. Used to designate separate vokagcs obtainable by reconnection of the coils of a winding in series or multiple combinations. using dry-type transformers.e a winding t. Or they may be designed for connection line-to-neutral on higher rated volt. Y. With these t. for example. However. therefore. Regardless of the tap used.” Four symbols are used: the dash (-). t o bc of any value a transformer rating so expressed should meao the same to everyone.aps are provided in these transformers t.

age. a minding rated 120 X 240 can be connected with t.he coils in parallel to obt.itig is in practically all cases the same as the transformer in a giveu voltage class. suitable for three-wire operation.400 volts of 11. 240 volts 480 volts 600 volts Generator Voltage Ratings* 2. Another use of the slant is to indicate taps. systems * Ratings .it. For instance.1). The X symbol is used to separate t. a 2400/4lCiOY windiug can be couiiected either for 2400 volts deka or 4160 volts Y.h the coils iu series for 240 rolt. TABLE 4. t x o above and tI5-o below rated voltage.160 volts 4.800-2400-480Y/277.ed 120/240.h primary substation transformers (see Fig. 4. 14.500 volts are n s ~ d for genrrators on smnr rstablislird hut are. Listed in Table 4. Xote that the delta voltage is expressed first. slant.3 are the three-phase generator ratings that.3 208Y/120 "Olt. that fact is shoivu by 208 Grd Y/120. Thc corrcsponrling trnnsfornii. fol1oir. For iiistauce. If the neutral is brought out with reduced insulation. especially 011 single-phase transformers. The use of the dash.i report. CALCULATION OF DROPS I97 this symbol in a three-phase transformer rating indicates that the winding is delta-connected. RATED VOLTAGES OF GENERATORS Siiice the generator is a source of elect. 4160-480Y/277: Note that this meaus the 4160-volt high-voltage winding is delta-corinected while the 480-volt winding is Y-couiiected with t.r rating is 12.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS.ransformer might have this voltage rating: 13. Here the line voltage is expressed first.ric poir-er aud is ofteu i u parallel wit.he volt.d by the line-to-neutral voltage. not rrrommmdrd for nmv systim~s. and Y can he easily illustrated by the voltage rating of the transformer for a typical load-center suhstation.ages obtainable in a seriesmukiple minding not. When a single-phase t. In three-phase transformers the slaut is ofteri used to indicate wiiidiiigs connectable either in delta or Y. A three-winding t. are recommended by the latest EEI-SE5I.ransformer with a series-multiple winding is vound to be suitable for three-wire service on the series conoectioii.400 volts 4.ain 120 volts or Tr.900 volts 13. When a Y-connected winding has the neutral brought out it is siguified like this: 2OSY/lZO. it is designat. a 240-volt wiuditig with a midtap is expressed 240/120. VARIATIONS.500 and 12.his specific case: four 255 per ceut rated kva taps.he neutral brought out.s.000 w i t s and transformcr taps sllon for paralirl oprration.800 "011.800 volts 6.omary to specify them as illustrated in t. its voltage aud ('oiiscquently its rat. When a winding has several taps close to the rated volt. it is cust. For example.

6. Unit transformer generator arronge- RATED VOLTAGES OF MOTORS A t the other end of the system are the motors.o-neut.ings of polyphase motors are given in Table 4.1. Higher voltages have not in general heeo found sat.2).isfactory. 4. Single-phase motors are usually rated at 115 or 230 volts.400-volt rating has been adopted largely in large generating stations where the input is transformed up to higher voltage in a unit transformer generator arrangement (see Fig.or-cotit. RATED VOLTAGES OF LAMPS Inrandescent lamps are standardized at 120 volts. CALCULATION OF DROPS The 14.haii a t the sources of power because of voltage drop. and 265 volt. and their rat. 208.000 ~ o l t i 4.rd a t 118.000 volt. 208 volt. 230. 13. 440 rolls 2. VARIATIONS. 4. mTwI 2 4 I FIG.rol equipment has the same voltage rating as the associated motor.2 HIGH VOLTAGE BUS merit.ral on 480-volt systems).300 ~011s 4. TABLE 4.s (for line-t.198 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS.ings reflect the fact that voltage at utilizatioii equipment is somewhat loirer t. 220 wit. The standard voltage rat. Fluorescent lamps offer a wider range of operation and are commotily rat.600 Volt. OTHER APPARATUS Some other types of equipment such as capacitors and industrial heating equipment have compromised between the extremes of generator .4 110 "0111 M o t o r Voltage Ratings 550 "011.200 volts hlot.600 volts I1.

The system nominal voltage is referred to as 480 volts. and 13. However. C O O 69. as ran he seen from the foregoing.000 34.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. It is merely a name.000 13.he transformers should he specified as -180-volt rating.o the ratings of source equipment. correct identification of each piece is of paramount importance. 4800. 460. if one is buying equipment to supply a 180-volt system. The motors and control should be specified as 440-volt rating. TABLE 4. the secondaries of t.800 volts. Capacitors are rated at 230. it is very desirable that a consistent practire in designating nominal voltages be followed. it is extremely important to identify properly the voltage rating of each piece of apparatus in a system as well as to identify the nominal system voltage.000 Table 4.000 115. 7200. It is also important to remember that transformer and generator voltage . NOMNAL SYSTEM VOLTAGES The choice of the numerical value t o represent nominal system voltage is purely arhitrary and does not attempt to indicate an average system voltage.500 4 6 . Other apparatus on this system may have different voltage ratings.160 4. capacitors would be rated 460 volts. The standard values for nominal system voltage correspond t. When used properly. For example.5 Standard Nominal System Voltages Singlo Phase 120 120/240 240 Three Phore 208Y/l20 240 480 600 2. VARIATIONS. 575. 4G0. Therefore.470.230. and 575 volts. industrial heating devices are rated at 115.900 12. may be different even though the apparatus is for use on the same given voltage class system.800 6. CALCULATION OF DROPS I99 rating and motor rating in a given voltage class. 2400. 12.5 is not complete but is representative of industrial practice. The voltage ratings of the various pieces of apparatus.200 13. For example.ure of a system with a minimum of misunderstandings. the nominal voltage should give a good picture of the voltage struct. To repeat.400 4.800 23. For instance. heating equipment would be rated 460 volts.

3). Another important type of voltage spread is primary or supply voltage spread which is the difference between the maximum and the niinimum voltage a t the service entrance or plant primary bus of a particular plant under normal operating conditions. pp. certain definitions are essential to underst. vol. what are the proper limits of voltage variation in a n industrial plant? These should be determined by the characteristics of the utilization apparatus.ure such as those due t o switching surges. etc. Voltage spread is not intended to cover momentary voltage changes uf a transitory nat. 6 i . I n modern power systems. Voltage zone is the envelope of all voltage spreads for a particular voltage class of system. Countrywide. This is the diKercnce between the maximum and minimum voltages a t the terminals of the utilization equipment under normal system operating conditions (Fig. Voltage Zone. 358-374. Voltage Spread. VARIATIONS. and as load is applied to the system the voltage drops to near the nameplate rating of the lower rated utilization apparatus. Eng. motor starting. This is logical because the transformer voltage ratings are the no-load voltage ratings. ariy one location because of recognized differences in practices of different companies.200 VOLTAGE. .arid clearly the discussion of this problem. 4. voltages between the systems having the highest and lowest voltages for this class. VOLTAGE SPREAD AND FLICKER REQUIREMENTS* STEADY-STATE VOLTAGE REQUIREMENTS An ideal electric power system is one which will supply constant frequency and volt. First. Voltage spread is the difference between the maximum and minimum voltages which appear at any location in a system under riormal operating conditions. 1948.. The first part of this discussion is primarily concerned with voltage spread a t utiliaatiori equipment.STANDARD RATINGS. Maximum values usually appear during light load and minimum values a t full load on the electric system. It is impractical. however. Since this cannot he attained. For any specific voltage class designated by a nominal system voltage there inherently exists an appreciable range of operat. t o design a power system which will deliver absolutely constant rated name-plate voltage to every piece of apparatus. frequency is a minor problem. this zoue is larger thaii the voltage spread at.age at rated name-plate value t o every piece of apparatus in the system. Elec. Industrid Voltag. CALCULATION OF DROPS ratings are always higher than utilization-device ratings. * The data in this sretion arc l a r ~ c l y adapted from an AIEE Industrial Power System Coinmittre 1Lpurt.


5. 480 2 . 4.- 400 VOLTS ZERO VOLTAGE DROP A 2 4704 6 0 ~ y) 3 9 :rp 460 _ _ _ _ _ ~. and any lights or other incidental load connected a t this time is subject to practically the no-load voltage.-___ 5 VOLTS _ A FIG. CALCULATION OF DROPS difference in voltage in various parts of the power system. a t extremely light load there is essentially no voltage drop through the transformer or in any of the secondary circuits connected to the transformer. EFFECT O F VOLTAGE DROP To show the effect of voltage drop in a plant it will be assumed that the primary voltage is maintained a t a constant value regardless of plant load.6 spread. No primary voltage .4. VARIATIONS. It is particularly significant a t this point to recognize that transformer voltage ratings are the no-load SECONDARY BUS TRANSFORMER CIRCUIT FIG. Referring to Fig. Full-load voltage conditions f o r circuit shown in Fig. Consequently. 4. 4.4 Typical industrial plant power circuit.4 will be used as an illustration. the voltage is substantially the same throughout the plant.202 VOLTAGFSTANDARD RATINGS. The simple circuit shown in Fig. 4. The other cause is primary voltage spread a t the service entrance of the plant. 4. TRANS FA NO ---- ]----____________________ LOAD VOLTAGE-480 VOLTS VOLTAGE DROP VOLTAGE DROP IN THRU 15 VOLTS TRANSFORMERSECONDARV FEEDER-IOVOLTS TOTAL VOLTAGE l. The primary voltage is assumed to be of such magnitude that the secondary voltage on the transformer is 480 volts a t no load.z IN BRANCH DROP CIRCUIT- 450 sE~!~48oro~?p~"2~Ts G ? ! E ? _________________-__ --.

This voltage rise of the primary reduces the voltage spread in the plant.7. 4. the voltage may be too high a t light load.5. VARIATIONS. This may be caused by voltage drop in the primary system. impairing the performance and reducing the production obtained from the equipment.7 instead of only 30 volts as shown in Fig. The transformer taps have been selected so that the no-load voltage is 450 volts as in Fig. or voltage may he too low a t full load a t much of the utilization apparatus.6. At t. 4. 4. 4.9. When load comes on the power syst.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. and this causes a voltage drop in the secondary circuits as shown in Fig. then the maximum voltage spread is 30 volts (450 a t no load to 450 volts a t full load. This is illustrated in Fig. The second cause of voltage spread is the primary voltage spread a t the plant service connection. If the lowest voltage in the plant exists a t load A .9.9. . There are assumed additional drops of 10 volts in the secondary feeder and 5 volts in the branch circuit. a transformer rated 4160-450 volts will produce 480 volts a t no load with 4160 volts applied to the primary.. 4. This primary voltage spread adds to the total voltage spread in the plant.he secondary bus the voltage drop caused by the current flowing through the transformer is assumed to be 15 volts. In designing an industrial power system the voltage spread should be kept t o a minimum consistent with reasonable first cost. CALCULATION OF DROPS 203 ratios. 4. or it may be due to regulation of the primary system by voltage regulators. but in addition.8 where there was no primary voltage variation.5. making the spread 480 to 440 volts or a total of 40 volts as is shown in Fig.o drop sufficiently to cause an additional 10-volt drop in the vokage at the secondary of the transformer. making a total drop to load A of 30 volts. 4.the same voltage drop occurs as in Fig. When load is connected to the transformer. current flows. The primary voltage may rise when the load comes on because of voltage regulators in the primary feeder circuit or because of other voltage regulators in the primary power system. as shown in Fig. Automatic voltage regulation is required in such cases to bring the voltage spread within the limits shown in Table 4. or 30 volts).6. With constant primary voltage the secondary bus voltage varies from 450 volts a t no load to 465 voks at full load--the voltage spread a t this point is 15 volts. the primary system voltage is assumed t. The primary voltage spread may not always be in the direction shown in Fig. assume that the primary voltage drops as load comes on in the plant. Changing transformer taps to increase the vo1t:ige a t full load will not solve the problem because that will increase the no-load voltage beyond 450 volts. causing equipment operating during that period to burn out. For example. To show the effect of primary voltage variation. Very weak primary systems with a high drop or regulated primary systems whose load cycle does not coincide with the load cycle of the plant may cause excessive voltage spread in the plant-beyond the limits shown in Table 4. If the spread is too great.em. 4.

40 VOLTS VOLTAGE DROP THRU TRANSFORMER VOLTAGE DROP IN SECONDARY FEEDER lo VOLTAGE DROP 2s__vw3 TOTAL VOLTAGE SPREAD 4 8 0 TO 4 1 0 VOLTS 170 VOLTS) .204 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS. (on 480volt basis) primary voltage spread.1 ___--- _____ _________NO LOAD VOLTAGE - 480 VOLTS PRIMARY VOLTAGE SPREAD . 4SO G 440 430 420 . VOLTAGE DROP I N SECONDARY FEEDER1 0 VOLTS FIG. 4. 470 ~ 460.8 Full-load voltoge condition3 for circuit shown in Fig. Primary voltage varies from maximum at no load to minimum a t full load. J . VARIATIONS. 4. 4. CALCULATION OF DROPS 480470y1 ---VOLTAGE DROP THRU TRANSFORMER 1 5 VOLTS VOLTAGE DROP IN SEOWDARI FEEDER VOLTAGE DROP IN 9 450 440 I _________________________________ TOTAL VOLTAGE SPREAD 480 TO 440 VOLTS 140 VOLTS1 --- -______ FIG. 410 . 4.7 Full-load voltage conditions for circuit shown in Fig. Primory voltage varier from minimum at no load to maximum at full load.4 with 10 volt.4 with 10 volts (on 480volt baris) primary voltage spread.

The effert. Thr variatioii i n rharactrristiw as a function of voltage for the widely used inductiotr motors is shoivn i n Table 4.. So that the plant engineer can better judge the effect 11f vokage variation on t.9. Increased starting curretit raiiscs greater voltage drop in the power system. and the amount the voltage deviates from the device rating. the torque is redured 19 per cent. I t is these rhararteristirs rvhirh have been used as a st. depending upon the chararteristirs of the device. The increased heating at low voltage aiid full load rediirrs thr lifr of the insulat. The increased torque may muse rouplings to shear off or damage t o driven equipment. Effect on Induction Motors. Principal Effects of l o w Voltage on Induction Motors. The XEBIA St. of unbalanced voltages is also very importatit and shonld he rotrsiderrd.he electric equipment in his plant.ies of rhaiiges in voltage magnitude. Whenever the voltage a t the terminals of a utilization device varies from name-plate rating of the de\. thus a t 10 per reut helow normal voltage. The most significant effects of too lox voltage are reduction in starting torque a t i d increased full-load t. The and decreased p o r e r factor. Principal Effects of High Voltage on Induction Motors.he equipment. Induction motors are the most rommoir utilization derires in industrial plants. something is sacrificed either in life or performanre of t. torque decreases as the square of the voltage.ors are also very materially affected hy redured voltage as thi. with usbge of electrir pover for precise operations. Torque mot.may be minor or serious. However. The effect. The rurrent may hecomc esressive for only a small voltage iuihalanre.andards should be consulted for detailed information on this subject.8 and 4.G.V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS.arting torque may be significant i n mot. CALCULATION OF DROPS 205 EFFECT OF VOLTAGE SPREAD O N UTlLlZATlON EQUIPMEN? G e n e r a l Effects.or applications driving high-inertia rqnipmeirt. The material in this section deals only n-ith the cffert 011 motor chararterist. flirker.arting point for establishing the desired voltage spread of Tables 4. VARIATIONS. The lower torqne i d 1 result.age variations of considerably less than given in t. significant efferts of too high voltage are inrreased tnr(lue.emperature rise.ion. Uecreased p o ~ v z r factor is particularly disadvantageous where power-fartor peualty rlanses . KESIA Standards provide for rert.ain tolerances whirh may he taken advantage of without seriously affertiiig the performanre of the apparatus. there is often a major sacrifire in produrtion for volt. how the device is applied. henre increases light. The redurtion of st. inr. in longer armleration periods. the rharacteristics of many commonly used derires are given here.rrasrd starting rurrent.he NERlA Standards.

... 9% load. . .. CALCULATION OF DROPS TABLE 4......... .... .. Per cent d i p ........... Voltage Variotion Functionof voltage 110% voltage .e 10 to 12% ... Incrcoie 4 lo 5 points Full-load ~ u r r e n t ... Power faclor....... which will vary somewhat for specific ratings.. Overvoltages of 10 t o 1...... Increase 1 point load...................... Increase 1 to 2 point$ ..... the maximum or pull-out torque varies directly with the voltage..eo.. )i l o a d ... in general.... Decrease 19% (Voltage)’ InCreOle 21 N o change Decrease 17% Increase 1 % Small increo*e Procticdiy no change Decrease 1 to 2 points I( 36 . Decrease7% Inc......... The higher the motor voltage rises.. speod--.. ......nt .... Increase 2 lo 3 point! load... ....he starting torque varies as the square of the voltage. ....... From the above discussions it will be noted that. However................llpl Efficiency: Full load...... Decrease slightly ............. Decrease 4 points ... This may result in a greater penalty and hence a higher power bill..6 General Effect of Voltage Variation on Induction-motor Characteristics I 90% voltage Starting and maximum running torque. .........m load in parliculor.. voltages slightly in excess of motor name-plate rating have less detrimental effect . full load...... Proclicolly no change ....ant applications that are.... Increose 6 to 7 C Maximum torque capocity......... ... .... there are import.... ................... IV0ltogeJ~ Decrease 19% Magnetic n0ire......... Increase slightly This table s h o w gencral effcets. the lower the power fartor mill become......... Effect on Synchronous Motors....... VARIATIONS.. Decrease 10 to 12% Voitoge Temperature rise.. Increase 23% 1 (voltagel~ .. Decrease 2 points ... Full-load speed..... while t.. Synchronous speed............ Decrease 3 points ... ....... are applied by the utilities................. While the temperature rise at full load on standard motors decreases slightly for moderate overvoltages....206 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATiNGS....... Decrease I lo 2 C Increa3e 21 % ............. Decreore 136% ISyn.......... Decrease 5 lo 6 points ...... the temperature rise may increase on certain types of sperial motors a t even very small overvoltages........... ..5 per cent have caused numerous burnouts on special four-speed grinder motors. While marry drive applications are not seriously affected by voltage deviations as much as plus or minus 10 per cent from rated voltage.... Full land... ... Increase I1 Yo Starting w r r e n l ........ The effect of voltage variation on the performance of synchronous motors is similar t o that on induction motors. Motors rated for intermittent load are also materially affected by overvoltagcs...... No change Cons1.

Effect on Incandescent lamps. 4.7 that a 10 per cent reduction in lamp voltage results in a 30 per cent reduction in light output. which is approximately 4 per cent below and 9 per cent above the 440-volt motor rating. A s a n example. There are the 3 PER CENT NORMAL VOLTS . 30 per ! i ! 3 a 2 0 c 9 a FIG. It can be seen from Table 4. CALCULATION OF DROPS 207 on motor performance than voltage helow the name-plate rating. This is one of the bases on which the voltage spreads in Table 4. the investment in the lighting system is working at only 70 per cent efficiency-thus.9 mere determined.V O L T A G k S T A N D A R D RATINGS. The light output and life of incandescent filament lamps are critically affected by the impressed voltage. the figures show a recommended spread of 420 t o 180 volts for the 480-volt nominal system voltage. VARIATIONS. In other words.10 Characteristics of large gar-filled incandescent type C lampr. I n Table 4.7 is shown the relationship of lamp life arid output t o voltage for a vokage range from 80 t o 120 per cent of rated voltage. when the voltage is 10 per cent low. I n general it may be said that for incandescent filament lamps a 1 per cent deviation from rated voltage causes a change of 3 t o 335 per cent in light output. average of many lampr.

o pass more current to the lamp.0 110.10.0 144.age causes the choke t. Ti-atts t o the lamp are slightly increased. 1 per cent variatiim i n line voltage n-ill changc t.2 117. rcsulting in a lower voltage drop i n the lamp itself.6 120.7 Effect of Voltage Variations on Gar-filled Incandescent-lamp Choracteristics Per cent rated voltage Per cent rated lighl output Per <en1 heoretical* life Socket voltage ~ 96. VARIATIONS.0 122.aiii range. I n some cases.2 129. In this condition. IIIgeneral. Other dat.age is raised above normal. 4. the higher currcnt density priiduces the short ultraviolet radiation less effirieutly..herefore the lumen output increases over a cert.0 138.0 108.he luminous efficiency of the lamp decreases. rises sharply at voltages above 100 per cent. wilserpently t. 4. TABLE 4.0 80 85 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 110 115 47 58 70 75 8 1 87 93 I00 105 115 1900 850 400 300 225 170 130 100 75 60 I20 I30 I40 45 35 30 15 10 I20 I60 185 ~* Throrrticnl lifv in thc nhsrrrcc of any mcrhanicnl hrcakagc.he lumeir oudput only about 1 per cent. With an overvoltage of 10 per cent the lamp-life is reduced t o less than oue-third~-t. In onlinary sprvire. It will be noted that the ores-all efficiency (if the fluoresrerrt. and t. mcchanird hrrakage r c d n r r s t h p liip expectanrc a t tlrr lo\ver roltagrs.1 1. from which it.6 132. The changes in lamp characteristics iI-ith rariatioii in cirruit.4 124.4 112. operating eronnmies result from hurriing lamps at higher efficiency and short life.a arc shown in Fig. The input.hus lamp-replacement costs are three times as great as a t normal voltage. should be noted that the lumens per watt. column.0 102. Toltage is a factor in starting reliahility. or lamp efficieilcy. The increased line volt. or vice versa. . and voltages l o w r than recommeiided may result in unsatisfactory starting.. voltage arc given in Fig.208 V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS.8 115. Effect on Fluorescent l a m p s . CALCULATION OF DROPS cent of the investment is lost. however.8 127. This loivers the resistance of the arc. lamp decreases if the line volt.

at miiiimiim INFERIOR LAMP PERFORYANCE AN0 DANGER OF OVERHEATING AUXILIARY MAY RESULT AT EXCESSIVE OVER VOLTAGE.he standpoint of life. meiits. The iiistairt-start rathodr whivh is ~ l s r d ill all slimline and instalit-start lamps van Iw o p e m t d ovrr ii ividr ~'angr . from t. The life of preheat-type lamps should he quite satisfartmy throrlghollt. . I I ~ i ~ e v t ~ r there are a numher of other fartors.VOLTAGGSTANDARD RATINGS. ranges. Even though they mtsrt sprvitivatioll r ~ y ~ i ~ i r c . tlicsr volt:tg(. There may be some derrease i n life performalire \\-3ir11 o p w i t c d a t maximum vokage as compared with that. DECREASE0 UNCERTAIN OPERATION EXCESSIVE LIGHT OUTPUT ANP STARTING AND MAY RESULT AT UNDER VOLTAGE. from 120 to 430 ma. Ballasts also affert life. / i \ x I RECOMMENDED OPERATING RANGE BEST PERFORMANCE I I L I N E VOLTAGES FIG. CALCULATION OF DROPS 209 Fluorcsreiit lamps are f a r less af'ectrd hy circuit voltage variatioli tllan filament lamps. 4. iii general. with rrlatiwly littlr d f c r t 1111 life. SWIM: of whidi arc i ~ i r p r ~ ~ d i r ~tlr. are 110 ti] 125. VARIATIONS. they have maiiufactnriiig toleranre and t h i w a r c drsigit rliffwvnws b e t w e n types. :ind 240 t o 280. i f current. the range of published voltage fur the various Iiallasts. 100 t o 2l(i. .1 1 Characteristics of fluorescent lornpr OI function of voltage applied to bollort. tal~l~ affect life. I I atill There is ?onsideral)le differenre i l l this rrsprct het ~ C ~ slimlillp regular preheat-type lamps. 220 to 250.

.12 Choracterirticr of mercury type H 400-watt lamps. M a n y healing devices are conservat. Effect on Resistance Heating Devices. For 10 hr operation per start. however. operate them near maximum rating.irig is a factor iii the life obt. the lamp's life is increased approximat. in many rases the designer must confine his heating units into a miiiimum of space and must. . On the other hand. Therefore. excessive voltage will increase the temperature of the heating units and therefore will reduce their life. The effect of voltage variation on mercury lamps is shown in Fig. output.ively designed arid if thermostatically controlled may operate satisfactorily even if the voltage varies 10 per cent or more. ally data 011 life vs.210 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. insufficient preheat current for proper cathode emission prior t o starting may result in short life. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS Fluorescent lamps also differ from filament lamps in that the frequency of start.12. This. holds true only for an operating range over which the resistance remains constant. circuit voltage for the normal range in operat. Rated life is usually based on 3 hr of operation per start.iiig voltage ivould have little significaiice. Effect on Mercury Lamps. h drop i n voltage meaiis a drop in heat input. 4. At voltages heyoiid the upper limit. However. varying with the square of the voltage. and a loss in production.ely 35 per cent. 4.F -I rn CCYI I 90 wo 110 iao 1 3 0 0 s TIIANSFORMER T A P SETTING I 1 I I I 140 I I FIG.ained. the overcurrent operat. Thus a 10 per cent drop in voltage will cause a drop of 19 per cent in heat. The energy input and therefore the heat output of resistaiice heaters varies in general with the square of the impressed voltage.ioii may rcsult in unsatisfartory lamp life. Also the temperature requirements for many heating applicatioiis IiecessiMe the operation of the heating units a t maximum temperature. At voltages below the lower limit. therefore. This condition applies especially t o furnaces operating at high temperatures near the maximum permissible for I I I I I I I /I/ I I I I I I I I u OC 60 40 0 U 10 60 I 70 P R I M V0LTIT.

pliotrons. Effect on Infrared Heating Processes. The radiated energy vs. Figure 4. Uniformity of product speed in the oven is the usual objective for coiiveyerized operations. CALCULATtON O F DROPS 211 the type of heating unit used.he exact.13 QI Radiant-energy output of General Electric Company industrial infrared lamps a function of impressed voltoge. so that some of the lamps can be switched on and off in accord with t. applies t o most of the thyratrons. Curve 1. The current-carrying ability or emissiou of all elect. The wattage input is nearly proportional t o the energy output for a voltage range of 50 t o 150 per cent of rated voltage. . the voltage should be maintained mithiu a spread of plus or minus 5 per cent of rated voltage.e for the volt. it may be necessary to use a voltage regulator to maintain conveyer speed and product quality.VOLTAG&STANDARD RATINGS. Differences in heating requirements are rea.ronic tubes is affect. I n t. entitled Oxide Coated. Effect on Electronic Equipment.ions. voltage is shown in Fig.13 for the rating of 115 volts used on industrial infrared lamps. the energy output does not vary with the square of the voltage because the resistance varies a t the same time. Curve 2 for thoriated tungsten applies t o the small transmitter tubes and some of the hattery- FIG. To assure uniform high production and the best operating conditions.he cases vhere lamp sivitching cannot rompensat.dily accomplished by connecting the infrared lamps to a number of circuits. Although the filaments of the lamps used in these installations are of the resistance type. The change in wattage and radiated energy is only 7 per cent for a 5 per cent change in voltage.ed seriously by voltage deviation from rating. 4. For the usual paint-drying applications. VARIATIONS.age variat. if the product dryiiig is very sensitive t o temperature differences.14 shows typical emission curves plotted agairist cathode heater voltage. 4. heat. this might he more harmful thau a larger change in typical resistance heaters employing thermostatic controls. no voltage coutrols are required with infrarcd needs. and rereiving tubes. However.

4. This redured life is due t o the higher rate of evaporation of the rathode material. The rathode-life curve f o r pure tungsten indicates that.age. the life is redured by half for esrh 5 per rent iiiwease iii cathode volt. CALCULATION OF DROPS heated tubes. VARIATIONS.212 VOLTAGE. the loss d emission has very serious sec- 20 0 40LL 30 40 FIG.STANDARD RATINGS. At voltages below rating.14 Calculated values of electronic-tube emission and life . Curve 3. applies t o the oscillator tube such as used in high-frequeiicy induction and dielectric heaters. Pure Tungsten.

Therefore.ion of the cathode. and rlutrhes. as explained above. the snrfare callnot be activated properly and loses its emitting effiiknry very quirkly.he rurrent. the gas molecules bombard the rathode surfare and may destroy t. If voltage sij-ings must he tolerated. Electrotiic circuits. if insuffirient emission is available t o carry the load current. If the volt. and destruct.he majority of rirruits.hat.her parts of the RATINGS.her important things to be taken into ronsiderat. and henre thcir funrtion will naturally be impaired by excessive voltage variation. it is extremely important that the rathode voltage be kept up near rating on these tubes for sat. In a vacuum tube surh as the pliotron and kenet. if a closer tolerance than this can be maiutained.put and sometimes excessive tube heating which is reflerted in a shorter life.he effect of voltage change is most. T o permit the voltage t o fall helow rather than t o rise slightly above rating i s serious. lost power mparity rapidly if the voltage is decreased from rating. I n this group fall solenoids. brakes.he square of the voltage. making the tuhe iuoperativc.he minimum s\ving be t o not less thau 95 per cent. thc user will he amply repaid i n increased tube life and reliable operatioil. I n general. However. solenoids are liberally designed and standard rommerrial solenoids are designed to operate satisfartorily on 10 per cent overvoltage .t.he tube in a matter of minnt.sge is too high. I n addition t o the above factors there are ot. While t. it is preferablc t o low xwltage rr-hich rauees rapid tube drterioration.uration is part of the roiitrol function. varies approximately a s t h r square of the vokage. There is some deviation from this law.isfactory service. VARIATIONS. Effect on Solenoid-operated Devices. as all other electric cirruits. This is especially true when magnetic sat. If the rathode voltage is too low in the gas-filled tuhe.ions. of rating even hhuugh the average voltage may he slightly above rating. too. This permits bombardment. important on the tube cathode. CALCULATION OF DROPS 213 ondary effects. economic reasons prevent voltage regulation on t. of course. valves. While this prartice \\-ill. for gas-filled tubes such as thyratrons and phanotrons i n ivhirh t. depending upon which part of the brake-horsepower cnrve the solenoid is working. it is also undesirable ill ot. the evaporated material from the cathode may contaminate the grid or anode and cause grid current and arc-back. it is more desirable t. Standard industrial t. Iloivever.ron a small loss of eniission below that needed means rednced ont. Although critiml circuits normally contain voltage-regulator tubes and other mealis t o hold a constant reference vokage in spit.uhes are desigued t o operate \vith a voltage tolerance of plus or minus 5 per cent. The temperature rise. The pull of the a-c solenoid varies approximately as t. is not limited by the tube spare rharge.e of line-voltage variat.ion. give somewhat redured tube life.

214 V O L T A G F S T A N D A R D RATINGS. Since an a-c solenoid has an inrush current of approximately ten times the sustained value when sealed. it would be desirable to design for closer limits to allow for critical utilization apparatus that may be developed and widely used in the future.8 Recommended Voltage Spread a t the Terminals of Utilization Devices in Industrial Distribution Systems 600 Volts and Below Nominal Iyllem volt. CALCULATION OF DROPS and 15 per cent undervoltage. The history of electricity in industrial plants has been to extend its use to more and more functions. As * Thcse rwommcndstions are in iuhstantial agreement with thP recommmdations of the joint EM-SEMA Committce whirh puhlishrd their findings in a report. and where the user has made a sizable investment in capacitors for power-factor correction. he loses the benefit of 20 per cent of this investment. therefore. Prcferrpd Voltage Ratings of AC Systems and Equipmcnt. the system design engineer should design for voltage spreads not in excess of those mentioned in Tables 4. If anything.* TABLE 4.* 575 ! 420-480 525-600 Drsigriations for nominal system voltages are those commonly used in industrial plants. * ThPse are standard polyphase-motor voltage ratings. t Polyphase power loads may not operate satisfactorily a t this l o m ~ r limit In designing industrial power distribution systems. These are shown in Tables 4.8 and 4.* 460 550. RECOMMENDED VOLTAGE SPREAD AT UTILIZATION EQUIPMEN1 Rased on the foregoing effects of voltage variation on utilization equipment and an extensive poll of industrial plant operating Commonly "red ulilizolion-device "Oltage rating. A drop of 10 per cent in the supply voltage.9. .8 and 4. the AIEE Committee on Industrial Power Applications established the recommended voltage spreads at the terminals of devices in industrial plants.9. reduces the corrective capacity by almost 20 per cent. Recommended limib of volloge at terminals of ulilizolion devices 480 A00 ! 440. The corrective capacity of capacitors varies with the square of the impressed voltage. VARIATIONS. Effect on Capacitors. the branch circuit sJpplying it should be of ample capacity to prevent an excessive voltage drop.

etc. resistarice wcldcrs.. The arnount of voltage variatioii as a fiiiirtioii of frequency of variation which can be xvithstood on iiicaiidesrent larnps aiid not cause ohjei:tionahle psychological effects is shown iii Fig. VARIATIONS. punch presses.15 are adhered to. Fluoresceiit lamps are less suhject t o flicker over a range of voltage that is beloiv that whirh mil1 piit them out. voltage flicker i s caiised primarily hy the followiiig types of load: repetitive motor starting.tcd arca.15 would probably not be of much use. 1925. which dram a fluctiiating load. Wider lirnits may be iiscd uiider certaiii coiiditioiis without cornplaiiit from the personnel orrupyiiig tlie affei.or voltagc rating. hugust.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. and t o fulFiI1 this role effectively. 4. Ho!rcv&. large rei. aiid its primary effect is to cause flicker iii t h r light ciiitput of lamps. it is alço used for a11 types of rritical proccss control systems. 4. aiid arc furnaces. the design of the systcm should be siich that the lirnits of Fig. its role is hecorniiig exceedingly important. therefore. L I G H T FLICKER V O L T A G E REQUIREMENTS Relatively slom chaiiges in voltage are associated mith voltage spreads as discussrd iii tlie foregoiiig. maiiy types of voltage changes 1rhii. There are. 4.9 Recommended Voltoge Spreod a t the Terminols of Motors Served ot Primory Voltoge Recommended limits af voltage at terminalr of high-voltage moiors Nominal syitem dtage Motor-nome-plote *oltoge rating 2400 2400 4160 4800 6900 ~ 2300" 4600 6600 1 1I I 2160 2250 3920 4500 6470 2380 2480 4320 5000 71 30 * I'rmrnt standard rnot. this subject is so cornplicated aiid involved t h a t general guides other than Fig. well as driving the utilization equipment. however. Iii industrial plants. These curves were preseiited in the General Electric Review. Thcse are commiiiily referred to as voltage flicker.iprocatiiig cornpressors. good voltage must he rnaintaiiied iii industrial plants. T o elimiiiatc objcctionable light flicker.h are of a traiisient nature aiid last only a feiv cycles. . CALCULATION OF DROPS 21s TABLE 4.15.

.age at an average desirable I e i d also requires the judicious use of traiisformer ratios and taps. reduce the spread but affect only t.ems to see hon.15 IWlPS.aim at 1o\vcr voltage. Carry the power further a t a higher voltage and a t a lesser dist. Use regiilat.e.%. llaintaiiiiiig the volt. Use s\~iti~Iied capacitors.' w 0 0 DllO PL" "0"I DlPI PLI1 SECOND 1 0 8 2 6 YlUUlLI J 2 I 30 12 L IFCOYDL TIME BETWEEN DIPS FIG.iiig equipment t o rompelisate for volt. 3. Traiisformer taps (for changing a t no load oilly) do trot. 4.o be heyorid t.216 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS.age drop. there are four 11-aysof reducing the voltage spread. CALCULATION OF DROPS FLICKER OF INCANDESCENT LAMPS CAUSED 81 RECURRENT VOLTAGE DIPS I 5 0 Y 5 0 w 3 ' t t- z Y a . 1tediii.271 \Vitlr recommended values of voltage spread established by the N E E Industrial Power Systems Committee a i d EEI-SEA\Z. 2. use the load-center power system. i.he general voltage level arid particularly the light load voltage in the plallt. 1 . Where voltage spreads arc found t. .hose limits. 4. they romparc with these rcquiremerits. VARIATIONS. 4.p the impedance of the systrm. it is possible to study specitiv syst. Relation of magnitude of voltage dips to frequency of dips for incandescent METHODS O F REDUCING VOLTAGE SPREAD AND FLICKER REDUCING VOLTAGE SPREAD (See Fig.

At maximum load.almost uiriversally used i n industry for. henre small voltage spread.oltage feeders. The load-ceiiter distribiitioii system is 11011.o traiisformer react.ft. supposc that the voltage drop i n a 480-volt system Tx-ith long serondary feeders is 20 per relit total in the secondary feeders oiily. Rut it i d 1 he assumed t. to illustrate the Ion--voltage rondition. Figure 4. it provides Ion.160 Relative Per Cent Voltage Drop 400 100 4 I .16 rontains charts showing the voltage profiles for this 480-volt suhstatioii. then the longest feeder length ivould tie about l(i5.he area is somewhat rcctaiigular atid that the suhstatioii rannot he lorated exactly at the center. Should this power he carried a t 4160 iiistead of 480 volts. This could he due to a dcrreasc i n the power-vompauy supply voltage with inrreased load on its system. CALCULATION OF DROPS 217 Load-center Distribution Systems. 11 for a one-liiie diagram of a typical load-retiter system. With ail average load density of 10 va per sq ft. it minimizes one of the chief causes of voltage drop atid herive redures voltage spread.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS.8-kv class for rarryitig poll-er from the source to the load ceuter. The trairsformcr taps should lie set for 480 secondary volts when the primary voltage is at its maximum atid with no load on the substation. Assuming the 200-ft feeder t o ronsist of a 250-MCM cahle per phase and to he fully loaded a t 80 per rent power factor. T o illust.o illustrate the better voltage conditions in the load-cetit. A 4 pcr rcnt voltage reduction i u the primary system is assumed.4. The artual length of the longest feeder might then he ahout 200 ft. The highest.10 Per Cent Voltoge Drop as a Function of Circuit Voltage for a Feeder of a Given Cross Section circcuit V0ltoge 240 480 2.ancc can he experted. voltage drop has its maximum effect. this substatioir will servc a i l arca of 73.rate furthcr. VARIATIONS. Table 13. TABLE 4.12 13.400 4. among othcr reasons.etiter at high Iwltage. with the substatioii esartly i i i the renter.. Siirrc the loadcenter system minimizes the length of low-\. Ideally.voltage drop.10 illustrates the advantage of higher voltage distribution. berausc the power is carried right t o the load i. the load area would be a square.000 s q ft. Refer to Chap. I t is obvious from this table that the tiig gaiii is made by going from voltages iii the (i00-volt class to voltages i l l the 2. i t mill~iutro- . h drop of 15 volts due t. the percentage voltage drop x~ould have been only slightly ovcr one-quarter of 1 prr rrnt. The average 480-volt load-renter substatioii is rated 750 h a .33 0. voltage that is eticoi~titered by ally equipment served hy this substatioii is 480 volts.hat system.800 Some examples will serve t.

The corresponding feeder voltage drop will be 29 volts. it has to be located at one edge of the load area-probably with the t. And not heing of unit substation construction. With the same load density as before. The result is a minimum voltage at the end of the branch circuit of 433 volts. h final 5 volts may be lost in the branch circuit. VARIATIONS. in general.218 V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS.rausformers outdoors. Such a spread is well heyond the recommeuded limits.s of 433 volts and 480 volts---a voltage spread that should. I n this substation the longest feeder will probably be ahout 900 ft. The old-type system often uses a suhstatioii as large as 3000 kva at 480 volts. 7 5 0 KVA SU0STATlDN 460 2440 420 400 NO LOAD VOLTAGE CONDITIONS WITH PRIMARY VOLTAGE a T M A X I M U M 2 440-> 420 - SECONDARY FEEDER/ VOLTAGE DROP. In this system.7 VOLTS -VOLTAGE DROP- . voltage varies between the limit. 10 va per sq f t . CALCULATION O F DROPS duce about another 7 volts drop.. the 3000-kva snbstation must supply an area'of 300. A full load voltage of 411 i s too low t o be coiisidered good practice. Here the voltage spread is from 411 to 480 volts. 420 i s the recommended minimum voltage for 440-volt motors.000 sq ft. be satisfactory.

etc.e. CALCULATION O F DROPS 219 60 48 w 0 a 3 0 > k ABLE 51ZE FULL LOAL AMP U 3 n U w U0. Thcrc are many variables which can alter the maximum feeder length materially. 480-volt secondary feeders longer than 250 f t for small cable sizes and 400 f t for larger cable sizes should be . Secondary-feeder drops greater than 235 per cent should be cherked under conditions expected at the plant. such as power factor of load. primary voltage drop 5 per cent. The remainder is the secondary-feeder drop of 2>5 per cent.17 Chart showing length of three-conductor 600-volt cable in iron conduit to produce 2 3 per cent voltage drop a t the most unfavorable power factor and full load on the cable.17 is based on representative conditions. The allowable spread a t 480 volts is 480 t. 4. Figure 4.hey can be tolerated without c-using undesirably wide voltage spreads.ioned..o see if t. the basis of Fig. I 000 90 7 24l 2 0 1 W z I40 210 500 MCM 4 0 - z J 5 SECONOARY FEEDER LENGTH(FEET1 FIG. VARIATIONS. or 60 volts or 1255 per c e n the sum of the percentages just ment. branch-circuit feeder drop 156 per cent.17 offers a guide as to about how far fully loaded cables for circuits 600 volts and less can be run and not encounter voltage-drop troubles in a n average industrial plant. 4. primary voltage drop. The chart of Fig. 4. i.17. load per feeder.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. transformer drop 355 per cent.4 vo. Looking at this another way. t. ( - Tolerable Secondary-feeder Voltage Drop.o $20.

n-hilc reducing voltage drop. low-voltage feeders may he large and long. i. giving excessive voleage drop i n the secoiidary system. Marry plants operate at 240 or 208Y/120 volts and have excessive voltage spread that would be reduced t o tolerable limits if 480 volts were used instead. aud considerably shorter a t 240 and 208 volts. that short as possible.. Use t x o smaller vahles in parallel instead of one larger cahle. R. I n such cases voltage-regulating equipment provides the answer t o the problem.o maintain good voltage on lights.hat.ance transformers reduce short-circuit rurrciits but increase voltage drop.e. B . respectively. Sirirc volt. Reducing Impedance. respectively. There are few if any general applira. C .tions of the series capacitors for this purpose in indust. 6.onductors. .andpoint. A compromise is necessary hecause a lover t.est practical distance at high voltage. U s e Regulating Equipment. C.220 V O L T A G G S T A N D A R D RATINGS. Use series caparitors t o neutralize the i n d u h v e reactance of a rirwit.. rurrents so high as t o require unreasonable switchgear for protection of the circuits fed by the transformer. €Iigh-reart. particularly lrith poor power-factor loads.hari standard-reactanre transformer.tattce instead of high-rea(. abont 300 and 500 ft..ion wit.h resistanre welders as n o k d later in this chapter. Even where the plaiit power system uses a load-center system t o rarry t. use cable instead (if open wire with widely spaced (. i. B . etr.he power the great. i.age drop is a product of current t. where impedances have been kept. is done t. check the voltage drop. I'se interleaved huses. respectively. instead of liuses with all conductors of one phase widely separated from the other phases. 3 .o reduce the impedance of a circuit will reduce its voltage drop. 2.rial plants except in coiiriect. a t 240 volts and 100 and 175 ft. 4. etc. The following are some suggestions: 1.h several cotiduvtors per phase arratiged 8 . 5 . Keep feeders-particularly low-voltage feeders. may not be able to meet the required voltage spreads because of too much voltage variation in the primary supply system or because of a process requiring unusually close voltage spread. about 125 arid 200 f t . If longer feeders must he used.imes impedance. t-se closely spaced cotidurtors. VARIATIONS... anything t. The tolerable secondary feeder lengths are somewhat longer for 600-volt cirruits. a t 208 volts. In some old plants. the change may not he practical or ecoriomical a t t. In a few rases they have heen used in connection with motors t o maintain sufficient vokage a t the motor terminals when starting a large motor oii a soft.he moment. system or t o neutralize system impedance t. t o a minimum and lorn-voltage feeder lengths as short as possible. C . -4.e.tanre transformers. it. bnses wit. -4. may invreasc short-circuit. CALCULATION OF DROPS avoided from a voltage-drop st. Use standard-rea(.e. However.

high v d t a g e arid must. The systems aliove 1 .. r f i r i i ~ n o t x r . VARIATIONS. Where a transmission or disl.e.lie poiver sys- FIG.he industrial plant but for most.iout 5 per (:oiitrol). he stepped down t.oad-ratio control for plus or niiriirs 10 per cent range is a very low cost iii the over-a11 plant costs.ion.imes over earh year. the dividend from t.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS.800 volts) for distritiut.his small investment \rill often repay the investmerit many are 32 (76 per cent) steps to enable close volt. If the supply is at. arid yet because the load-ratio corit.o the transformer. In these cases sonic form of voltage regulatioii is often required.o below 15 kv (commonly -Ll(i0 or 13. . 4.8 ku. it will improve prodii(tiiin and quality of maliufartured goods. it may tie difficult t o mairrtairi the desired voltage spread even wiLh the best designed plant power system. 5 kv arc not dn-ays regulated to suit.18 A typical outdoor packoged substation in which bod-ratio control con be incorporated.e under load (load-rat. It is strongly rei~ommcrided tha.rol provides good voltage.age control over a range of plus or minus 10 per cent.. regulation rain tie built int. This regulation is accomplished by automatic t a p changing which xi11 operat. Usually t. t. CALCULATION OF DROPS 221 Voltage Regulation of M a i n Power Source.t load-ratio control tie cmsidered itt every transformix stepping down from voltages ahorc 15 k r to plant primary voltage iii the raiige of 2 : I to 13. Iienc. 1.ribution h i e supplies a plant with power whioh has a voltage spryad greater than a’.a l l opcratioli of t.

tori for holding constant voltage on the plant primary bur for plants served at primary voltage. If power is supplied by the utility at below 15 kv.222 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS. However.20) or induction voltage regulators (Fig. The question is sometimes raised as to whether two induction regulators should be connected in open delta.21) can be used. 4. Load-ratio control in each industrial load-center unit substation is uneconomical and even may he impractical. CALCULATION OF DROPS tem. the only transformation required is at the individual load-center substations. separate voltage regulators should be installed in the primary supply. When load-ratio control is installed. where the primary-voltage spread is wide enough to require voltage regulation. Hence. The voltage unbalance is small but may be enough to increase STEP OR INDUCTION VOLTAGE REGULATOR REGULATOR HOLDS CONSTANT VOLTAGE HERE \ v v t Y NOTE : THE BY-PASS PERMITS MAINTENANCE O F SERVICE TO PLANT WHERE REGULATOR IS BEING MAINTAINED FIG. Their standard range of voltage regulation is plus or minus 10 per cent. Figure 4. Voltage Regulators. This is slightly less expensive than three regulators to regulate three-phase circuits. 'VARIATIONS. the opendelta connection creates an unbalanced voltage condition that should be avoided. 4. 4. both the utility and industrial plant can operate their systems independently and to their own best advautage without interference voltage wise. Fig. 4. typical of those whose transformers can include load-ratio control.18 illustrates an outdoor substation. - - . For this service either three-phase step voltage regulators (Fig.19 One-line dioorom rhowino the a d i c o t i o n of steD or induction voltom r e d o . .19.

4.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. 4.21 Typicol induction voltage regulator rated 225 kvo. 208 kvo. CALCULATION OF DROPS 223 FIG.200 volts. 4330 volts. VARIATIONS. . FIG. plus or minus 10 per cent voltage regulotion.20 Typicol three-phore step voltage regulator roted 13. plus or minus 10 per cent voltoge regulation.

best prartice avoids the open-delta conneition in favor of three-phase regulation. It is rerommended that serious consideration be given the addition of t. For this reason. . CALCULATION OF DROPS the heating appreciahly in fully loaded polyphase motors. Itegulat. like any other piece of apparatus.iesoften regulate individual feeders at distribution voltage (2100 or 416F volts. Regulators may he hypassed for maintenance and a t the same time maint. VARIATIONS. ETC LIGHTING FEEDER LIGHTING LOAD 120 VOLTS FIG. 4. Feeder Voltage Regulation. must be given consideration from a short-circuit.hese regulat.22 One-line diagram showing the opplication of air-cooled induction voltage regulators for secondary feeder regulation. for example) t o compensate 480 VOLTS SECONDARY FEEDER INDUCTION VOLTAGE REGULATOR FEEDERS TO MOTORS. trt.ilit.ed service t o the plant. standpoint.ain unregulat.ors.224 VOLTAGESTANDARD RATINGS.ors i n the plant supply lines whenever the expected voltage spread in the primary supply lines exceeds ahout 5 per cent.

lights. This unit may be used for supplying regulat. Thus. Rirh loads might he heating unit. Fig.or 600-volt power systems.y of utilization e q u i p ment.arid protective device arid secondary terminals complete the package. aii iridrictimi regulator like that. A iie\\. 4.dcvelopment is a regulating loi\~-voltage subst.s.oltage drops in individual primary ferde usually small. For such applications.ion voltage.he majorit. . radio arid television transmitt. brooders. VARIATIONS.ed and the rest irnregulated.rol. utilizat..tlie voltage spread may I)<> satisfartory for t.2%.23 may be used. 8 for a comp1et. . considered good cliough for lights. The itidustrial plaut does iiot often ry. individual loads a t GOO volts or less may require voltage regulation t. Autotransformers.ed lighting power from general-purpose 480or 600-volt feeders or for supplying any other loads with regulated 120volt power from 480. 4. less illan 1 or 2 per cent. Typical of either single 01 three phase. air~ooledregirlalorslike that shown in Fig.ype transformer. hluepririt machines. since \.ers. The transformer is rat. A regulator for circuitr 600 volts and leis.e discussion of the application of shunt capacitors t o improve voltage conditions. is a itiiit made up primarilyof an indurtioii voltage regulator arid a dry-t. I n other cases. etr. . infrared ovens.23 may be used.. lnductrol P o w e r Pock. Where these loads are served at. feeder. primary switching .VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. Refer t o Chap. etc. jirstifiratioii for irrdividuul primary-feeder regulation.he lighting feeder may be regirlat. Shunt C a p a c i t o r s . CALCULATION OF DROPS 225 for the voltage drop i n that. I n such cases. but not. It. 4.o obtain the desired performance from the equipment.23 A modern induction voltage 120/240 volts on the secondary. of Fig. regulation of voltage a t the main h s is more rwmmotily used.he primary aiid %08Y/lZOor FIG. I n some cases where the general voltage level is . welders.atioII known as the Inductrol Power Pack. While there seems t o he little.ed 480 or 600 volts on t.4. process cont. such asmotors. there may be many appliratioris for individual seroiidaryfeeder reeulation. For examuk._ . t.

One is to separate flicker-producing load from the lights or critical load.. Where this is not ive. CALCULATION OF DROPS lorn and transformt?r taps cannot he used t. 15. T h e autotrausformer does riot reduce t. Generator Voltage Regulators.wo t.. to feed the critical load. Fig. REDUCING FLICKER (See Fig. is more expensive over all thaii voltage stabilizers and in gcmral offers no advantage in this FIG. 4. use separate supply circuits. autotransformers may he used t o provide a permanent boost i n voltage.ege may be proper lor the lights hut not high eiiimgh for t. The nther is to use a voltage stabilizer. An autolrmisformer could he used l o step 208 volt. VARIATIONS. Flicker due t o reciprocating motor-driven loads such as compressors.he 220-volt motors.s up t o 220 volts for the motors only.ion where industrial generators are operalnd iri parallel with utility systems are referred to in Chap. . 4. i.ors. Where power is generated by t h e plant.ypiral appliration xvouid lie in the case of a. mot.he spread. can often be reduced by increasing the inertia of the met:lranical system to smooth out the pulsations.226 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. t.27) Reduction of flicker is often a much more difficult prohlem than the reduction of voltage spread previously referred to.24. The volt. This.he powerhouse bns can be held constant or exwi varied with load to compensate for voltage drop as load comPs on. et.o correct for it. 4. the voltage on t.e.liings may be done. 208Y/120-voll system supplying 220-nolt.ralors. A t.c. lioxvevrr.’s oxvti geiir.24 Typicol voltage stabilizer. purich presses. Problems of voltage rcgulat. Sometimes the critical load is fed through a motor-generator set t o provide good voltage for tliet load.

VARIATIONS. automatic voltage stabilizers are available to hold voltage mit. If. and in small sizes. 4. hence the no-load voltage ratio. even though the supply volt.25.480 volts 2280-480 volts 5% obove tap 236% obove top Norrnol rating top 2>P% below top 5% below tap These taps do not improve voltage regulation but are only for changing the general vokage level iq the plant. 4. The volt. its operation is obt.25. Voltage regulators previously discussed are not fast enough to correct flicker. taps above 2400 volts and two 24i per cent taps below 2400volts. a standard transformer rated 2400-480 volts may have four 2>5 per cent taps in the 2400-volt winding.hin very close limits. then the 240&480-volt t a p could be used to provide 480 volts no load in the plant.age stabilizer has no moving parts and no electronic tubes. for example. It will be noted that in all cases the secondary no-load voltage is 480 volts. For example.11. TABLE 4. This would be as shown in curve B .age may vary between 95 and 130 volts.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. Similarly if a plant had a maximum voltage of 2280 vo!ts. C:hapt. If a 2400-480-volt transformer is connected to a system whose maximum voltage is 2520 volts. Series Capacitors.ained from the properly coordinated characteristics of reactors and caparitors. Fig. A typical model is designed to maintain an output voltage of 115 volts with maximum variation of plus or minus 1 per cent. SELECTION O F TRANSFORMER TAPS All modern transformers in ratings above 100 kva and most or those helow that kva rating have taps in the windings to change the turn ratio. 4. CALCULATION OF DROPS 227 application. so the secondary system does not know . Fig. Fig. then the 2280-480-volt tap could be used to provide a maximum of 480 volts no load in the plant. The taps do not materially affect the voltage drop through the 8 contains a complete discussion of the application of series capacitors. Series capacitors can be of value in reducing voltage flicker. The standard for these taps in transformers used in industrial systems is to have two 256 pcr cent. then the 2520-480-volt tap could be used which would provide a maximum of 480 volts no load on the system. as shown in curve C . but for single-phase circuits. as shown by curve A . The no-load ratios of such a transformer would be as given in Table 4. they merely change the turn ratio. another system had a maximum no-load voltage of 2400 volts.25.11 No-load Voltoge Ratios of Standard Transformer Rated 2400-480 Volts 2520-480 “0th 2460-480 volts 2400-480 volts 2340.

---_ _ _MAX ____-- 440 V MIN -? 40 VOLTS B I U SPREAD 440V MIN a 2300- - --------- 480 VOLTS MAX ________ .2600- - - 4 8 0 VOLTS MAX U 2 > > ( r (L c 2400 - - 480 VOLTS ---.

Changing taps cannot.-_- g J 2400 I- a 40 VOLTS SPREAD 0 5 I LL a a > 440 V MIN P FIG. i. 40 volts. the one rated 2460-480 volts.s provided that the primary voltage does not vary more than about 5 per cent and that the plant distribution system is designed along modern lines with the load-center system using short secondary feeders and transformers not larger than about 1500 kva a t 480 volts or proportional sizes a t other secondary volt. the turn ratio of the transformer has now been changed so that the no-load voltage is 472 volts.VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS.-. T o be specific. 4. The voltage spread will be substant. suppose a plant suffered from low voltage at remote points and had a large volt. By judicious selection of the transformer t a p t.age spread.ially the same.ages. as shown in curve B . so that the minimum voltage is now 432 volts. .--4--.e. which is well above the recommended minimum for plant distribution systems. CALCULATION OF DROPS 229 no-load voltage. that is. VARIATIONS. 4. the spread will not change but the 400-volt 85 VOLTS MAX . By using the next tap u p on the transformer. correct conditions where voltage spread is t. For example. I raise the general voltaga level.oo great.--.he voltage within the plant can he kept Tyithin acceptable 1imit. suppose the spread was 80 volts and the minimum voltage at the remote end was 400 volts.26 Voltage profile showing that rotisfactory voltages con be obtained without excessive no-load voltage by proper election of taps on transformer. Fig.. f taps are changed to then the maximum voltage would be 480 volts.26.

27 Summary of methods of improving . VARIATIONS. 4.230 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. CALCULATION OF DROPS Volloqe Correction For TypicoI Feeder Circuits FIG.

ge regulator is Only P'"<tiC. High feeder drop. Rubber milli. 3. rile "No b o d " Leoding Aulornotic switching o f capociExcept shunt ot no lood tors <apa<itorl Voltage regu1otor lif no peno1ty o r e on1 CIQYX for leoding power factor1 IGI IF1 IVolt. Overload IEI IF1 HIGH LOAD VOLTAGE I . High leeden drop Normal (81 ID1 ICI 3. 2.y. Motor loads.. 4.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. Voltoge Ifobiliier for lighting circuil Series coparilor in line to "e".farlor correction Series c"Po<itor in line to ne".l I0l"tiO"J IHJ LIGHTING FLICKER Lood Causing Flicker Correcl by m e o n r of I .ge r e g d o t o r Tronlformer .lize re. rssislmnre Separote welder supply r i r 4 l Volloge stabilizer l o r lighting circuit Separate welder supply c i r w i t welders. Flmh. CALCULATION OF DROPS 231 LOW LOAD VOLTAGE Feeder VOltoge Condition Ci. Normal (El I81 4.. vo1t. Grinders.ap setting Voltage 'egulalor Tranrformer top 'elting IBI 1A1 101 (A1 3. Normol drop.artance 'y'lem Sep. such 01: sow mill^.em .CYil Voltage slmbilirer for lighting circuit Sante 0 s for lmotonl voltoge conditions in an indurlriol p l a n t .<"iI Loading iee 1 . Rerirtan<e welders >POI or seom. Series r a p o d o r with welder to reduce dernond by power.. Arc furnorer.eO<ta"Ce 2.lize ..g. VARIATIONS. Normal drop.ate motor '"pply Ci. NO load i I Volt. tow Normal 1A1 (81 ICI 2.r. High feeder drop.

8) the voltages are line-toueutral voltage drops. such as the receiver. I n this discussiou the power factor will be that of the load. particularly in cases \\. load for the various circuit. to reduce t.he line-to-line voltage drop is obtaiued by multiplying the line-to-neutral voltage drop by 2. I t is possible under some (~ouditions to oht.he maximum voltage. the chatrgiug of taps. At the same time the maximum is raised to 500 volts. Conversely if the maximum voltage is too high and a wide spread exists. components. Two methods of determining voltage drops are described. T o calwlate the steady-state voltage drop. approximate methods are generally satisfartory. The first is hy calculation using either the sending.or receiving-end voltage.aiu an answer with a negative sign from t. and power factor of that curreut relative t o some voltage must he known. CALCULATION OF DROPS minimum may he raised t o 420 volts. 4 . Voltage Drop by Formula.isfactory performance. VARIATIONS. however. For the purpose of ordinary use in industrialplant problems. the circuit impedance. Rigorous methods of calculating voltage drop can he very involved and complicated. (4. too high for generally sat.or seuding-end voltage of the circuit.he liue-to-line voltage drop in a threephase system. the magnitude and power factor of the load current. since the great majorky of systems will have receiver or load voltages which are lo\\-er than the source or sendiug-end voltage. reduces the minimum vokagc still further. circuit the sending-end voltage only is kiron-u and t.o current flowing through a n impedauce. The second method involves using charts of voltage drop vs. and the total impcdance of the rircuit. These cases will be rare. CALCULATIONS O F VOLTAGE DROP CALCULATION OF STEADY-STATE VOLTAGE DROPS Steady-state voltage drops are duc t.232 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS.he folLo\yiiig formulas. Thc voltage drop in a power system may he calculated by selecting the formula which is most snitahle as t o accuracy desired and the voltage n-hieh is known. Nomenclature for Formulas e = line-to-ucutral voltage drop es = line-to-neutral voltage at source end en = line-to-neutral voltagc at load end . I n such ('ases t h e auswer should he interpreted as showiug that the receiver voltage is higher thao the sending-end voltage. multiply the line-to-neutral voltage drop by For single-phase syst.he current and poiver factor of the load vary with variation of receiver-end voltage. T o obtain t.ems t. 111all the following formulas except Eq.

Both the voltage drop and phase shift due t o voltage drop can be obtained by where all quantities are expressed vertorially and Z ..I R sin 8)* + I X sin 8 + ( I X cos 8 2e. Exact Formulas. ohms = reactance of the circuit.I R sin S ) l + 2(en I R cos 8 I X sin 8 ) + + If es is known.or in decimals sin 8 = load reactive factor i n decimals (By convention. (4. sin B is positive for lagging power-factor loads and negative for leading power-factor loads. . CALCULATION OF DROPS 233 angle whose cosine is the load power factor line current = resistance of the circuit.1) Line-to-neutral voltage drop = es I R cos 8 I X sin B . 1 and trigonometric functions from the Appendix.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. inductive reactance is positive and capacitive reactance is negative. If e R is knomn.) Approximate data on circuit and transformer impedances may be obtained from Chap.3) it should he noted that the load impedance is assumed to he constant. 8 I R X = = Line-to-neutral voltage drop = d ( e B cos 8 + I E ) ? + (ee sin 8 + I X ) p.eR (numerically) (4. A p p r o x i m a t e Formulas. If eR is known.I t l sin 8)' + + (4. is the equivalent load impedance and Zsis the system impedance including ZL. Line-to-neutral voltage drop = I R cos 8 .\/es* . whereas all other formulas are based on the load current remaining constant. I n practical cases. ohms (By convent. Line-to-neutral voltaee droD - I ( R cos '+ Y sin ( I X cos 8 .) cos 8 = load power fact.2) The voltage drop can also he obtained hy a proportional method.ion.( I X cos 8 .4) I n Using Eq. Voltage drop = es . the results of these approximate formulas are suffiriently accurate where a slide rule is used.eR If es is known. - (4. VARIATIONS.

The error caused by variation of load cur-'-_ rent and power factor with voltage applied to the load is not taken into consideration in any of the foregoing formulas. 4.7) and (4. and ey will he small. they are close enough for practical purposes.234 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS.8) are approximate. The latter condition will exist when the power factor of an inductive load is the same as the power factor of the inductive circuit through which load current is causing the voltage drop. (4. Generally such refinement is not necessary when the total plant voltage drops are less than 10 per cent. Where either e R or es is known. 4. VARIATIONS.7) Equation (2. first assume a given load or receiver-end voltage eR in the formulas.. In Fig. make another try.7) can he converted as follows to calculate the per cent voltage drop : Per cent voltage drop = kva (R cos 0 X sin 0 ) 10 (kv)* + (4. 4. whilc Eqs. Then if the value obtained by subtracting the calculated voltage drop from the sending-end voltage is considerably different from the assumed receivingend voltage. In practical cases the angle between e. CALCULATION OF DROPS Most Commonly Used Approximate Formula.28 Diagram indicating magnitude of error when using Eqr. SENDING END OR BUS VOLTAGE \ R E C E I V E R OR LOAD VOLTAGE CALCULATED VOLTAGE DROP F ACTUAL VOLTAGE DROP ERROR FIG. From the vector diagram in Fig.28. (4.7) and (4. If this error is significant. that is. In these formulas the error diminishes as the angle between e R and es approaches zero and is exact if that angle is zero.28 it can he seen that. Effect of Nonlinear Loads. . it may he compensated for by using the cut-and-try method. 0 is the power factor of the load. For singlephase circuits the per cent drop is twice this value.8). then Line-to-neutral voltage drop = I ( R cos 0 +X sin 0 ) (4.8) where kva is three-phase kva and kv is line-to-line kilovolts.

29 and 4. Figure 4. 2. Find the voltage drop in a 2000-kva three-phase KO cycle .VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. The charts are applicable for single-phase transformers by entering the chart a t three times the single-phase kva rating. 8. CALCULATION OF DROPS STEADY-STATE VOLTAGE DROP BY USE OF CHARTS 235 Voltage Drop in Transformers.5-25-kv insulation classes An example of the use of the chart is given below. Example.29 covers transformers in the following ranges: Single-phase : 250-500 kva.30 may be used to determine the approximate voltage drop in single-phase and three-phase 60-cycle liquid-filled self-cooled transformers.6-15-h insulation classes 1000-10. Figures 4. VARIATIONS.000 kva.6-15-kv insulation classes 833-1250 kva. 8. 2.5-25-kv insulation classes Three-phase : 225-750 kva.

800-volt three-phase 60-cycle liquid-filled transformer carrying 3500 kw a t 0. Multiply this value by the ratio of actual load to rated load. VARIATIONS. .15.5-kv insulation class transformers in ratings from 1500 to 10. multiply the per cent vokage drop obtained from the chart by 1. Example.8-power factor curve.75 2000 Actual voltage drop = 2.5 KV CLASS 05 w I 4 - I I I I I I I & 54 a U 0 0 u 3 0 4 5 8 . 0.8 power factor.85 power fact.67 l5Oo X 3.000 kva. 4. Solution: Enter the chart on the horizontal scale a t 2000 kva. Extend a line from this point horizontally to the left t o its intersection with the vertical scale of per cent voltage drop for rated load. 4. 34%-kv voltage class.or.2 volts = Figure 4.and 69-kv insulation classes by using appropriate multipliers a t all power factors except unity. These curves can be used t o determine the voltage drop for transformers in the 46. Extend a vertical line t o its interpeetion with the 0.25 for 5000 kva 5 NOTE: CURVES ARE BASED ON 6 PERCENT IMPEDANCE FOR 34.30 a t 5000 kva and read per cent voltage drop where this transformer size intersects the 0. and for 69 kv multiply by 1. CALCULATION OF DROPS transformer rated 4160-480 volts.30 applies to the 34. The load is 1500 kva at.00013. Find the per cent voltage drop in a 5000-kva 69.75 per cent X 480 = 13. Per cent voltage 6 Q = 4.30 Tronrformer voltage-drop curves for three-phase transformers. To correct for 46 kv.67 = 2.065. Solution: Enter chart Fig. I z Y Y U Y I a 0 TRANSFORMER RATING-THREE PHDSE KVA FIG.85-power faetoP t u n e . Per cent drop at rated load Per cent drop at 1500 kva = ~ 3.236 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS.

Figs.08 volts per 10.000 amp-ft. the.000 .28 per cent 5000 Voltage Drop in Cable.= 4. Voltage-drop curves.6 volts 10. VARIATIONS. Multiply this value by the multiple of 10. The resistance and reactance used in preparing these charts are taken from Chap. Example. Fig. The chart. 4/0 Amg and 250 to 750 MCM. Use o f Voltage-drop Charts f o r Cable. Assume that a 500-ft three-conductor rubber-insulated size KO.ypes of installat.000 amp-ft. If the cables are twisted together so that they operate in contact with each other. 4. Solution: Enter chart. Ampere-feet in cable Actual voltage drop = = 500 X I50 = 75. 4. at 0.08 = 15. rubber-insulated.ions for cable sizes No.15 = 3500 = Actual per cent voltage drop 4380 4. For a single-phase system multiply the three-phase drop by 1. From the point of intersection move to the left and read thc voltage drop as 2. First. CALCULATION OF DROPS 237 Transformer load . In determining reactances.he problem with regard to voltage and type of installation.31 to 4. Find the voltage drop. On the ordinate read the volts drop per 100 amp per 100 ft or per 10.4380 kva 0. l/O-hwg cable in magnetic conduit is the feeder for a three-phase 440-volt 60-cycle 150-amp 0. I.8 Multiplier for 69-kv insulation class = 1. Extend a line vertically from this point to the correct size cable.000 amp-ft. they should be regarded as a three-conductor cable. 14 to X o .15 X . Enter the chart a t the abscissa with the power factor of the load.l/O-Awg cable curve. They are calculated values based on 75 C copper temperature and scattered tests.hree-phase system.VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS.8-power factor inductive load.IG. Two charts were prepared for each of these two voltage classes of cable to cover the different t. For single-phase circuits consisting of a two-conductor or two single cables in a conduit.8 power factor and move upward to the KO.his range of cable sizes for three-conductor and three single-conductor cables in magnetic conduit.25 X 1.34. Voltage drop for loads between 0.000 E 0 X 2. may be applied with reasonable accuracy to all types of paper-insulated.s are prepared for three-phase voltages. voltage drop measured line-to-line will be 16 per cent higher than indicated in the charts. it was assumed that for three conductors in conduit the cables d l lie a t random in the hottom of the conduit. select the chart applying to t.7 power factor lagging and unity is shown for t. for the problem under consideration to get line-to-line voltage drop in a t. and varnished-cambric-irisulated cable insulated for 600 or for 5000 volts.31.

238 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS LL w n 4 W I 0 LL 8 0 0 w u) 3 & 0 > z - z n W 4 c 3 5 0 > .

Voltage-drop curves for three single-conductor 600-volt a b l e r in magnettc .32 conduit. CALCULATION OF DROPS 239 FIG. 4.VOLTAGGSTANDARD RATINGS. VARIATIONS.

CALCULATION OF DROPS FIG.33 Voltage-drop curves for three-conductor 5000-volt cable in magnetic conduit or interlocked-ormor cable. VARIATIONS. 4. .240 VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS.


4. Figures 4.35 gives the line-to-line voltage drop in volts for GOO-. and 1350-amp low-voltage-drop busway. 70 c . 1000-. The voltage drops for other than rated load may be obtained by multiplying the voltage drop for rated load by the ratio of actual load to rated load. These curves apply only for balanced loading of the busway at an operating temperature of 70 C. Figure 4.35 applies to a busway that is designed specifically for low-voltage drop. CALCULATION OF DROPS Voltoge Drop in Busway. 800-.35 Voltage-drop curves for low-voltage-drop burwoy ot rated load.35 and 4.36 may be used to determine the approximate voltage drop in a busway. Figure 4. VARIATIONS. Figure 4.242 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. Similarly.3F applies t o a typical feeder busway of the type used with plug-in switches. operating temperature assumed. the voltage drop for lengths other than 100 ft may he M 40 60 BO LOAD POWER FACTOR W O 20 40 60 80 LOAD POWER FACTOR 1 0 0 W A D POWER FACTOR FIG.

.5 V O L T S FIG. These corrections are expressed in the following formula: Actual line-to-:ine voltage drop = voltage drop for 100 feet at rated load X actual load rated load actual length 100 ft Example.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. Find the voltage drop on a 200-ft run of 800-amp husway carrying a 600-amp load a t a 90 per cent power factor. Follow a vertical line to its intersection 4 . CALCULATION OF DROPS 243 obtained hy multiplying the voltage drop for 100 f t by the ratio of actual length to 100 ft. VARIATIONS.35 for au 800-amp husway at 90 per cent power factor on the horizontal scale.36 Voltoge-drop curves for typical plug-in bvrwcly carrying rated load. Solution: Enter Fig. 4. 4. 5 X 3 = 13.

5 PERCENT 1300 aus KV A 0.OPERCENTti6.7 PF LAGGING A W FIG. The intersection of this line with the vertical scale is the voltage drop per 100 ft for an 800-amp busmay.000 KVA PERCENT 2 = I.8 PF LAGGING 4160 VOLTS 3.4 X 600 200 X . System one-line diagrom used 01 a baris for examples of system voltage-drop . Line-to-line voltage drop = 2.009200 FEE1 250 KVA 440 VOLTS 0. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS 0 0 the curve and proceed horizontally to the left.36 gives the line-to-line voltage drop in volts for a plug-in type busmay.5 KV TRANSMISSION L I N E 60 CYCLES OVERHEAD LINE 10.8 a LOAD PF LAGGING 480 VOLTS *-480 VOLTS I 3 . Using the most critical feeders from the standpoint of voltage 33.= 3. 4. 4160-480 PERCENT t = I . The power system shown in Fig. 4. O PERCENT T t j 5 .37 is used t o illustrate the use of the foregoing charts and formulas.0 PERCENT 34.0072tj0.244 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. Figure 4.6 volts 800 100 ~ Single-phase voltage drops may he obtained by multiplying the threephase voltage drop times 1.4 volts.37 Calcdatio".16.400 -4160 VOLTS 9000 KVA 0.k S o O MCM V C L I N CONDUIT I I OHMS ?=0. Example of System Voltage-drop Calculation.CONDUCTOR 250 MCM BUS A LOAD 1500 KVA. 2. An example is given with the curves to illustrate their use.

In solution 3. (4.4).7) 14. power factors. Table 5. voltage-drop charts were used to determine voltage drop. the load current varies with applied voltage to keep the kva constant. Solution 4 involved the use of charts but neglected t. I n other words. and efficiency remain constant for voltage variatious due to regulation.12 lists the operating voltages obtained by the four methods of solution used.31 end 14. (4. It should he recognized that the use of this exact formula does not necessarily mean that the answer is exact. it is assumed that the indicated load kva.40 429 432 418 419/~4~50 422 425 3 4 * Sce Eqs.12 Solution Operating Voltages as Calculated by Four Methods Equations' used 1 1 I I Bur A I i Bur 8 I I Secondary feeder load 1 2 14. It shows that the phase angle of each successive voltage level is shifted to lag slightly the no-load voltage.2" -~ 3925 3932 425 426/--4.3) and (4. The error involved in this method results from the greater margin of error in reading charts and in the arithmetical additiou of voltage drops slightly out of phase. The cut-and-try procedure was used in the other solutious because the load kva x a s assumed to be constant as the voltage changed and therefore t. (4. CALCULATION OF DROPS 245 drop.7).4). four solutions involving varying degrees of accuracy were made to determine the operating voltage at the 4160. and (4. a point is reached where the added accuracy to be obtained does not justify another trial. Solutioii 1 is given helow as an example. In this solution the current x a s assumed to remain constant as the load voltage varied.3).V O L T A G k S T A N D A R D RATINGS. . As with any cut-and-try process. and therefore the answer is not absolutely exact.and 480-volt utilization buses and at the load end of a 480-volt feeder. Solution 1: Calculatiou by approximate Eq. TABLE 4.41 Charts Charts 3900 3910/-2.he cut-and-try procedure necessarily employed in the other solutions.he load currents changed. VARIATIONS.7) Solution 2 was made by using the exact formulas Eqs. (4. In each solution except 4. because it is necessary to use a cut-and-try process in the solution.

6) 155(2. ohms = load power-tactor angle = = Bus A Voltage.09 9000 kva = Assuming 4lFO volts at bus A and considering constant load.0 X (34.4 x .12 ohms X (0.246 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS.52 + 6.12 = 3.09 X 0.160 = (33.8 andsin Overhead line amperes = Suhstitutingin the voltage-drop formula with cos 0 0 = 0. = 1. From Fig.voltage drop) X (power transformer ratio) 4.25 X 0.97 Total ohms reactance = 1. = 6. X (0. v 155(3. 4.73 ohms Total ohms resistanre = 1.4 o.975)' K.6.37.000 10 6.975 .97 ohms Overhead line reactance = 1.4)' 10.975)' X x.16 = 155 34. Bus A amperes = 1250 4 X 4.43 = 1990 volts = = 4X 4X 4 + + Bus A volts = (source voltage .95) = X 155 X 7.52 ohms Converting transformer per rent resistanre and reactance t o ohms by the formula Ohms = %ohms X (kv)' X 10 kva and using the principle that transformer impedance varies approximately as the square of the per cent voltage tap used.25 + 1. CALCULATION OF DROPS where v I R X e line-to-line voltage drop line current.500 . VARIATIONS.4)* 10. ohms = circuit reactance.975 = 0.1990) 34.000 X 10 = = 1.8 8.0 X (34.73 = 8.160 1250 X 4. Overhead line resistance = 1.48 4.. amp = circuit resistance.

224 X 0.423) = fi X 193 X 0.0712 ohm = Transformer resistance 1.VOLTAGE. From Fig.109 0.179 0.224 ohm + 0.602 = 201 volts = = 4X + + Bus B voltage (bus A voltage . sir1 0 = 0.705 ohm &X Assuming 450 volts on bus B . VARIATIONS.160 34.5.450 480 5-kv cable amperes = 1670 X -= 193 4160 v = 4 I ( R cos 0 X sin 8 ) Bus B amperes = + cos 0 = 0.6 v 193(0. 1300 kva = 1670 0.8 0.37.0% on its own base Transformer reactance 5.v) (transformer ratio) 480 = (3900 . 4. CALCULATION OF DROPS 247 Recalculating the voltage drop assuming 3910 volts on Bus A .4 x 0.634 ohm = 5.071 + 0.115 = 0.500 .43 = 2120 volts 4.5% on its own base X 10 1500 = 0.8.6) 4 3 X 193(0.201) 4160 = .X (4.2120) This value is assumed t o he close enough for practical purposes.705 X 0. 5-kv cable resistance 5-kv cable reactance = = 0. Bus B Voltage.STANDARD RATINGS.9% Bus A voltage = (33. Overhead line amperes Y = 4160 -X 3910 155 = 165 = 4 X 165 X 7.634 = 0.16)' ~~ Total ohms resistance Total ohms reactance = = 0.1094 ohm 0.

CALCULATION OF DROPS I{rcali~ulatrngI> a\suming 4"(i volts on bus H with same load.imes their fnll-load running rurrcnt.248 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS.1 volts Since the most i. Syni~hronous and sqnirrel-rape iudi~rtion motors started 011 full voltage may draw a c u r ~ w i tas high as sevt!ii or eight t. the 480-418 voltage spread at the serondary-load terminals iiidicates that the system is on the horder line and should he stiffened.h higher feeders n-ith respect. 450 5-kv cahlr amperes = 193 X 4% v = = 204 4 3 X 204 X O. CALCULATION OF VOLTAGE DROPS DUE TO MOTOR STARTING INTRODUCTION I t is rharactrristic of most a-c motors that the riirrent.GO2 = Hns B voltage 212 volts 480 (3900 .age unless it is considered in oii . 250 0.00504 + 0.00643) x x 0.9 volts Load voltage = 425 . Xct.han t. t o voltage drop have been selerkd. drawn from the power system may r c s i i l t iii csressive drop i n volt.9 = 418.714) 4 3 X 344 X 0.ritii. assuming q20 volts a t load. the ralrulated load voltages a t hus A .007" ros B = 0. VARIATIONS.714 c = 4 3 = = = 4 X 344(0. This sriddeir increase in the (. bus B . sill B = 0. Howevw.heir rrormal running ( w r e n t .212) 4160 = Secondary load voltage.01147 G.420 X Cable resistance = 0. this is beyond the scope of this problem. which i s mcrcly iriteiidcd to out.usrent.0072 ('able reactance = 0.7.G.ermitriiig voltage drop.7 + O . possibly'hy using a larger 5-kv feeder cable. which they draw startiirg is mu(. O O ~ Ox 0. arid at the secondary-load trrminals provide sufkieirt information t o analyze the system from the standpoint of voltage drop.liiic t h e method of det.ually.0090 Load amperes = = 4 344 v = 4 x r ( x cos B + X sin 8 ) 344(0.

Use of several steps may permit a generat. the current is cut in half. Full-voltage Starting.arting load. Power companies sometimes establish such limitations. and t. the torque is reduced more rapidly than the line current. Resistor starting seldom offers a cost advantage.13 gives a conlparisoii of several common methods. Frill xwlt. . The hie-voltage drop may be somewhat less because of the better power factor of a resistance-st. except wheu several steps are required. a reactor is connect. The full-voltage starting kva of syurhroiious and squirrel-cage indurtion motors ruuges from 230 to 800 per cent of their full-load h a input. instead of a reactor. the startiug kva (of threephase motors) may he ralrulated from the formula Kva = 1. The latter is approsimately cqual to t. With t. This method usually provides the most torque hut muses the greatest load t o be applied to the system. even if most of the drop is in the distribution system and cannot be reduced by regulators. l'ahlc 4.0-poiver-factor syrichronous motors. t o meet limitations established for the maximum kva applied at any oue step. If the starting curreut in ampercs is kno\vu.arting is commouly used for large motor-generator sets.he available motor torque are greatly aKected by the method of starting used.hc horsepower rating of induction and 0. imposed on the power-supply system. The torque available for a given reductioti in startiug current is the same as with a reactor.S T A R T I N G METHODS The motor-startiug kra.age is the least espeosive method of startiug. Resistor Starting. The torque is reduced hy the square of the tap used. Hence. with a 50 per cent tap. Resistor starting is similar t o reactor starting except that a resistor is used in series with the motor. The load applied equals (at motor rated voltage) the full-voltage starting kva of hhe mot.73 X amperes X line-to-line volts looo Reactor Starting. For example.8-pomr-factor syirrhrorious motors and is approximately 80 per eelit of the horsepower rating of 1.or voltage regulator to restore voltage between steps. M O T O R . CALCULATION OF DROPS 249 the design of the system.or.his method. Reactor st. It also tends to make light flicker less noticeahle.ed in series with the motor aud is shorted out when the motor approaches full speed. 4 reactor starter redures the line current in proportion t o the tap used. Folloii-ing are methods for ralculatiug the voltage drop which results from startiug of three-phase induction aud synrhronous motors. VARIATIONS.VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS.

375 0..O 1 .375 0.75 0...... When only part of the winding is energized. CALCULATION OF DROPS Autotransformer Starting.14 0.64 0.65 0 .. but may cause tripping of instantaneous overcurrent protection for the motor circuit.... .......250 VOLTAGE.. 50 per cent winding..O * The settings given %rethe more common for each type...50 0.. TABLE 4.80 0........ . If an autotransformer starter is used..........80 0....75 0..... Resistor storm...... a motor starting load of 100 per cent of the rating of a generator will be redured to about 25 per cent...42 0.64 0... . 45 per <*"I top..... VARIATIONS...13 shows 30 per cent because it allows for autotransformer magnetizing current. 1 .... . In such cases.roltage stmrter... single step [adjusted for motor voltage to be 80 per cent of line voltogel Reoctor. Table 4...25 0........ 50 per cent tap...I 0.......O 0.........5 per Cent t o p ...O 1 ........ This is seldom sustained long enough to cause troublesome voltage dip..... .25 0....20 0........ .50 0....... Part-winding starter [low-speed m o l ~ r s onlyl: 75 per cent winding.... if an autotransformer at a 50 per cent tap is used.50 0. the line current is reduced approximately as the square of the tap setting......... power is first applied to a portion of the winding and later the entire winding is connected to the line.... .. the current and torque are Part-winding Starting........... This is sometimes done in several steps... .............. .30 0...68 0. ..O 1 ..rting tolqY* line voltage f"ll-"oltoge tarting torque Full... a high transient inrush for a few cycles may occur at this time even if the speed is high..... but may be needed to provide adequate torque.... . 65 per cent tap....46 0..STANDARD RATINGS...45 0....13 Comparison of Motor-starting Methods Line voltage = motor-rated voltage Type of starter* Motor voltage t. If the load torque is high a t the time of transfer to the line..... 37...... Autotransformer starting may cost more than reactor starting.. Autotransformer: 80 Per Cent t o p .80 0. .. 50 per cent tap. Some motors can be provided with taps for part-winding starting..... For example.45 0... The tap selected should always be high enough to accelerate the motor to a speed a t which the current will not be excessive after transfer t o the running connection. using increasing proportions of the winding.50 1 ....

NO REGULATOR 5 0 PER CENT INITIAL LOAD ON GENERATOR FIG. this current will have a high power factor. Wound-rotor motors are invariably started on full voltage. and also provides a smoother transfer to the running connection. That is.38 Typical generator voltage behavior. TYPE OF VOLTAGE DISTURBANCE PRODUCED BY M O T O R STARTING Generator Voltage. 4. because it provides relatively less torque for such motors. this method is seldom advantageous for motors above 514 rpm (fourteen poles). for a typical low-speed motor. Consequently. the current and torque are approximately equal t o one-half their full winding values. . On the other hand. This serves to limit the starting current drawn by the motor-usually to about 150 per cent of full-load current. VARIATIONS. CALCULATION OF DROPS 251 less than for full-voltage starting. However.SECONDS MOTOR-STARTING XVd*IDDPfR CENT OF DENEMTOR RATING A B N - NO INITIAL LOeiD ON GENERATOR . Starting a synchronous 100 90 80 $ 70 2 d" > Y I L 5 50 u 40 f 30 20 1 0 ov 0 2 3 4 5 6 TIME.38 shows the behavior of the voltage of a generator when an induction motor is started. the voltage drop caused by starting this type of motor is comparatively small. Furthermore. They are both changed approximately in proportion t o the amount of winding connected. Starting of Wound-rotor Motors. Figure 4. This method is comparable in cost with autotransformer starting.VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS. at the half-winding connection. but control is provided which inserts a high resistance in the secondary winding on starting and short circuits this resistance in one or more steps as the motor comes up to speed. wound-rotor motors and their control have a relatively high cost.

The pull-in torque of a synchronous motor varies approxi- . to determine the restored voltage throughout the acceleration of the motor. This is typical with most initial loads which consist of a combination of lighting loads and partially loaded iuduction motors. for whirh the voltage is restored by the regulator to only about 85 per cent of normal. The reason the regulator usually cannot restore the voltage to 100 per cent when a large motor is started on a heavily loaded generator is that the exciter maximum (ceiling) voltage limits the available generator excitation. The minimum voltage is also a determining factor in light flicker. this time the motor is usually st. The restored voltage is necessary to estimate the torque available for starting the motor.he generator rating.ial loads on the generator of zero and 50 per cent. the load torque may also increase with speed so that a higher voltage is necessary to ensure acceleration.151 V O L T A G S S T A N D A R D RATINGS. I n the case illustrated.ill at low speed and drawing a high current. Methods of estimating each of these voltages are included. however. This restored voltage is the voltage available for breaking away and accelerating the motor. up to the time of pull in. a full-voltage starter is used.e. The voltage regulator restores the voltage ton-ard normal in about 2 see. This is illustrated by curve B . Curves .he regulator then restores the generator voltage to 100 per rent. Usually it is sufficient to determine the minimum voltage and the restored voltage based upon the current drawn by the motor at standstill. respectively. At. The initial load on the generator has an important effect on the value t o which the voltage is restored by regulator action. Although the current drawn by a motor decreases as it comes u p to speed. and the full-voltage starting kva is ahout 100 per rent of t. CALCULATION OF DROPS motor is essentially similar.. In the case of a synchronous motor i t may be necessary to check the restored voltage at the speed at which field excitation is applied (95 per cent of synchronous speed or higher) to make sure that the motor will pull into step. It is sometimes necessary. for init. resulting in an increasing generator voltage. When the motor comes up to speed. or running motors stall. with the regulator operating. VARIATIONS. The minimum voltage is about 75 per cent and is not affected much by the iriitial load. i. so that t. In other cases it is also necessary to calculate the restored voltage available for break away and accelerations. I t is assumed that the generator is provided with an automatic voltage regulator. upon the locked-rotor current. Sometimes it is only necessary to calculate the minimum voltage. during the disturbance.A and R show the performance. its current becomes much less. Minimum voltage is needed to determine whether undervoltage devices and contactors connected to the system mill drop out.

lines. lines. The drop in this equipment is not reduced by the action of voltage regulators. the voltage falls immediately and docs not rerover till the motor approaches full speed. lines. The curves of Fig. VARIATIONS. 4. or cables will be additional to the generator drop.39 may he used for estimating the minimum voltage occurring at the terminals of a generator supplying power to a synchronous or squirrel-cage induction motor which is being . Distribution-system Voltage. when practically all the drop is in transformers. Consequently. Frequently there are transformers.VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS. Often practically all the drop is in this distribution equipment. or cables between the motor starter and the generator or generators supplying the power for starting. The drop in the transformers. and cables. ESTIMATING GENERATOR VOLTAGE DROP Minimum Voltage. CALCULATION OF DROPS 253 mately as the square of the voltage at the motor terminals just before application of field.

40 Typical valuer of performance factor K for (I-c . if any. Approximate values of K are given in Fig. the actual kva drawn by the motor will generally be less than the value defined above. Since there is a drop in generator voltage. The several curves in each speed group-except those marked N a n d Eapply for various values of a factor K. . VARIATIONS. The generator reactances assumed to apply for each speed group are also given in Fig. 4. The initial load on the generator. . .39. UULTlPL" I( B" (00 . 4. 4. EXCITER NUMBERS ON CURYES ARE R P N NUMBERS I" BRACKETS &RE EXClTER R P H FOR "IMIAITION OF EXClTER RESPONSE WlT" GENERATOR IN1TIAL L o l o lNlTlbL LOAD (PER C E N T . FIG. plotted against the "motor-starting kva" in per cent of generator rated kva. but the effect of this is taken into account by the curves..254 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS. The curves show the minimum voltage. . The three sets of curves shown are for three ranges of generator speed. CALCULATION OF DROPS controlled by a direct-acting rheostatic voltage reguhtor (such as the GENEIIbTOR e I T E O K"& ~ W T DIRECT-CONNECTED " EXCITER . in per cent of the initial generator voltage. ~ WIT" ~ BELTED .70 75 I55 50 I"5 25 I25 HULTlPLlERS TO *ILLOW 0 * .ed generator voltage at rated load and multiplied hy the generator open circuit field time constant in seconds. This factor is the exciter response in volts per second divided by the exciter voltage for rat.oo generators. The values of Ii in Fig.40 are based on the use of a self-excited excit. is assumed to be of the constant-current type. The "motor-starting kva" is the kva which would be drawn by the motor being started if the generator voltage were maintained at rated value. 4.

The curves show the restored voltage in per cent of rated generator voltage plotted against the kva which would be drawn by the motor being started if rated generator voltage were maintained. initial load. exciter rheostat. 4. and the motor being started.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. In this system the response of the exciter depends not only upon its design hut also on the setting of the exciter field rheostat. and the motor being started. The curves of Fig. exciter regulator. CALCULATION OF DROPS A-C GENERATOR 255 EXCITER FIELD 1 u GENERATOR VOLTAGE REGULATOR ' ' l L FIG. 4.41 Excitotion system for a-c generator. a study based on romplete data should be made considering the characteristics and adjustments of generator. that is. Restored Voltage. The several curves apply for various values of initial load which is assumed to be a constantcurrent load of 0. regulator.8 lagging power factor. the generator speed. The latter is determined by regulator requirements. The rurves of Fig. and in an individual case K may vary considerably from the value shown.42 may be used for estimating the restored voltage of a generator. 4.40 are based on a setting of the exciter field rheostat which makes available a maximum generator field current of 120per cent of its rated value. General Electric Company Type GDA) as shown in Fig. and the motor starting kva. The excitation system is assumed to be such that a maximum excitation current of 120 per cent of rated generator field current can he obtained. . the exciter speed. exciter rheostat. If guarantees of performance are required. If guarantees of performance are required. a study based on complete data should be made considering the characteristics and adjustments of generator. initial load. VARIATIONS.41. the voltage attained after the regulator has acted to apply maximum excitation current to the generator (or has restored the voltage to its initial value) following the starting of a squirrel-cage induction or synchronous motor.40 allow an estimate to be made of the generator miuimum voltage directly from the generator kva rating. exciter. The curves of Figs. 4.39 and 4. 4. The K fartors given by the curves are typical only.

VARIATIONS. marked E .40 this may have a performanre factor K of about 1.42 show dashed curves. Advontages of Voltage Regulators. For example.39 are curves. 4. (138 kva is about 32 per cent of 438 kva. This load would correspond t o starting a 25-hp motor at full voltage. Figures 4. because the curve N shows that about 32 per cent motor-starting load will cause a 28 per cent voltage drop if no regulator is used.39.) The 438-kva generator would cost over twice as much as a 125-kva machine.42 Restored generator vollage. which show the performance available when using an electronic exciter or some other very high-response excitation system. I n Fig. and 4. It shows there is a definite limit to the improvement . 2.156 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. CALCULATION O F DROPS MOTOR S T I R T l N G I("& I N P E R C E N T O F G E N E R l T O R K Y A A T R A T E O O E N E R ~ T O AVOLThQE ( B A S E D O N Y l x l Y u Y EXCITATION-IZOPER C E N T O F R A T E D G E N E R A T O R F l E L O C U R R E N T I NOTE: RESTORED VOLTAGE E W I L S VALUE READ FROM CURVE OR THE INITIaL YOLTlGL (REGULATOR SETTING1 WHICHEVER I S LOWER FIG.7 with a regulator.39. 110 per cent motor-starting load or 138 kva will cause a 28 per cent voltage dip. They practically always justify their cost whenever the starting of large motors is involved. 4. 4. T o obtain the same motor-starting performance without a regulator would require a 438-kva generator. This mould permit successful starting of the 25-hp motor even against full-load torque and would improve normal generator performance. consider a 480-volt 125-kva 1200-rpm generator. which indicate the results t o be expected if no regulator is used. From Fig.38. It is apparent that regulators are very beneficial. 4. marked N . From Fig. The best and least expensive arrangement mould be t o provide a regulator adding less than 15 per cent to the cost of the 125-kva generator.

4. This is the value which should be used to determine the generator minimum voltage (from Fig.e. As far as the restored voltage is concerned (Fig. this is not affected by the initial voltage except that the voltage mill not recover t o a value higher than the initial voltage since this represents the setting of the voltage regulator.. For example. from the standpoint of the minimum voltage. it will be 1190 kva at 480 volts because (480/440)* = 1. or 330 volts. the voltage will drop t o approximately 75 per cent of 440 volts. 4.. Consequently. An induction motor at no load will draw a current approximately proportional t o the applied voltage. This sort of load characteristic is representative of many systems and results from the use of induction motors. the kva should be adjusted t o take this into account. For example.19.39) regardless of the actual initial voltage.39 and 4. 4. If the voltage regulator is set t o hold a voltage of 440 volts. starting of the same motor will produre approximately the same voltage drop in per cent of the initial voltage. Effect of Initial Voltage. The voltage curves of Figs.42). In such cases. if the initial voltage (setting of voltage regulator) is 90 per cent of rated generator voltage. except that all curves will become horizontal lines at 90 per cent voltage. CALCUUTION OF DROPS 157 which can be obtained by greatly inrreasing response. A system load consisting of both heavily loaded and . t o maintain the power constant. because the current is principally magnetizing current. assume that. the recovery voltage in per cent of rated generator voltage will be as shown by the curves of Fig. VARIATIONS. The kva drawn hy a motor increases as the square of the line voltage. 4. the generator voltage will dip a t least a certain amount before the excitation system can do anything about it. the regulator should be set t o maintain rated voltage on the generator even though the motor voltage is lower. the starting of the 440-volt motor (drawing 1190 kva at 480 volts) causes the voltage t o drop t o 75 per rent of the initial value. A fully loaded induction motor will tend t o have constant kva input since its speed and power factor do not change much with variations in line voltage. that is. If t. Effect of Initial load. or 3G0 volts. A 440-volt motor might he supplied by R 480-volt generator and a 2200-volt motor by a 2400-volt generator. This shows that. with an initial voltage of 480 volts. i. Often the voltage rating of the generator supplying a motor is higher than that of the startiiig inrush of a 410-volt motor is 1000 kva a t 440 volts.42.42 were prepared on the basis that the initial load on the generator draws constant current duririg the voltage disturbance. a fully loaded induction motor will draw more current if the voltage is lower. all of which are not fully loaded.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS.

For example. the initial load consisted of fully loaded induction motors a t 0. UL6UUTION OF DROPS lightly loaded motors will therefore tend to draw nearly constant current since a lowering of the voltage causes a reduction in the current to some motors and an increase in the current to others. It will. A constant-current type of load will have very little influence on the minimum voltage during motor starting. They are most beneficial when lightly loaded. Lighting loads usually have little effect upon voltage disturbances due to motor starting. Therefore. The first trial is often sufficient. the per cent minimum voltage and recovered voltage will both tend to be higher than indicated by the curves. and this can be simulated by a change in the motor-starting kva. it is helpful to start synchronous motors first in a plant so that they will be on the line to help in the starting of large induction motors later. consider a generator whose voltage would dip to 75 per cent if a 100 per cent motor-starting load were applied when a 50 per cent constant-current initial load is being carried. if the voltage disturbance is so great as to cause them to pull out of step. If. Since the change in current and the minimum voltage are dependent upon each other. If the system load consists primarily of lightly loaded induction motors. Initially connected synchronous motors are beneficial in reducing the disturbance due to motor starting.8 power factor. have an important effect on the value of the restored voltage of generators. Although the curves in this section are based on initial loads of the constant-current type. VARIATIONS.if the change in current is determined a t the voltage corresponding to the case of a constant-current initial load. the voltage disturbance from motor starting will be more severe than indicated by these figures. however.258 VOLTAGbSTANDARD RATINGS. a t the minimum voltage. If the initial load consists entirely of heavily loaded induction motors. caused by the drop in voltage. by the same amount as the change in the lagging wattless component of the initial load. and also because of their high power factor. This is true because lighting loads usually constitute a small proportion of the total load on a generator. because a t 75 per cent voltage the lagging wattless current to the running motors would be increased from 30 per cent of the . however. instead. Synchronous motors will not be helpful. as previously described. the dip would be more severe. a trial-and-error procedure is involved. the effect of the initial load is primarily due to a change in the wattless component. That is. they may be used for cases involving other types. The increase or decrease in motor-starting kva is such as to change the motor-starting current. This is done by adjusting the motor-starting kva by an amount corresponding to the change in current to the initial load.

4.43 Approximate effect of initial lood consisting of fully loaded induction motors.43 shows the amount by which motor-starting kva should be increased to allow for the effect of an initial load consisting of fully loaded induction motors. At this power factor the resulting voltage drop (initial voltage minus the minimum voltage) will not generally exceed 75 per cent of the drop caused by the same kva a t low power factor. Effect of Starting Power Factor.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. Wound-rotor motors have a starting power factor of about 80 per cent lagging. Resistor starters PF -R C F N T VOLTAGE 18 17 U Y __ DROP 30 25 20 > 16 15 14 0 z 2 13 12 I ! 15 10 5 g 10 09 08 ' LL 07 06 05 2 = a w 04 03 02 F 1 3 01 o 0 0 ' 2 04 06 08 10 12 14 16 18 20 RATIO OF I N I T I A L LOAD KVA MOTOR STARTING KVA INCREASE MOTOR STARTING KVA BY MULTIPLIER SHOWN BEFORE USING CURVES OF FIG.42 ( ! N I T I A L LOAD MAY THEN BE CONSIDERED AS CONSTANT CURRENT T Y P E ) FIG. Figure 4. This is true because a motor-starting load which would draw 13 per cent of generator rated kva a t full voltage will draw 10 per cent current a t 75 per cent voltage.4. The power factor of most motorstarting loads lies between 10 and 40 per cent. This increase could be approximately simulated by an increase of the motor-starting kva from 100 per cent to 113 per cent. CALCULATION O F DROPS 259 generator rating t o about 40 per cent.39AND FIG. . 4. VARIATIONS. Variations within this range do not materially influence voltage drop of generators.

by reducing the electrical output. except for the first steps when several are used. which is in addition t o the voltage drops considered in this section. The curves of Fig. VARIATIONS. For most motor-starting problems. also reduces the new load applied.3 power factor will involve a suddenly applied km load less than 30 per cent of rated kva. The latter is expressed in per cent of the transformer-hank kva rating and is the kva which wouldhedrawnhythemotor being started if rated transformer secondary voltage were maintained. The secondary voltage on starting of the motor.41 neglect the effect of primary-voltage drops caused by motor starting. is plotted against the motor starting kva. and it will be quickly eliminated by regulators. Note that the secondary voltage is plotted in per cent of its initial value. 4. Methods of taking these into account will he explained later. or 37. The speed drop is not likely to be excessive if good governing means are employed. ESTIMATING DISTRIBUTION-SYSTEM VOLTAGE DROP The voltage drops in lines. If the transformer-bank kva rating is only slightly larger than the motor rating. then the generator voltage dip will be less than 1 per cent. and the initial load. in per cent of the initial secondary voltage. As speed dips. For example. In fact. Voltage Drop of Transformers. the voltage drop. . It is usually slightly less than the rated secondary voltage. this should be considered. they are frequently more important. the voltage drop may be quite severe. Since the power factor of motorstarting kva is low.5 per cent of rated kw for an 0. the t a p setting. For example. a motor-starting load of 100 per cent of generator-rated kva at 0. it may safely be neglected. the motor will probably be supplied through a transformer bank. Furthermore. however. For cases where speed dip may be sufficiently great to be important. It may he determined by measurement or by suitable calculations. 4. but calculation of speed drop is beyond the scope of this book. In such a case.8 power-fartor generator. and transformers are often as important as generator voltage drop. CALCULATION OF DROPS seldom cause the starting power factor to he high enough to reduce voltage drop greatly. Effect of Drop in Generator Speed. if the total kva of connected generators in the power system is more than 100 times the horsepower rating of the motor being started. cables. the amount of kw load applied to a generator is seldom large. The curves of Fig. This initial secondary voltage is determined by the initial primary voltage.44 may he used for estimating the voltage drop through typical transformers when starting a synchronous or squirrel-cage induction motor connected to the secondary of the transformer. a corresponding dip appears in the voltage.260 VOLTAGE-STANDARD R A T I N G S .

These quantities are combined I f as follows: to obtain the loading factor . 4. the curves of Fig. 4. 4 44 Transformer secondary voltage The curves of Fig. if any.45 and 4. The curves of Figs. CALCULATION OF DROPS 261 MOTOR STARTING KVA 1% OF B & N I K V A aiT RATED TRANSFORMER SECoNOAR” VOLTAGE1 of both lightly loaded and heavily loaded inductiou motors.4G may be used for estimating the voltage drop through cables and overhead lilies n-hcn start.44 were prepared on the basis that the initial load.43. t M = (initial voltage)2 ) .44 may still be used provided that the motor-starting kva is first multiplied by the fartor shown in Fig. This is typical of a system consist.iiig synchronous and squirrel-cage induction motors supplied through these circuits. 4.o 40 per cent. I n using these figures.VOLTACbSTANDARD RATINGS.44 apply for motor-starting power factors in the usual range of 10 t. draws constant current during the voltage disturbance. 4. the initial voltage at the load end of the circuit. motor-starting kva at the initial voltage x ( % c i : r in e ) : . -1. and the motor-starting kva a t the iuitial voltage. Voltage Drop of Cables and Overhead Lines. the drop in voltage will be about 70 per cent of that shown. The curves of Fig.s largely of fully loaded induction motors. VARIATIONS. it is first necessary t o determine the length of the circuit in feet. If the initial load consist. For wound-rotor motors which have a starting power factor of about 80 per cent.

3 power factor. For conductor sizes above No. This is illustrated by Fig. It may be noted. This provides a simple method of estimating the voltage drop for motor-starting loads.44. the drop is equal to that for a single circuit of one-half the actual length of each circuit. the voltage drop for other values of M may be estimated by multiplying the values of Fig. VARIATIONS. This illustration gives data for three circuits: a three-conductor cable. variations over the usual range from 0. The power factor of the motor-starting load is assumed to be 0. If the per cent reactauce of a reactor does not lie between 5 and 8 per cent.46 by M . Consequently. multiply the motor-starting kva by the ratio X / 5 . 0 Awg.46 are based on a frequency of 60 cycles per sec.1. the reduction will he less. 0 Awg.45 and 4. 4. the circuit 1000 ft long. It will be noted that the voltage drop in an overhead line is greater than that for a cable. and the initial voltage 2400 volts. where X is the actual per cent reactance of the reactor. The voltage drop will be reduced approximately in proportion to the frequency for all couductor sizes above KO.45. 4. Figure 4. The voltage drop in a current-limiting reactor on starting a squirrel-cage induction or synchronous motor may be estimated from the transformer curves of Fig. 4.3 (2400)' Figure 4. The points corresponding to the circled cases in Fig. For smaller sizes. 4. Lines and cables for systems operating a t lower frequencies mill have less voltage drop.2 to 0.45 are nearly straight lines. if the motor-starting load were 1000 kva. the voltage drop may be somewhat different.45 are circled in Fig. 4.44 should be that drawti at the specified system voltage expressed in per cent of the specified system kva. and an overhead line. that the curves of Fig.4 power factor will not have an important effect on voltage drop.46. 4.em-voltage base.5 per cent. for different cases than those illustrated in Fig. The voltage drop in a line or cable depends upon the conductor size and spacing. The motor-starting kva of Fig. 4. Hence. If two circuits are in parallel. .262 VOLTAGkSTANDARD RATINGS. Current-limiting reactors are usually described as having a certain per cent reactance on a specified system-kva and syst. however.0. Voltage Drop of Reactors. and read the voltage corresponding to this equivalent motor-starting kva on the 5 per cent reactance curve.45 shows that for this case the voltage drop at the load end of a typical three-conductor cable is 1. Figures 4.46 applies for the condition hf = 1. the loading factor M would be 1000 x 1000 = o.46 showing the voltage drop for a range of circuit configurations. 4. a single-conductor cable. CALCULATION OF DROPS For example.

CONDUCTOR C A B L E .3 1. 0 1. c: CONDUCTOR DIAMETER (INCHES) FOR MOTOR-STARTING LOADS OF 0 3 POWER FACTOR LO~DING FACTOR M: (MOTOR-STARTING KVAI (LENGTH IN FEET1 (INITIAL VOLTAGE)^ I0 *FOR FL4T SPACING.CONDUCTOR C A B L E .7 0.8 0. EQUIVALENT TRIANGULbR SPACING'.46 Voltage drop in lines and cables with loading factor M of unity.A W G .4 05 0. 4. 4 / O .(NO.V O L T A G E . 4. N O 4 46 IN.9 1 . 4 / 0 .) ~ (A) 3.2 1. ADJACENT PHASES I 2 6 TIMES SPACING BETWEEN FIG. M = ~ ~ ( L E N G T H IN FT.4 LOADING FACTOR.6 (C) O V E R H E A D L I N E .S T A N D A R D RATINGS.N 0 .1 1.( N O .1 5 K V CIRCLED P O I N T S APPEAR O N FIG. CALCULATION OF DROPS 100 263 0 " Y 90 10 Q 80 20 70 30 0 0 0.6 0. .1 02 0 .45 Variation of voltage drop with looding factor M for typical liner and cables. SPACING) FIG.A W G .A W G . 4 / 0 . 3 0.I 5 K V ) (6) I . VARIATIONS.

The short-circuit rurrent is usually expressed in kva.000 150.000-1.000.500. For calculating voltage drop.000 250. VARIATIONS.000 I50.000 13. For further informat. Series capacitors redure voltage drop. the minimum short-circuit kva should be used since the corresponding operating condition will give the highest voltage drop. Motors are frequently supplied from power systems cotisistirig of complicated uetworks of lines and cables for which a calculation of the voltage drop ~vouldhe difficult. if a 1000-hp motor has a startirig kva of 5000 if initial system voltage were maintained and the system short-cirruit kva is 50.000-250. Voltage Drop of Power Systems.500.ion on series capacitors.500 69.800 23.000 System Voltage 2.400 4.000 34.14 Power-system Short-circuit Kva Usual Range of Short-circuit Kvo 15. TABLE 4.264 V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS.000 I 15.000. The short-circuit kva of power systems varies over a wide range.imated.14.he short-circuit current is known at the point of power delivery.500.500. oil the other hand.160 6. the voltage drop will be approximately 5000/(5000 + 50. For example. system interconnections.000 The method of calrulating voltage drop given above is not applicable at system locations where the short-circuit kva would be appreciably . cahles.000-2. etc.000-1. A corresponding variation occurs in the voltage drop produced by a certaiu motor-starting kva. if t. however. When motor-starting kva is drawl from a system. The amount of redurt. The motor-starting kva used should be that drawn by the motor if the initial system \&age were maintained.000) X 100 = 9 per cent of the initial voltage In many systems the short-circuit kva varies over a wide range.000 150. as shown in Table 4. or t. In such cases the highest short-circuit kva is the one usually determined since it must he the one used in selection of equipment which is t o carry or iritcrrupt the short-circuit current.000-1.000 50. the voltage drop in per cent of the initial voltage is approximately equal to 100 times the motor-startiiig kva divided by the sum of this kva and the short-circuit kva. 8. refer to Chap.rausformers. depending upon the number of parallel h e s that are in service. CALCULATION O F DROPS Effect of Series Capacitors.000-1 50. The voltage drop may be est.ion depends upon the raparitor rating.900 25. Sometimes it is advantageous t o include series capacitors in the distrihut.ion system t o neutralize the reactance of lines.000-500.000 100.000-I.

Continue the process until all elements in series have been considered. 4. determine the drop in the cable first. For example. Transformer banks may also be grouped if they are supplied from the same primary bus and have the same per cent reactance and the same tap settings. Parallel Circuits. In the example selected. VARIATIONS. Using this new value of motor-starting kva determine the voltage drop in the next circuit element. This result is the final voltage a t the load. Multiply the motor-starting kva by the ratio of the load-end voltage to the initial voltage of the cable just determined. transformers.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. the following procedure is suggested: 1. Using this new value of motor-starting kva determine the voltage drop in the next circuit element. 3. transformers. for a motor supplied from a generator. To find the combined voltage drop for several parallel sources of different characteristics. However. I t should be used only when the impedances of transmission lines. In such cases. Often a motor is supplied through cables. all in series. 5. For more accurate work. In the example selected this is the generator voltage drop. If several sources are in parallel. overhead lines. Determine the voltage drop in the circuit element nearest the motor. transformer. the simple addition of voltage drops is not quite accurate because addition of impedance in series tends to diminish the current supplied to the motor. CALCULATION DF DROPS 265 affected by reactance of generators. and generators. To determine the combined voltage drop. the total voltage drop may be roughly estimated as the sum of the voltage drops given by the foregoing illustrations for each of the different parts of the system. it is suggested that the motor-starting load first . it is suggested that groups of similar generators may be treated as a single generator having the same total kva rating and the same performance factor as the individual machines. neglecting the other elements. Now multiply the motor-starting kva by the product of the ratio of the load-end voltage to the initial voltage of the cable and the ratio of the secondary voltage to the initial secondary voltage of the transformer. An example a t the end of this chapter illustrates the procedure described. this is the transformer drop. COMBINED VOLTAGE DROP Series Circuits. the voltage drop is less than if the motor-starting load is supplied through any one of them. Multiply the initial voltage a t the motor by the product of the final to initial voltage ratios of all the circuit elements. 6. 7. reactors. 2. and cables largely determine the short-circuit current. and cable in series.

For example. = z . Static Circuit Elements Only. and reactors. For the case illustrated. The first trial division of load will he 500 kva each. cables. First assuming that all the voltage drop occurs in static circuit elements such as transmission lines.9) impedance of motor being started (ratio of applied voltage to current drawn) R. A final check of the amount of voltage drop through each source is advisable. Let us assume that this results in a minimum voltage of 75 per rent on the generator and 90 per cent on the transformer secondary. The drop in the generator is 2. = + Z. because the drop in a generator does not always vary directly with the amount of motor-starting load applied to it. =Z . Usually oiily one or two trials are required to obtain a sufficiently accurate result. The drop obtained is the combined voltage drop. the formulas given below may he used. consider the case of a motor which has a startiug kva of 1000 and is furnished with power by a 500-kva generator and a 300-kva transformer bank. VARIATIONS. Then assume that the transformer accepts 2. This is especially true of the restored voltage obtained through the action of voltage regulators. FORMULAS FOR CALCULATING VOLTAGE DROP The various curves and other data that have been presented allow estimates of the voltage drop due to motor starting to be made quirkly with minimum iuformation on the motor and circuit elements involved.266 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS.5 X 285). The voltage drop in the transformer for 715 motor-starting kva will be found to be practically the same as for 285 motor-starting kva applied to the generator. This results in 285 kva being accepted by the generator and the remainder. Then a new trial division of load can be made so as to increase the proportion of load carried by the sources with the least voltage drop. being imposed on the transformer (715 is 2. transformers.5 times as much load as the generator. For cases not adequately covered by these data. 715.5 times as great as in the transformer. cos a. This means that the generator will actually accept less thari half the load. the voltage at the motor starter mill he equal to d(ttM Rd2 where Z . sin eM .W + ( X . this voltage drop is about 14 per cent. CALCULATION OF DROPS be divided equally and the corresponding voltage drops determined. X. + Xd* X initial voltage at motor starter (4.

it is generally convenient to select as base kva the kva drawn by the motor at rated motor voltage. cos Ox is the poiver factor of the current drawn from t. Using the per-unit system. If two or more transformers are in series between the circuit element and the motor. by (4.or impedance Z. Rs = 4 Voltage rating of motor in volts X starting current in amperes a t rated motor voltage (4. between motor and point in system where voltage remains constant.VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. The voltage at the starter must.he line. the starting current is that drawn from the line with rated motor voltage on the line side of the starter. For transformers equipped with taps 011 either primary or secondary winding. The resistance and reactance of a transformer hank ran he expressed in ohms by multiplying its per cent resistance and per cent reactance.12) before adding to the ohmic resistances and reactances of the motor and other circuit elements on the serondary of the transformer. of motor X s = hotal reartance of circuit between motor and point in system where voltage remains constant The impedance.10) If a reduced voltage type starter is used. VARIATIONS. the actual resistance and reactance in ohms should be multiplied by the square of the product of the various no-load voltage transformation ratios. is not affected by start. CALCULATION OF DROPS 267 power factor of current drawn by motor being started total resistance of circuit. by (Secondary voltage rating in kv)2 X 10 Kva rating of bank (4.. Similarly.erminals.13) . respectively. the voltage ratings used in the above formulas should correspond to the t a p setting. that is. i. be multiplied by the motor voltage-line voltage ratio of the starter (see Table 4. and reactances in the above formula should all he expressed in ohms or all in per rent (or per-unit) on any convenient kva and voltage base.11) Circuit elements separated from the motor by a transformer should have their actual resistance and reactance values in ohms multiplied hy the square of the no-load voltage transformation ratio.. which is X starting current in amperes X rated motor volts 1000 (4..e. expressed in ohms is = cos B.13) to obtain the voltage at the motor t. The mot.

A method for taking into account loads whose current varies u i t h voltage will be given later.ermined hy the method given in Chap. Where voltage taps are provided on a t. I f current to other loads is flowing in one or more of the circuit elements between the motor and the const.ant voltage point mhen the motor is started. For circuit elemeots connected in parallel.15) except where the circuit element is separated from the motor by a transformer.ween the circuit element and the motor. of course. VARIATIONS. the voltage ratirigs used in the above formulas should correspoiid t o the t a p sett.he first transformer. with the motor connected t o its secondary. the above formula for voltage a t the motor mil1 still apply. the current drawn does not change ivhen the voltage drops." (Rated " r volts ' x 1000 ) (4. the transformer no-load voltage ratio which appears in the above espression should be replaced by the product of the no-load vokage transformation ratios of the various traiisformers.268 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS. be considered io determining the initial voltage at the motor starter. i. equivalent wlnes of resistance and react. CALCULATION O F DROPS and select rated motor voltage as the base voltage.or voltage Prjmary voltage r a h g of transformer rated motor volts -x Secondary voltage rating of transformer 1000 ) x 1000 (4.14) A second transformer in series would have its per cent resistance and reactance multiplied b j the above expression and also bj' the square of the no-load volhage transformation ratio (secondary voltage divided by primary voltage) of t. in vhich case the multiplier is (~~__ Motor-starting kva at rated mot. The resistaiice and reactaiice of circuit elements that are expressed iii ohms should be multiplied hy Motor starting kva at rated motor voltage . 1. = 1. should be multiplied by f Motor-starting kva at rated motor voltage \ G t i n g of transformer \ ) \ Isecondary voltage ratiug\' of transformer rated motor voltage 1 (4. The per cent resistanre and reactance of a transformer. Such load currents must.16) I f t v o or more transformers are in series bet.e. Often it is desirable t o know the effect of motor starting on the voltage .. Iii this case Z . The resistance and reactance of circuit elements connected in series can be added directly. assuming that these other loads are of the constant-current type.ance can be

C A L C U U T I O N OF DROPS 269 a t various points in the system as well as a t the motor. In many cases the voltage drop can he caleulated with little error. a trial-and-error solution is necessary./Rs) is 2 or greater. + + R i ) 2+ = = x1)2 X XS)2 initial voltage a t motor starter (4.17) resistance of circuit betweeo motor starter and specified point reactance of circuit between motor starter and specified point R a . For the case where motor starting current only flows in the circuit elements between the motor and a point in the system. Rs. w+x s x initiai voltage a t motor starter (4. Transformers rated 100 kva or larger usually have a reactince-to-resistance ratio greater than 2. Since these currents will depend upon the voltage drop occurring when the motor is started.V O L T A G b S T A N D A R D RATINGS. the voltage a t this point will he equal to d(Rw d(RX + + Rs)*+ (x. this formula gives a voltage drop which is generally within 10 per eent of the correct value. X.w (X.18) total reactance of circuit betmeen motor and point in system where voltage remains constant Z . = where X s . The voltage a t the motor starter divided hy rated motor voltage and multiplied hy the current drawn at rated motor voltage gives the actual current drawn from the line. considering only Lhe reactance of the circuit elements in series with the motor and using the formula Voltage a t motor starter = where R I Xi zx z .. The current drawn by each load a t the estimated voltage is used to calculate a new value of initial voltage a t the motor starter from which the voltage a t the motor starter and a t the various loads can be recalculated. and X s are as previously defined I f any load drawing current through the circuit elements in series with the motor is not of the constant-current type. I f the load voltages do not agree closely with those estimated. = impedance of motor heing started When the reactance-to-resistance ratio of the eircuit elements (X. the voltage a t the motor starter can still be calculated hy the formula given provided that the initial voltage a t the motor starter is calculated using the current drawn by the various loads aft. VARIATIONS. Thns the voltage a t the various loads eaii first be estimated from calculations based on ali loads drawing a constant the motor is started. This current can be comhined with any load current flowing through the various circuit elements and the voltage a t any point calculated hy the methods given earlier in this chapter. nem estimates can be made and the process repeated.

.42 using a value of “motor-startiiig kva at rated geiierator voltage” equal t o Starting kva drawn by motor if voltage at motor starter mere maintained at the initial value X d(fi.270 VOLTAGF-STANDARD RATINGS. the voltage at the motor starter cari be calculated as it xill equal d(&. the kva drawn by thc motor caii be calculated. The equivalent motor-starting kra a t rated generator voltage wili equal the actual kva drawn by the motor multiplied by ..19) where Z. + zw XS)* voltage a t generator _ terminals _ X initial ~ motor voltage initiai generator voltage (4. h’ext consider the case ivhere generator voltage drop as well as the voltage drop through static circuit elemeiits must be considered..20) Haviiig dctermiiied the voltage a t the generator termiiials. (4. rated geiierator voltage ) (4. are as previously defined Ra = resistance of circuit betweeii motor starter and geiierator terminals X.22) pear if generator voltage drop had already occurred Having the voltage a t the motor starter.39 aiid 4. + n.initialgeiieratorvoltage . for motor-starting kva a t rated generator voltage may be used for the first estimate and the correspoiiding value of generator voltage determiiied. + K s ) ? + (XI. The formula gireri above. the voltage a t the gerierator terminais may be determined from the curves of Figs. 4. Eq.. (x. the voltage drop may be determined by trial aiid error.“ + xsjz x(. R .21) If currents t o other loads (of constant-current type) are floniiig through the circuit elements mhen the motor is started. CALCULATION OF DROPS Effect of Generators.)z + Z I. From this the voltage at the motor starter may I i c calculated. If there is no initial current flowing through the circuit elemeiits mhen the motor is started. It is equal t o /initial voltage at motor\ starter which mould apz >< (4.. and X . = reactaiice of circuit betmeeii motor starter aiid geiierator termina Is The pomer factor of the current drawn from the generator will equal (4. VARIATIONS.19j. .

4.itig p o m r fartor bet.arter.23) If there is a transformer between the generator arid the motor.50 0.or.e values of starting power factor for typiral squirrel-rage induction motors are given in Fig. Synchronous motors for rrntrifugal pump drive.001 5 K) I I5 I 20 I 30 40 50 75 1 0 0 HORSEPOWER RATING I l l I I 150 M o 1 1 300 I 500 I 700 1000 I I FIG.20 aiid 0.I0 0.35.15 and 0. Approximat.47 Approximate 3tor:ing power factor of typical squirrel-cage induction motors.60 power fartor ((WS 8. With a reactor st. but the magnetizing current of the autotransformer makes the power factor of the current drawn from the line slightly less t.wo or more transformers in series. Motor-starting Power Foctor.). . a value should be ohtailled from the motor manufacturer. The starting power factor of squirrel-cage induction and synchronous motors varies over a rather wide range. depending upon the rating and desigii characteristics. a serond estimate based on the calculated value can be made and the calculatioiis repeated until a close rherk is obtained.or starter should be multiplied by the no-load volt. With reduced voltage starting.V O L T A G L S T A N D A R O RATINGS.70 50.20 = w O. With t. the p o m r factor of the rurreut drawl from the line may be somewhat different from the motor-starting power factor. the power factor " 0 power factor must be kuo\vn more acrurately. If the calculated mot. gcrterator ~~ ~ ~ (4.orst.han the motor-starting p o w r factor. CALCULATION OF DROPS 271 (Rated generator voltage)z Actual voltage at motor starter x actual voltage at. Where motor-start.40 A = B 0. Low-speed (450 rpm aiid below) synchronous motors for reriprovatirrg compressor drive usually have a start..ween 0. use as a multiplier the product of their no-load voltage transformation ratios.47. on the other hand.agc trausformation ratio (primary voltage ratiiig divided by secondary voltage rating) of the transformer before suhstitutiiig it in the above formula. 4.40. the vollagc a t the mot. VARIATIONS.M 0.arting kva a t rated generator vokage differs appreriably from the first estimate. have starting power fartors generally between 0.. An autotransformer starter has oiily a small effect on the porver fact. Use of the preceding formulas requires a knoivledge of the motor-start.

atioii at 1ow geiicrator speeds.he rotor frequeiicy is redured.he samp iray as t. 1 1 1 siicli cases. oii the other haiid.rcase t.or t o íi3 pcr cciit of ratcd motor voltagr.rd oiily to t h r samr rxtriit as the frrqiieiivy. i i i i iiidcpciideiit drive for the exeiter must he proridcd as direetcoiiiiectcd (ir I>rltrd exriters uill iiot provide suficieiit excit. Motor torqiie aiid wrrriit varg irith rediiiiiig frequeiivy i i i t. riirri. t.30)*] = 0. t h e schemc may be quite advaiitagrous.freqiiriiries the effertive liiir resistarire is grcatly iiirrrast:d so that RII this iortliic is iiot rcalizcd.he system frequeiicy is rcduccd to a Ioiv valiic i i i ordcr to iiirrcasc t.hc geiicrator exvitatioii is maiiitaiiied at tlie same valiie as heforr. at 10 pcr i c i i t frcqiiciicy. iisiially M o \ \ .lic toripie a\-nilat>lefor startiiig aiid aweleratiiig tlie motor.»r starter. ivhich is difficult for some typcs of geiirrator ilrives. Severtheless.785 REDUCED-FREQUENCY STARTING Ociasioiially i i i ordcr to start a largc motor.30 is providrd with a resistor starter dcsigtied t o reduce the voltage applied t o the mot.50 per w i i t frequeiii. h t ttirse lon. IItari: tlir torqiie is griierally highcr aiid the ciirreiit loi\-er thaii at standstill. t.he scheme will eITrctively iii(. t. Loivcriiig tho system freqiieiiry may adversely affwt other equipmeiit coiiiiected to tlie systrm. . 3 . H o w v e r .age ratio (motor volt. results i i i a power fartor for t h r riirreiit drawii from the liiie equal t o To illiistrate.age is l o w r . liiit i i i thc iisual applicatioii of tlic schcmc. T o ohtaiii miich improvemriit thí! frequciicy must be redured t o a \-cry Iow valiie.hc ratio of tlie motor torquc to thc motix-startiiig ciirreiit. t h r svhrme is usually applicahle only for a generator supplyiiig a siiiglr motor ivheir excitatioii is supplicd by ai1 excitcr driven by a sepaiate steam tiirhiiic or aii eqiially iritiepeiidciit excitation source. Thc p o w r factor of t h r (wrrriit drawii hy tliis motor-start. .íi5)2 X [1--(0. thc applied voltage is rrdiii. assume t h a t a motor Iiaviiig a startiiig poirer factor of 0.272 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS. thcre are scvcral disadvaiitages which usually makr it impractical: i .iit dmwi from t h r liiie \ri11 eqiial the motor-startiiig power f w t o r miiltiplird Iiy thi: volt. combiiiatioii \vil1 iie ~~ -\/I- ~(0.age divided hy liiie voltage) of t h r startcr. At rcduced frcqiiciicy the applied volt. Coriscquciitly.hey do with iiirrrasiiig spwd. the torqiie delivered and the wrreiii d r a w i \vil1 iic approsimatcly thc same as at 90 prr r r n t speed.y. sitiw i i i either rase t. that is. VARIATIONS. C:«iiseqiieiitly. CALCULATION OF DROPS of thc.i rc:sist.

VARIATIONS.48) Generators: Two identical turbine-driven generators. 4.8 power factor Voltage rating = 2200 volts Full-voltage starting kva = 500 per cent Full-voltage starting torque = 65 per cent Initial conditions: Initial voltages At generator bus = 6700 volts (regulator setting) I rrT" LINE TRANYORMER BANK FIG. 0. CALCULATION OF DROPS EXAMPLE OF CALCULATION 273 O F VOLTAGE DROP DUE T O M O T O R STARTING ' Data (see Fig. 4.48 Circuit diagrcm of power supply to motor.VOLTAG~STANDARD RATINGS. 4/0 Awg Transformer hank: Output rating = 2000 kva (three-phase) Transformer voltage rating = 6600-2400 volts Motor starter: Autotransformer type Tap = 65 per cent Motor: Synchronous motor Output rating = 1000 hp Full load input = 1000 kva.000 kva Voltage rating = 6900 volts Voltage-regulator setting = 6700 volts Overhead line: 3-ft equivalent delta spacing Length = 5000 f t Conductor size = KO. 3600 rpm Total output rating = 10. MOTOR .

4/0 line.292 (6700)* (initial volts)* ~ ( ) ' . Voltage a t end of line (neglecting generator voltage drop) is 100 . it is 93 per cent of the initial secondary voltage.5 per cent. CALCULATION OF DROPS At transformer primary = 6700 volts At transformer secondary = 2440 volts Initial loads At generator bus = 5000 kva (50 per cent of generator rating) of constant-current type No initial load on overhead line or on transformer Requirements : Minimum allowable voltage a t generator bus = 90 per cent of initial voltage Motor starting torque must be at least 25 per cent Voltage calculations: Starting kva drawn with rated motor voltage a t autotransformer starter = full-voltage starting kva X multiplier from Table 4.46.= 2620 X 5000 . 4.292.3. for M = 1.274 VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS.13 = 5 X 1000 X 0.46 = 2300 kva Kva applied to transformer a t rated secondary voltage = = starting kva a t 2200 volts X 2300 X rated secondary voltage 2200 (2200) 2400 = 2735 kva = 137 per cent of bank rating Transformer secondary voltage (neglecting primary voltage drop) is obtained from Fig. drop in line is 0.44. Since M = 0. Kva applied to generator a t rated generator voltage voltage a t end of line = starting kva a t rated generator voltage X initial line voltage . Kva applied to transmission line a t initial voltage secondary voltage of transformer = starting kva a t initial voltage X initial secondary voltage = 2300 X Loading factor = kva applied a t initial voltage length in feet . 3-ft spacing. voltage drop is 11.5 = 3.36 per cent.0.292 X 11. 4 ~~. VARIATIONS.64 per cent of initial voltage (6700 volts).93 = 2620 kva From Fig.36 = 96. 4. For banks rated 15 kv and below and a starting kva of 137 per cent. X 0.

or 6200 volts.925 X 0.9 per cent starting kva and K = 1. The minimum voltage a t the motor starter is equal to the initial voltage a t the motor starter multiplied by secondary voltage of transformer Minimum generator volts Initial generator volts initial secondary voltage voltage a t end of transmission line initial voltage a t end of line = 2440 X 0.5 per cent The minimum voltage a t the generator bus (92.93 X 0.0573 ohm per 1000 f t 0.9 per cent of generator rating From Fig.93 X 0.9.42. for 26. From Fig.40. restored generator voltage for 26.00 X 0.65)' = 27.961 = 2200 volts ) ( ( Since the restored voltage is equal to rated motor voltage.9664 X 0. minimum generator voltage. CALCULATION OF DROPS 275 (i transformer n i t i a l secondary secondary voltage voltage X 0. From Fig.966 = 2030 volts ) ( ( The restored voltage a t the motor starter is equal t o the initial voltage at the motor starter multiplied hy secondary voltage of transformer Restored generator volts initial secondary voltage Initial generator volts voltage a t end of transmission line initial voltage a t end of line = 2440 X 1. performance factor K for a 5000-kva 3600-rpm generator a t 50 per cent initial load is 1. I t will be assumed that Motor-starting power factor Transformer resistance Transformer reactance Transmission-line resistance = = = = = 30 per cent 0.5 per cent of initial value) and the motor starting torque (27.VOLTAGLSTANDARD RATINGS. Next the formulas for calculating voltage drop will be used to solve this problem.93 = ) = 2300 X ( 6900 X 22002400) m o i = 2690 kva 26.9.5 per cent of the initial voltage (6700 volts). 4.39. VARIATIONS. 4.9 per cent motorstarting kva and 50 per cent initial load is equal to the initial voltage or 6700 volts.287 ohm total .5 per cent) both meet the requirements.7 per cent 5 per cent 0. 4. the starting torque on the 65 per cent autotransformer tap = 65 X (0. is 92.

5' = Z .287 X 0. VARIATIONS. w cos BM = 0.0380 The total resistance and reactance between the motor starter and the generator will be Rs = 0.0380 = 0.06275 0.954 The resistance and reactance of the transformer vill equal the per cent values multiplied by Motor-st.06275 = = 0.0096 Transformer reactance = 5 X 0.7 X 0.0685 0.0137 = 0.605 ohm total The per-unit system will be used n. the motor constants are z .121 ohm per 1000 f t 0.0685 The resist.0096 0.0276 X s = 0.arting kva a t rated motor voltage Kva rating of transformer secondary voltage rating of transformer rated motor voltage Transformer resistance = 0.06275 (4. On this basis.0137 = 0.16) 0.605 X 0.1065 + + The equivalent motor-starting kva at rated generator voltage = starting kva drawn by motor if voltage at motor starter were maintained at the initial value . CALCULATION O F DROPS Transmission-line reactance = = 0.ance and reactance of the transmission line will equal the ohmic values multiplied by Motor-starting kva a t rated motor voltage rated motor Primary voltage rating of transformer volts x 1000 1000 Secondary voltage rating of transformer 2300 1000 Line resistance = = = 0.0180 = 0.0180 0.3 B M = 72.276 VOLTAGE-STANDARD RATINGS.u = = 0.= 1 cos On/ R.ith base kva equal to the motorstarting kva a t rated motor voltage (2300 kva) and base voltage equal to rated motor voltage (2200 volts).3 X M = Z M sin Bar 0.

generator voltage d(~. + Xs)* ~~ 2200 (rated generator voltage initial generator voltage 1 X d ( 0 . The voltage at the motor starter will equal the voltage at the geuerator multiplied by initial motor voltage zw x ( .-STANDARD RATINGS.s .3 z o0.328 2200 volt. + ~ xS)2 - d(0.+ &)2 = z Y 2300 X 2440 (-) + (X.he restored voltage i d = 2030 volts he = F700 X 0. CALCULATION OF DROPS 277 X d ( R .)z + ( x . + n.VOLTAGE.he minimum voltage at the motor starter will he 6200 X 0:328 and t.1065)* X ' 1 ~ = (4..19) This is substantially the same as previously determined.954 + 0. the minimum voltage will be 6200 volts a i d the restored voltage. .21) Thus t. VARIATIONS.0276)* (0.328 6700 + 0. 6700 volts.1065)' + + + x (o)* = 2700 kva (4.954 0. 3 0. so the generator voltage drop will h r essentially the same..initial . .276)' + (0. that is.

Throughout this section. or 58 per cent of the line-to-line value. operating overvoltages should he curbed in so far as is reasonably possible. (3) increased resistance to the flow of heat from the currentcarrying conductors. In the case of direct current or single-phase alternating current. the application engineer has at his command many system design principles which will greatly curb the magnitude of overvoltages. Electric systems are subject to disturbances of many types which unavoidably produce overvoltages. the electric potential is varying substantially as a sine wave. Under ideal conditions the line-to-ground voltage stress mill he less than the line-to-line operating voltage. hence a-c systems deserve more careful consideration of the overvoltage problem. In the case of a-c systems. H. The application of additional insulation to accept higher overvoltage levels entails several rather obvious disadvantages: (1) increased cost. It is important to note that a-c systems are subject to many types of overvoltages not to be found in d-c systems. Insulation will fail upon repeated or prolonged application of a given voltage stress which is 278 . ( 2 ) increased size and weight. To make the most economical use of insulation. However. The crest potential will be 41 per cent greater than the rms value. this ideal line-to-ground voltage would he E L L / 2 . In the case of three-phase a-c systems. this ideal line-to-ground voltage would be E L L / f i . Halberg Sys tern Overvoltages-Causes and Protective Measures Electric insulation in energized systems is continuously under stress. or 50 per cent of the line-to-line value. Kaufmann and Maynord N. Electric insulation exhibits the effect of fatigue.Chafiter 5 by R. overvoltages will he expressed as multiples of the ideal balanced voltage stress in three-phase systems.

‘Treatment of t. Forced-current zero-current interruptiou 7. I1esouani. I n addition to grounding the elect.harge is communicated t o electric system conductors by stat.icmeans which may in turn be communicated t o electric system conductors if electric enclosing frames arc improperly grounded. it is important that electric machiue frames arid all metallic enclosures which contain electric circuit conductors be effectively grounded (see Chap.liis chapter the mechanism by which the more prominent overvolt. Moving belts rutiiiing on iioiimet. Even a rather high-resistance ground i~iiincrtionon the electric system n d l discharge these stat. Static 2 .ir means is extremely low. PHYSICAL CONTACT WITH A HIGHER VOLTAGE SYSTEM If the conductors of a high-voltage electrical circuit come in contact with those of a lower voltage circuit.ic currents t o ground as fast as they are rereived with negligible overvoltages.allic pulleys can also develop high voltages by st. OVERVOLTAGE SOURCES There are many varied sources of overvoltages of sufficient magnitude to be damaging t o the insulation of a-c industrial power distributioii systems.ermittent short circuits 5 . 111 t. One may conclude that a reduct. 7). then the same potential will exist on .ion in either the magnitude or duration of overvoltage stress will in general result in longer useful life.ric service system. The rate a t wtrirh electric i.y.e effects ill series inductive-capacitive circuits 4. Lightiiitig Of these.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 279 far below the single-impulse \vit. I n Physical contact nith a higher voltage system 3. Repetitive int. SIT-itrhing surges ( i .hstaiid abilit. Autotransformer connections 8. most are the result of effevtsdirectly within the electric system itself. STATIC Wind-blown sand or dust can become highly charged and impart relatively high voltage to exposed overhead electric conductors. lightning (a vicious source of overvokage) is communicated to the electrical system from nature’s powerhouse in the heavens above.ages are created v i l l be described and preventative measures suggested.he following will be included: I .

and a few cases are known where failure has occurred between primary and secondary inside a transformcr. but substantial clearances reduce Lhe danger of accidental contact t o a minimum. If Lhe low-voltage circuit does not have its neutral grounded. its potential will be increased t o t h a t of the high-voltage system or flashover mil1 occur. 5. b u t a much lower voltage will appear than with an isolated neutral system.280 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASIJRES both circuits at the point of contact. Figure 5. high values of current may flow from the high-voltage system. UNINTENTIONAL CONNECTION 7 PHYSICbL CONNECTIONS P .--' I I \:ol. If Lhe low-voltage system is anchored close t o ground potential as hy Lhe use of a solidly grounded neutral. I I 2 I 3LI 1 ' . In some cases overhead circuits have both primary and secondary on the same pole. It can be responsible for dangerous overvoltages on ungrounded low-voltage systems. / N O R M b L POSITION O F 4 8 0 V VOLTAGE TRIbNGLE C xq I Eb= 2 4 0 0 V L. The most effective protection against that type of overvoltage is grounding of Lhe lowvoltage system mith the grounding impedance made low enough t o accept Lhe maxirnum line-to-ground fault current of the high-voltage system without biasing the neutral of the low-voltage system by a dangerous amount. \ . . Occasional cross-ups have occurred between primary and secondary on overhead circuits.1 Overvollage on 480-volt ungrounded ryrtem rerulting from contcxt with a higher roltoge ryrtem. \ e 0 b RESULTING VECTOR VOLTbGE DIbGRbM FIG.1 illustrates this type of fault connection. Accidental cootacts hetmeen primary and secondary voltages on industrial systems are guarded against by the use of metal enelosures and metal barriers which separate conductor systems of different operating potentials..

5 . 2 . The potential t o ground on the remaining two phase conductors will be increased t o full line-to-line value at the time the first . 5.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 281 RESONANT EFFECTS I N SERIES INDUCTIVE-CAPACITIVE CIRCUITS (LIMITED TO A-C SYSTEMS) Ungrounded-neutral a-o systems are most commonly subject t o overvoltages originatiiig from this cause.2.oiinection with ground has purposely been made.aot t o recognize that ungrouiided-iieutral systems are actually capavitively roupled t o ground rather than truly divorred from ground.c % EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT REFERRED TO A PHASE CONDUCTOR FIG. 5. 'S A PHASE GENERATOR OR TRANSFORMER 3. A I .aiice t o ground which constitutes an inherent caparitive impedance interconnection tietween the elertrir system conductors and ground. It is import. as indicated in the lower sketrh of Fig. but every element of the electric system incorporates some capacit. The potential on the phase to which the impedance is connected progressively diminishes from normal value t o zero. I t becomes evident that the connection of any value of either resistance or raparitanrc tietween one line and ground produres no dairgerous overvoltages.PHASE ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS xs " A " * " A PHASE Eg -E'. Every ungrounded elertric system contains the essential elements presented i n the upper diagram of Fig. The electrical behavior of any one phase conductor relative t o ground rail be determined by a much simpler equivalent rirruit. They are ungrounded in the sense that no 5.2 Elemental composition of an ungrounded system In terms of this simpler equivalent circuit it will be possible t o understand readily the effect of connecting different types of impedance hetween line and ground as shown in Fig.3.

282 6 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 5 I I . 5. The connection of an inductive reactance between line and ground. however. A grounding resistor of about the same ohmic value as the total charging . The unintentional connection of an inductive reactance between a phase conductor and ground can occur in a number of ways. falls in the danger region indicated on Fig. 0 0 2 3 4 R4TlO OF ZF TO X C O . i I FIG. This represents an overvoltage of only 73 per cent. which becomes connected from phase to ground. which is not dangerously high and will normally produce no ill effect unless continued for a long time. that over a two-to-one range of reactance. The operating magnetic coil of a motorstarter contactor may be inadvertently connected between phase and ground by a ground short circuit in the control wire to the push-hutton station or the slip of a maintenance man's screwdriver. It is significant to note. can be responsible for the production of serious overvoltages to ground. overvoltages of three times normal or more would be produced. ~ S 6 phase conductor has been reduced to zero potential. some of which are illustrated in Fig. on the other band. The highest overvoltage will occur when these two reactances are equal. 5. dangerous overvoltages to ground will be produced which are communirated over the entire metallic conductor system of that operating voltage.3 Overvoltages on ungrounded systems result from a high-inductive-reactonce connection between line and ground. Any time that the inductive-reactance value.3. Y " 4 J LL z 4 3 " Y 7 E c ' 2 . It is the ratio of the inductive reactance of the lineto-ground circuit to the total capacitive reactance of the system to ground which controls the degree of overvoltage. and a t this point they may be as much as ten times normal.4. Overvoltages originating from this canse can be completely suppressed by a relatively light-resistance ground on the electric system neutral. 5.


A comINDICATOR OR ZERO SEQUENCE VOLTAGE plete descriptionof thisphenomenon need not be taken UNGROUNDED NEUTRAL SYSTEM u p here as it has been adequately treated in an AIEE technical paper (see reference3). Thesesystemvoltage oscillations will not occur if the electric system U neutral is grounded. .5 Grounded-Y brokendelta potential transformers for ground indicator or zero-sequence voltage detector.284 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES r Tz.L I N E RATED VOLTAGE 2 APPLY A SECONDARY LOADING RESISTOR WITH A RESISTANCE NOT GREATER THAN 4 0 PERCENT OF THE TRANSFORMER MAGNETIZING REACTANCE.T O . The application of grounded-Y potential transformers on ungrounded systems with a Y or broken-delta secondary connection can be responsible for damaging overvoltages as a result of resonant or ferroresonant action since the magnetizing reartance of the pot. Under such conditions the effective reactance of t.imes the capacitive reactance to ground. T3. 5.hcr reasons (see Chap.he inductive circuit can become much lower than the unsaturated reactance. The maximum voltage so developed may not be so high as would be produced by a linear reactor but.BROKEN DELTA POTENTIAL TRANSFORMEIS FOR GROUND ductors t o ground.hat there is good reason t o adopt electric system neutral grounding with a much lower value of grounding resistance for ot. Freedom from this particular type of voltage oscillation TO INSTRUMENTS can be obtained even with R ungrounded-neutral operation byusingpotential transTO INSURE FREEDOM FROM UNWANTED LINE-TOformers with a line-to-line GROUND VOLTAGE OSCILLATIONS : FIG.THE LOADING RESISTANCE CAN BE APPLIED TO EACH SECONDARY BUT WILL THEN CDNSUME POWER AND LIBERATE HEAT CONTlNUOUSLY I SELECT P T s TI. If this reartance incorporates a n iron core which during the mode of operation being considered should encounter magnetic saturation.hat the inductive reactance is linear. the performance will be somewhat different. It will be evident t. may still be in excess of two or three times normal. This character of operation has been named ferroresonance. 6). capacitive reactance t o ground is sufficient t o eliminate overvoltages almost completely. Substantial overvoltages may result by ferroresonance when the unsaturated reactance is many t. NOTE.ential transformers becomes connected from phase conGROUNDED WYE. Figure 5. W I T H THE L I N E .3 has been computed on the basis t. and the voltage will tend t o oscillate automatically betveen vokage limits which cause the effective inductive reactance to match the capacitive-reactance value.

.o grouiid would geiierally be expeeted to be high. 5.otal system eapacitiye impedaiice t.he series raparitor and the weldiiig transformer primary v i l 1 he severa1 t.ioii of ground poteiitial will teiid t o become t. . o 48OV 3-PH 6 0 C Y siiomm~u TO~GROUND NORMAL POSITION OF IP UOLTME TRIANGLE. 5.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 285 voltage ratiiig and the applirat. Series-capacitor melders are occasionally applied. particularly in the case of large-sim machiiies because of their ability t o reduce the kva demaiid aiid improre the operating poiver fartor t o substantially unity. it will be evideiit that the poteiitial of the A-phase roiiductor may be elerated to ahout 2000 volts to grouiid. PHVSlCbL CONNECTDNS .6 Overvoltager on ungrounded syrtemr os a rerult ot o ground contact on a ieriei capocitor welding mochine. aiid thus offers practically no opposition t o this shift in the loration of ground potential. /' b RESULTING VECTOR VOLTbGE OIAGRPH FIG.iori of shuiiting resistors on the secondary windings as is outliried iii Fig. Duriiig welder operation the voltage arross hoth t. As iii the other cases.hat of this juiictioii poiiit iiistead of the center of the a-r system voltage triangle. relatire to that of the welder series rapacitor. 5. .G. which is about seveii times iiormal. The physical electrir roiiiieitioiis aiid the associated vector voltage relationships are iiidicated iii Fig. AI1 these resonant inductive-caparitive overvoltage hazards can be elimiiiated by electric system neutra1 groundiiig.íi. The t.5. this overvoltage is commuiiicated to a 1 1 equipmeiit metallically iiiterroniierted a t this commoii operatiiig voltage. the lorat. P ) . 5. ?--. Iii the case illustrated iii Fig. Should a fault t o grouiid occur at the juiiction hetveeii the series capacitor aiid the weldiiig transformer (poiiit. the series-raparitor welder preseiits a definite voltage hazard to aii uiigrouiided-iieutral a-c supply system.imes the rated line-to-liiie voltage. However.

The intermittent character of the short-circuit path may be the result of vibration which causes an electrical conductor to make contact intermittently with ground. the A-phase voltage is at its maximum value at which instant the charging current to ground (90' ahead of the voltage) is passing through zero. In the last case involving a fixed separation between conductor and ground. Intermittent ground-fault conditions on lom-voltage ungroundedneutral systems have been observed to create overvoltages of five or six times normal quite commonly. the potential of the neutral (relative to ground) would tend to . Line-to-ground potentials in excess of 1200 volts were measured on a test voltmeter. Electric systems which are grounded through reactanre of too high an ohmic value ( X a more than ten times XI) are also subject to overvoltage by this same mechanism acting in a little different form. About two hours elapsed while the source was being located. The voltage vectors E. or as a result of successive breakdown and seal off of the separating space between conductor and ground. the system voltage triangle mould become displaced as illustrated in B . The source of trouble mas finally traced to an intermittent ground fault in a motor-starting autotransformer. I n other words. 5. and E. At the phase position illustrated in B . the arc current would become extinguished at this point. An unusual case involved a 480-volt ungrounded system. a progressively increasing breakdown voltage across this gap is an essential element in the build-up of severe overvoltages. the result of scattering particles of molten conductor metal which intermittently establishes a conducting path to ground. In case the short circuit contains a small gap or an arc. Eb. I n Fig. Should the A-phase conductor become grounded..7 at A is shown the vector voltage pattern of a three-phase a-c system as it would operate under normal balanced conditions.186 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES INTERMITTENT GROUND FAULTS Substantial overvoltages can he developed in ungrounded a-c industrial systems by sputtering or intermittent ground-faulting connertions. rotate about the neutral at synchronous speed. The electric neutral is a point of central symmetry and remains constant at ground potential if the individual phase voltages are pure fundamental-frequency sine waves. during 13 hich time between 40 and 50 motors broke down. Note that the trapped charge on the line-to-ground capacitance will tend to maintain the voltage triangle in the same displaced position. An understanding of the manner in which a discontinuous electric connection can he responsible for the generation of overvoltages can he most easily acquired by examining the case of a sputtering or intermittent line-to-ground fault on an ungrounded-neutral system.

+ $ CYCLE --tC $ CYCLE €0 NORMAL A B C D Overvoltages on ungrounded systems due to repetitive momentary contact between one line and ground. This value of line-to-ground potential of the A phase may he sufficient to break down the gap in the ground-fault circuit arid reestablish the corinection between the A phase and ground. Kote that during this one-half cycle time interval. If so. however.ed voltages will reverse their polarities (vectors rotate 180°).which would cause the threephase vector voltage pattern to assume the position shown in the upper part of C . FIG. the A-phase potential will tend to be suddenly yanked to ground potential. leaving the A-phase conductor at ground potential.7 . Iuevitably there will be some system reactance in the A-phase conductor to the ground shortcircuit point which would result in an oscillation of the A-phase-conductor potential between plus 2 and minus 2 at a frequency probably 20 to 100 times normal. this oscillation would decay to zero. Xote that associated with this high-frequency transiEi"' Y-4 E . If the short circuit consisted of a solid metallic connection. 5.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 287 remain at a d-c potential equal to the crest value of the a-c voltage wave. the a-c generat. the potential of the A phase has progressively inrreased from zero value to about twice the normal line-to-neutral crest voltage relative to ground potential. During the next half cycle. All this merely says that there will be little tendency for any voltage to reappear across the gap in the short circuit immediately following the current zero which occurs at B .

There is reason t o believe that damaging overvoltages of repetitive restrike origin are far more common on ungrounded-neutral systems than mould a t first he suspected. Under these conditions a line-to-ground potential of five times normal has been developed in less than two cycles. In the course of the next following half cycle.he restrike may occur before the maximum recovery voltage has been reached. It is also known that a solid metallic ground connectioo on one phase may exist for subshntial intervals of time without producing multiple breakdowns in equipment. it will be noted that all conditions have been most favorable to the creation of the highest possible restrike voltages in the shortest possible time. voltage measurements on actual systems indicate that voltage levels of five t o six times normal are rarely exceeded.he source was being located. an opportunity is afforded for the gap in the ground short circuit t o rerlear. I n practical cases. Thus.-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES tory oscillation will he a corresponding trarisitory charging current t o ground. I n this explanation of the mechanism. which in the presence of a solid metallic connection would gradually decay t o zero. A farmore common occurrenre is one in which several pieces of electric equipment on the system suffer electrical breakdown apparently simultaneously and one or more of the fault conditions were known or believed to involve ground. the voltage vector system will again rotate 180°. . These multiple failures are commonly associated with ungrounded-neutral system operation. The case which was mentioned in an earlier paragraph is unusual in t. will again reach zero value when the system voltage swing is at the maximum excursion i n the negative direction. as showri in the lower part of C . t.hat the obnoxious restriking conditions persisted for a long interval of time while t. or restrike current. This increased voltage across the short-circuit gap may again result in restrike. Likewise it has been assumed that a reclear occurs at the first current zero after restrike. in which case the voltage triangle would tend t o be thrown in the positive direction in the form of a high-frequency oscillation between poteutial limits of minus 4 and plus 4. This transitory charging current t o ground. While in theory it might he possible progressively t o increase the line-to-ground voltage by successive restrike without limit if the dielectric strength progressively increases. causing the potential of the A-phase conductor to ground t o he elevated from minus 2 to minus 4 as indicated by the transition from the lower part of C to the lower part of D. The restrike has been assumed t o occur at the time the maximum recovery voltage was reached but not before. I f reclearing does occur. and several cycles of the transitory oscillation may take place before the short cirruit reclears. a charge is again trapped on the system rapacitance t o ground which would tend t o maintain a constant d-c potential t o ground on the system neutral.288 SYSTEM 0VERVOLTAGES.

If this grounding reactanre value is exceeded. Voltage of normal frequency gradually reappears as the free oscillation in the zero-sequence circuit decays.ervoltages of repetitive-restrike or intermittentground origin can be entirely eliminated by effective system neutral grounding (see Chap. 5. I n general. Thus as the potential of the n-phase conductor with respect t o the neutral due to the generat. opportunity is given for another type of repetitive restrike action which can result in overvoltages t o ground. Resistance grounding with a resistance ground fault of any value upward of the line-to-ground charging current mill be effective. Thus.ed voltage in the supply system alternates from minus 1 t o plus 1.7. the freedom from restrike is due t o the long-delayed reappearance of voltage across the line-to-ground circuit. For various other reasons it mill he evident that higher values of available ground-fault current will he desirable. It will be important t o recognize that normal a-c switching interrupters offer very little opposition t o the flow of circuit current during the course of current flow but do act t o build up dielectric strength rapidly during a . Following a ground-fault cnrrent shutoff point as at B in Fig. This is due t o the fact that the reactance value is carefully selected so that the oscillating circuit formed hetmeen it and the system-to-ground capacitance will oscillate a t normal line frequency. the potential of the electric system neutral with respect t o ground would oscillate between plus and minus 1 at fundamental frequency as controlled by the tuned grounding reactor and system capacitance t o ground. Distribution-system ox. . SWITCHING SURGES Circuit switching operations constitute abrupt changes in circuit parameters and can be responsible for the creation of overvoltages although generally of short duration and not in excess of two to three times normal. the free oscillation of the zero-sequence circuit remains in step with it. with the net result that the potential of the A-phase conductor tends t o remain at ground potential.SYSTEM GV'ERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 289 although it does produce 73 per cent overvoltage on two of the phase conductors. It therefore seems reasonable to assume that the multiple failures result from the appearance of overvoltages considerably in excess of 173 per cent normal. The ground-fault neutralizer (Petersen coil) represents one special case of high-reactance grounding which is free of overvoltages by repetitive restrike action. 6). it is important to keep the reactance of the grounding circuit sufficiently low so that the ratio of X o is no more than ten times X . If reactance grounding is contemplated (it rarely finds application in industrial systems). some 15 or 20 cycles will elapse before the potential of the previously shorted phase increases t o three-quarters of normal value.

in Fig. Interruption takes place at a normal current zero.290 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES. 5. at which time the stored magnetic energy is zero.-.8. OVERVOLTAGE IN CLEARING A LINE. 5.LINE CIRCUIT FAULT SHORT CIRCUIT . . as indicated in the vector diagram. A quaiitative understanding of the mechanism whereby such overvoltages are generated will be useful. \ . a line-to-line short-circuit condition between phases A and B is illustrated. the potential of a' and b' must be common and will lie midway between potentials e.___- MAX e.'DR IF CURRENT INTERRUPTION OCCURS AT THIS CURRENT ZER? THE POTENTIAL OF POINTS 0 AND b WILL TEND m SNAP BACK TO ea AND Ob RESPECTIVELY BUT DUE TO PRESENCE OF L AND C I T WlLL TAYE THE FORM OF h TRINSITORI OSCILLATION W l C H WlLL OVERSHOOT END POINT eb'' 113 PERCENT OR 73 PERCENT OVERMLTAGE FIG.8 Overvoltages due to interruption of ( I line-to-line short circuit at current zero. and ea. which affords an opportunity for the circuit breaker to make an interruption if the contacts have parted. . With the circuit breaker still closed.' = eb' (VOLTAGE mob AT MAX VALUE1 ' " .CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES normal current zero and prevent reestablishing current flow during the following half cycle. while that of point b' tends to return to eb. . the potential of a' tends to return to e. With the vector relationships shown in the figure. As a result of this action it is unnecessary that the stored magnetic energy in the inductance of the circuit be disposed of during interruption. . Of first consideration is the amount of voltage change which would tend to appear across the switching contacts if they were switched open. the current in the faulted circuit will be going through zero. For example. If current flow is interrupted at this current zero.TO. " VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP WITH SHORTCIRCUITON AT THE T I M E OF A CURRENT ZERO IN THE SHORT CIRCUIT CIRCUIT e.

As a result of the higher power factor of the short circuit. the potential of point b' would transitorily swing t o a value of 1. . In this illustrative example. this causes the potential of points a' and b' to overshoot their final value by about a n equal amount. BUT OUE TO MAX TRANSLTORI VOLTAGES-MOTOR TERMINALS TO GROUND TERMINAL B .73 times normal crest value in the negative direction.C A U S E S A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES 291 There will inevitably be inductive capacitive constants which cause this return to take the form of an oscillation of relatively high frequency.SYSTEM O V E R V O L T A G E S .325 PERCENT'1225 PERCENT OVERVOLTAGE1 FIG. CBPOLENOI ISTHE FIRST TO CLOSE MOTOR TERMINAL B W I L L TEND TO ABRUPTLY JUMP TO e .73 times normal crest voltage in the positive direction while that of the point a' would make a corresponding swing to 1. c.9. Circuit breakers which introduce substantial resistance drop during current flow tend to reduce the magnitude of switching transient voltages.9 Possible switching overvoltage when motor running breaker closes lopen-cycle autotransformer start). Here illustrated is a n open-cycle autoPOSSIBLE SWITCHING OVERVOLTAGES ON CLOSING L I N E BREAKER WITH OPEN CYCLE AUTOTRANSFORMER START ASSUME0 VOLTAGE RELATlONSHlP JUST PRIOR TO CLOSING L I N E BREAKER IAUTOTRANSFORMER STARTI 4e. 5. the point at which a current zero is reached will approach more rlosely to the point at which a voltage zero would also he reached.2 5 0 PERCENT 1150 PERCENT OVERYOLTAGEI TERMINALS A 8 C . 5. Another form of switching transient which develops overvoltage primarily on the utilization machine on contact closing is illustrated in Fig. which thus lessens the magnitude of voltage that tends to appear across the contacts immediately following current zero.

Closed-cycle starting arrangements such as reactor starting or Korndoerfer autotransformer starting minimize the overvoltages which may be developed in this manner. At the . The potential of the motor terminals A and C would tend to be carried along and suffer a transitory excursion to 325 per cent voltage with respect to ground unless contacts 2 and 3 close at almost the same instant as contact 1. The main supply system on the left is considered to be operating with grounded neutral and contains a much smaller reactance than the motor circuit shown on the right.. as shown hy the dotted line. All three poles of the switching interrupter have been maintained in a closed position up to the time indicated by the vector diagram. which affords an opportunity for interruption if the contacts have parted. The elements of this case are illustrated in Fig. It has been assumed that 65 per cent voltage has been applied on the starting connection and the machine rotor brought up to near synchronous speed.10. The inevitable transitory overshoot will cause its potential to swing about an equal distance the other side of point E. During this interval it is possible that the internal generated voltage within the motor has dropped to 50 per cent of rating and has slipped back in angle so as to he 180' out of phase with respect to the supply system. in the course of pull-out operation. but the inevitable transitory overshoot would carry it on up to 250 per cent normal with respect to ground. 5. the demagnetizing reactive current which has been flaming in the motor stator windings has caused the internal generated voltage ahead of transient reactance in the motor to he depressed to 50 per cent of normal value. The motor was then disconnected from the starting tap preparatory to reconnection across full-line voltage..292 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES transformer starting arrangement. Suppose that the line-switching unit is now closed and that pole 1 is the first to make contact. One of the most severe sources of switching overvoltages is associated with the separation of two system sections which have become unsynchronized and are switched apart when the generated voltages in the two sections are nearly 180' out of phase. It has been assumed that. If the current in the A-phase conductor is interrupted at this point.. At this point. The potential of motor terminal R would tend to abruptly assume the potential e. the current in the A phase is going through zero. the potential of the motor A-phase terminal (point a2) will tend to jump to the right to its new steady-state position E. With the vector system in the position shown. which shows a synchronous motor t h a t has pulled out of step and the internal generated voltage of which is 180' out of phase with respect to the system. the potential difference appearing across each of the three line-switching contacts is one and a half times normal line-to-neutral voltage as indicated by the vector relationships.

Arc-furnare circuits can be sources of rather severe overvoltage if switched off while an arc is in progress within the furnace. The systems on both sides of the switching interrupters contain internal sourres of generated voltage which are of almost the same magrrihde and very close t o the same phase position.TRANSITORY EXCURSIONS SHOWN BY DOTTED LINES FIG... . the more usual switching operation which is involved in separating a normally operating rotating machine or composite system of rotating machines involves very little switching surge voltage. the potential of point a2 mould reach about 3% times normal crest t o ground in the positive direction. 5. . c2 .. A L L C B POLES S T I L L CLOSE0 ASSUME C B TRIPPED AND POLE I (PHASE A 1 IS THE FIRST TO INTERRUPT AT T H I S CURRENT ZERO 0 1W I L L T E N 0 TO JUMP TO e0.. ..AND e.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES 293 maximum of this transitory excursion.10 Possible overvoltager when interrupting o synchronous motor during out-of- step conditions. As the priS e .. d .... i Q p T O T H E NEW EA WITH . I n coutrast t o the examples just cited. . 5 \i. Very little change in potential tends to occur on either side of the switching device at the time interruption takes place.

Should any element in an electric circuit have the ability to develop a high potential drop during current flow. * Registwed tradr-mark of Grncral Elrrtrir Cornpang-. etc. switch. section of small wire conductor. and preventative measures take the form of shuntcapacitor applications at the transformer terminals on older uuits or internal Thyrite* shunting resistors across sections of the winding 011 iiew units. During this interval of overvoltage. As the furnace internal current diminishes. current at the breaker contacts can be forced to zero while current still continues to flow in the furnace arc. The overvoltages so developed would persist until the stored energy in the inductive elements of the circuits has been dissipated (a current zero has been forced). the potent. The term forced current zero or interruption of of current zero is used to describe an interrupting mechanism (be it a fuse. The total voltage drop across the entire section of conductor may be several times the normal operating voltage of the circuit.294 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES mary circuit-breaker contacts part. . the conductor copper tends t o separate into a loiig string of tiny globules of molten copper with a small arc between adjacent globules. While this voltage may not be high as referred to the arc-furnace anode.) that has the property of developing a large countervoltage in opposition to rurrent flow which can force current to zero value at a time quite different from the normal inherent current zero of the rircuit. the potential across the furnace arc increases in accordance with the normal inverse volt-ampere characteristic of an arc. The voltage developed at the transformer high-tension terminals may be dangerously high and sufficient to produce flashover. When the fusing point of the conductor is reached. The arc voltage progressively increases as the current dimiuishes and can result in a substantial voltage drop as the arc snaps out. stored magnetic energy is heing accumulated in all inductive elements of the circuit. Special consideration is given to arcfurnace transformers. it still may be many times normal operating voltage and will be reflected to the primary side of the transformer by the turn ratio. As current builds up in such a circuit. the magnitude of current is being diminished. A high rurrent short circuit created through a length of small wire conductors can be responsible for developing dangerous overvoltages in this manner.ial so developed would appear on connected circuit conductors. FORCED-CURRENT-ZERO INTERRUPTION The discussion of switching overvoltages so far has considered interruption only a t a normal current zero. Thus the circuit breaker accomplishes a n interruption of line current with current flow still Continuing in the secoudary circuit.

and full-srale tests are applied to prove the resulting performance t o ensure that overvoltages so developed d l be within the safe withstand value of the electric insulation of the voltage class t o which it is t o be applied. Should a system be planned which is to operate initially a t 2400 volts and later be converted t o 4160 volts with all equipment therein contaiuing insulation levels commensurate with 4100-volt operating potential. Unless suitable overvoltage suppressors are associated with such an interrupter. The overvoltages so produced may he sufficient t o sparkover the outside of the vacuum switch unless some other portion of the circuit breaks dowu a t a lower voltage. AUTOTRANSFORMER CONNECTIONS Autotransformers for interconnecting two electric systems of different insulation level should be avoided in industrial systems unless both are solidly neutral grounded. As supplied by reputable manufacturers. current-limiting fuse interrupters of a particular voltage rating should not be applied t. Applications of this sort are most . the design of the internal elements contains special features mhirh rontrol the magnitude of such overvoltages. I n other words. An unusual var'ation of autotransformer action which has been responsible for system overvoltages in a number of instances is represenled by a transformer with extended windings operating on an ungrounded-neutral system such as illustrated in Fig. Current-limiting fuses constitute an example of a forced current interrupter. i t would be sitisfactory t o employ a suitable autotransformer for interconnecting this 2400-volt system with another 4160-volt syst.em. The vacuum switch tends t o shut off current completely the instaiit that the contacts part. The common metallic interconnection between t. Overvoltages are developed during the operation of such an interrupter. high voltages will be developed if applied in inductive circuits.o nearly the same transitory voltages as would be expected on the higher voltage system.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 295 however the overvoltage will persist until the magnitude of current has been returned t o zero value. There are some exceptions. and a specific example mill serve t o illustrate the nature. 5. Because of the overvoltage problems. a 7500-volt rated currentlimiting fuse should not he applied on a 2400-volt operating system because overvoltages developed iu its operation will be dangerous t o a 2400-volt insulation level. Because of the overvoltage problem.o electric systems of lower operating voltage. the vacuum contact switch finds little applicatioii.11. They possess the property of being able t o reduce the rurrent t o zero value ahead of a normal current zero.he two systems which is formed by the autotransformer windings tends t o subject the lower voltage system t.

It is important to realize that these overvoltages would be carried to all apparatus connected to the same metallic system. If operated with system line voltage impressed across a fraction of the total winding. It is quite generally true that transformers of this a 480V W Q H 60 CY I I " PHYSICAL CONNECTIONS \ \ \ I i '"' b DIAGRAM I FIG.11 because the volts per turn developed in the winding extension will be exactly the same as the volts per turn in the excited winding.296 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N 0 PROTECTIVE MEASURES often found in test areas or developmental areas which contain multipurpose transformers with a multiplicity of taps to permit a wide variety of output voltages to be obtained. 5. the point of ground potential would tend to move away from the center of the voltage triangle to the potential of the extreme end of the winding extension resisted only by the high system-to-ground capacitance coupling. of an autotrans- RESULTING (IOLTAGE vEcmR . the presence of any extended winding would cause the potential of one phase conductor to be elevated to more than 173 per cent of normal operating potential. It will be evident that. grounding of the electric supply system neutral will cure this type of potential overvoltage also. a ground short circuit on a winding extension of a transformer in a small test area at one corner of a building might impose overvoltages on all equipment fed from the same load-center substation which might include half the productive machinery in that building. As has been true so many times before. the vector voltage at the end of the winding extension will be as illustrated in Fig. Thus. as a result of this action. A system grounding equipment which makes available a ground-fault current which is equal t o or greater than the short-circuit current resulting from short circuit of the extended winding portion of the offending transformer will keep the system line-to-ground potentials within safe bounds. 1 1 1 Overvoltage on ungrounded systems due to a ground connection on the winding former. The degree of overvoltage may be much more severe if greater amounts of winding extension are present. Should the end of the winding extension be inadvertently connected t o ground or develop a short circuit to ground.

Even though the transformer system neutral is ungrounded. a careful check should be made to ensure freedom from neutral instability. This would be equally true of Y-connected autotransformers (see reference 4). the required transformer magnetizing current to produce a fundamental frequency sine wave of voltage will contain rather prominent amounts of harmonic currents. A great many specific cases of system overvoltages have been analyzed. some fraction of the third-harmonic voltage will appear on the phase conductors. and catalogued. there will appear a third-harmonic voltage whirh may be as much as 50 per cent of the normal operating potential. Overvoltage Example. As a matter of fact. on all low-voltage-system equipment (GOO volts and less) it is the standard practice to ground the neutral solidly.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 1P7 character to be found in test areas are of relatively small physical size and do not impose restrictive requirements on the necessary system grounding equipment. Should the neutral of such a transformer system become grounded intentionally or accidentally and the supply system be ungrounded or high-resistance grounded. this third-harmonic voltage will be imparted to and appear on the system phase conductors and represent a sustained source of overvoltage. should in general be avoided or quite rarefully examined to ensure that the resulting operation will be free of damaging overvoltages. the transformers are unable to obtain a sourre of third-harmonic current or multiples thereof because these are of zero sequence. If operated with grounded neutral on an ungrounded-neutral system. Core-type three-phase transformers present a fairly low zero-sequence magnetizing reactance which would hold the zero-sequence voltage to much lower levels than shell-type three-phase transformers or banks of three single-phase transformers and are thus much less susceptible to overvoltage difficulties. mhich do not incorporate a closed-delta winding in their make-up. Space will not allow a lengthy treatment of these . it will eliminate appearance of overvoltage on the phase conductors of a system to which such a bank of transformers might be connected. While grounding the electric system neutral may not solve all the troubles of the Y-Y transformer connections. identified. In a Y-connerted transformer system energized from a three-phase supply in the absence of a deltaconnected winding. Berause of the nonlinear shape of transformer magnetizing curves. The application of three-phase transformers or three-phase banks of single-phase transformers. depending on the ratio of capacitance to ground within the transformer structure to the distributed capacitance to ground of the rest of the system. All types are well represented. as treated in reference 3. As the result of the inability to obtain a third-harmonic exciting current.


this can generally be avoided by proper shielding. and phase-to-ground overvoltages appeared on the phase conductors of the service system. The initial charge has been estimated to be as high as 1 billion volts. 5. To monitor the fuses.000 amp have been measured. However. The one here described has been selected because it discloses how obscure may be the basic overvoltage cause.12A. Although lightning may strike directly a t the terminals of outdoor electrical equipment. went off scale. A metal-products plant in the North Central section of the country had made application of a set of rotating-machine protective capacitors and arresters a t the main bus of a medium-voltage distribution system through a set of fuse cutouts. 5. potential transformer 1 overheated and melted out the compound.) PROTECTION OF POWER SYSTEMS AGAINST THE OVERVOLTAGES CAUSED BY LIGHTNING The highest overvoltages to which industrial power systems are subjected are those caused by lightning. the earth the other. Note that the series resonant circuit created by the opening of one fuse might very easily fail to be identified. System-neutral grounding is to be adopted to ensure freedom from overvoltages on the distribution system conductors. the gap shunting resistor 011 the A-phase arrester was destroyed. a cloud forming one plate.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 299 specific overvoltage cases. As a result of opening of the fuse unit in the A phase it was observed that voltmeter V . the overvoltages usually reach the equipment (both indoor and .12B is it apparent that the overvoltages result from series resonance (probably of ferroresonance character). NATURE O F THE OVERVOLTAGES A lightning stroke to earth represents the sparkover of a highly charged condenser. (Additional corrective measures are needed to ensure freedom from overvoltage trouble in the local protective equipment circuit-potential transformer and capacitor shunting arrester. as illustrat. and stroke currents as high as 200. leaving the overvoltage source to remain a mystery. it will be interesting to review one case.ed in Fig. Thus. two potential transformers and voltmeters had been applied on the load side of the fuses. and the air between the dielectric. Not until the resulting circuit is redrawn as in Fig. Limiting these overvoltages by suitable protective measures is essential if costly equipment failures and service interruptions are to be avoided.

reaching 50 per cent of the crest value in 20 t o 150 psec. These voltages appear between conductor and ground. Wave Shopes. Although the voltage surges produced hy lightning have high magnitudes.he wave front t o the time the wave reaches crest value. Lightning may produce an overvoltage on a transmission line either by a direct stroke to the line or by electrostatic induction from a stroke t o earth iri the vicinity of the line.300 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES outdoor) through exposed overhead lines which often bring power t o the plant or. surge produced hy lightning (and those produced artificially for test purposes) is customarily expressed by two numherç.TA1 L -CREST VALUE f t .13 Termr ured to dercribe voltage cind current waves. the voltage rises very rapidly (in 1 t o 10 psec) t o the maximum or “crest. is the time from the “virtual zero” of t. 5. Direct Strokes and Induced Surges.SHAPE OF VOLTAGE WAVE ti X 12 CURRENT WAVE t 3 X t e FIG.000 volts. The probable maximum voltage appearing ori a liiie by a direct stroke is 15 million volts and for an induced surge. . while the second numher is the time from the virtual zero t o the time the voltage or current has decreased t o 50 per cent of the crest value. their duration is very short. I I ZERO TIME O F CURRENT WAVE ZERO TIME O F VOLTAGE WAVE I I I I &tut 3 4 b - T i a N MICROSEMXIDS 1. The first. 5. The -WAVE-FRONT - WAVE . As illustrated in Fig.13. Typically. _ I WAVE. 500. in some cases. distribute power withiu the plant. I t is measured in microseconds (millionths of a second). the shape of a voltage or current.” value and theu decays more slowly.

The voltage surge produced on a transmission line by lightning does not appear simultaneously at all points on the line.he surge which appeared as a voltage-time wave on the line where the stroke occurred becomes two identical voltage-distance waves on the line which travel at uniform velocity in oppvsite directions from the point of origin. In most ralrulations the round number 1000 is used. The current in amperes is equal to the voltage in volts divided by the surge impedance in ohms. Furthermore. The ronstant of proportionality between the current and voltage is called t.5 X 40-psec wave is one that has a crest value of 95 kv. The surge impedanre of an overhead line varies with the size of the ronductor and its height aboveground. the current flowing in the conductor is directly proportional to the voltage from conductor to ground. A change occurs in a traveling wave when it reaches the junction between two conductors of different surge .he surge impedance Z and is equal to 4 r C ohms. a t any instant at any point on the line. but is usually between 400 and 500 ohms.roke increases. that is. instead. which is 984 ft per psec. but a typical value is 600 f t per psec. time) of the surge remain approximately the same at all points of a uniform line. Both times are usually expressed in microseconds. where I.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 301 virtual zero of a wave front is the intersection with the zero axis of a straight line drawn through the points on the front of the wave which are 30 per cent and 90 per cent of the crest value for a voltage wave and 10 per cent and 90 per cent of crest value for a current wave. The voltage waves travel along the conductor without change in magnitude or shape with a velocity equal to l / d T C fps.5 kv) in 40 psec from the time of virtual zero. i s the inductance in henrys for any unit length of the line and C is the capacitance in farads for the same unit length. a 95-kv lf. and decays to 50 per cent of crest value (47. The inductanre and caparitance of an overhead line are such that the velocity of a current or volt. Keglecting all resistances. but are simply displaced in time phase.age wave (called velocity of propagation) is equal to the velocity of light in free space. Traveling Waves. it can be shown that 1. Reflection of Traveling Waves. The propagation velority in a cable varies with its construction. 2. A current wave accompanies the voltage wave and is of exactly the same shape. where L is the inductance in henrys per foot of line and C i s the capacitance in farads per foot of line. A typical value for a cable is 30 ohms. it appears at successively later intervals of time as the distance from the point of the st. the magnitude and shape (voltage vs. rises to crest value in 134 pser from the time of virtual zero. To illustrate. 3. In effect then t.

is less than Z ..ion equivment is usually required t o withstand at least tivo different types of dielect. The original wave. if Z 2 is greater than Z. called the inrident wave. If. Since power systems are subject t o various types of overvoltage. The others are the “impulse” tests which prove that. of course. Since the overvoltages produced by lightning are surges of high magnit. equal t o zero. then E X (Z.)/(Z. without change i n polarity. For the limiting rase of Z2 equal t o zero (the line is shorted t o ground). at any instant. a “refracted” wave whirh rontinues on through the second conductor and a “reflected” wave which starts traveling hack over the first conductor.ransition point.ion of a voltage wave.ude and . for example. On the other hand.ric tests.he maximum voltage which they can successfully ivithstatid varies inversely with the duration of the voltage. the wave reflerts negatively and the refracted wave is less than the incident wave. Reflected and refracted current waves accompany the corresponding voltage waves. is the surge impedaure of the second ronductor.he direction of flow of current. an overhead line and rahle.age a t the junrtion is.he equations. if Z. gives rise to two waves at the t. usually of 1-min duration. where Z.Z. a voltage wave reflects positively at. that is. The first are the so called “lorn-frequency” (00-cyrle) tests. power distribut. the junctioo and the voltage a t the junrtion (equal to the voltage of the refracted wave) is greater than the vokage of the incident wave. ZJ is the voltage of the reflected wave.he surge impedanre ZI or Z2 of the conductor the wave is traveling oil. E is the voltage of the incident wave at the junction. A reversal of dirert.he junction is double the voltage of the inrident wave. + + INSULATION CHARACTERISTICS It is characteristic of most insulations that t. the voltage at t. that cstahlish the ahility of the insulation t o withstand moderate overvoltage of relatively long durat. namely. the simplified relations this makes possihle are useful in many practical situations. of proportionality being t. it equals E X (222)/(Z2 Zi). reverses t. some of long and some of short duration. The voltage of the refracted wave at the junrtiorr is the sum of the voltages of the incident and reflected waves. . Although neglecting all resistances represents an idealized condition.302 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES impedance. . the volt. In the limiting rase if 2%is infinite (the line is open). As indirated by t. the insulation will not break down on vokage surges of high magnitude but short duration. is the surge impedance of the first rouductor (over whirh the surge arrived) arid Z . The current t o ground will equal twire the current of the incident wave. the constant.ion.

The impulse test which is most commonly used consists of the application of a 155 X 4O-psec full-wave voltage surge of a specified crest value to the insulation of the equipment involved. For example. This is true for oil-immersed transformers. the Joint Committee on Coordination of Insulation of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers (AIEE). the Edison Electric Institute (EEI). These are listed in Table 5. However under special conditions. and the Xational Electrical Manufacturers Association (KEMA) have established a series of Standard Basic Impulse Insulation Levels.1 are called fully insulated. The crest value of the wave is called the basic impulse insulation leuel (abbreviated BIL) of the equipment.7 30 45 60 75 95* 110 15 23 34. while those having a BIL in accordance with Table 5. . kv Reference < I .5 46 69 92 115 150 200 250 350 138 161 196 230 650 750 900 1050 1300 1550 *The 95-kv BIL was estahlished for rertain types of equiprnrnt in t h e 15-kv class. as shown in Table 5. and bus supports. It was the intent that the impulse level assigned t o any equipment should he taken from the standard series. oil-immersed induction.1. This has generally been done.2 2. The standard BII.1 for a different reference class. transformers having a RIL one step below the standard value have been successfully applied. . T o simplify the design and appliration of elertrical equipment. of most pover distribution equipment whose insulation class is 23 kv or higher is the value assigned to the corresponding reference class. but in some cases the value adopted for a given insulation class is that shown in Table 5. kv impulse in. apparatus bushings. air switches. oilimmersed reactors. equipment having lower impulse ratings may be furnished. on high-voltage systems (115 kv and above) that are very well grounded.1. instrument transformers."lation led.1 Standard Basic ImDulse Insulation Levels Boric Reference < I . Basic Impulse Insulation levels. . TABLE 5. kv ~ 1.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 303 short duration.and step-voltage regulators. . it is the impulse tests that are important as far as protection against these overvoltages is concerned.5 5 8. These are referred t o as reduced-insulation transformers. .

p*oc I .5 1. TABLE 5.0 ~ S C C to flashover.-kv ulatiou PLSS.304 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES The standard RII.5 1." Class I .o 1. kv Min time to Ro-rhovar.5 5 811 10 20 25 ~~ 8.mat. kv Min time to Rashover.6 * Thr YSIUP ivm for the 15-kv insulation rlass apply to instrument transiormers oi the 151.2 2.Yc tell 3-11.0 8. both in kv: I".5 45 60 75' $ 3 110 150 200 46 69 92 115 138 161 230 811 250 350 450 550 650 750 900 * 95 ior rnctal-rlnd gear with oillcss hreakcrs.6 1.5 1. kv crest. I . For the 1511-kv class thc full-wavr test is 110 kv and the rlropp~rl-wnrrt p s t is 130 kv with 2.4 4.2. reactors and voltage regulators (all oil-immersed). in kv. "II-r. are as fOllO\VS : Voltage Roting 811 Voltage Roting 2. switchgear assemblies.66 15 30 45 60 75 95 ii 69 88 110 1 I I 1 .2 Standard Impulse Tests Oil-immersed power transformers and current-limiting reactors Oil-immersed distribution transformers and "Oltage regulotorl. of distribution a n d power transformers. .4 23 34..25 1.Yl. S o industry standard impulse levels have been established for drytype transformers.8 45 60 75 1 %i I I . kv Chapped-wore test 5 6 X 40 ! Chopped-rare test Crest.ti.16 7.2 2.2 13. in. and metal-enrlosed huses for the various voltage ratings. and instrument transformers whose insulation class is 15 kv and below are given in Table 5. % . .66 I5 35 50 The impulse levels of power circuit breakers.8 14.5 5. hut present practire is to use the following combinations of insulation class arid UIL.trument trondormers' lnlUlotior .

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 305 Impulse testing of rotating machines has not been adopted. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT The protection of electrical equipment against the overvoltages caused by lightning depends primarily upon the proper application of lightning arresters. How lightning Arresters Operate. the gap enclosure may he a gas-evolving fiber tube or the gap may he filled with celofiber spheres. Interruption takes . oilimmersed transformers (reactors and voltage regulators) and instrument transformers are given a “chopped-wave” test. through the surge impedance of the line.2 for equipment having an insulation class of 15 kv or below. The rms value of the latter is twice rated line-toline voltage plus 1000 volts. In this the applied voltage is built up at a predetermined rate and then reduced substantially to zero by sparkover of an air gap. Expulsion-type and Valve-type Arresters. The gap is arranged so that upon sparkover the arc must pass over the surface of gas-evolving material. In addition to the 145 X 40 full-wave test. This is accomplished in a lightning arrester by (1) an enclosed gap. As the term implies. I t is generally considered that their impulse level is the crest value of the 60-cycle dielectric test. As the gas is emitted it rushes out through a suitably placed opming in the arrester case. called “follow current. Lightning produces overvoltages between the line conductors of a power system and ground. limits the line-to-ground voltage. blowing out the arc. But this low-impedance path must not exist before the overvoltage appears. 5 per cent higher than the BIL and the minimum time to sparkover of the air gap is 3 psec. and it must be broken immediately after the voltage has returned t o normal. and arresters may he classified according to which of these they use. expulsion-type arresters interrupt the Row of follow current by expulsion action. which will withstand the normal operating voltage but sparkover and become conducting a t some higher voltage. For the higher voltage insulation classes the crest value of the chopped wave is approximately 1 . for example. Two different principles are used to interrupt follow current. and (2) a device which in conjunction with the gaps interrupts the flow of currentfrom the power system. Chopped-wave Tests. or several gaps in series. The resulting current flow to ground. The crest voltage reached and the minimum time to sparkover of the air gap for the chopped-wave tests are given in Table 5.’’ after the lightning surge has passed. A lightning arrester limits the overvoltage by providing a conducting path of relatively low impedance betmeen the line and ground.

on the other hand. 5.14 construction. A valve-type lightning arrester with section removed to show features of .14. Hence. Xormally interruption takes place the first time the a-c current goes through zero. but as soon as the voltage returns to normal its resistance increases t o a high value. This reduces the magnitude of the follow current to a value which can be interrupted by the series gaps. this “valve ” material exhibits a relatively low resistance when the overvoltage due t o lightning exists. I n the valve-type arrester. 5. Expulsion-type arresters have assigned current interrupting ratings FIG. The action is similar t o the operation of an expulsion fuse. The construction features of one design of valve-type arrester are shown in Fig. interruption of follow current depends upon having in series with the gaps a column of material whose resistance varies inversely a s some power of the voltage applied.306 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES place as the a-c current goes through zero.

The two characteristics of a lightning arrester which determine the degree of protection it can provide are (1) its impulse sparkover voltage and (2) its discharge voltage.. The latter is sometimes referred t o as the I R voltage drop or simply I R drop.000 and 20.o the flow of lightniug discharge current than does the valve-type arrester. Valve-typc arresters have ueither of these limitations. As n. This sparkover voltage is generally higher-as much as 50 per cent higher for some arresters-than the crit. i. i.o the number of operations t o which they can he safely subjected. The other is the average voltage at which front of wave sparkover occurs with the voltage wave rising at the rate specified in the AIEE standards for arrester tests. It does not represent the voltage at which the arrester sparks over. Two different sparkover voltages are usually published by the arrester manufacturers.. I n effect it represents the highest voltage at. Arrester discharge voltages usually published are the average crest values of the voltage appearing across the arrester terminals when discharging a 10 X 20-psec current wave having various crest values such as 1500. the voltage which appears across its terminals during the passage of discharge current. industry standards specify that an arrester shall not sparkover at any 60-cycle voltage less than 150 per cent of its rating. there is a limit t.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES 307 slid should not he applied to systems whose fault current exceeds such ratings. 3000.e. The voltage rating of an arrester is defined as the highest a-c voltage (rms value) hetween its line and ground terminals a t which it is desigued t o perform its operating duty cycle. Furthermore since some of the gas-producing material is destroyed each time the arrester operates. . Protective Characteristics of Arresters. although following sparkover it exhibits a lower resistanre t.ection of equipment on industrial power systems. namely.000 amp. 5000. in fact. it is the crest value of the 1>6 X 40 wave which will cause sparkover on 50 per cent of the applications of this wave. The expulsion arrester also has a higher sparkover voltage. For these reasons the valve-type arrester is used almost exclusively for the prot.em voltage but also on how the system is grounded. Voltage Rating of Arresters.ill be shown (see Application Proredure) the proper voltage rating of a n arrester for any system depends not only on the syst. One is the “critical sparkover voltage” with a l!i X 40psec wave. Finally the gaseous disrharge from an expulsiorrtype arrester makes it uusuitable for moiiriting wit. 10. Sparkover occurs on the tail of the wave.ical sparkover voltage for a I f 5 X 40-psec wave. which it is guaranteed to interrupt the follow current after sparkover on a voltage surge.e.hin equipment enclosures or in close proximity to other elertrical apparatus. 100 kv per psec for each 12 kv of arrester rating.

40.. 9...001 t o 18.. .... the protective characteristics of arresters are afferted by the altitude a t which they are installed..3 are defined under the heading (:lassification of High-voltage Arresters which follovs... GO.. 30... As shown in Table 5... Station-type arresters Distribution-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 1.37.3.ion transformers.000 f t .. 25 20 20 15 10 I5 Effect of Altitude. per cent I Sparkover voltage Distribution. arid 18 kv. 6.. have reasonably good protective rharacteristics. these give the amount hy whirh the masimum sparkover and disrharge voltages of a n arrester may be eupeited to exceed the average values. 12. distribution rapacitors. . The arresters are small.. 25. They are used for the protection of the smaller transformers and substations in the mediumvoltage range. and are very low in cost. Arresters in ratings of 1000 voks and higher are classified in accordance with their principal charact. Since the sparkover voltage of a gap varies with the atmospheric pressure. and have good protective characteristics.300 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES From the average protective rharacteristirs of lightning arresters xyhivh are puhlished. This is true even if the arrester has a sealed gap since the seals employed are not expected t o maintain a pressure different from the surrounding atmosphere for any extended period... 50.3 Tolerances in Performance of Valve-type Lightning Arresters Type of Arrester 1 ayeroge "(IiYe.. Though designed primarily for the protection of dist..eristirs and field of application as follows: 1.. they are also used to protect other equipment such as metering and switching devices.. The various types of arresters listed in Table 5... Classification of High-voltage Arresters.. Standard arresters are considered suitable for altitudes up to GOO0 ft. Line-type arresters 3. and cable.. . 3.. and 73 kv. the masimum values can be determined h y means of iirdustry rerogniaed toleraiires.ribut. Line-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 20.. voltage regulators.. Discharge voltage .. They are relatively small and lightweight.. Distribution-type arresters 2. Line Stotion.. are moderate in cost. 15. Special arresters are available for altitudes of 6001 t o 12.. TABLE 5..000 ft and for altitudes of 12. lightweight units t h a t are readily mounted on poles or crossarms..

these give the amount hy whirh the masimum sparkover and disrharge voltages of an arrester may be eupeited to exceed the average values... Line-type arresters 3.. and are very low in cost. Distribution-type arresters 2. arid 18 kv. distribution rapacitors.ribut. As shown in Table 5. The various types of arresters listed in Table 5.. 6. 25. the masimum values can be determined h y means of iirdustry rerogniaed toleraiires. the protective characteristics of arresters are afferted by the altitude a t which they are installed..... Arresters in ratings of 1000 voks and higher are classified in accordance with their principal charact..3 are defined under the heading (:lassification of High-voltage Arresters which follovs. Standard arresters are considered suitable for altitudes up to GOO0 ft. Line-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 20. and have good protective characteristics. ..000 f t . 30...001 t o 18.. GO. are moderate in cost. They are used for the protection of the smaller transformers and substations in the mediumvoltage range..eristirs and field of application as follows: 1.. 25 20 20 15 10 I5 Effect of Altitude. Since the sparkover voltage of a gap varies with the atmospheric pressure.iontransformers.... Discharge voltage .3 Tolerances in Performance of Valve-type Lightning Arresters Type of Arrester 1 ayeroge "(IiYe.309 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES From the average protective rharacteristirs of lightning arresters xyhivh are puhlished. Station-type arresters Distribution-type arresters are available in voltage ratings of 1..37. Classification of High-voltage Arresters. . Line Stotion... The arresters are small. 12. 3... 40. voltage regulators... 9.. .... per cent I Sparkover voltage Distribution. Though designed primarily for the protection of dist. and cable... 15. and 73 kv. They are relatively small and lightweight.. they are also used to protect other equipment such as metering and switching devices...000 ft and for altitudes of 12..3.. have reasonably good protective rharacteristics. lightweight units that are readily mounted on poles or crossarms. Special arresters are available for altitudes of 6001 to 12.. TABLE 5. This is true even if the arrester has a sealed gap since the seals employed are not expected to maintain a pressure different from the surrounding atmosphere for any extended period. 50.

.. ~ ~ 3 6 9 I2 I5 18 I8 34 48 61 71 84 Line Or.....000amp for thestation typeand 65. ... kv rating. 9-..e. . 6-. ... 51s 602 691 860 . The arresters are available in voltage ratings of 3 t o 27 kv with the 3-. 5 . .16) has characteristics similar t o that of standard station-type arresters but differs mechanically in that it has a porcelain top with the line-terminal connection brought out through the center.....&e..he arresters must withstand is 100..* . .. .310 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES t.. . . thus reducing space requirements to a minimum...000 amp for the distribution and line types. kr __ Distribution OrreSler. . 4 .. 7. ... A variant of the station-type arrester designed particularly for rotatingmachine protection is offered by some manufacturers..te.. One version (see Fig.4 Industry Average Protective Characteristics of Valve-type Lightning Arresters A v e r a g e impulse rporkover voltage on AlEE test wove. This allows placing the three arresters of a three-phase installation close t o each other.. . kv V0ltog Average discharge oltage with 10.S 13 23 35 43 I5 30 44 55 69 78 Line O..00O-~mp 10 x zo-psec CUrlent wave.. 53 11 22 33 44 54 20 25 30 37 40 50 60 73 97 I09 121 145 169 195 242 75 93 110 136 147 183 220 267 72 89 92 Ill I06 131 136 178 214 261 345 388 430 I35 I64 I77 222 271 328 .5-... TABLE 5. 5. . 72 90 108 132 144 179 217 262 349 394 438 523 610 698 872 Arresters and Capacitors for Rotating-machine Protection. .

5 ilf. 1.and 6.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 31 I 12-. A typiciil unit is shovii in Fig. aiid 15-kv rat.0-kv machines tliaii rim be provided by t h c standard 6.ers. ~ l’liese capacit. 2.ings of particular interest for industrial npplicat.ter protection to 1. For thc prntectiou of etluilimixit on circuits whose line-to-ground voltage is iri the 110. available in t h e standard station-type arresters. .!bkv rnachiiics ( Arrester T’oit. The 4.aiid 9-kv arrest.ors differ from thc staridad porver-fact.1. Tlic latter ~vouldotherwise be required where the paver syst.age Ratings).16. FIG. and 11. 0. voltages and have low interrid inductance. 5.and G.or impr(iviiig capacitors i i i that they are designed t o withstaiid higher test.lie USC of 3. Surge protective capacitors are also available for rotatiiig-mii~hiiie protection.17 Surge protective capacitor rated 6900 volts.atioiis such as t.16 Rotating-machine form of station-type lightning arrester rated 6 kv.5 pi pf’r pole.9 kv with 0. They are used to reduce tlic stcepriess of the wdve front of lightning surges aiid arc available in ratirigs of OM50 volts with 1 . The coristructioii fcatorcs niid additioiial voltage ratiiigs available make these arresters dcsirahle for iit.and ti-kv arresters on 4.16.ions.he protection of switchgear. 1.and 7.her app1ii. a 175-volt FIG.5 and 13.8.2. Low-voltage Arresters.5-kv voltage ratiirgs are not. 5.O pi per 125-volt range.5 pf p t pole.17.8 k v with 0. 5.5. sufficiently well grounded to permit t.cnis are riot. 25 to 60 cycler. arid 6. They are iiicliidrd in this line to give bet.

2 ! ) .al enclosure (see Fig. 'I'hc arresters are available i i i three voltage classes. 5..19).s and so FIG.i d t i e of a volt. For a two-wire circuit. 5. T h e other has t i niet.liities. grounded o r 1 oiie side.ioii to the common 1 15i230-volt siriglephase tliree-wire grounded-iieutral circuit.hc oIic usually selected for lightning orrester on o 115. arid t.lirce-polc forms. it. tw:st. two-..'230-volt single-phore protection of indust. This is built in a two-pole lorm. For three-phase circuits such as those supplied from a208Yjl20-volt grounded-imitral system. Obi30 volts (illustrated iii Fig.312 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES--CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES liglituing arrester is avsilal-lie. A t y p i d iiistallation is showii in Fig. 5.itaricc.18 lnrtallotion of two-pole 175-volt is t. ( I . This unit also has better prok c l i v e characteristi(. so a single unit will provide protect.20). The moderir forms arc simply capacitors having iiot less tiinti 4 pf of capnt. tlit. also ser t o slope t. the two poles of the wrcster arc generally roniiecied in parallel between the uiigrouiided h i e arid gruund. Tiicy are coiiriected from line to ground arid limit. fleiice llie effectiveiiess of the arrester in limit. iiamely.ers designed for use on a-c power systoms are iiot getierally suitable for service on d-c employed t o interrupt follow r'urrrirt is not cffectiv diics not periodir:ttlly go through zero. hinrevcr. Arresters.age surge by absorbing the current as a charge o i i ttic capwitor. . arc availrtiilo for d-? scrvicc.he froiit of tiit? ivavc a r i d tliiis reduce the turii-to-turn voltage sircss on the d-c rotating mnr. . is for oiitdoor service oiily. both rat.18. For the protection of equipmerit on higher voltage circuits-up t o 600 volts-~-~twu forms of arresters areavailahle. t x o arresters arc required. lrmvever.krrcst.irig the \-oltnge of ail iticwmitig surge depends upon the duration as i\-ell as the magriitude of the surge. One has a port:elaiii housing (see Fig. axid is availsblc in one. 5 .rial plaiit three-wiro circuit. 751-2000 v o h . arid is availablein a singlepoleaiidatno-poleform. Arresters for D-C Systems. 5. and 2001:?&00\ 650 volts. equipmeti t. is suitable for either indoor or outdoor service.

with porcelain housing roted 650 volts.19 Single-pole lightning arrester FIG. 4 rrf f o r w e on d-c lnruloting cop and sleeve removed ot one end to show terminol. f o r indoor o r outdoor service. 5. 5.21 cirwiti. FIG.20 Three-pole lightning orrester in metol core roted 650 volt>. Capacitor-type lightning orrerter rated 0 to 750 volts. . 5. for outdoor service.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 313 FIG.

if a lightning stroke causes flashover and hence a fault on one phase of a transmission line.314 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES APPLICATION PROCEDURE Every exposed overhead line distributing power within or supplying power t o an industrial plant represents a possihle sourre of destruitire overvoltages. This makes it important t o determine the maximum lilie-to-groutid system voltage at the point at which the arrester is applied.em line-to-line voltage divided by the square root of 3. (2) choosing t. Under normal balanced operatirig conditions. is lower. The voltage ratings of arresters are. the voltage indured on the sound phases is apt.his vokage will be essentially equal to the system line-to-line voltage. On the other hand. These arresters must then interrupt. Hut the one that is most likely t o exist a t the time of arrester sparkover is a line-to-ground fault. t.ers needed. Selection of Arrester Voltage Ratings. t o cause sparkover of the arresters connerted t o these phases. its cost. the lower its voltage rating. for solidly grounded or reactance-grounded systems the sooiid-rotidurtor-to-ground voltage with one line grounded may be as low as the system line-to-neutral volt- . The application procedure consists of (1) selecting t.the surge from any of these sources will be reduced to a ralue ~ v e l l impulse strength of all apparatus involved.ions. Thcse are siimetimes referred to as ‘‘ 100 per cent arresters. if the line-to-ground system voltage after sparkover of a n arrester should exceed its voltage rating. therefore. This applies vhethcr the system neutral is grounded or ungrounded. follow curreut.” However. particularly those conditions which are likely t o exist when the arrest. The protective characteristics of an arrester are hetter and. The voltage from sound conductors t o grouud with a line-to-ground fault 011 a system depends upon how the system neutral is grounded. in general.he types of arrest. Lightning arresters should be so applied that a voltage heIoi\.er sparks over. however. with a line-to-ground fault on the system. and the lightning arresters used must be selected 011 this basis. the arrester may not interrupt follow current and then iI-ill fail very quickly. 111 so doing it is necessary t o consider all abnormal conditions which ran exist.hari normal line-to-ground voltages. and (3) determining where the arresters should be located to ensure adequate yet economical protection. For example. generally selected 011 the hasis of the system voltage t o which they arc subjected under line-to-ground fault condi t. the voltage from each line t o ground on a three-phase system is the syst.he voltage rating of the arresters t o he used. For the usual ungrounded or resistailre-grounded system. There are. many abnormal rotiditions which can occur that result in higher t.

the maximum operating voltage and the rise iu soulid-conduct. Such possibilities should he considered before selecting the voltage rating of arresters to he applied on what appears t o be an effectively grounded system.1C. 3-kv arresters are often used on 2. Even though a system meets the qualifications of an eflectively grounded system at the power source. Where the arrester voltage ratiug required is 3 t o 15 kv.o make sure that v o h g e s in excess of t.5.he positive-sequence reactance X I is less thau 0. if the rating required is hetween 20 . however.ors whirh can temporarily act as generators.ral syst. Similarly. the voltage from sound conductors to ground will not exceed 140 per cent of the system liue-toneutral voltage or about 80 per cent of t.he arresters used are referred to as “80 per rent arrest. Before using these lmi-er rat.ems are grouudcd so that arresters of even lower voltage rating can he used as far as the orervoltage caused by line-to-ground f a u h is concerued.5.o-grouud fault. It depends upon the relation between the zero. Furthermore. Table 5.t. but certain faults or other emergencies may result in the opening of switches which leaves a portion of the system ungrounded but still energized either from generators or from mot. should be determitied t o make sure that under these conditions the voltage applied to the arresters will not exceed their rating. Selections are show1 for all system voltages likely to he encountered in industrial plants.age. I n geueral they should not be used on industrial pmver systems unless (1) the ratio of zero-sequenre reart.” and t.ers. This.ed arresters. Choice of Arrester Type.he syst.” Some syst.he arrester rating are not likely to occur at the time of sparkover.hcse cases the arrester rating is only 125 per cent of t.em.4/4.5 lists the voltage ratings of arresters usually selected for (1) ungrounded or resistauce-grouuded systems and (2) “effectively grounded” systems.o t.47-kv grouridedneut. Such a system is said to he “ of the zero-sequence resistance R . a choice must be made between the distribution-type and the station-type arrester.ivelygrounded.5 and (2) the ratio of the zero-sequence resistance Ro t.he system line-to-line volt. t o the positive-sequence reactance X I is less thau 1.he nominal system line-to-neutral voltage.2/12. if the ratio of zerosequence reactance X Ot o the positive-sequence reactance X I is positive and less than 3 and the rat.ance X o to the positive-sequence reactance X I is less thau 1. the system may be “effectively grounded” under uormal operating conditions.Y-kv grounded-oeutral systems and 9-kv arresters on 7.or-to-ground rokages with a linn-t. For example.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 315 age. it may not a t other points in the system because of the impedance of intervening lines.and positivesequence impedances of t. akhough in t. As shown in Table 5. should he done only after a careful check of the possible overvoltages from all sources t.

or line-type arresters are frequently used.2112. for the protection of short lengths of cable joining overhead lines and apparatus. kv Nominal system voltage. thereby supplementing the protec- . disconnecting switches.and 7.316 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES TABLE 5. I6Y 4.4/4.81 0. 9 or 6 6 7.208Y 0. for the smaller (liquid-filled) transformers and substations.47Y 13.5. distribution-type arresters are often used in the protection of rotating machines. 3 or 6 4.65 0. Similarly.4 2.65 0.5-kv arresters are available only t The use of these arresters requires an X o / X .65 0. and similar outdoor switching equipment.65 0.5 46 69 115 I38 60 97 121 .8 6.65 0.480 0.65 3 4. or 6 4 . However.5* or 6 6 I5 15 15 25 37 50 73 121 145 12 9 t o r I2 12 20 30 40 23 34.5.9 12 7.65 0.600 2. Finally.120/0.175 0.5. or 6 4.he station type. kv Sy*tom "e"Ir.5. distribution. say 1000 kva and less.5*or9 t 4. They are also used to protect small breakers.240 0.. 1 less than that necessary to make the system "effectively grounded" (see accompanying text) * The 4. The value of the equipment protected and the importance of uninterrupted service in an industrial plant generally warrants the use of stationtype arresters throughout their voltage range.2 (or 13.16 4. I and 73 kv.5 Voltage Ratings of Arresters Usually Selected for Three-phase Systems Voltage roting of arrester. either the line-type or the station-type arrester must he selected.1 ungrounded or 'eiirtonce groundeq System neutral effectively grounded 0. these lower cost arresters are generally chosen.

The voltage whirh appears arross an arrester after spnrkovrr.tid eqiiipmetrt. if the arresters are mo\-cd away from the trrmitials 11f the protected equipme~it. (3) the sparkowr \-iiltnge of the arrester.e.nit hrtivreli the arrester and the protwtrd eiluipmeiit. Iii some cases. T h e amoriiit of the itirvmse will depend upoii ( I ) the steepiirss of the froiit of the srirgc viiltagr. U'ith less separatiiiii the voltage will iiot iiirreasr a s miidi. is directly at the terminals of t h e apparatus heiiig protwted.ahle of typical chnravteristiis forms the cirruit het\\-eeti the arrester aiid t h r proterted equipment. and (4) the length of the rirt. This means that thc voltage wave will refle1. its disrharge voltage. i.t positix-ely nt the equipmetit termiiials aiid the 1-oltage rearhed at this poiiit n-ill al\\-ays he lriglrcr than the sparkover v d t a g e of the arrester. the equipmelit protevted will ofteir have a highrr surge impedtilice than that iif the h i e or mhle over \\-hich the lightiiiiig srirge arrives. 3. i\-hile curre B applies i f a i. This is showi h y the iwrves of Fig. First. . 111 this rase tlie voltagr will IK dinible the arrester sparko\-er voltagr if the sepitration distairre is such that parko over ownrs before tlic voltage wave reflected from the eiliiipmriit arrives hack at the arrestrr. the voltage drop wross surh a lead adds to the discharge voltage of the arrester aiid is also itiiwased by separation betxi-eeii the arrester and the protected eqiiipmrtit.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 317 tioii provided h y statioii-type arresters (sec l'rotcrtioii of h-C Iliitatiiig hlarhiiirsj.I applies if the overhead liiie.a single set of arresters caii he lorated \\-here they will intercept all lightiiiiig surges to two or more pieres of apparatus. or other metallii. The greatest i i i i ~ r a s riii voltage wciiss if the cirruit is iipeir at the protected eiluipmetit (iiititiite surge i m p d a t i w j .tly to the tank.. thc surge voltage applied to the itisrtlatioti will he limited to the sparkover vultage aiid the discharge voltage of the arresters. it might I)P quite costly or aivk\\-ard t o muiiiit the arresters at tlie apparatus tcrmiiials.kt this location. framc. Finally. strnctiire h i r h supports the iiisrilated parts. (2) the relative surge impedance of the eqnipmeiit aiid the circuit hetiweti the arrester and the protected equipmeiit. Fnrthermiirr. Citrve .:if the prutrrtioii whirh they provide. aiid with the arrester groutid leads i. from the staiidpoi~rt. H o ~ e v e r such separation hetwecti lightning arresters alid thc eqriipme~it. Furthermore. The ideal location of lightiiiiig arrestcrs.oiinerted direi. is also magnified by separation atid priidrwrs ii Iiighrr voltage at the protevtcd equipmeiit. howe\-er. if a11 arrester located away from the protected equipment has a11isolated co~iiicctioii to . if thew is ail? appreriable lciigth of lead hetween t h e h i e rolidrii~tiir atid the arrester or het\\-een the arrester atid griiulid. estends past the arrester to the priitri. does mean some itiiwase i n the magiiitude of the voltage surge 11-hivh is applied t o t h r eiluipmmt. i i i somc iiistatlations. Location of Arresters. over \\-hirIi the surge arrives.22.

22 Effect of reparotion between a lightning arrester and the protected equipment on the rotio of the maximum voltage a t the equipment to the sparkover voltage of the arrester (doer not include any effect of the voltage at the arrester following its sparkover). . the additional voltage drop resulting from discharge current flowing through the ground resistance also adds to the line-to-ground voltage a t the arrester and a magnified addition appears a t the protected equiqment. Certain installation practices help to reduce the difference between arrester discharge voltage and the corresponding voltage a t the pro- FIG.318 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES ground. 5.

. where an arrester is connected between an overhead line and ground. and the line coriductor is brought down to the arrester and then back up. Furthermore they are frequently connected directly to exposed overheadlines and so are suhject to destructive overvoltages unless properly protected by lightning arresters. The arrest. For example. it may appear desirable to mount the arresters some distance away from the transformer terminals. The effect of high ground resistance a t the arrester ran be minimized by interconnection of the arrester ground terminal with the tank or enclosure of the protected equipment. Furthermore. In this may arrester lead lengths can he kept to a minimum and the effect of ground resistance is placed a t ground level. upon the magnitudes and rates of rise of the voltage surges which can he expected to reach the arresters.6. the arrester ground terminal should he connected directly to the cable sheath and the sheath connected to the equipment tank or enrlosure. including suggested maximum separation distances. the possibility of such direct strokes can he essentially eliminated by proper shielding. or to protect two or more t. among other things. the leirgth of the line and ground leads can both he reduced to a minimum by use of the V connection. in order t o protect (with the same set of arresters) switching and other equipment located between the transformer and the exposed lines.ers for the protection of various types of equipment. a Working Group of the AIEE Suhcommittee on Lightning Protective Devices (of the AIEE Committee on Protective Devices) proposed the maximum separation distances shown in Table 5.ever. where the circuit hetween an arrester and the protected equipment consists of cable having a contirruous metallic sheath. forming a V.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 319 tected equipment. Finally. PROTECTION OF TRANSFORMERS Transformers generally constitute one of the must important elements of any industrial power system. The angle hetween the two sides of the V should not be less than 30" to minimize their mutual inductance. Hou. Often.. More specific recommendations covering the application of arrest. The maximum permissible separation distanres depend. with the possible exception of those result. no determination of permissible separation distances can be considered final. are given in the remainder of this chapter.* The installation conditions on which these distances are * Ser AIEE Misccllaneous Paper 51-285. Until more statistical data on these surges are available. making That appears to he reasonable assumptions. and the ground mat. howerer. A liquid-filled (oil or askarel) transformer having arresters mounted a t its terminals is well protected against the overvoltages produred hy lightning.o the from severe direct strokes to the transformer terminals or to the conneitcd lines close t.ransformers connected to the same line. the station steelwork.

Dry-type transformers.ransforme.320 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESS-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES based arc that ( 1 ) the transformer is fully insulated (liquid-filled). (2) statioii-type arresters are used.ti0" CI.I. (3) arrester lead lengths are zero (V r~~nncctioir or eqnivalent). and at the transformer the cable sheath must lie rotinerted t o the transformer tank. permissible separation distances have not becti estahlished.age ratings (15-kv class and below) which are not covered i t t Table 5 . (4) ground resistance is negligible. TABLE 5..r terminals to eiisurc adequate protection. ft Tiomformer i"lYl. kv System neutral ungrounded or esistance grounded 1100% arrosten) System neutrd effectively grounded 180% arresters) -___ 25 34. 6 .6 Separation Distance Permissible between Station-type Arresters and Transformer Bushings Separation diitonce. Botic impvke inrvlotion kv IWel. Thc arrester ground terminals must he connected directly t o thc catilc sheath.he transformer itself or closely adjacent to it. If the transformers are of the distribution rathcr thaii the po\ver rlass or if distrihution-type rather than station-type arresters are provided at the junction of the cable and overhead line. it may he necessary to add a set of arresters at the t. In ratings of 15 kv and helow. 25 30 35 30 70 70 70 70 75 85 95 For transformcrs of lower volt. and (5) the transformer is a t the elid of a single overhead line (the worst condition) with the arresters located on the line directly in the path of incoming sr1rgcs. Severtheless it appears that for these ratings any apprecialile scparatiott should be avoided. I n this case fully insulated liquid-filled power transformers ronnerted t o the overhead line through a cable having a continuous metallic sheath will be adequately protcvtrd by statioii-t. transformers are often connected t o exposed overhead lines through a length of cable.5 46 69 92 115 138 I50 200 250 350 450 550 650 25 25 25 ~. \\-hose impulse level is ahout half that of the . that is. the arresters should he mounted 011 t.vpe arrestcrs located at the junction of the cable and the overhead l i t e.

If used they should definitely be protected by station-type arresters located at the transformer terminals regardless of whether the connection t o the exposed overhead h i e is direct or through a cable.4 t o 13.8-kv circiits) is often connected t o an exposed overhead line either directly from roof bushings or through a moderate length of cable. Howard. PROTECTION O F METAL-CLAD SWITCHGEAR* Metal-clad switchgear (used on 2. Halherg. but space limitations may sometimes make i t necessary t o use the distribution type. Gittings. In the same situation a dry-type transformer should. Then if the cable does not have a continnous metallic sheath. Gen. Eke. the resulting separation between the arresters and the protected equipment substantially reduces the effectiveness of the protection.. Hoffman. The voltage rating selected should he the lowest that is consistent with the system voltage and method of grounding. If the switchgear is connected directly t o the overhead line from roof bushings. March. a second set of arresters should be provided at the switchgear. The arresters should preferably be of the station type (rotating-machine form).SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 321 liquid-filled type. In either case it is esseiitial that adequate lightning protection be provided. If the metal-clad switchgear is connected by cable t o the exposed overhead line. the inside mounting is usually selected. Although the arresters are sometimes mounted on the first structure away from the gear which supports the overhead h e . have station-type arresters mounted a t its terminals since analysis iiidicates that the surges that come through the other transformer can have magnitudes greater than the recognized impulse level of the dry-type units. . no additional protection is required. and Hontrr. 1949. Lightning Protection of Mptalclad Saitchgear and Unit Substations Connected to Overhead Lines. lieu. Heiice locating the arresters at the gear is definitely recommended. Since the former arrangement generally requires an extra ground bus. They may be mounted on the roof of the switchgear enclosure adjacent t o the bushings or inside the enrlosure but on the line side of the breaker. are not generally recommended where connection t o exposed overhead lines is required. lightning arresters should always be provided a t the gear. I n this case dis- * Adapted from Dillow. the first requirement is that arresters be provided a t the junction of the cable and the overhead line in order t o protect the cable. If a liquid-filled transformer is connected t o an exposed overhead line only through another transformer which is adequately protected by lightning arresters. preferably.

If the cable eoiiiiectiiig niet. The velocity of propagat. 5. 5. this point which does not exceed the sparlrover voltage of the arrester as given in Table 5. The surge impedance of the overhead line is 500 ohms. aiid at the switchgear the cable sheat. Where large single-coiiductor cables are used. 5.he basis of the followiiig assumptions : 1. and t h a t of the cable is 30 ohms. It depends upon (1) tho iiisulation level of the gear.7. per $see. The maximum voltage at the switchgear must be limited to 80 per cent. but those at the switchgear should preferably be of the station type (see Fig. 5. FIG. I n this case the lightning-arrester ground terminal should still be coririected directly t o the cable sheath arid the sheath grounded at the switchgear. aiid (3) the length of the cable.]uired. .8. . as shown in Fig.24R. This is essential if no arresters are provided in the gear aiid is desirable in any case. 3.322 SYSTEM OVERVOtTAGE5.24A). ..23 Stofion-type lightning orresterr 5 . An analysis of this ease was made on t. 4. hut the connection t o ground at the arrester should be made through aii isolatiiig gap.ion (rotating-mochine form) mounted in metalof the surge iii the cable is GOO f t clad gear t o an exposed overhead line does have ii coritiiiiious metallie sheath.23). .-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES tribution-type arrcsters are usually used a t the junction. I n all cases the grouiid terminal of the junction arrester should be coriiiected to t... voltage rating of the arresters provided at the junction. the set:orrd set. The r e s u k of the analysis are shown in Table 5.h should he eonri d to the ground bus (see Fig. The volt. ( Z j the type and . The arrestors at the jiinctioii maintain a voltage at. it may not be desirable t o ground bot. .ant rate of rise which does not exceed 1000 kv per psec.age waves which appear on the overhead liue arid reach the cable junction have a const.lre cable sheath as me11 as t o ground.b ends of the sheath because of excessive sheath curreiit. of its BIL. of arresters at the gear may or may not be rec. 2.

5 6.9 6.16 3. t The 4.8 .5 6 4.5 P 12 15 7.. k? With dirtribution-typo arresters 01 the iunction With station-Wpe arresterr rrt the junction 4.e*t*r* -I 3 6 I 15 25 37 52 64 22 42.16 4.r.8 Sparkover Voltage of Arresters Used in Analysis of Protection Rewired for Metal-clad Switchgear Sparkover voltogs.8 t Required Required Required P arresters on a 4.P 11. kv effectively grounded. kv iundion. ratio IPSS than that necessary t o make the system “effectively grounded” (see Selection of Arrester Voltage Rating). kv Neutral ungrounded or Voltoge rating of .der* Stofion-type .5 13.5 13.2.16-kv system requires an X d X .S Arresters in witchgeor (required or not requiredl resistance grounded.. t Arresters required in snitchgesr if length of cable exceeds this value.8 t (75 tilt 6 7.8 I95 8111 4. kv Distribution-type .4 4.T&*.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 323 TABLE 5. 4. k r V0lt.8 4.5 Not required t Required Not required Not required (55 h)f 13.P 11. 4.go rating of arraters.5 60 74 81.4or4.8 or 6.5-kv arresters are available only in the station type.16 160 811) 2. Y ’The use of - 12 15 Not required Not required Not required Not required (30 ftlt Required* TABLE 5.7 Protection of Metal-clad Switchgear Connected to Overhead lines through Continuous Metallic Sheath Cable System voltage Voltage roting m d 811 of switchgear.16 2..

This may take the form of steel . a l l .324 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGLS-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES type arresters and a set of protective capacitors (as used for rotatingmacliitie protection) at the junction of the rable and overhead line. 1 -<4p T q&2 ’ 4 - ~ PROTECTION OF SUBSTATIONS Outdoor substation equipment should be protected against direct strokes of lightning by proper shielding. EXPOSED OVERHEAD LINE 11.P ~ ~ I ? CABLESHEATH THIS ARRESTER MAY NOT BE REQUIRED 4 - .able sheath should he eoiniected t o the ground bus a t the switchgear. aud the (. The ground terrniual of both the arresters aiid the caparitors should be connected to the rable sheath as \yell as t o ground (directly or through a n isolating gap).

5. are designed so as t o form a “protective zone” ivithin which all vulnerable parts will lie. The mast.ical of 30 t o 15”.ion. at each p o k . JVith a single mast the protective zone is usually corrsidered to be a cone hax-ing its apex at the top of the mast and whose sides make an angle with the vert. With two or more masts the protective zotie of each is iricreased somewhat in the area betweeir t.s. for a distarice of a t least 2000 ft out from the statiou.25 Substation with lightning masti for direct stroke protection and station-type lightning arresters far protection agoinrt surges entering the station over the incoming liner. bushing terminal. This r e d i m s the possibility of direct strokes t. disconnecting switch.he riciiiit.. FIG. with as low a ground resistarrce as it is practicable t o obtain. . this angle may iiicrease to 60’.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 325 masts (see Fig.y of the statioir and thus limits both the Inagnitude arid rate of rise of the voltage surges which reach tlie station. 5. With the usual spacings between masts. It is also desirable t. Loir ground resistance is particularly important for the ground rotinertion at the first few Doles adjacent to t. or eqiiivaleiit.he substation.25) or extensions of tlie steel structure arrarrged so as t o divert. and i t should he connected to the ground bus a t the substat.rveeii two masts. by ovcrhead ground wires.o shield the inc.hem. t o themselves all lightning strokes which might otherivise strike a bus.o tlie lines i l l t. 1‘his may be considered as an iiicrease in the angle (made with tlie vertical) of the side of each protective cone which lies bet. The overhead ground wire should lit: grounded. or other exposed currentcarrying part.omiiig lines.

occasionally overhead feeders are used. substation equipment should be protected against voltage surges entering over the incoming lines by the proper application of lightning arresters. Typically. Although the feeders from an industrial-plant substation are usually underground cahle circuits with no lightning exposure. a set of arresters is required on each exposed overhead line as it enters the station to provide protection to disconnerting switches. etc. The ground terminal of these arresters should be connected directly to the cable messenger and sheath as well as to ground. lightning arresters should be installed at the junction to protect the cable insulation against lightning surges which arrive over the open line. and circuit distance between the arresters and the transformer (see Protection of Transformers). method of grounding. buses. These represent additional sourres of voltage surges from whirh the suhstation equipment should he protected by the proper application of lightning arresters. The type. PROTECTION OF A-C ROTATING MACHINES Rotating machines present a special problem in lightning protertion.326 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES A N D PROTECTIVE MEASURES In addition to proper shielding against direct strokes. It may prove necessary to install an additional set of arresters at the transformer. it is generally recommended that aerial cahle be considered the same as open-wire lines as far as the protection of terminal equipment is concerned. voltage rating. and location of the arresters should he selected (by the methods that have been described) so as to protect all the equipment in the substation. PROTECTION O F AERIAL CABLE The best protection that can he provided for aerial cahle against direct lightning strokes consists of grounding the messenger and sheath a t every pole and securing as low a ground resistance as possible. The highest test voltage it must with- . First the insulation of the stator windings of a-c rotating machines has a relatively low impulse strength. If an aerial cable joins a n open-wire line. This is to allow a lightning stroke to the messenger to drain off by current flow to earth without causing the voltage of the messenger and sheath to rise excessively above the voltage of the cable conductors. Since the voltage and current surges produced in the messenger of aerial cable by a lightniug stroke to the messenger result in voltage and current surges in the cable conductors. Whether or not these arresters will also protect the transformer depends upon the system voltage.

SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 327 stand is simply the crest of the fi0-cycle high-potential test whose rms value is twice rated (line-to-line) voltage plus 1009 volts. This means that special effort must be made to limit the magnitude of the surge voltage which reaches the terminals of the machines. will have its amplitude limited . the steep front of the voltage surge produced by lightning may damage the turn insulation even though the magnitude of the surge is limited t. When located at the terminals of the rotating marhine. This is accomplished by (1)connecting a protective capacitor between each line and ground in the path of the incoming surge (preferably a t the terminals of the machine) and ( 2 ) connecting a distributiontype arrester from line to ground a t a distance of 1500 to 2000 f t out on each directly connected exposed line. 5. machine terminals to the protective devices.ransmitted through a transformer by electrostatic and electromagnetic coupling. 5. as shown in Fig. First to protect the turn insulation. The scheme of protection recommended differs somevhat for (1) machines connected direct. A voltage surge of a magnitude and a steepness of front u.o a value which can be safely withstood by the major (ronductor-to-ground) insulation. Then to ensure reliable protection of the major insulation. Secondly. It also ensures that a voltage surge originating on the line. as shown in Fig. For additional improvement in the protection provided. beyond the arrester which is installed 1500 to 2000 f t from the station. the ground terminals of both the arresters and capacitors should be connected directly to the machine frame. Such damage is avoided by reducing the steepness of the voltage wave which reaches the machine. When the protective devices cannot be located directly at the terminals of the machine. This reduces the possibility of direct strokes terminating on the circuits close to t. as a result of the above limitations. lightning protertive equipment must be considered even though the machine is connected to the exposed overhead line through a transformer whose line side is adequately protected by a lightning arrester.26A4.2CR. which of course should be connected to the plant ground bus. Protection of Machines Connected Directly to Exposed Overhead lines. Finally.hich will damage machine insulation can be t. it is preferable to bring the incoming lines to the terminals of these devices and then on to the rather than use separate leads from the machine. a station-type arrester should be connected in parallel with the protective capacitor. the exposed lines should be shielded by overhead ground wires for a distance of approximately 2000 ft out from the to exposed overhead lines and ( 2 ) machines connected to exposed overhead lines through transformers. the maximum rate of change of voltage (steepness of wave front) applied to the machine must be reduced to a value which will limit the resultant turn-to-turn voltage to a safe value.he station.

5.27 Arrmgement of lightning protective equipment for nected directly 10 on exposed overheod lhe.-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES to the sparkover voltage and I R drop of this arrester regardless of the grouiid resistarice. Where overhead groiind-wire shielding of lines does riot give effective protertion against direct strokes (hecause of inadequate line insulation r3 J 3'I PREFERRED METHOD n L INFERIOR METHOD (AI (01 FIG. 5. l'he complete protective scheme is shown in Fig. and they should be eoniiected to the plarit ground bus. rototing mochine com . they should he mel1 grounded a t each pole strurture. 5.328 SYSTEM 0VERVOLTAGES.27. 5 Allernaiive methodr of making connertions to rototing-machine protective equipment where thir equipment cannot be located directly a t the machine terminal% MACHINE t---DISTRIWTION-TYPE ARRESTER ' 6 f+t I - Ls I ARRESTER c GROUND CDNNECTION t 1500-2000 FT -I < I FIG. The overhead ground mires should be directly ronnerted to the arrester grounds.

to give the most reliable protection to both the major and the turn insulation of the rotating machine.30.28 Arrmgemenl of lightning protective equipment for nected to on e. and of suitable ampere rating for the line rurrent.. preferably a t the machine terminals. hut instead a station-type arrester should be installed on the line side of the t. This roiisists of installing a sperial ronrentrated inductanre of about 200 mirroheiirys. The protection provided in this case should he the same as for marhines roiinected dirertly to exposed lines.ransformer (see Fig. In addition. a station-type arrester should he provided on the line side of the t. FIG. 5.29. t o protert this equipment. 111 addition a distribution-type arrester should he installed on the line side of each ronreiitrated itidnctanre.ransformer. I n addition a11 arrester should be applied dose t o the line terminals of the reactor or regulator.he parallelconnected statioir-type arresters and protective capacitors. Protection of Machines Connected to Exposed Overhead lines through Reactors or Regulators.28). In this case no arresters are reqnired out on the line. Protection of Machines Connected to Exposed Overhead Lines through Transformers.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 329 in relation t o the resistance of the pole structure grounds). as sho\vn in Fig. that. 5. 5. D rotating machine con- . the protection in this rase is provided by a combination of the arrangements described above. a distribution arrester 1500 t o ZOO0 ft out on the line t o which the machine is ronnerted dirertly. i l l earh phase b e t ~ e e i the i exposed lines and t. As shown in Fig. 5. The roniiertions t o this protective equipment should he as outlined for machines connected directly to exposed overhead lines.. Protection of Machines Connected Both Directly and through Transformers to Exposed Overhead lines.ored overhead line through a transformer. a set of station-type arresters and protective caparitors should be installed between the transformer and the machine. is. an alternative method is availahle. and a station arrester and protective capacitor at the machine terminals.

30 Arrangement of lightning protective equipment for a rotating machine connected to exposed overhead lines both directly and through a transformer. the cable and switchgear should also be provided with adequate lightning protection (as previously described). this does not affect the application of rotating-machine protective equipment. Where such machines are connected only to exposed overhead lines . For the lengths of cable normally encountered in industrial plants. 5.29 Arrangement of lightning protective equipment for o rotating machine connected to an exposed overhead line through a voltage regulator or through a currentlimiting reactor. and it may be found that some of the devices used can also serve in the rotating-marhine protective scheme. Effect of Cables and Switching Equipment between Rotating Machine and Exposed Overhead Lines. low-voltage machines (600 volts and helow) have relatively higher dielectric strength than the higher voltage machines. 5. Protection of low-voltage Machines.330 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES MACHINE REGULATOR O R AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES r-------7----ARRESTER *GROUND 'CONNECTION OVERHEAD GROUND WIRE CONNECT ARRESTER AND CAPACITOR GROUND T E R M I N A L S T O MACHINE FRAME AND TO RELIABLE STATION GROUND f7 -. As indicated by their GO-cycle high-potential tests. ARRESTER GROUNDCONNECTEDTO TRANSFORMER TANK OVERHEAD GROUND WIRE MACHINE DISTRIBUTION-TY PE ARRESTER OONNECTYM TO MACHINE FRAME AND TO RELIABLE STATION GROUND 1500 -2000 FT FIG. There will normally be one or more lengths of cable as well as switching equipment between the rotating machine and the exposed overhead lines.ARRESTER CONNECTION 1500-2000F T FIG. However.

o the same exposed overhead lines. . if the protective equipment is not over 500 ft from the rotating machines and is placed directly in the path of t.h speed and voltage rating) are generally built with single-turn coils in which the coil insulation also serves as the turn insulation. careful grounding of the arrester and capacitor sod a n interconnection between this ground and the marhine frame is quite important.e lightning protection on their primary. l y p i r a l installations of t. Rotating machines above a certain size (lower limit varies wit.hey are not required if the machines (having single-turn coils) are connected t o the exposed overhead lines through delta-Y or Y-delta transformers.his point. If the protective equipment is not located at the machine terminals. If the circuit between the protective equipment and the machine frame consists of continuous metallic-sheath cable or the cable is run in metallic conduit. Where there are a number of machines involved. However. there are obvious economies in plaring t.allations. a set of protective equipment on each incoming line may he the most economical arrangement.ers and p r o t e h v e raparitors at t. Xeither are they essential if the machine neutral is grounded t.hrough transformers which have adequat.he incoming surges. A compromise arrangement places the protective capacitors a t the terminals of each machine with a single set of arresters at the common point. In such inst. the arrester and capacitor ground terminals should also be connected t o the cable sheath (or conduit) and the latter should be joined t o the machine frame.he protective equipment. lightning prot. The installation of station-type lightning arrest. where two or more machines in a plant are connected t. where Ion-voltage machines are supplied direct. there is relatively little loss in from exposed overhead lines. 5000 k w at 4160 volts. Protection of Two or M o r e Machines on the Same Bus. For 3GOO-rpm turbine generators.ection shonld he provided. w additional lightning protective equipment is generally warranted.his t. Protection of Machines Having Single-turn Coils. However. typical lower limit. protective raparitors are essential only if they are required t o limit the rise of volhage at the neutral of the machine due t o positive reflection of the surge voltage wave a t t.s are 2500 kw a t 2400 v o k . Hence t.800 volts.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 331 t.he terminals of each rotating machinc is always an ideal arrangement as far as the protection provided is concerned. For such machines.ype include motors installed in oil fields and in quarries.hrough a neutral resistor of 25 ohms or less or through a neutral reactor of 0. and -10.1 ohm or less (on a 60-cycle basis).. on a rommon bus or a t some other point where it will be in the path of the lightning surges t o all machines.000 k w a t 13.

90 11.000 7.000 9.000 15.80 6.160 4. required Iphose-to phase1 Voltw e di"( MiUO forad per pole Single p01e ""it.25 pf per phase) will suffice.000 I 2 . or is eonnectcd throneh a Y-Y transformer with both Y's grounded.800 6. 0 0 0 3 3 3 6.25 0.000 6. quire.000 12.000 9.40 rating Voltage rating ~ Voltage rating i"gleUnpole units grovnde< iff&i"*l: or regroundoc "ired rnidonca system ground=< Singlepole ""it. However.5 0.0-650 2.000 3.5 pf per phase) where both of the following conditions apply: (1) Maehinc IS directly connected to t h e exposrd overhead lines.000 15. (2) Machine is ungrounded.000 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 -. for TABLE 5.000 650 3..900 11.* A single three-pole -- unit is commonly used. Table 5. is neutral grounded through a resistance greater than 50 ohms.000 9.500 6.0001 6.500 6.500 12.5 0.000 6.400 4. Such arresters must he selected to match the voltage and method of grounding of the line-side system.000 3 3 ~ 3' 0.000 12.16 4.50 13. The ratings of the arresters required on the line side of any transformer between the rotating machine and an exposed overhead line are not shown.500 13. units (0.000 4. For single-phase machines the same recommendations apply except that only two single-pole units are required if neither line is grounded and only one (on the ungrounded line) if one line is grounded. is connected through a n autotransformer.) t Use six capacitor ~~ ~~0~~~~ ~ ~~~ . 1 ~ Distribution-type orrc~tcrs ~ .9 Protective Equipment for Three-phase A-C Rotating Machines For instoilofion IS00 to 2000 ft out on directly connected exposed overhead lines For indallation mt machine tsrminoli or on mochine bus Protective capacitors Mochine st." (See Selection of Arrester Voltage Rating.25 3* 3* 3 3 3 or 6 3 or 6 650 3.tion-type orrester.000 3.80 I .. $The use of 3000-volt arresters on a 4160-volt system requires s n X o / X Iratio less than that newssary to make the system "effectively grounded. In all other cases three capacitor units (0. Effective1 groundec system system .9 shows the ratings of the lightning arresters and protective capacitors recommended for protection of three-phase rotating machines of the popular voltage ratings.332 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES Ratings of Protective Equipment Recommended. re.o I650 3. or is neutral grounded through a reactance greater than 5 ohms (60-cycle basis).5 0.000$ 4.- ~ *olt..5 0.800 ~ 0-65 2.

.hree-pole protertive caparit. or at the station on each outgoing feeder.he rertifier. one of the next higher voltage rating r a i l alivays be used. on the d-r hus.ahle d-r arresters. or on the exposed d-c feeders. T\\-o-pole 2400-volt capacitors and two-pole GO-volt arresters are available for use on single-phase systems i n which neither line is grounded. Where the voltage rat. They arc generally designed so that t. rectifier transformers are often supplied with built-in nonlinear resistors or “surge eliminators” installed on one of the secondary Y’a or zigzags. As of a marhine falls between the voltage ratings of the prot.31 THYRITE SURGE ELIMINATORS (BUILT IN AS INHERENT PART ff GENERAL ELECTRIC RECTIFIER TRANSFORMERS I 4 Typical scheme of lightning prokction for a mercury-arc rectifier. They may he installed at the machine terminals. and also installed across 1 AC SUI RECTIFIER TRANSFORMER ANODES MERCURY CATHODE I ~ + T I DC I/ 4 I L L FIG. In addition t o this protection. on the bus.ertive raparitors available. 5.heir transformers (Fig.hey rail be used on any marhine whose voltage rating does not exreed 110 per rent of the capacitor voltage rating. 5. Mercury-arr rectifiers and t. snrh as the capacitor type. PROTECTION OF D-C ROTATING MACHINES AND RECTIFIERS D-C motors and generators connected to exposed overhead lines should be proterted hy suit. suitable d-r arresters a t the d-c terminals of t.31) may be protected hy a set of station-type or distribution-type arresters on t. the voltage rating of the protective capacitors rerommended matches the system phase-to-phase vokage for both effectively grounded and ungrounded systems.he supply side of the transformer and. if the d-r feeders are exposed.or is commonly used in any rase.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGESCAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 333 CkG5O-volt marhines a t.

As shown. Typical arrangements of protective equipment for an industrial power system are illustrated in the one-line d i a g a m of Fig. 5. 5. FIG.32 ryrtern. In some cases it will be found that the protective equipment required for one piece of apparatus will also serve to protect other pieces. Typical arrangement of lightning protective equipment on on industrial power . be considered.334 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES the interphase transformer winding. The effect of separation between arresters and protected equipment must. to absorb the high peaked surges of small energy associated with mercury-arc phenomena.32. however. PROTECTION OF COMPLETE POWER SYSTEM The protection of a complete power system is accomplished simply by providing adequate protection to each component of the system by the methods which have been described.

12. M. Dctermination of Ground-fault Cur13. and KEMA. 2. 1951. In all cases the type and voltage rating of the arresters would be selected as outlined under Application Procedure. "Transformer Engineering. Rev. T. but it is assumed that the length of this cable is such that these arresters do not give adequate protection to the switchgear.. 3. Critoris. New York. vol.. Modern Conwpts of Lightning ProtPetion for Transmission and Distribution Circuits. 1941. W. August and November. 109. 1943. LAl-1852 to I. Finally. Shott. for Xeutral Stability of Wye-Grounded Primary Ijroken Delta Secondary Transformw Circuits.. National Clcetrieal Manufacturers Association."The Protection of Transmission Systems Against Lightning. A I E E . S. V. Tions. A I E E . Cen. It is assumed that the distance between these arresters and the transformer terminals is short enough so that no additional protection is required for the transformer. John WilQy & Sons. The Cause and Control of Somr Typcs of Switching Surges. Standards of Lightning Arresters. W. Pragst. Arresters are also required a t the junction of the overhead line and cable.." ASA Standard C62. 1951. 1943. Hunter.1. Inc. €1. Tmns. New l-ork. vol. REFERENCES 1.evels.. E E I . 1939. 10. Lightning Protective Equipment for Rotating Machines. H-8. "American Standard for Lightning Arrestprs for Alternating Current Power Circuits. 6.. Publiention Kos. Ocneral Electric Company Publication GET-I720A. . EEI Publication No. L.. November. 4 . 1944. L. "Traveling Waves on Transmission Systems. 1953. Lewis. 11. while the smaller motor has the capacitors only. E. W. and P. Peterson. The generator and large motor are provided with both lightning arresters and capacitors a t their terminals.. Gerieral Electric Company Puhlication GEA-l743H. 6 2 . 9. 5. H." John UIIPy & Sons. AIEE Committee Rcport. rent and Voltages on Transmission Systrrns. H.. Poner Systmn Overvoltages Produccd by Faults and Switching Operations. and H. New York. Brwley. No attempt has been made to show the details of the connections to the arresters.. 1950. John Wiley & Sons. 1948. 60. AIEH Committee Rcport. NEMA Publication No. F.A5-1952. Joint Cornmittcc on Coordination ai Insulation of AIEE. 1941. Schroeder." 2d ed.SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEMURES 335 lightning arresters are provided on the high-voltage incoming line. Elec.." 2d ed. Light. Corrdation of System Overvoltagcs and Pystem Grounding Impedance. 8. E. 1948.. Standard Basic lmpulsc Insulation l. 7. Blrmie. Ine. 1952. November. Inc. arresters are installed a t a distance of 1500 to 2000 f t nut on each overhead feeder to complete the protection required for the rotating machines. Lightning arresters are also provided on the line side of the breakers to which the overhead feeders are connected. These should be made in accordance vith the recommended practices that have been outlined. Bwajian. and A.

vol. Rudge. 1952. vol. 61. vol. AZEE. supplemmt to Distribulion Magazine. and C. Carpenter. 20. Lear.. 49.... 1930. July. E. J. H. MeMorris. 1933.. Rev. M. 1950. May. Wagner. Lewis.. 1951. M. 52. Eke. March. Protection of Rotating A-C Maehinps Against Traveling Wave Voltage Due to Lightning. The New Thyrite Mrtgne-Valve Ststion Arrester. Dillow. R. Boehne. 1942. Re". 1954. W. General Electric Application Committee. Lightning Protection of Substations. Lightning Protection of Metalclad Switchgear and Unit Substations Connected to Overhead Lines. Trans.. B. McCann. A I E E . W.336 SYSTEM OVERVOLTAGES-CAUSES AND PROTECTIVE MEASURES 14. G. Tians. M.. A. Elec. F. Gen. 19. Rudge. AIEE Conference Paper. supplement to Dist7ibulion Magdzine. and W. February. 1949. 18. Surge Protection of Rotating Machines.. Towne. . Protecting Meter Equipment from Lightning. J. S. 21. J. 15. E. T ~ a n s . 17. Wiesernan. Allen. D. W. Shielding of Substations. Gen. July. Howard. J. 16. Hunter. and N. and T. W. Voltage Oscillations in Armature Windings under Lightning Impulses. C. E. M. E. A I E E . W.

hetween 40 and 50 motor windiiigs had failed. I i . was t o trip the main inroming service breaker n-hich would deenergize the entire system. This circuit was switched rlear of the system. normal operations herame suddenly disrupted. An attempt mas made t o show the plant engineer what had been the trouble. J. System equipment rontiiiued t o fail. Roire.Chapter 6 by L. and still anot.haii 1200 v o l h existed! At once the inroming service t. and the overvoltages disappeared. A frantic group went into a huddle aiid derided that. the pointer went o f srale.raiisformers were snsperted of iiiternal breakdown hetween high. upon approaching. Upon coiiiiecting it phase-to-ground. Finally it was found that the autotransformer enclosing case had been bashed in and was practically in contact with the coil. who was formerly a mcmher of the Industrial EnginPcring Srction. System Grounding' About midafternooil one day i l l a West Coast manufarturi~igplant. Carpenter and L. then another. could hear a buzzing noise inside. t. G. A t this point one of the workmeii noticed a small wisp of smoke coming from a motor-starting autotransformer and.he only way out. h i i inspertion of switchboard voltmeters (measuring line-to-line volts) and ammeters indicated no unusual conditions.and Ion-voltage windings. During the two-hour period that this arcing fault existed.her in close succession. A test voltmeter W:LS rigged up having a full-srale ralihratioti of 1200 volts. A solid connection was made between the frame aiid the burned * Crrdit for much of the original analytical work on this srhjcat is duc to IV. The first evidenre of trouble came in the form of a motor failure 011 the 480-volt system. System equipment continued to fail. it hemme evident that they mere not at fault. Jr. As the last of these transformers was isolated and individually tested. and the situation was desperate. The spot where arcing had taken place was evident although not badly burned. A phaseto-ground potential on a 480-volt system of more t. Orrwral Electric Company. Levoy. 337 .

and therefore system grounding practice is found to vary widely on existing systems. For a detailed explanation of the nature and causes of these overvoltages. It is a characteristic of ungrounded systems that they are subject to relatively severe transient overvoltages. System grounding has been practiced since the beginning of electric power systems. 5 .” To avoid confusion or possible misunderstanding. and how it should be grounded. The problem of whether or not a system neutral should be grounded. DEFINITIONS The word “grounding” is commonly used in electric power system work to cover both “system grounding” and “equipment grounding. refer to Chap. These terms are defined by the National Electrical Code as follows: . On the other hand. The following chapter (7)is devoted to equipment grounding. no mnre than the 73 per cent increase in the voltage to ground on the other two phases occurred. Similar occurrences of lesser extent are not uncommon. This trouble can be avoided by proper grounding of the system. must be tempered by the availability of standard a p p a r a h s for new systems and the equipment and practices in an existing plant. On the other hand. rertain systems are nearly always grounded. and there is evidence that they are more frequent than realized. the grounding of many systems has heen hased on past experience or opinion.338 SYSTEM GROUNDING spot on the coil. this chapter is devoted exclusively to the subject of system grounding. most new systems conform to modern grounding practices. The application in practical systems. however. and other importaut benefits are also obtained. has sometimes not had the complete understanding and engineering analysis which it deserves. The main ingredient of the overvoltage (discontinuous conduction) had been omitted. As a consequence. Much to the bewilderment. 120-volt lighting circuits. A comprehensive review of the problems involved in grounding the neutrals of industrial power systems clearly shows that it is generally advantageous to ground all power-system neutrals regardless of voltage or of process in the plant. This is an actual case of severe prolonged experience of overvoltage of repetitive restrike origin on a 280-volt ungrounded system. however. for example. This method of operation has not been universally uniform even within a given voltage class of systems or between various operating companies. This story is spectacular because of the magnitude of the disturbance and consequential damage. of the operating men and according to the expectations of the plant engineer.

of junction of a. and positive-sequence subtransient reactance. and R o / X .em. The neutral point of a syst. either solidly or through a current-limiting device. X o . Elo. transformer. the srope of this chapter includes and relates t o neutral grounding of three-phase a-r systems in industrial plants. Solidly Grounded (Directly Grounded) : Solidly grounded means grounded through an adequate ground connection in whirh no imcedance has been inserted intentionally. 32. motor frames.s. Resonant Grounded (Tuned Grounded) : Resonant grounded means reactance grounded through such values of reactance that. the rated-frequency current .are. and X. Reactance Grounded: Reactance grounded means grounded through impedance. the zero-sequence reactanre. the zero-sequence resistance. and metal enclosures of motor controllers. as viewed from the fault location. the principal element of which is machine. cabinets. Equipment Ground: An equipment ground is a ronnertion to ground from one or more of the non-current-carrying metal parts of the wiring system or of apparatus connected to the syst. group of equal nonreactive resistances if connected at their free ends t o the appropriate main terminals or lines of the system. or system. outlet boxes. The following definitions are taken from AIEE Standard S o .e and transient overvoltages depending upon the ratios of X o / X . System Neutral Ground: A system neutral ground is a connection to ground from the neutral point or points of a rircuit. switch boxes. Resistance Grounded: Resistance grounded means grounded through impedance. KOTE:Grounded systems may be subject to various steady-stat. respectively.SYSTEM GROUNDING 339 System Ground: A system ground is a connection to ground from one of the current-carrying conductors of a distribut. (Except where specifically stated to be otherwise.em is that point whirh has the same potential as the point. As used in this sense. rotat. taken as positive if inductive and negative if capacitive. Seutral Grounding Devices. metal armor of cables.) Grounded Sydern: A grouuded system is a system of conductors i n which at least one conductor or point (usually the middle wire or neutral point of transformer or generator windings) is intentionally grounded. the term equipment includes all such metal parts as met. the principal element of which is reactance. metal conduit. during a fault between one of the conductors and earth.ion system or of an interior wiring system. Ungrounded: Ungrounded means without an intentioual connection to ground except through potential-indicating or measuring devices.

Experieiice has proved that these orerUNFAULTED CIRCUIT UNGROUNDED POWER SOURE 1 4 . In the fault. the so-called “ungrounded system” is in reality a “capacitively grounded” system by virtue of the distributed rapacitanre from the system rondurtors t o ground.1 INTERRUPTING FAULT Transient overvoltages due to ground-fault interruption on ungrounded system may cause other faults to occur on system. Ground-fault Neutralizer: A ground-fault ueutraliaer is a grounding device which provides an inductive component of current in a ground fault that is substantially equal t o and therefore neutralizes the ratedfrequency capacitive component of the ground-fault current. it is possible for destructive transient overvoltages.TO GROUND FAULT +I MAY CAUSE f I OVERVOLTAG ES SECOND FAULT I I HERE POTENTIAL BREAKER FIG. Consequently. particularly in lom-voltage systems. However. 6. t o appear from h i e to ground during normal switrhing of a circuit having a line-to-ground fault.340 SYSTEM GROUNDING flowing in the grounding reactanres and the rated-frequency capacitance iwrrent flowing between the unfaulted condurtors and earth shall he substantially equal. Grounding Transformer: A grounding transformer is a transformer intended primarily t o provide a neutral point for grounding purposes. When the neutral of a system is not grounded. thus rendering the system resonant grounded. Tests have shown that overvoltages may be developed Sy repeated restriking of the arr during interruption of a line-to-ground fault. of several times normal. . in any practicalsystem. these two components of the fault current will be substantially 180’ out of phase. therealmaysesists a rapacitive coupling between the system conductors aud ground. ~ -SINGLELINE. CHARACTERISTICS O F UNGROUNDED SYSTEMS The term ungrounded system is used t o identify a system in which there is no intentional connection betneen the system condurtors aud ground. 4 )TRANSIENT t - clb- .

a serond ground fault 011 another phase may occur heforc the first fault.hc point of fault. The second fault may he on the same cirruit as t.2 Double line-to-ground faults on ungrounded system result in outages of two circuits and high-level fault currents which can cause severe damage to equipment. a litie-t. The same condition will result from the repeated restrike of the arc: in at1 arcing fault from line t. In any event.o-ground fault 011 one circuit may result ill damage t o eiluipmeiit aud interruption of service on other rirruit. . the resulting line-to-line fault will avtuate relays or circuit breakers and i SECChD ' I GROUNC FAULT F I G .o ground. Thus.he original fault or OII another. (i.SYSTEM GROUNDING 341 voltages may cause failure of itisulat.atiotis on the system than t..ioii at other lo(. is removed.1. 6. The condit. In aii uiigrouiided-neutral system..s.ion described is illustrated ill Fig.

. 6.FIG. 6.4 Effect on line-to-ground voltages of single line-to-ground fault on an un- grounded neutral system. FU LL LIN E -T O LINE VOLTAGE NEUTRAL NORMAL GROUND VOLTAGE -:.3 One ground foult on an ungrounded ryrtem may cause ground foultr in other connected apparatus.i::: VOLTAGE * Y GROUND P O T E NT I A L (A) NO FAULT ON SYSTEM (N E U TR A L FL O A T S AT GROUND POTENTIAL) (01 SINGLE-LINE-TOGROUND FAULT ON SYSTEM (ONE LiNE AT GROUND POTENTIAL1 ( I FIG.

and other electrical equipment ou t h e system. This current may have a magnitude from a few amperes t o 25 amp or more 011 larger LA r J 1 T 1 Y 1 Y T I h Y s 5 s I . Figure G.o withstand full line-to-line voltage. . Line-to-ground faults on ungrounded-iieutral systems muse a very small ground-fault current t o flow through the raparkanre of cahles. 6. However.5 Location of ground faults m a y be troublesome on ungrounded neutral systems. if this voltage is applied for loug periods. 2 Y 3 " T P 5 FIG.ween each line and ground is adequate t.4 illustrates the increase i n line-toground voltage due t o a ground fault.SYSTEM GROUNDING 343 cent higher than normal.~. transformers. Usually the insulation het. it may result in failure of insulation which may have deteriorated hecausc of age or severe service conditions.

Some time is still required to locate and remove the faulty feeder from service for repair. Ground detectors on an ungrounded-neutral system will indicate the existence of a ground fault but will not give its location (see Fig. 6 Ungrounded low-voltage system with single line-to-ground fault in one circuit.344 SYSTEM GROUNDING systems. bnt it may do considerable damage if allowed to flow for a long period. SWITCHES hll. These devices do nothing to prevent the occurrence of the fault. Several dt vices are available for determining the approximate location of ground faults. G K g FIG. 6 . enough to actuate protective devices. in general. This is not. Such devices are admittedly helpful. 6. hut they do not provide the complete answer.5). .

it is not easy to locate it i n the artual ungrounded system. other things being equal. hoping that the operator will find it before the serond ground fault occurs. so that the advantage gained from better . Reduction in magnitude of transient overvoltages b. While it is easy to see where the fault is iii the diagram. Fig. Often it is argued that with an ungrounded system one ground fault cau be left on the system uutil it is convenient to locate it without interfering with production. Improved servire reliability 3.6.s are opeired one at. a time and finally the motors and loads taken off one at a time. 6. circuits below 15 kv are not exposed to lightning within the industrial plant. I n general. Experienre has shoivn that double ground faults are rery common in ungrounded systems simply because the first ground is left on. Improved lightning protection c. but at a different location than the first. R. then the branch cirruit. Greater safety for personnel and equipment The relative weight of these advantages varies with system voltage classes and t o a lesser degree with installation conditions.he motor A .G. This will tell on whirh feeder the fault is. The first step is to opeti the secondary feeders one at a time. This is contrasted with a grounded-neutral system where only t. A second ground may occur on the same phase. would have been tripped out and no other produrtion marhines iuterfered with. If this is done during produrtion hours. Reduced operating and maintenance expense a. This is more diffirult t o find bemuse the operator must then open all circuits a t once and dose them one a t a time t o find the ground fault. grounded-neutral lightning arresters may be used which give hetter lightning protection. ADVANTAGES OF SYSTEM NEUTRAL GROUNDING The advantages of operating an industrial power system grounded compared with operatiug it ungrounded may be one or more of the following : 1. it rail readily he seen how much production loss there may he just t o find a ground fault iir an ungrounded system. Improved system and equipment fault protection 2. Simplification of ground-fault location d.SYSTEM GROUNDING 345 The problem of locating a fault on an ungroiuided-iieutral system is illustrated in Fig. Wheii the system is grounded at the neutral by a low value of impedance. than do ungroundedneutral arresters required for ungrounded-neutral systems or for groundedneutral systems which are grounded through a relatively high neutral impedance. After finding vhirh feeder the fault is on.

ers is not too often an important factor. and transformers is improved in grounded-neutral systems. Thus. Better protection can he ohtained in a grounded-neutral circuit because differential-relay protection of motors. It is often advantageous to operate low-roltage industrial power systems. since load current flows through the samc current transformers and relays as does the fault 13. three-phase. If the neutral of the system is not grounded. It is in these systems that the advantages of system neutral grounding are ohtained in the greatest degree. The reasons that the advantages are obtained stem from the operating characteristics of grounded-neutral vs.he system. Homever. percentage differential relays will operate for single ground faults in the protected zone. Minimizing damzge at. When industrial plants use voltages above 15 kv. whereas in a groundedneutral system.5 to 6 amp for this reason.hree-phase loads.4. Slightly lower system costs can sometimes he obtained hecause cables designed for grounded-neutral service are appreciably less expensive than those designed for ungrounded-neutral service for (1) systems at 13.8 kv and above and (2) where automatic ground-fault relaying is used.5 to 2. ungrounded-neutral systems. generators. these circuits are often exposed to lightning so that low impedance syst. in most cases. Likewise 480Y/277-volt four-wire systems may be used for 480-volt motors and . It is this characteristic of ground relays that permits the use of low groundfault current associated with resistor grounding. in the 2. ground-fault relays may he set to operate at considerably less than full-load currelit. four-wire. Phase-overcurrent relays in power systems are set at a value of current above the full-load circuit rating. Voltages below 15 kv are most commonly used in industrial plants and are the highest voltages to which rotating machines are ordinarily connected. This cost is not generally significant.emneutral grounding to allow the use of grounded-neutral arresters is definitely advantageous. I n other rases the cost of the grounded-neutral system may be increased by the cost of the grounding equipment which.ning protection through the use of <rounded-neutral arrest. is a grounding resistor.0 or 1. protection against grounds in the machine minding by percentage differential relays is provided only upon t.346 SYSTEM GROUNDING light. 208Y/120-volt systems may be used directly for three-phase motors and single-phase lighting. whereas ground relays have tap settings as low as 0. since load current does not pass through them in the normal three-phase industrial power systems with t. the point of fault is usually more important than improved lightning protection. Phase overcurrent relays usually have tap settings from 4 to 16 amp.8-kv range.he occurrence of a second ground in another phase of t.

.. . Service rdiobility.. the repeated application of these overvoltages will weaken the insulation and cause a higher failure rate than in a grounded-neutral system.1 Summq f of Advantages of the Grounded-neutral 480-volt System Grounded-neutral system I Ungrounded system Safety. the neutral is solidly grounded... delta-connected About same (IS substation and ground detector Provides 277 volts for direct opera.dO.. Even though the overvoltages of a n ungrounded-neutral system may not he high enough to cause multiple failures. .SYSTEM GROUNDING 347 277-volt fluorescent lighting without lighting transformers. 480 vdti 10 and 480 volts maximum line to line1 ground on two conductors when one phore i s grounded SAFESTVoltage on system limited Voltage on recondory system may be to obout 277 volts when primary to as high as primary voltage for secondary failure OCCUR in Ironsbreakdown between primary and rocondory Ironsfarmer windings former supplying system SAFESTGround fault in ~ontroi Control circuit ground fault likely to wiring cmn put only 58 per ~ e n line f put full v ~ l t o g e on cantactor closing volloge on line-to-line connected coils LO"t... Fin1 coil. Because grounding reduces these overvoltages. . every time a ground fault occurs.Mud use step-down handormen lion of fluorescent lights.. Maintenonce cost. closing coil. . . thus causing 0 lossof voltages on the system twice (IS much production equipment HIGHTEST-Flooting grounds are Floating or arcing grounds likely very unlikely LOWEST-Ground faults arc easily Time must be spent hunting ground located fault. It has been the experience of operators who have used both groundedand ungrounded-neutral systems that the failure rate is substantially lower and the time the system is out of service is less on the grounded system.. . . I n each case. This results from the fact that transient overvoltages are greatly reduced on a grounded-neutral system... . resulting from 480 to 277 volts or lower in a cod roving by lhe elimination of lighting Ironsformers and a reduction in copper . High-vollage Rvoresce lighting SAFESTOnly 277 voits to ground Normolly 277 volts to ground when at m y time (assume good ground no around on sydem. .Ground faulh if not removed may upon occurrence of a second ired and trip off immediately ground foult cause N o circuits to HIGHEST-h%nimizes Irondent overgoout atonce. TABLE 6. . HIGHEST-Ground faults ore mod. . syitem need not be taken out to Rnd Subject to severe transient overvoltground faults age* HIGHEST-Ground foults arc locd.Port or 011 of system must be taken out of service to Rnd ground faults ily located and repaired. the life of electric insulation will he increased and service interruptions will be minimized..

or 4800Y-connected source transformers may be purchased or grounding transformers used.... particularly in many old systems 600 volts or less and many existing 2400-. In general.. GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS System neutrals may not be available. .... special 2400Y.2. . Such transformers are readily available for practically all voltages. SAFEST: Single line-to-ground faulh Subject lo severe troniient overare tripped off immediocly voltages HIGHEST: Ground faults are readily Part or 011 of system must be taken out of service to find fovltr located and repaired Ground foulh.1. 48On-. Somice roiiobllity .. Maintenance cost.2 Summary of Advantages of the Grounded-neutral System (2. The neutral is then readily available. Safely. . grounding transformers are used to form a neutral which is then connected solidly to ground. . A summary of the advantages of grounded-neutral operation on systems of 2.. faulh moy result in voltages on lhe system more damage to equipment LOWEST: Ground fauih ore easily Ground faulh ore more diticult lo locote locoled ABOUT SAME: Adds cost of resistor Requires ground-detector and faultlocator equipmentto be comparable and nwtral relaying HOW TO OBTAIN THE SYSTEM NEUTRAL The best way to obtain the system neutral is to use source transformers or generators with Y-connected windings. the same advantages are applicable to other system voltages of 600 or lower. .or 4800-volt systems.. .. TABLE 6.. lhur couiing the 1 0 s of Wice grounding) as much production equipment HIGHEST: Minimizer transient over. On new systems. i f not removed... .4 to 15 Kv) Grounded-neutral system I Ungrounded system ... First C o l t ..t o 15-kv .. When it is desired to ground existing delta-connected low-voltage systems (0-600 volts). and 6900-volt systems.348 SYSTEM GROUNDING A summary of the advantages of grounded-neutral operation on a 480volt system is given in Table 6. may HIGHEST:Limited fault current C(IUSFI upon occurren~e of ( I second ground a minimum of damage to equipment [with conventional resistonce fault C W S ~ two circuiti to go out at once...4 to 15 kv is given in Table 6. I n like manner.4.High fault current assdated with two line-to-ground.. 208Y/120 or 480Y/277 volts may be used to good advantage instead of 240 volts. For 2400. 2...

allows high ground currents to floxv.hree equal componeuts. is no fault on the system. is low so that it.ransformer. 6. t o he such that when these t. only a small magnetizing current flo~vs in the transformer windings. when t..hree equal currents flow the current i n one section of the winding of each leg of the core is i n a direction opposite to that in the other sertion flus \\-hich results from of the n$iding on that lea.7 Zigmg three-phore grounding transformer.7. . G.7.his trausformer is illustrated in Fig.hod of wiuding is seen. The internal cotinection of t. these currents are in phase with each other and flow i n the three windings of the grounding t. The transformer divides the ground current iuto t. The met. The only magnetic the zero-sequence ground rurrents is the leal e field about earh XI-inding ~ I L I N E LEADS 1 1 7 1 1 t- _ . h o w ever. The impedance of the transformer to three-phase currents is high so that. ZIGZAG GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS The t.SYSTEM GROUNDING 34P systems having only delta-connected equipment may he grounded by adding grounding transformers and neutral resistors. Grounding transformers may be either of the zigzag or Y-delta type.ype of gromrding transformer most rommonly used is a threephase zigzag transformer with no secoudary winding. from Fig. The transformer impedance t o ground current. ) > OF DIAGRAM CONNECTIONS I (0) WINDING SHOWN ON CORE NEUTRAL LEAD - (b) SCHEMATIC FIG.

350 SYSTEM GROUNDING section. I n this case the delta must he closed t o provide a path for the aerosequenre current. It may or may not be used to serve other loads.ed kva. APPLICATION A grounding transformer should he connected t o the system in such manner that the system mill always he grounded. such as 10 sec or 1 min. FIG. The short-time kva rating of a grounding transformer is equal t o rated line-to-neut. 6. h grounding transformer is designed to carry its rated current for a limited time only.ransformers are connected as shown i n Fig.o a system without an individual line breaker. Figure G. it is normally about one4enth as large. there should be one grounding transformer for each delta-ronnerted bank supplying power t o the system. Hence. The connections of the transformer are shown in Fig. G. G. but the delta can be made up at any ronvenient voltage level.9a shows a grounding transformer with an individual line breaker for connection directly to a main bus of the system.8 Connections and current dirtribution in CI Y-delta grounding tranrformer when line-to-ground foult occurs on a three-phare system.ral vokage times rated neutral current.9b shows a means of COIInecting a grounding transformer t. .8. The Y nindiug must be of the same voltage rating as the circuit mhirh is to he grounded. or enough t o assure a t least one grounding transformer on the system at all times. physically. Figure G. as an ordinary three-phase transformer for the same rat. In this case. This accounts for the low impedanre of the transformer to ground current.ransformer bank and its hreaker. Y-DELTA GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS A Y-delta transformer ran also be utilined as a grounding transformer. If grounding t.Yb. the grounding transformer is connected between the main t.

9 GROUNDING TRANSFORMER - GROUNDING R E S l STOR {Jq3GROUNDlNG T R A N SFORMER i GROUNDING RESISTOR (b) Methods of connecting grounding transformer to system. . 6.SYSTEM GROUNDING 351 A A A Y ~ L $ FIG.

and ground-fault-neutralizer grounding. These methods are referred to as solid grounding. the objectives sought in grounding. reactance grounding. rpsistance grounding. If the reactance of the generator or transformer is too great. will not be achieved. For nearly all solidly grounded systems (also reactance-grounded sys- . power transformer. 6. Application of standard relays and circuit-interrupting devices for selective ground-fault tripping 4 . Effect on development of transient overvoltages 2. METHODS OF NEUTRAL GROUNDING In grounding the neutral of a power system. Application limits and guides for the various methods are outlined with reference to the following: 1.3. principally freedom from transient overvoltages. Because of the reactance of the grounded generator or transformer in series with the neutral circuit. or transformer. Damage a t the point of fault due to magnitude of ground-fault current 3. as shown in Fig. This circuit is illustrated in Fig. Thus.10 for the commonly used grounding methods. it is necessary to determine how solidly the system is grounded A good guide in answering this question is the magnitude of ground-fault current as compared with the system threephase fault current. the more solidly is the system grounded. the first step is to review the system voltage and fault current level to determine whether the system should be grounded solidly or through a resistor.352 SYSTEM GROUNDING In applying grounding transformers.11. In each case the impedance of the generator. solid grounding cannot be considered a zero-impedance circuit. Characteristics of the various methods of system neutral groundiug are given in the following text and summarized in Table 6. the advantages outlined will be achieved provided that proper attention is given to the impedance of the circuit from system neutral t o ground. 6. whose neutral is grounded is in series with the external circuit. Lightning protection SOLID GROUNDING A power system is solidly grounded when a generator. or grounding transformer neutral is connected directly to the station ground or to the earth. The higher the ground-fault current in relation to the three-phase current. Kote that each method is named in accordance with the nature of the external circuit from system neutral to ground.

000 amp.SYSTEM GROUNDING 353 tems) it ia neecusary for the ground-fault current to he in the range of 25 t o 100 per cent of the three-phase fault rurrent to prevent the development of high transient overvoltages. . CIRCUIT 0 I EOUIVALANT DIAGRAM UNGROUNDED Y I 5? 3.10 System neutiol circuits and methods of grounding. RESISTANCE GROUNDED c p 5 GROUND F A U L T NEUTRALIZER XG-REACTANCE OF GENERATOR OR TRANSFORMER USED FOR GROUNDING XN-REACTANCE O F GROUNDING REACTOR RN-RESISTANCE OF GROUNDING RESISTOR FIG.000 t o 40. This may mean symmetrical rms ground-fault currents in the order of 10. 6.


12. of t. limitation of ground-fault current t o 100 per cent of the three-phase fault current. RESISTANCE GROUNDING In resistance grounding. is usually practical n-it. 111 the case of three-phase four-wire systems. This cnrrent should be at least 60 per cent of the three-phase short-circuit current for appliration of grounded-neut. generators should be grounded through a react. the maximum impedanre may he espresscd in terms of minimum ground-fault current. i n rases where solid grounding of a system is indirated. the line-to- .hnut interfering with normal four-wire operation.SYSTEM GROUNDING 355 Direct grounding of a generator without external impedanre may cause the grouiu-fault current from the generator t o exceed the masimum three-phase fault rurrmt which the generator can deliver aud t.or having a l o w ohmic value whirh d l limit fault current t o a value no greater than three-phase fault rurrent.o e x r e d the short-rirruit rurreiit for which its vindings usually are hraced. Lightning arresters for grounded-neutral systems may be applied when the system is grounded through a low impedance to prevent displacement. as shown in Fig. with resistor ohmic values normally used.ral-type lightning arresters. the neutral is connected t o ground through one or more resistors. Consequently. I GENERATOR SOLIDLY GROUNDED POWER TRANSFORMER SOLIDLY GROUNDED GROUNDING TRANSFORMER SOLIDLY 7 T FIG.ral d h respert t o ground beyond specified limits. In this rase. 6.1 1 Methods of solidly grounding the neutral of three-phase systems.he system neut. 6. In this method.

A system properly grounded by resistance is not subject to destructive transient overvoltages.DUE TO GROUND CURRENT 8) SYSTEM GROUNDED BY RESISTOR (All voltage5 FIG. 6. a t operating frequency-transient voltages not shown.356 SYSTEM GROUNDING ground voltages which exist during a line-to-ground fault are nearly the same as for an ungrounded system (except transient overvoltages).1 3 System voltage diagrams during single line-to-ground faults. 6. For resistance-grounded systems at 15 kv and I $ 9 Y GENERATOR NEUTRAL POWER TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL GROUNDING TRANSFORMER NEUTRAL - FIG.12 Methods of resistance grounding the neutral of three-phase systems.) . NORMAL LINE-TO-. This is illustrated in Fig.13. 6. NEUTRAL +' A) SYSTEM NEUTRAL UNGROUNDED POTENTIAL +! VOLTAGE DROP IN GROUNDED PHASE.

it may be necessary t o add a low-value reactor to limit the available ground-fault current through the generator to a value no greater than the three-phase fault current contributed by the generator. Since the ground-fault current which may flow in a reactancegrounded system is a function of the neutral reactance. where lightning arresters are required. In this event. which are dependent 011 the magnihde of ground-fault current. 6. T o reduce electric shock hazards t o personnel.10. as shown in Fig. to less than the system charging current). in which a generator neutral is to be connected directly to ground. reactance grounding is generally used only in the case cited under Solid Grounding. and rotating machines 2. at any point in the system are summarized it1 Table 6. Systems grounded Ghrough resistors as described in this chapter should use lightning arresters for ungrounded-neutral circuits. if a system is to be grounded through a reactor.e. such overvoltages will not ordinarily be of a serious nature unless the resistance is so high as to limit the ground-fault current t o a small fraction of 1 per cent of the system three-phase fault current (i. The characteristics of a reactance-grounded system. The reasons for limiting the current by resistance neutral grounding are as follows: 1. . T o reduce burning aud melting effects in faulted electric equipment such as switchgear.SYSTEM GROUNDING 357 below. To reduce mechanical stresses in circuits and apparatus carrying fault current 3. To reduce the momentary line-voltage dip occasioned by occurrence and cleariug of a ground fault REACTANCE GROUNDING The term reactance grounding describes the case in which a reactor is connected between the machine neutral and ground. the magnitude of ground-fault current is often used as the criterion for the various system Characteristics rather than referring to neutral reactance directly. cables. This much ground current (usually well below 50 amp) is far less than is uormally used with resistor grounding. therefore. The magnitude of reactance in the neutral circuit determines how “solidly” the system is grounded and therefore what its characteristics will be. the available ground-fault current should be a t least 25 per cent of three-phase fault current. caused by stray ground-fault currents in the ground return path 4. reactor grounding is usually not considered an alternative of resistance grounding.3.. In practice. This is considerably higher than the minimum fault current desirable in a resistance-grounded system. It will be seeu that.

This current is relatively small. the arc is extinguished without restriking and flashovers are quenched without removing the faulted line section from service. A line-to-ground fault causes line-to-neutral voltage t o be impressed across the neutralizer. . This current is 180' out of phase and is approximately equal in magnitude (when the neutralizer is tuned to the system) t o the resultant of t.he ground-fault neutralizer as flashovers on an open line would be. I n some cases where it has not been deemed desirable by the plant Transformer -Ib FIG. A f e n ground-fault neutralizers have been used t o limit ground-fault current t o substantially zero when a ground fault occurs in a large 6900-volt ungrounded-neutral system such as in steel mills. however. are not self-healing as insulator flashovers are and are not extinguished by use of t. 6. 6. Hence.emsabove 15 kv consisting essentially of overhead transmission lines. insulator leakage. For systems on which faults in air are relatively frequent. which passes a n inductive current. thus improving service continuity. This. It should be noted. They have been used primarily on syst.358 SYSTEM GROUNDING GROUND-FAULT NEUTRALIZERS A ground-fault neutralizer is a reactor connected between the neutral of a system and ground and having a specially selected. (Fig. I . and rubber. that failures in solid insulation. and the only remaining current i n the fault is due to resistance. varnished cambric. Overvoltages are reduced also in comparison with an ungrounded system. the current and voltage pass through a zero value at the same instant. which provides ground-fault relaying to disconnect the faulted circuit. is secoiid choice to resistor grounding. ( I ground-fault . The inductive and capacitive components of current neutralize each other.he system charging currents from the two unfaulted phases l a and I . and corona.14). such as paper. and as it is in phase with the line-to-neutral voltage. ground-fault neutralizers may be very useful because they reduce the number of circuit-breaker operations required t o remove faults. however.14 Giound-fault-current pattern in ryrtem grounded b y means of neutralizer. relatively high value of reactance.

Ground-fault neutralizers alone have heen used t o a limited extent in systems having the following characteristics: 1 . special arrangements have been used t o limit the damage due t o the flow of charging current and yet he able to locate the faulted feeder easily. as illustrated in Fig.15. 6. in which case damage t o machines may result in the event of a ground fault if the system is left ungrounded 4. Systems having heavy charging current. a power circuit breaker should be used for switching the resistor. POWER CIRCUIT BREAKER REOUIRED GROUNDING REACTOR) FEEDERS 3 CT’S FIG.15 Three-current transformers and ground relay required for each circuit in special ground-fault-neutralirer application. Systems which are susceptible to arcing grounds.SYSTEM GROUNDING 359 operators t o trip a circuit 011 the occurrence of a ground fault. for example. One scheme is to use a ground-fault neutralizer in the neutral t o limit the ground-fault current and t o reduce switching surges t o safe values. overhead lines . A resistor is arranged t o be connected in parallel with the neutralizer when it is desired t o pass enough ground-fault current t o rause relays t o give a signal or trip the breaker of the faulted feeder. Because of the current t o be switched. Where the switchgear is such that the addition of a third current transformer and residual overcurrent relay involves considerable expense 3. Large existing systems having only two current transformers per circuit 2. The resistor and relaying are selected as if the resistor only were used. 6. Such a scheme is expensive arid is used only in very special rases.

more reliable system with lower operating cost. which enables lowvoltage system neutral grounding to be used. Systems rated 22 kv and higher : solid grounding A summary of grounding methods a t various voltage levels is covered in the following text and tabulated in Table 6. When grounding is desired. This operation may be readily performed by providing in the powerhouse an ammeter and control switch for remote control of a motordriven tap changer on the neutralizer. One of the characteristics of resonant-grounded systems is that care should he taken t o keep the ground-fault neutralizer tuned to the system capacitance to minimize the development of transient overvoltages. solid grounding in a few cases 3. Thus. The lowvoltage neutral is brought out through a hushing. when sections of the systems are switched on or off. SYSTEMS Mx) VOLTS AND LESS The grounding of 208Y/120-volt systems has been almost universally adopted. Grounding the neutrals of 480. the neutralizer may be readjusted a t the time.4 to 13.5. this connection is left off.or 6OO-volt systems.and 600-volt systems has previously been impractical because of the fact that most three-phase transformers supplying these voltages have heen historically delta-connected. one line of unit substation transformers now provides al! . Now standard load-center unit substations are available with Y-connected secondary windings rated 208Y/120. the terminal of the neutral bushing is connected to the low-voltage ground bus. Therefore. This provides a safer. it may be necessary to adjust the neutral reactance by changing the neutralizer taps. Systems rated 2.8 kv: resistance grounding in most cases.480Y/277. A review of the various methods and their features has indicated that the desirable practice for industrial plants is as follows: 1. or 600Y/346 volts.3 bQ SYSTEM GROUNDING A ground-fault neutralizer plus grounding resistor is also applicable for systems having the above conditions except that three current transformers and a residual relay are mandatory. Systems rated 600 volts and below: solid grounding 2.and 6OC-volt substations enable these units to he used for either groundedneutral or ungrounded 480. SUGGESTED GROUNDING METHODS FOR INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS Various types of impedances for system neutral grounding have been used for many years. These substations are available with delta-connected primary windings. when parts of the system are switched. Thus. When grounding is not desired. The new standard Y-connected secondary windings for the 480. respectively.

Since the generator may not be braced for the values of ground-fault current which can flow. Thus low-voltage systems are solidly grounded to assure sufficient fault current for operation of protective devices. plus the advantage of being able to operate the low voltage either grounded or ungrounded. For all practical purposes. I t is desirable to design toward condition 2. To obtain groundedneutral operation in this voltage class. systems supplied only by transformers are grounded solidly. Relatively high ground-fault currents are usually required to operate the standard overcurrent protective devices in circuits 600 volts or less. Therefore. These devices will trip for the same value of current whether the fault is three phase or single phase t o ground. Three levels of fault current are of interest in considering grounding methods for low-voltage systems. it is usually desirable to limit the ground-fault current to less than three-phase fault current to keep the transformer size within practical limits. condition 1 will obtain. Condition 3 romes about in actual practice.1 ohm in a 13.1 ohm in the neutral of a 240-volt system reduces the current by as much as 95 per rent.8-kv system neutral has practically no current-reducing effect. All air circuit breakers and fused knife switches must have three overcurrent elements for application on three-phase grounded-neutral circuits. Also. Where grounding transformers are required to establish a neutral. These are (1) ground-fault currents greater than three-phase fault current. Hence.SYSTEM GROUNDING 361 the voltage ratings commonly required. In medium-voltage systems. either with transformer solidly grounded or generator grounded through a neutral reactor. and (3) ground-fault currents less than threephase fault current. the system voltage is low enough that the hazard from shock due to the flow of ground current through thestructure of a building is minimized compared with higher voltage systems.4. because of the resistance of the ground return path. However. (2) ground-fault currents equal to three-phase fault currents. However. 0. this is thought of as “solid” grounding rather than “reactance” grounding because the resulting ground-fault current remains high. if generator neutrals are grounded solidly. 0. either the 208Y/120-volt substations or 240-volt delta substations with grounding transformers may be used. special ground relays are not . this resistance has little effect. it is necessary to use a low-value neutral reactor t o bring the ground-fault current down to three-phase fault-current value. in low-voltage systems this resistance has a considerable effect. Thus. Referring to Table 6. Substations rated 240 volts are normally delta-connected. In this case it is necessary t o investigate the tripping characteristics of interrupting devices and establish a transformer reactance which will assure adequate current for tripping. in which case condition 2 will obtain.

i.360 2. 0 0 0 1 0.200 10.000 2.330 1.300 l .000 I8.600 * Per cent means per cent -.500 9.200 10.400 3.750 7.700 4. 2.500 9.000 480 63 44 24 I? 300 500 1.500 I5.650 3.500 9. Norm: 1.600 5.000 7.lo"Ce.680 2.500 3.370 1.900 9.000 4.500 8.500 5.400 3. 1 ohm ~ Amperes Per cent' ~ ~ Amperes Per cent' ~ Amperes? 13.200 12.160 2.900 87 67 41 67 4 1 22 43 23 16 26 13 4.000 600 300 500 1.900 6. 7 per cent reactance assumed for bank.000 3.380 8 4 17.900 8. Ground resistance of 1 ohm is maximum recommended for main substation grounds.450 2.&.000 6.320 2.380 350 350 350 350 280 280 280 280 I40 140 140 140 7 8 5 3 I 5.000 2.lo"Ce.500 15.000 5. 1 .500 2.300 34.600 4.1 ohm or less.000 10.000 3.160 2. Voltage assumed sustained on high-voltage side of bank.000 28. 4.750 2.300 34.4 Approximate Symmetrical Rms Ground Currents with Solidly Grounded Transformer Banks - Approximate ground currenl ramformer Ground .370 1. Bank assumed to he only source of fault current. 0 ohm ~ ~ ~ Ground .000 6.100 3.--three-r.800 7. Well-bonded grounded return connections in buildings usually have resistance of 0.800 16. 3.000 5 3 2 I 3 1 47 3 1 16 8 26 13 240 150 300 500 l .000 14.770 100 100 97 100 4.000 17.5 1.000 5.400 4.500 2. t For eero ground resistance. bonk kva 0 . grounc .000 18.000 I5. 0 0 0 2.300 11.200 8.500 1.362 SYSTEM GROUNDING TABLE 6.500 4.330 1. .000 7.e fault eurrcnt urrent is 100 per cent of three-phase fault current in all cases.200 7.900 98 91 98 92 85 94 81 56 4.700 17.300 3.300 20.e.000 30.380 1.660 3.

4. This type of grounding does not result in excessive ground-fault current. Connection of rotating machines directly a t these voltages is common. in the usual industrial power system. hence resistance grounding is used to reduce the damage which may result because of a grouud fault in the machine windings. for the system must be equal to or less than 3 to permit the use of groundedneutral lightning arresters. 2.SYSTEM GROUNDING 363 used in low-voltage circuits when the neutral is grounded.5 medium-voltage systems are usually resistancegrounded. to obtain better lightriing protection for equipment connected directly to overhead lines. is equal to or greater than 1 for the generator alone. reactor grounding (to produce not less than 25 per cent of three-phase fault current) may be used in the interest of economy and berause ground-fault currents are not too large. . However. hence. Overhead circuits directly connected to rotating equipment are snhject to lightning exposure. limit overvoltages to values about 20 per cent lower than arresters for ungrounded-neutral circuits. and X . limited ground-fault current is highly 15-kv class. it should be noted that all three poles of a circuit breaker open simultaneously for a single line-to-ground fault but that in the case of the fused knife switch the faulted phase opens first and the remaining fuses may or may not open. is the principal reason for ever selecting reactance or solid grounding in place of resistor grounding for an industrial power system of 2. Reactance grounding at this voltage level is preferred only when all the following conditions exist: 1. / X . MEDIUM-VOLTAGE SYSTEMS 12. Arresters for grounded-neutral circuits discharge a t lower levels of surge voltage and. they may be grounded solidly for the same reasons. depending upon the degree of overload imposed on them by the remaining single-phase circuits. In the case of small systems supplied by generators. The use of grounded-neutral lightning arresters. If the system is small and supplied by transformers. In this range of system voltages.4 TO 15 KVI As noted in Table 6. In such cases the neutral reactor of a generator must be selected so that X . / X . solid grounding may be preferred in some cases because neutral reactors or resistors are not required and lineto-ground lightning arresters may be used. If high ground-fault current is acceptable and the systems include suitable power-transformer banks.


if desired. lhe growding transformer may be solidly grounded in the intorest of economy F.61 2. in the interest of economy 2 0 - -~ -_---__ _ _ __- __ I. z 0 if desired. may be reactance grounded. When severe lightning exposure is present. where the resulting growd-fault cur. If Y-connected generators on system Use resistonce grounding 1. Grounding reiistor- 3.Condition Grounding practice Remorks D. Smell systemr. ovoid transformen which are P loads on the system) Resistor- 1. If Y-connected transformers on system Use redstance grounding a [we tronsformen which supply power to the system.0 c rent would not be excessive. In m o l l systems.. gen. Small systems.61 2 ' . where the resulting ground-fault currant would not be excessive. in the interest of economy v) Do not ground solidly G ! Y -~ < - ___- E. erator may be grounded through 1ow-vobe reactomc to permit use of g'~vnded-nevtml-t~pOlightning orrede. Capacity of transformen used for grounding should be of odequote size (see Toble 6. Ganaroton used for grounding should be of odequate sire bee Toble 6. where the r e d l i n g ground-fault current would not be exesrive. If no Y-connected generators or tronr.Use one or more grounding transformers with resistors formers on system - -to bur . may be solidly grounded.

although the basic principles of neutral grounding are followed in both types of systems. limited ground-fault current. hence.000 250. If a smaller rating is used. rotating equipment is seldom connected directly to these systems. Finally. then its kva rating may he 7 X 250. In addition. hence shock hazards due to high fault currents are not a factor.000 25. in most cases. Such is the case.000 100o = 1750 kva INDUSTRIAL VS.000 50. If the apparatus has 7 per cent reactance on its own base. A comparison of the pertinent characteristics of the two types of systems is given helow and summarized in Tahle 6.000 500. 3. therefore.OWkva three-phaso short-circuit duty has B reactance of 100 per cent on a250. In addition. is a less important factor than in the medium-voltage systems. 2. The grounded apparatus may then have a reactance of ten times this or 1000 per cent on a 250.366 SYSTEM GROUNDING HIGH-VOLTAGE SYSTEMS (ABOVE I5 KV) Systems above 15 kv are nearly always solidly grounded. all other grounded power sources being out of servioe. 6 Minimum Ratings of Generators and Power Transformer Banks for Grounding Maaimurn System Mi"im"m Short-circuit K"0 Rating K"0 1.000-kva hxse. grounded-neutral-type lightning arresters are desirable for better overvoltage protection and lower cost.000 7500 3750 1750 1000 750 375 187 NOTES: 1. the cost of grounding resistors at these voltages is high. TABLE 6 . B system having l50. Tahle iS based on the criterion that the reactance of the grounded apparatus dhould he no more than ten times the equivalent three-phase short-circuit reactance.OOO ioo. 4. UTILITY PRACTICE The characteristics and operation of industrial power systems differ in some respects from those encountered in utility systems. voltages above 15 kv are not usually carried inside buildings. base. Tahle assume8 7 per cent for power transformer hank reactance or generator zero-sequence reactance. because these are usually transmission circuits with open lines in which. System short-circuit kva is maximum value possible when generator or hank to he grounded is only source of ground current. it may be expected that grounding practices would also be different. For example. system may he subject to transient overvoltages during clearing of ground faults. to prevent burning of laminations. .000-kva.

16-kv system in this diagram were not grounded. In the case of industrial power systems.. solid grounding offers savings in the use of graded insulation in transformers at 115 kv and above..8 kv..... 6. the 33-kv and 480-volt levels would have the characteristics of grounded-neutral systems.... be one which is always connected to the system. Yes Overhead lines SELECTION OF SYSTEM GROUNDING POINT GROUND AT EACH VOLTAGE LEVEI As illustrated in Fig...... at the same time. power transformer bank... Although a ground-fault of limited magnitude and duration may cause sufficient damage to require the replacement of several coils. it is necessary to ground each voltage level to achieve the protection and advantages of neutral grounding. Each voltage level may be grounded a t the neutral lead of a generator.. and the high ground-fault current due to solid grounding does not cause expensive damage to equipment at the point of fault.. Utility Grounding Practice lnduitriol Utility Derimbiiity of high ~ o n t i n ~ i t of y power. This is a particularly important factor in the case of ground faults in the windings of motors and generators.... TABLE 6. or grounding transformer. ... this level would have all the characteristics of an ungrounded system.16. Yes in most core! . Small Predominmce of voltage levels above 15 k v ..... .. as far as possible. the desired result is obtained when the damage is confined to the coils and the machine laminations are left intact..4 to 13. For example. Yes Predominant method of conducting power.. Cable Per cent of system subject to lightning hazard. a sufficient number of ... The principal reason for this practice is to ensure reduced magnitudes of ground-fault current and consequent reduction in possible damage at the point of fault.SYSTEM GROUNDING 367 Utility practice in recent years has favored solid grounding. . ...... Alternatively. Smoil Investment in lightning orresten.. if the 4... In addition. Any generator or transformer used for grounding should.........7 Industrial vs. A large percentage of ground faults on utility systems occurs by means of insulator flashovers..... .. This method permits the use of grounded-neutral-type lightning arresters with the resulting reduced lightning-arrester investment and improved level of protection. resistance grounding is preferred for voltage levels from 2.... Few ~ y i t e m r Rotding equipment at diitribvlion and tranrmisdon leveis...

6.16 K V SYSTEM 4 16 K V S Y S T E M n " f N 480 VOLT S Y S T E M GROUND REQUIRED HERE TO %ROUND N E U T R A L OF 4 8 0 V O L T S Y S T E M FIG. .368 SYSTEM GROUNDING I10 K V SYSTEM Y 0 - GROUND R E Q U I R E 0 HERE TO GROUND NEUTRA L OF 33 K V S Y S T E M 8 3 K V SYSTEM hl fi n GROUND REOUIRED H E R E TO GROUND N E U T R A L OF 4.16 Each voltage level is grounded independently.

they are preferred as grounding points. or at primaries of Y-delta stepdown transformers. Since power sources are fewer in number than loads and are less likely to be disconnected. as shown in Fig. 6. ground-fault current may he excessively high when all grounded points are in service. Consequently. GROUND AT THE POWER SOURCE AND NOT AT THE LOAD When a power system is grounded at the neutral of Y-connected motors. Other disadvantages of grounding a t the load are: GROUND AT L O A D FIG. 6.SYSTEM GROUNDING 369 generators or transformers should be grounded to ensure at least one ground on the system at all times.17.17 Grmnd at the source and not at the load. it is necessary to ground a number of these points simultaneously to ensure that the system will remain grounded when one or more of these loads are out of service. .

370 SYSTEM GROUNDING 1. since the bus tie circuit may be open. as shown in Fig. GROUND EACH MAJOR SOURCE BUS SECTION When there are two or more major source bus sections. The factors involved in this determination and recommended practices are given below. 6. If there are two or more power sources per bus section. NEUTRAL CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT When the method of grounding and the grounding points have been selected for a particular power system. the second question to consider is how many generator or transformer neutrals will be used for grounding arid whether (1) each neutral will be connected independently t o ground or (2) a neutral bus with single ground connection will be established.18 Grounding independently. therefore special transformers are required if the primaries are to he used as grounding points. it may vary widely depending on system operating conditions. there should be provisions for grounding at least two sources at each section. GROUNDING RESISTOR GROUNDING RESISTOR (MAY BE OPEN) FIG. CI system consisting of two or more sections which may operate .18. 6. Since the ground-fault current is dependent on the number of feeders or grounding points in operation. each section should have a t least one grounded neutral point. Standard load-center unit substations have delta-connected primaries. This makes selective relaying more difficult and may require additional directional ground relaying to avoid false tripping of healthy feeder circuits. 2.

grounding of the neutral of this sourre may he arcomplished as shown in Fig. .19.SYSTEM GROUNDING 371 SINGLE POWER SOURCE When a power system has only one sourre of power (geuerat. (3) uenbral si7-itrhing equipment greatly increases the cost of grounding.19 (b) Grounding CI single power source. a metal-rlad rircuit hreaker should he used rather than a n open disconnert s\vit. MULTIPLE POWER SOURCES When there are only a few generators or power transformer banks at a station. 6.he ground ronnertiou open while the generator or transformer is in service.rh for indoor iustallatioirs.ounertion is required in a particular rase. The latter is hazardous t o personnel if a ground fault should orcur at the time the switch is opened or closed. 4% $ Y Y 8 S I N G L E GENERATOR SINGLE TRANSFORMER ( 0 ) FIG.or or transformer). Provision of a switrh or rirruit breaker to opeu the neutral rirruit is not necessary berause (1) neutral rirvuits have prartirally zero poteutial with respect t o ground exrept duriug the short interval of a fault. I n the event that some means of disrounertiug t. heuw breakdowns are unlikely. The merit of metal-rlad equipment over open wiring and open devices is generally rerognised for all types of electric equipment notwithstanding the iurreased rost for metal-clad switehgear. 6. individual neutral irnpedIndividual Neutral Impedances. (2) it is not desirable to operate the system ungrounded by haviug t.he grouud (.

With this arrangement. 6. the neutral of each generator or main transformer bank is connected directly toits neutral impedance without intervening switching equipment.20 ( a ) t o ( c ) . as illustrated by Fig.20 Grounding of multiple-source system with individual neutral impedances. 6.372 SYSTEM GROUNDING ances are frequently used. No special operating instructions are required since each impedance is automatically connected whenever the corresponding power EiTHER OF THESE TWO GENERATORS WILL ALWAYS.BE ON BUS W J i E N BUS IS ENERGIZED 9 Y $ EITHER OF THESE TWO SOURCES WILL ALWAYS BE Q $ v FIG. .

In the case of resistance grounding. Breakers are preferred t o discorinecting switches for indoor installations GROUND BUS A v A v A v GROUNDING RESISTOR FIG. cirruiation of harmonic current betweeii paralleled gerierators is iiot a problem. Wheii individual resistors are used. When there are more than two or three generators or power-suppiy traiisformer banks at one station.21 $ Y Y (d) $ Y Neutra1 grounding b>i rneonr of neutrd bur and switchgear. . earh resistor must he rated for suffirient current to assure satisfactory relaying mhen operating independentiy. since the resistance limits the circulating current t o negligible values. it is commonly drsirable to use only oiie resistor. this arrangement is preferahle to the use of a iieutral biis. 6. howrver. This arraiigemerit keeps the grouiidfault current t o a practical minimum. It also assures the same vaiue of ground current regardless of the numher of generators or transformers iii use and simplihes ground relaying. the ground current mith several resistors will be several times the minimum required for effective relaying. Whrn oiily two sourres are invoived. Each power source is then connected t o the resistor through a neutral bus and neutral switching equipment as showii by Fig. The primary purpose of the neutral breakers is to isolate the generator ar transformer neutral from the neutral bus mhen the source is taken out of servire. because the neutral bus is energized during ground faults.21. When several sources are invoived. 6. Neutra1 Bus and Switchgear. Consequentiy. since the ground current from the station is never greater than can be supplied through a single resistor. the ground rurrent is increased each time a source is added and may be raised t o levels whirh are undesirably high.SYSTEM GROUNDING 373 source is in use and is deenergized mhenever this source is disconnected.

For similar generators with reasonably equal load division. This will eliminate any circulating harmonic zero-sequence currents. and only one of these is closed. For interconnected systems. it is suggested that neutral switchgear and a single resistor be considered for reuistancegrounded systems.4. calculation of the rurrent may he rather complicated. circulating currents are negligible. it is necessary to provide only two neutral breakers. For simpler cases. When total ground-fault currents with several individual resistors would exceed about 4000 amp. although all generators may he in operation. This simplifies operating procedure and increases assurance that the system will be grounded at all times. an approximation of the available fault current may be obtained from Table 6. all neutral breakers may he normally closed because the presence of delta-connected windings (which are nearly always present on at least one side of each transformer) minimizes circulation of harmonic currents between transformers. When the generator whose neutral is grounded is to be shut down.21. it is suggested that space be allowed for neutral switchgear to be added if this will be necessary later. This table applies only for faults near the transformer terminals when power is supplied by a single transformer hank wit. 6.h its neutral directly connected to earth and with the primary connected to a system of relatively large short-circuit capacity. the second generator is grounded by means of its neutral breaker before the line and neutral breakers of the first one are opened. This procedure will assure that the system is grounded a t all times. CALCULATION OF GROUND-FAULT CURRENT The magnitude of current which will flow in the event of a ground fault on a solidly grounded system is usually determined hy the impedance of the grounded apparatus.374 SYSTEM GROUNDING to assure safety to personnel. plus the impedance of the lines or cables leading to the fault and the impedance of the ground return path. Selection of Arrangement. As shown in Fig. and it is often found practical to operate with neutral breakers of two or more generators closed. . I n the case of multiple transformers. When only one source is involved hut others may be added to the station. If disconnecting switches are used (as with some outdoor installations). they should be elevated or metal-enclosed and interlocked in such a manner as to prevent their operation except when the transformer primary and secondary switches or generator line and field breakers are open.

the fault current will he intermediate between zero and the current to a terminal fault. At intermediate points in the winding between the neutral and a terminal. the ground-fault current will bc approximately 10 per cent of the value for a terminal fault. For example. The ground current is.800-volt three-phase system grounded by a 4-ohm resistor. it is usually suitable for systems grounded by resistance of ohmir values normally used. the ground current would be approximately 4000 amp. or 8000 volts.22(c). The method just outlined applies to faults on lines or buses. For a fault anywhere between this point and a terminal. 6. Normal line-toneutral voltage for this system is 13. The reduction in current is primarily due to the internal voltage of the apparatus. a maximum ground-fault current of approximately 2000 amp will he obtained on a system when using a 2000-amp resistor.S Y S T W GROUNDING 375 RESISTANCE GROUNDING When a single line-to-ground fault occurs on a resistance-grounded system. This very simple method of calculating the ground-fault current is not suitable except when the ground-fault current is small compared with the three-phase fault current for a fault a t the same location. In the case of delta-connected machines the internal voltage to neutral may he considered to he 100 per cent a t the terminals and 50 per cent a t the mid-point of the windings. 6. so the fault current will be zero. Horucver. as shown in Fig. The resistor current is equal t o the current in the fault. the ground-fault current will be less. a voltage appears across the resistor (or resistors). at a point 10 per cent of the winding length from neutral. nearly equal to the normal line-to-neutral voltage of the system. Thus the current is practically equal to line-to-neutral voltage divided by the number of ohms of resistance used.22. no voltage will appear across the system grounding resistor. If the fault is internal to a rotating machine or transformer. therefore. or at the terminals of machines or transformers. consider a 13. as shown in Fig. For example. the current will be more than 10 per cent of the amount for a terminal fault. Resistors have a voltage rating equal to line-to-neutral voltage and an ampere rating equal to the current which flows when this voltage is applied t o the resistor. If the fault occurs a t the neutral of any apparatus. for example. this internal voltage is a t full value a t the terminals and is zero a t the neutral. The mid-points have the lowest potential with respect to the electric neutral of any d h e r . Thus. very nearly equal to 8000/4.800/-\/3. If two such resistors were used on the system. or 2000 amp. I n the case of Y-connected equipment.

6.22 Magnitude of currenl for interna1 g m m d faulb in maichinei connected to ryrtem having a rerirtance-grounded neutial.I b N0.N E U T R A L GENERATOR NO. R = -V I R ( b ) MAGNITUDE OF CURRENT FOR INTERNAL GROUND FAULT I S PROPORTIONAL TO I N T E R N A L VOLTAGE INTERNAL VOLTAGE 100% @ REACTANCE GROUNDING VOLTAGE FROM ELECTRICAL NEUTRAL TO ANY POINT ON WINDING I S EETWEEN 50% AND 100% INTERNAL VOLTAGE 50% (c)MINIMUM GROUND-FAULTCURRENT FOR DELTA CONNECTED APPARATUÇ IS 50% OF MAXIMUM GROUND-FAULT C U R R E N T ( I FIG. Therefore. In a rractance-grounded system with a single line-to-ground fault. a ground fault at any point in the winding w i l l produce a ground-fault current of 50 per cent or more of the resistor current rating.376 SYSTEM GROUNDING UNGROUNDED GENERATOR NO. the ground-fault current may he compiited from the formula .2 '~ ~ ' ~ " " ' ~ " ~ ' ~ " "' t t - (GROUND P O T E N T I A L ) - IF PHASE (0) O F EUS -VI] VI Vr I F R I N T E R N A L VOLTAGE T E R M I N A L VOLTAGE FAULT C U R R E N T GROUNDI NG RESIÇTANCE IF = VT -(V.2 GROUNDING RESISTOR _íGROUND) ( o ) FLOW OF GROUND-FAULT CURRENT FOR I N T E R N A L FAULT IN WYE-CONNECTED GENERATOR b N0. part of the windings.1 FAULT OCCURS ÇOMEWHERE IN WINDING E E TWEEN NEUTR AND L I N E TERMINAL GROUNDED .

The rating establishes an rms current which is assumed to be constant during . ohms per phase X o = system zero-sequence reactance. The standard time-interval rating usually most applicable for industrial systems. ohms E = line-to-neutral voltage. = ground-fault current. I t is the rms neutral current in amperes which the reactor will carry for its rated time without exceeding standard temperature limitations. is 10 sec. and transformers are normally rated to carry current for a limited time only. ohms per phase X . The voltage rating may be less than line-to-neutral voltage. SOLID GROUNDING In a solidly g r o u n d 4 system with a single line-to-ground fault. the ground-fault current may be computed from the formula RATING OF GROUNDING EQUIPMENT Grounding resistors. = system negative-sequence reactance. volts I . = reactance of neutral grounding reactor. The rated current of a grounding reactor is the thermal current rating. Grounding resistors are rated in terms of the initial current which will flow through the resistor with rated resistor voltage applied. it being cakulated by multiplying the rated current by the impedance of the reactor.1) (resistance may usually be neglected) where X I = system positive-sequence reactance. The voltage rating of a grounding transformer should be system line-toline voltage. Conventional cast-grid or corrosion-resistant steel resistors will average approximately 7 per cent increase in resistance for each 100 C rise in temperature. with relays arranged to protect the grounding equipment. amp An illustration of the method of calculating the ground-fault current in a reactor-grounded system is given under Selection of Reactor Rating (see page 381 of this chapter). The insulation class of a reactor is determined by the circuit line-toneutral voltage. reactors. The voltage rating of a grounding resistor should be the line-to-neutral voltage rating of the system.SYSTEM GROUNDING 377 (6. ohms per phase X .

.... I . T o determine the minimum ground-fault rurrcnt required........... ralrulation.... the current rating of the grounding transformer is based on the resistor rated current.8. SELECTION OF RATING OF GROUNDING EQUIPMENT RESISTOR RATING The determination of the resistor ohmic value. Reador.. When a resistor is used between neutral and ground. a diagram of the system must be available giving ratings of current transformers and types of relays for each circuit.. Grounding transformer. .. .. 111 most cases.378 SYSTEM GROUNDING rated time for purposes of design. Standard ratings oi 1 mi"...ral resistor t o a value from 5 t o 20 per cent of that which would flow for a three-phase fault...... I n either case the transformer israted t o carry the required current for rated time nithout exceeding its rated temperature limits.... he sufficient for operation of all relays.... sect Reridor....... and test..... and continnous are svailablc. thus the magnitude of ground-fault cnrrent... if the current is high enough t o operate the relays on the larger circuits..... In general. the ground-fault current may be limited hy the iieut.... The magnitude of ground-fault current innst. the current which will flow during a ground fault is primarily determined by the reartance of the grounding transformer. If a grounding transformer neutral is solidly connected t o ground.0 Equipment Ratings of Neutral Grounding Equipment Reactonce Time. t Tcn sxonds is ntlrquate ior the conventional system.. .. 10 mi"..... I 10 * Insulation rlass is drtrrrnintd hy circuit line-to-neutral v a l t a g ~ .. is based on (1) providing suflicient current for satisfactory performanre of the system relaying scheme and ( 2 ) limiting ground-fault current t o a value which will produce minimum damage at the point of fault... This diagram should include Consideration of future changes.. The ground currents required for satisfactory operation of various types .... TABLE 6. Ratings of neutral grounding equipment are summarized in Table 6.... In service it is expected that the current may be greater than rated value during the initial cycles of the fault. it will he adequate for the smaller circuits......

of relays........ B"....... 6... in the system..... Foeden and tie liner. the groundfault current may be limited to lower values.. t If 40 100 ..... the ground-fault current may be lirnitzd to lower values (if othw systzrn requircmmts permit)..9 the ground-fault current each generator must produce when it is the only pover source...... . * For further discussion and analysis of ground-fault rdsying...9.... are given in Table 6.. If all sources are grounded.9 for any other circuit..............9 for the system shown in Fig. An example of the proper use of Table 6..... and the 800 amp needed in the smaller generator circuit is found from Table 6..9 to be adequate for relaying requirements in all the other circuits.. The larger machine must produce a ground current of at least 1200 amp (100 per cent of the rating of the current transformers for differential overcurrent protection in the larger generator circuit). .... $ Based on current differential. motors. ser Chap....... Note that the ground-fault current under all system operating conditions must equal or exceed the minimum required for relaying each circuit connected to the system... ground differential is a d d d to the generator.... With the larger generator disconnected.. This ground current of 1200 amp is higher than is required by Table 6.....SYSTEM GROUNDING 379 TABLE 6.... expressed in terms of current-transformer rating.. the smaller machine must provide a ground current of only 800 amp for its own relaying requirements (again 100 per differential overcent of the rating of the current transformers for its 01~11 current relays). it can be show1 that ..... This value is established by selecting the highest of those currents which meet the requirements of the several conditions set forth in Table 6... former... 501 40 ..)' OF rrrred current of current Type of relay Equipmsnt protected per Cent Y-connected generators.l 0 0 % 0.9 Selection of Grounding Resistor cent (Values given ore minimum recommended sround-fault current in per tronrformcr...23 follows: Determine from Table 6..... Pilot wire-100% Current b d m c e ...... motors. If voltage differential is providcd.. ..9. The 1200-amp circuit need not be considered under this operating condition.... ond transformer...e* .. ond t r m s .. Delta-connected gcncraton.

a P $ T i € CIRCUIT 1200 AMPERE GROUNDING RESISTOR 1200/5 C T FEEOERS 8 0 0 / 5 CT I $ FEEOER T 400/5C.T. FIG. 6.23 it is correctly concluded that the larger machine needs a 1200-amp resistor and the smaller oue only ao 800-amp unit. 6. If ground differential relaying were added to the two generators.380 SYSTEM GROUNDING there will always be sufficient ground current for relaying requirements as long as each source produces what is needed when it is the only supply source.23 Selectim of grounding rerirtor bcired on cvrient-tronrforrner rotingr . For Fig.

This corresponds t o a ratio of X . the rating of both resistors may be 800 amp. The largest feeder circuit demands a t least. This establishes the criteria for maximum and minimum values of neutral reactance. but 800 amp is required t o satisfy pilot-wire relaying on the tie circuit.SYSTEM GROUNDING 381 further analysis might be made. The calculations concerning momentary duty (which is of interest for mechanical strength and transient overvoltages) are made using suhtransient values of machine reactance. amp (for a single generator this also equals the fault current in the machine winding) E' = line-to-neutral voltage. = ground-fault current. I n calculating the reactance of a neutral reactor. If this value also satisfies the requirements of adequate gcnerator differential protection of the larzer generator. However. The calculations concerning the thermal rating of apparatus are made using transient values of machine reactance. / X . / X . This would establish a minimum rating for both resistors. For reartance grounding of generators the current in any winding must not exceed the three-phase fault current. It can be shown that under the condition of X . As previously stated. equal t o 1 . The calculation for determining the required reactance in the neutral t o limit the current in the machine winding to three-phase fault current becomes a very simple procedure. as illustrated below: lo = XI + x2 + xo + 3x8 = 3E I (three-phase) E ~ x 1 where I. I n this case other system requirements may determine the rating of the resistor. as shown later. if present. 400 amp. This corresponds to a ratio of X o / X 1 equal to 10. equal t o 1 for any given generator on the system the current contribution in one phase winding of this generator t o a line-to-ground fault any place on the system (external t o the generator) cannot exceed the three-phase fault current of the machine. REACTOR RATING The reactance of a neutral grounding reactor should be chosen to limit theground-fault current and the current in the faulted phase t o the desired value. volts . in order t o minimize transient overvoltages the ground-fault current must not he less than 25 per cent of three-phase fault current. the positive-sequence reactance XI is taken t o equal the machine subtransient reactance. the neutral current may exceed this value.

= positive-sequence reactance of generator. The mrreiit whirh will floiv throiigh a generator iieutral reactor is iiot iiidepeiidrnt of systrm coiistaiits.24 volt ryrtem. ohms per phase 5. ohms per phase Xo= zero-sequeiiw reactance of generator. ZX.v _ xi a (6.382 SYSTEM GROUNDING X .2 x'd = 13% x0 = 7% x'd = 26% x'h = I3 % xo = 7 % KVA A & I000 KVA - 480 VOLTS-60 CYCLE - TOTAL CONNECTEO SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR LOAD 1 0 0 0 KVA 1) FIG. Xh = 31% Xd = 2 5 % Reectance-grounded generotorr and rolidly grounded tranrformer on 480- .iiig. hut mil1 vary mith the number and siae N0. It is the rms iieiit." = 3x1 3xx= x.I N0. -+ xo + 3x. ohms per phase Xp = negative-sequence reactance of generator. 2x. The rated riirreiit of a iieutral groundiiig reactor is the thermal current rat. 6.aiid zero-sequenre reactanie values of the system.-x. ohms If I.= reartance «f neutra1 reaitor. 3E = X. = I (three-phase) and X . I n service it is expected t h a t the current may he grcatcr thaii the rated value duriiig the initial cycles of the fault..hiiie positire-sequeiice reactaiice and the proper negative. calculatioti.ral curreiit iii amperes which the reactor will rarry uiider staiidard conditioris for its rated time without exceeding staiidard ternperature lirnitatioiis. T h e rating establishes an rms current xhich is assumed to be eoiistant duriiig the rated time. aiid test.ransient reactaiice t o represent syiii'hroiious ma(.. The ixrreiit ratiiig of a iieutral groundiiig reactor is equal t o the rms symmctrical vurreiit (deulated i)y usiiig the t.5) + x o+ 3X. for purposes of dcsigii.

7) No. (6. The positivesequence reactance of the system X . 1: = x(% __ kvz base kva lo (ohms per phase) (6.0129 ohm 1250 0. Assume a system as show1 in Fig. 2: 0'482 lo = 0. is calculated using the transient reactance X : of synchronous machines and the negative-sequence reactance of the system X 1 is calculated using the subtransieut reactance of synchronous machines. x u= No.24.SYSTEM GROUNDING 383 of power sources.0. 1: . (6.oo37 ohm XN = 3 To calculate the current rating of each reactor.0129 = o. it is first necessary t o calculate the total ground-fault current le from Eq. To determine the reactance of each grounding reactor from Eq. The following example illustrates the calculation of ratings for generator neutral-grounding reactors to limit the fault current in generator windings t o three-phase fault current.3). XI is taken as the subtransient reactance X y of the related generator and Xuas the zero-sequence reactance of the related generator X (ohms) No. Thus the current rating of a neutral reactor is determined by the number and characteristics of system sources and whether they are grounded or ungrounded. 8.6).0239 .

0575 ohm 1000 An equivalent circuit with values indicated is illustrated in Fig.00705 3% FIG.0127 x2 . (6.0127 .00803 + 0.0239 .00803 3 (480/d%) *830 = 39. negative-.3) I ' 0.0479 .02 5 8 .2 .0479 TRANSF XI . 6.I N0.25.0575 .0127 .00705 CONN.0129 .0214 N0.000 amp 0.0713 .= x o= 5'5 Connected load: 0'482 1000 lo = 0. . 6.25 :022I Connection of positive-.0129 ohm Transformer: x. and zero-sequence impedance networks for calculating ground-fault currents for system shown in Fig.304 SYSTEM GROUNDING No.4s2 x 10 = 0.24.0127 ohm x 2 =a 25 x 0. LO40 .0063 + 0. 2: 2'0 3 0'482 1250 lo = 0. From Eq.0111 . 6.0063 XO .0920 .= x.

this current is determined by the neutral resistor. 1: I.294 X 39. Time. I n a solidly grounded system. should be equal to or less . 2 a t least 11. 2. 1 must be rated for a t least 5900 amp. This serves to indicate the method of determining the reactor current rating and proves that this rating is determined by system characteristics. and for No. The rating may be considerably greater than the three-phase short-circuit current of the related generator. the criterion for limiting transient overvoltages is X . either Xo/X. such as 10 see or GO sec. No.0.0479 0. 4. No. When the grounding transformer is solidly grounded. or R o / X o It should he noted that Ro as it appears in this relationship is equal to 3 times the resistance of the neutral kesistor.600 The reactor for generator No. 2: = 0'00705 l o = ~ 0.555 I X 39. This quantity is a function of the initial symmetrical system three-phase short-circuit kva (use Fig.147 X 39.0127 = 21. 6. equal to or less than 10.00705 ~ = 0.024 To complete the picture. I n a resistance-grounded system. The theory behind the determination of grounding transformer reactance is discussed in the following. / X . 3 .500 0. as shown shove. = ~~ 0.500 amp. the criteria for limiting transient overvoltages is equal to or greater than 2. equal to or less than 10.007051 o .000 o 0.000 = 11. / X .. Usually designed to carry rated current for a short time. Voltage. the ground-fault current a t the transformer will be IDT = ~ 0. Current.000 = 5900 I. The criterion for using groundedneutral-type lightning arresters is that X . The maximum neutral curyent. GROUNDING TRANSFORMERS The electrical specifications of a grounding transformer are as follows: 1.26). Reactance. the current is determined by the grounding transformer impedance and the system impedance.SYSTEM GROUNDING 385 From inspection of the equivalent circuit it is evident that this total ground-fault current will divide through the paths to ground in inverse proportion to the impedance in the path. The line-to-line voltage of the system.. When the grounding transformer is resistance grounded.

1 1 0 31 00 MAXIMUM SYSTEM SHORT CIRCUIT MVA CALCULATED USING SUBTRANSIENT REACTANCES OF ROTATING MACHINES F I G . A summary of criteria for selecting neutral reactance is shown in Table 6.386 SYSTEM GROUNDING than 3. On a system otherwise ungrounded. the positive-sequence reactance XI is equal to the reactance of the system to initial symmetrical rms three-phase short-circuit currents. Thus. 5 ) . and R o / X .10.5 . . the groundingtransformer reactance required to provide any specified X o / X 1ratio is given by the following formula: 1 0 0 % I 4 50 a W a 30 20-lf 10 \ 5 . the grounding-transformer reactance is a function of the initial symmetrical system three-phase short-circuit kva. should be equal to or less than 1 (see Chap. In a system having a grounding transformer. its reactance is the principal part of X. I . in the above criterion.26 Maximum allowable reactances of grounding transformers l o limit ground-fault current to 25 per cent of three-phase fault current. Also.6.

it is desired t o apply a groundirig transformer i n thr folloning system: 2400-volt 50.000 itiitial s y m m e t r i d short-ririwit Iivn. and time are determined as outlined al>ove. When grounded-neutr&type lightning arresters arc t o IIC applied. the desired grounding-transformer reactance may lie idriilated Ily thr fiirmula 10.000 X kv' xo. For example.000 Grounding Transformer Grounded Solidly. = 10.15 ohms per phase (mas) 50.000 x 2. the ratio of X . / X . I u this CBSP it is not necessary t o provide less groiiiiditig-tratisformer reactanre than t./. may be greater than 10 without the dsirger of severe transient overvoltages. On systems of 600 volts or lo\\-er it is usually desirable to permit currents of magnitude considerahly greater than 25 per rent of initial symmetriral rms three-phase short-circnit current in order to assure positive tripping of protertive devices.4% .SYSTEM GROUNDING 387 (-Y. . The grounding transformer reactatice should be X C T = -~ 10.10) When grounding transformers are solidly grounded. The minimum current required for tripping is determitied by esamination of the system aud the ground- .hc values giveu in Fig.26 siiice groiuidcd-tteotral-type lightning arrrsters are not applicable in resistailre-grounded systems. Grounding Transformer Resistance Grounded. care should lie taketi that the reactanre is selerted at a value 1011. I?. = system initial symmetrical three-phase sh. = system symmetrical three-phase short-rircuit kva (masiniom ohms prr ]>haw) ((i. Where the ratio of Ro/Xo is equal to or greater than 2 . reactatwe.!)) Curves shoiving typical values of groniidiiig-transformer rrartaiire for this condition are shown in Fig.= 1.2(i.o ground. and circnit tjreakers. The gri)rtiidiiig-traitsformer voltage. However. The values of reactatire given in Fig.. 6. (j. = _ 3000 _ X _ kv? __ ~ system initial symmetrical three-phase short-rircuit k v s (li.8) Taking the specific case X d X . must be low enough to permit sufficient current for good relaying. This is cqnivalent to the ratio Xo/XI equal t o 10. ttie grouiiding-transformer reactatice may tie determitied by 90. 111 such systems the grouuding transformer is connected solidly t.enough to provide sufficient fault current for tripping relays. Tuses.rt-rircuit kva ~ (lj. 6.YJ x kv' x 1000 x .Z(i are equal t o ten times the system reavtatm t o threephase initial symmetrical rnis short-circuit current.

. Because of its limitations and disadvantages it is strictly a compromise method and is rarcly encountered in modern industrial systems.. OTHER METHODS OF GROUNDING LINE GROUNDING I n lorn-voltage systems (600 volts and below) which in the past have almost universally been connected in delta. 3 or less * Either criterion is mtisfactory. ... Grounding transformer resistance grounded'.27 Two melhodr of grounding a low-voltage power system.........DELTA GROUNDING FIG. as illustrated in Fig. _____ R e o d m C e grounding.................. 2 or more 30. it was sometimes advocated that one line be grounded.. . ... 10 or leis I 0 or leis 10 or leis .10 Summary of Criteria for Selection of Neutral Reoctavce For application of grounded-neutral lightning arresterr For limiting transient OVerYOltoge XdX..OF... Staudard load-center unit substations are now readily availahle with Y-connected secondaries at 480 and 600 volts i n all standard kva ratings.. 6. TABLE 6.... ........ Grounding transformer solidly grounded. Ro/Xo XdX..THE.... For ( A ) N E U T R A L GROUNDING ( 8 ) CORNER. 6.388 SYSTEM GROUNDING ing-transformer reactance selected t o permit at. 1 1 . This was done i i r order t o obtain some of the advantages of grounding at minimum expense.... .27. least that much current t o flow in the event of a ground fault.

During such times as accidental motor starting may constitute a hazard. and overload relays should not be connected in the grounded phase. 6.28. it becomes evident that there are problems with regard t o circuit arrangement which must be considered in order t o minimize operating difficulties and persolinel hazards. One of the outstariding disadvantages of corner-of-the-delta grounding is the necessity for positive identification of the grounded phase throughout the entire system.28 One phore of grounded ot the mid-point. Analysis of the fault performance of motor control circuits from the standpoint of safety reveals that hazards may exist with all types of ungrounded and grouuded systems. A ground fault on any phase will remain unnoticed.SYSTEM GROUNDHG 389 existing 480-volt delta systems dry-type zigzag grounding transformers provide a relatively inexpensive method of establishing a neutral. Instruments. In all cases where motor-starter control eircnits are set up without control transformers. and protective devices will not trip. Figure 6. MID-PHASE GROUNDING Where existing systems at 600 volts and below are supplied by three single-phase transformers with midtap available. 6. Assume that a ground exists on either phase .29 shows a direct. Three methods quite commonly used are connected control circuit on a n ungrounded system. it is possible to gain some of the advantages of neutral grounding by grounding the midtap of one phase. and regardless of the method of grounding. ( I delta system THE INFLUENCE OF GROUNDING METHOD ON CONTROL-CIRCUIT SAFETY IN SYSTEMS 600 VOLTS AND BELOW Frequently the safety of a control rirruit is offered as a reason for a particular method of grounding. FIG. meters. Accidental motor starting due t o faulted control circuits may be associated with ungrounded systems as well as most types of grounded systems. it should be standard practice to open the discomiiecting means whether the system is grounded or not. This method is illustratrd in Fig. A similar analysis should be made with any other contemplated arrangement.

6.29 Control circuit on ungrounded system without control power transformer. A L 6 . 0. 44 FIG. A L B C . L.390 SYSTEM G-ROUNDING a L.

current in excess of its capability. the nature of these overvoltages will be explained. A ground fault a t point R or C will impress liiie-to-neutral voltage (58 per cent) amass thc coiitactor roil. Systems using autot. and the stop button will not stop the motor.h solidly grounded point R will impress full line-to-line voltage across the coil arid close thc contactor. thc loiv-voltage phases b and c are elevated aboveground by the amount . f represent the terminals of a step-up autotrarisformer normally operating a t line-to-line voltage E2. Figure 6. b. This will usually not pirk up the contactor. If the “start” button is closed during t.rausformers may be subject t o dangerous fundamental frequency overvoltage during system faults or from high-frequency or steep wave-front transient overvoltages on the lines. Iground fault a t C ii-hilc t. A subsequent ground fault. 6. Lines a . A ground fault a t point C will pick up the coiitact. Consider the case of a n ungrounded system using an autotransformer as represent. Furthermore. the stop button may be called upon t o interrupt a fault.his period.hc motor is running ivill prevent stoppitig the motor from the stop button if the contactor fails t o drop out on 58 per rent voltage. Autotransformers are quite common. however.30 shows a system wit. Closing the start hutton under this condition will cause full fault current t o flow through the start button.ed in Fig.SYSTEM GROUNDING 391 2 or 3. A ground fault on any phase x i l l cause circuit tripping. Figure 6.31 shows one method of connecting a control circuit on a line grounded system. Since the magnitude of these overvoltages depends in part upon the method of grounding the system and autotransformer. originating from lightning or switching surges. and the fault mill be isolated.oil. A ground fault a t R or C ivill not pick up the contactor and remain unnoticed. in control and utiliaatioii equipment. Here a ground fault on any phase except 1 d l cause circuit tripping.ire devirc. e . . however. c represent the loiv-voltage system normally operating at line-to-line voltage and points d . their use in industrial power systems as a part of the power distribution system is relatively infrequent. SPECIAL PROBLEMS AUTOTRANSFORMERS Poiver autotransformers are quite frequently used in public-utility poiyer transmission and distrihutiori systems. but it will prohably burn out the (.or. full fault curreiit Xi-ill flow until interrupted by a protert. 111the event of a line-to-ground fault on the line connected t o terminal d.32.

and since this may be stepped up tivo t o twenty times or more by inversion (depending upon the winding ratios). . This type of overvoltage can be eliminated by solidly grounding the neutral. The hd portion of the winding induces in the d N .t o lowvoltage ratio approaches unity. from point h t o d . .o K J . is evident that a serious overvoltage may be experienced.IK. I n cases where this is not feasible. the voltage ivill be stepped up in K N by t. Another system autotransformer connection which is subject to both normal frequency inversion and transient inversion is operation with the supply system neutral grounded and the autotransformer neutral isolated. Solid grounding of the autotransformer neutral eliminates this type of overvoltage. point K remaining a t it. this is an undesirable situation and cannot be tolerated.2 1 4 3 + E.4 kv operating ungrounded on an ungrounded system.8/34. Steep wave-front transient overvoltages produced by lightning or slyitching surges coming in over lined and arriving a t point.V t. portion of the winding a voltage of corresponding phase and of a magnitude depending upon the turn ratio * Registwed trademark of General Electric Company.-voltage lines of 0. can he rharged. Since the port. The presence of a tertiary delta on the autotransformer also tends t o minimize transient overvoltages of this hature.11) For example. a lightning arrester or Thyrite* resistor connected between the neutral and ground can he used t o minimize this voltage.8)(34. Another type of overvoltage called transient inversion can occur in a n autotransformer.33.4' + (13. in the case of an autotransformer rated 13.he turn rat.4) = 25 kv Obviously. = -dE.. . of K.2 + h.E* (6.s normal frequency value until C .ion of the winding K N is closely coupled t o J K .otransformer winding .J are impressed across a portion of the aut.34.58 m+ 34. A line-to-ground fault on the high-voltage line 2onnected t o terminal h forces the voltage of point h t o that of N . a line-to-ground fault on one of the high-voltage lines will impress a voltage t o ground on two of the loii. as illustrated in Fig. it. Since the initial disturbance may he several times normal voltage. This inverts the phase of winding hd by impressing voltage N .ion of the ivinding J K has impressed upon it practically the entire voltage disturhance.392 SYSTEM GROUNDING 8:dc = Ed. The result is that the port. as shown in Fig. 6. The hazard due t o transient inversion is greatest for autotransformers in which the high. .

6.32 Ground fault on ryrtem with autotransformer connecting ungrounded I TO UNGROUNDED HIGH VOLTAGE SYSTEM FIG.34 Autotransformer neutral isolated. 6. Note that phase voltages N P j and N 2 k are far above normal for the case . (1 . of the two parts of the winding.SYSTEM GROUNDING 393 a T O HIGH VC LTAG E UNGROUNDED SYSTEM FIG. shown in Fig. This results in a shift of point Nz.35. supply-system neutral grounded.

35 Vector diagram illustrating normal frequency inversion of clutotmnrformer.1) = 7.32 per unit S o t e also in this rase that only the high-voltage lines and connected apparatus are subject t o overvoltage. That is. 1 : 1. 1 Der unit 1.35 per unit d T ( l .1 = 6. that is. the faulted phase would be overexcited by ten times normal.394 SYSTEM GROUNDING illustrated. the autotransformer normally boosting the low voltage hy 10 per rent. where the step-up ratio was 2 : l . the closer the autotransformer ratio is t o unity. The resultiirg voltage magriitudes are given by the following relations: For example.V%h= 1 E Z = 1 . the more severe is the overvoltage from this type of fault. 6. in the case of a n autotransformer stepping up 10 per cent = E.he autotransformer is a satisfactory means of eliminating h t 1 - EZ b t El FIG. 1 . Overvoltages from this cause can be prevented by solidly grounding the neutral of the autotransformer. resulting in a much more severe shift of N 2 and overexcitation of the other phases. If the step-up ratio had heen 1 . The foregoiiig examples illustrate the nature of the overvoltages which ran be obt. .ained with autotransformers. The lorn-voltage lines are not subjected to any ahnormal voltages in this case. solidly grounding the neutral of t. I n general.

These harmonic problems ran usually he eliminated h?.heir operat. or volt. See referetire 5 for a more romplet. depeiidiiig 011 the particular illstallation. The distribut. The disadvantage of solid neutral grounding is that thirdharmonic currents aiid telephone interfereiice may heromc excessive iii rertaiii cases. 6. DISTRIBUTION TRAN 5 F O R M E R RELAY I - Y ( I FIG.ioti-t.36 Grounding the neutral of distribution transformer.age.aose sometimes the rost of the resistor and distribntioii-type transformer is less than the vost of + high-voltage Ionrurreiit resistor roiiiiertrd dirwtlv hetween the neutral and ground. use of a tertiary delta 011 the ant. GENERATOR-TRANSFORMER UNIT INSTALLATIONS Figure (i. generator-tr~nrformerunit with resistance-loaded .or This system is used bei.ioii transformer will usiially have a rating of 25 t o 50 h a . loading resistor.he bank will normally be roiinevted i t 1 delta.hat.SYSTEM GROUNDING 395 overvoltages. for the utility system. This scheme may he provided x i t h a 5.36 shorn an arrangemelit using a distrihut. at least one \\-inding of t.iiig voltage t o public-utility systems. and t.raosformer.ype t. The scheme of grounding the industrial system should be properly coordinated \\-it. and relay in the gciierat. SYSTEMS WITH PUBLIC-UTILITY SUPPLY Some iiidustrial systems are directly roiinerted at t.his delta-rotiiierted i~iiiding will make grorindilig of earh systrm itidepetident of grounding of the other. aiid the relay may be connerted t o operate on resistor current.e discussion of this s n b j w t . If two systems are interconnected by means of a transformer bank.or 10-miti ratiiig t o permit time for traiisferriiig load off the atrected mavhiiie before it is takeii out of service.

Here is another advantage of limiting the ground-fault magnitude. Three-phase fault-momentary duty : I.. = x. This is usually accomplished by direct connection of transformer bank neutrals t o ground.0) 3E.570 amp symmetrical Line-to-ground fault-momentary duty : I". A specific example (Fig. This may i n some cases necessitate larger circuit breakers than would be dictated by threephase faults. 6. single-phase loads are connerted between phase cotiductors and the neutral conductor.396 SYSTEM GROUNDING This results in a n effective high-resistance ground which.. therefore.(IJ(l. The neutrals of such systems should be grounded so solidly that during a ground fault the voltage between any phase conductor and ground does not appreciably exceed normal line-to-ground voltage. four-wire systems must use solid or reactance grounding with ground-fault currents approximately equal to three-phase fault currents.5) 0.0 (1040)(1. otherwise.0832 + O.37 are shown in Fig. THREE-PHASE FOUR-WIRE SYSTEMS I n these systems..5) El = 1. = Xi' + x. is satisfartory from the standpoint of transient overvoltages.5) = 3 20.650 amp asymmetrical . 6..0832 ~ = 18.0832 + 0.OF (1040)( 1. and zero-sequelire impedance diagrams for the system in Fig. The neutral conductor is insulated over its entire length except where it is grounded at its source of supply.38. The positive-.750 amp asymmetrical Interrupting duty: I. the relaying problem is simple. = $ (Id(1.0985 ~ (1040)(1. negative-.0) = 10. T o be adequately grounded. G. because of the limited system and the absence of switching devices.+ xo (IB)(l. FAULT DUTY MAY BE INCREASED BY SOLID GROUNDING Solid grounding of the service transformer neutral can be responsible for fault currents exceeding the three-phase values. = 0.37) incorporating a representative arrarigement will serve to explain what factors contribute t o a greater line-toground duty.5)= 0. and since no problem of relay coordination is involved. abnormally high voltage t o ground mill be impressed on the unfaulted circuits.

the two fault currents would be equal. Any system condition uhich acts to reduce + + A 7 5 0 0 UVA X = 6 PERCENT IND MOTORS 3000 K V A X. and ZU\yere all equal. Z?. 6.06 = 12..0832 + 0. Zo).25 PERCENT SYN MOTORS 2000 KVA X " / X ' = 2 0 / 2 5 PERCENT X" = 6 2 . E. 7 5 PERCENT ON 7 M 0 K V A FIG. If Z. . 3 (1040)(1.37 Typical system where ground-fault current may be greater than three-phore fault current.0985 + 0.SYSTEM GROUNDING 397 Interrupting duty: lint = X. 5 PERCENT ON 7500 KVA X ' ? X ' = 7 5 / 9 3 . Z.900 amp symmetrical Ratio of line-to-ground t o three-phase fault duty: Momentary: Interrupting : The key t o this problem is the fact that three-phase fault current is coutrolled by the factor l / Z 1 while line-to-ground fault is controlled hy thc factor 3/(Z.O) +3X I + Xu (zB)(l'o) = 0.

9375 I/I0.09 10. .9375= '9.lI 1/0.0832 N * IF x ' ( FOR .16=0.625 1/12.02= 0 .75 1. 6.33 1 / 0 . for circuit shown in Fig.37.0832 IF 0.02 - if 0.398 SYSTEM GROUNDING POSITIVE SEQUENCE X" N .06 F I G . 0 8 3 2 X" EQUIVALENT 0. 1 6 1040 ~ bMP BASE CURRENT(IB)= 4 7500 I /O.38 Sequence impedoncer expressed in per-unit on 7500-kva 4160-volt threephase bare. EQUIVALENT N ZERO SEQUENCE XO N -2AN\r 2NLh/L.eF INTERRUPTING DUTY ) I/O. 6 2 5 = ~ 12. 6.09 110.Il 9. IF 0.16 0.0985 X ' EQUIVALENT El N - 0 F NEGATIVE SEQUENCE X 2 (SAME AS POSITIVE SEQUENCE X" EXCEPT OMlTTlhO E l ) X.

e. 5 . . or Z. 6. 300 amp Feeder irsiug (iOO. . . Review system rclayiiig. . Consider the syst. Ground-fault curretit required for relaying is as follo\vs. . EXAMPLES O F PRACTICE Example 1. to assurr that the system \\-ill alij-ays he grounded. . or any condition which tends to increase Z. Resistors should be rated at least GO0 amp. . . individual resistors are selei. . . GOO amp Smaller freders. .9: Generators. 4. . mill make the line-toground fault current greater than the three-phase value. Therefore. . . . as suggested uuder Seiitral (:iri. .. . the highvoltage supply system reactanre \ d l he very small compared il-ith the transformer rcactauce. Since gtwerator breakers may be used for back-up protwtion. . . .em of Fig.ations for inataiii. . . . . . thus solid ueutral groundiug i n prarhically all cases results i i i 110 iircreased short-riruuit duty. . . 6. voiiditioti d . . 3. 111 the case of load-renter suhst.urrent relays. In passing it is iuterest.. . Ground-fault protection is available 011 every circuit esvcpt the bus. timc interval rating may hc used. Select neutral grnuilditlg equipment.h becomes iiicluded i n the positive-sequence uct\vork but.ion proredure is as follows: I . . Had the iiwomiug h i e shortkiri. . Resistors for iudoor mounting are suggested.39. Thus.uit Arrangements. .ing t o note that grountliug any other ueutrals of 4160-volt equipment i n the esample would redwe %. .there wor~ldbe scarcely auy difference hetween line-to-ground and three-phase fault-currrnt values.y been 500 mva instead of I50 mva (lower X . and (.&useline-togrouud fault rurrciit to be elevated.. . All necessary data are giacit oii the diagram. . resist. . .ted. . and XI. . . I.s.\pplirat.ess than (i00 amp h. 7.uit dut. . from Table 6. . . . slid X2). . . . . . referred to the 4I6O-volt bus Xo is smaller than X . .5 current tmisformers. . riot in the zero-sequence netn-ork. . .. which can be protected by neutral back-up rdays. a IO-sei.SYSTEM GROUNDING 399 Z. . 2. Select all three generator urutrals as grounding point. In the example the utility service line coutaiiis a fair amouut of reactance ii-hic. . Three iudividual rcsistors would provide a maximum total ground-fault curretit of only 1800 amp. . The oiily additional devices needed arc three iirwtral current transformers and three neutral overr.anre grounding is suggested. Select groundiug method. . Select neutral circuit arrangement. From Table (i.5. a. . .

Review system relaying. 5 . Procedure is as follows: 1. as a direct connection to earth (from Table 6. condition R. Select location of grounding point. From Table 6.39 Circuit diagram tor Example 1. Transformer primary breaker.SYSTEM GROUNDING 51 PHASE OVERCURRENT RELAYS(TH0SE ON GENERATORS HAVE VOLTAGE RESTRAINT) GROUND OVERCURRENT RELAYS GENERATOR PHASE DIFFERENTIAL RELAYS(NEUTRAL CT'S NOT SHOWN) GROUND OVERCURRENT BACK-UP RELAYS FIG.5.40. a. 3. 4. @) 07 @ Consider the system of Fig.5). 6. Select neutral circuit arrangement. All necessary data are found on Fig.40. We shall consider in turn each breaker used for system protection. as the neutral of the main bank. 6. Select grounding method. 6. This breaker will operate on trans- Example 2. 2. .

The loss of production and damage on that occasion amounted to several thousand dollars. seven altogether. “ A few years ago in one of our large plate glass plants two feeder grounds occurred on two different phases about 2000 feet apart in two departments. of course.a ground-fault current of about 17.SYSTEM GROUNDING 401 former secondary faults. 6. 21.40 Circuit diagram for Example 2. (17. Since the FIG..4. This is over ten times the circuit rating and hence is sufficient for operating phase overcurrent relays in the primary circuit. if the transformer case is properly bonded to the system neutral. This breaker is primarily for bus faults. current maximum . When the fireworks and excitement had subsided the two departments involved were shut down for several hours until repairs could be made.300 amp) is a t least twenty times the rating of the largest feeder breaker. were brought into the electric shop with burnt out or grounded windings. Feeder breakers. and two grounds on the same phase but on two different feeders are exceedingly difficult to trace. The following is quoted from theexperience of an engineer of a large glass-manufacturing company as related to an AIEE group recently. From Table 6. This is because all the feeders must be opened a t once and closed one at a time to find the trouble. mound-fault .300 amp may flow to a terminal fault. T r a n s f o r m e r secondary breaker. No neutral grounding equipment is required. be available for grounding. but the primary breaker will give satisfactory protection.) I 480 V provided by the breaker. these provide adequate ground-fault protection. The transformer neutral must. This. we believe. OPERATING EXPERIENCE Case 1. 6. Since the maximum ground-fault current is only about ten times the circuit rating. Within a few hours after this trouble happened a number of motors. fast tripping may not be 1600 AMP . as discussed for transformer faults. is an important effect of the system surges that occur during very bad fault conditions such as this. “With continuous process operations the hunting of ground faults is very difficult. G. For such faults the ground-return path will be so short that its resistance will be negligible. Our .

Of these 34 indications. An engineer from a large steel company reported as follows on experiences with a grounded-neutral 6900-volt system which was placed in operation in 1947: “The operating record of the system since the grounded neutral was installed is most gratifying.” . the neutral bus and wiring are items that add t o the cost. These are first costs that do not add more than one per cent t o the total cost of a unit substation. “It was because of our experiences. and the need in our operations for the highest possible service continuity. “Two of our plate glass plants are now operating 100 per cent with 600 volt grounded neutral systems. that a single blown fuse probably indicates a ground. and t. and the operating electrician hopes that no other grounds occur before he has an opportunity t o find the first one. there were two ground relay operations resulting in one equipment failure. For instance. I n each instance i t appears that the relaying has been fast enough t o clear the fault before any destructive burning resulted. one paint plant and two fabricating plants were built with 460 volt grounded neutral systems. The additional transformer neutral bushing and connections. 19 resulted in equipment failures such as grounded motor coils or flashed-over bushings. Troubles are localized and promptly repaired.” Case 2. The result is that the system operates with two phases a t line-to-line voltage to ground. A majority of the faults occur on branch feeders and are cleared by the local branch protection devices such as fuses. “The cost of a grounded neutral low voltage system is slightly higher than an ungrounded system. None of them has expressed any desire t o return to nongrounded systems. and the first fifty weeks of 1952 show a similar record. such as I have mentioned. operating a t 460 volts. The ground faults experienced show a marked reduction in number and severity.wo other works are about 50 per cent cut over. As the electricians become used t o the new systems they are more enthusiastic and quickly learn. for instance. During the year 1951. Particular attention has been paid t o the severity of the damage caused by these ground faults. “Our experience with these systems has been very satisfactory.402 SYSTEM GROUNDING experience is that the first ground remains on the system because we cannot open the feeder breakers to hunt it.000 kva. that we began to seriously consider the use of grounded neutral low voltage distribution systems. the number of ground indications recorded totaled 34. are completely changed over t o grounded neutral and a third is in the process of being changed. Several new plants. There is no question that the service reliability has greatly improved. consisting of 30 units. Two window glass plants. during the year 1944. Our total transformer capacity operating a t 600 volts or 460 volts grounded neutral is now 40.

I. and H. 60. p. 997. Peterson. AIEE. 2. Broken Delta Secondary Transformer Circuits. 6. A I E E .” John Wilry & Sons. 3-Phase Bus. Edith. Trans. AIEE.” John Wiley &Eons. H. A.” 4. S. A. 58. Effect of Restriking on Recowry Voltage. 9. 1Y53. Application Guide for the Grounding of Synehronoua Generator Systems. vol. Clarke. J. June.. Trans. Tiann. W a l d o r f .. 517-526... June. . National Electrical Code. k n g Ground Tests i n a Normally Ungroundcd 13-Kv. Concordia. New York. 32. Blume. 1939. vol. K. . Arcine Faults in Power Svstems. I 3. 11. F. 1941. 1945. E. “Tranaformer Eneineerins. 1951. and W. Shott. C. Tmns. Peterson. Allen. Power Apparatus and Systems KO. Concordia. 340-346. R. pp. 7. Stepdown Transformer Bank Be Grounded? Gen. 298. and S. “Circuit Analysis of A-C Power Systems (Symmetrical Components). Should the High Voltage Neutral of a Wye-delta. C. Inc. 8... Criteria for Neutral Stability of Y-Grounded Primary.. vol. F. AIEE.SYSTEM GROUNDING 403 REFERENCES 1. Elm. Quinn. vol. “Neutral Grounding Devices. 1941. AIEE Standards No. . 6. 10. and H.. Skeats. Rev. pp. F.. 5. 1950. L. p. AIEE Committee Report. 1946. 1943. Inc.

When a ground fault occurs on an electric system.. This includes all metal conduits. and metallic enclosing cases of all electric equipment and electrically operated equipment. R. H. as well as to provide that operators and attendants shall also be a t the same potential a t all times. 404 . are reduced. BUILDINGS. a plant grounding system is required. and David Stoetzel Equipment Grounding STATIONARY EQUIPMENT. By achieving more nearly a uniform potential throughout the grounding system. lives may depend on an adequate equipment-grounding installation. Carpenter. switchgear enclosures. the chances of large differences of potential within reasonable reaching distance of a person. switch boxes. AND STRUCTURES OBJECTIVES OF EQUIPMENT GROUNDING Equipment grounding consists of the connecting to ground of noncurrent-carrying metal parts of the wiring system or apparatus connected to the system. It is like the gun that nobody thought was loaded until someone pulled the trigger. metal armor of cables. transformer cases. great enough to shock or injure an attendant when short circuit or other abnormal occurrences take place. The purpose of this is t o seek to achieve a uniform potential in all parts of the structure and apparatus. metal enclosures of motor controllers and other frames. Jr. A grounding system is very likely called upon to function very infrequently. One objective of equipment grounding is to limit the potential between non-current-carrying parts of the plant and between these parts and earth to a safe value under all conditions of normal and abnormal system operations. outlet boxes. Shelby C. J.chapter 7 by L. metal raceway. cabinets. To accomplish this objective. and inadequacy may become evident only a t that time. motor frames. Cooke. Kaufmann.

Hot wire grounded to frame. high impedance a t joints and connections or insufficient cross section in grounding circuits may cause arcing and heating of sufficient magnitude to ignite nearby combustible material or explosive gases.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 405 A second objective of equipment grounding is a low-impedance return path for ground-fault current.7 16. I I I . It was found that in these 153 recorded injuries either no grounding or inadequate grounding could have been responsible for the injury.. Laceration. 305 572 755 693 690 28 57 48 42 33 10. third finger left hand. Ground wire broken off in drill.9 Of the 909 recorded injuries. State of California. The hazard to personnel exists a t the time a ground fault occurs. Forcing the current to flow through a highimpedance grounding connection may create a dangerous potential difference.” “Carpenter. “Refrigerator Repairman. states that in the year 1952 there were 909 recorded electrical work injuries. Typical injury descriptions are as follows.9 10. Department of Industrial Relations.” .:. dorsal surface a t base of distal phalanx. For comparison. Also. of which 40 were fatal. similar figures for several previous years are listed in the accompanying table.:: : .5 20.1 15. severe.” “Cabinetmaker. IMPORTANCE OF EQUIPMENT GROUNDING The published data of the Division of Industrial Safety. Electric drill shorted out-severe shock. took hold of another grounded drill-unconscious about one minute. Iniuries Year Total Fatal Rdio 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 :. 153 could be related directly to contact with frame case or non-current-carrying metal parts. employee knocked out for about fifteen minutes. Operating portable electric hand-saw on wet groundreceived shock and dropped saw.

were attributable to inadequate equipment grounding. are specifically attributed to “Electrical. a contact between another phase conductor and a metallic enclosure raises the enclosure to full-line potential aboveground. For safety to personnel. h typical ground network is illustrated in Fig. COMPONENTS OF AN EQUIPMENT GROUNDING SYSTEM Definitions. . Grounding conductor is a conductor used to connect equipment frames or wiring-system enclosures to the ground bus. consequently. The distinction between a neutral conductor (white) and a grounding conductor (green) is illustrated in Fig. it is generally recognized that equipment grounding is required but is often provided as an afterthought and. Grounding electrode is a conductor embedded in the earth. or approximately 17 per cent of the total. it can he safely said that these 153 accidents. With a little careful consideration. For the purpose of further explanation of the grounding system the following definitions are established (see Figs. The National Fire Protection Association consistently reports that about 10 per cent of all fires. is of unknown origin. 7.” They also report that another 10 per cent. fixed services. Failure to provide a suitable connection between enclosure and ground presents a serious hazard to personnel.406 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING Inasmuch as adequate equipment grounding tends to keep the potei tial difference between equipment frame and ground within safe limits. I t is inevitable that many of these fires were caused by inadequate equipment grounding and insufficient attention given to return paths for ground-fault currents. 7.4.2). may or may not he adequate-for the purpose intended. representing about 10 per cent of losses from fires. During such periods. representing about 30 per cent of losses from fires.1 and 7. Ground bus is a protective ground network used to establish a uniform potential in and about the structure.3. 7. Also. The increased use of system-neutral grounding has focused attention on the necessity for good equipment grounding systems to obtain lowimpedance return paths for ground-fault current. Ungrounded neutral systems often operate for extended periods with a single-phase faulted to ground. used for maintaining ground potential on conductors connected to it and for dissipating into the earth currents conducted to it. the flow of fault current through a high-impedance connection during a double line-to-ground fault may create differences of potential of dangerous proportions. I t is tied solidly to the grounding electrodes. it becomes apparent that a well-planned equipment grounding system must be provided whether the system neutral is grounded or not. fires due to misuse or faulty wiring and equipment.

1 Typical grounding system for on outdoor substation. c Y 0 .FIG. 7.

IOlNT FIG. . 7.408 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING FIG. 7. pical grounding system f o r a building and heavy electric opparatvr in the GROUNDING ELECTRODES CONNECTlON TO WATER PlPiNG JOINT CONNECTIONS TO BUlLDlNG STEEL E A C H SlDE OF EXPANSlON .3 Typical ground bur.2 building.


A high fault current will flow through the low-resistance ground-return path causing fault interrupting devices t o operate. The Ground Bus. 7. 7. A continuous underground waterniping system provides a very satisfactory grounding electrode (Fig. and therefore the conduit will remain very close t o earth potential. Table 7. The importance of a continuous metallic circuit of low FIG. current flows through the 25-ohm resistance. Figure 7. 7.iib shows the same system with both transformer neutral and conduit connected to a common ground network which is connected t o earth through a single grounding electrode which measures 25 ohms resistance. or conductors embedded in the earth. Little. h fault oc(?urs lictween conductor B and the conduit.Fa shows a 120/240-volt single-phase system with transformer neutral connccted to ground through a grounding electrode ivhich measures 10 ohms resistauoc to earth.G. Such electrodes may be rods. ground-fault currents is illustrated in Fig. The conduit is connected t o earth through a separate grounding electrode which measures 20 ohms t o earth. such as copper or copper-hearing pipe in terms of equivalent grounding conductor or bus.illustrates t h a t appreciable resistance in the ground-return path results in a difference in potential during a ground fault which may be great enough t o be fatal t o a person . They should be of noncorrosive metal.410 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING Types of Grounding Electrodes. A fault occurs between coilduotor B and t h e conduit. Fig. It should not be inferred from the above t h a t 80 volts potential is necessarily fatal. Consideration should be given t o the size of pipe arid the extent of the system if this is t o be the sole means of connection t o earth. 7.5 ~ ~ method ~ of grounding i ~ i~npedarice ~ l in the returo path for to o large w o t e i pipe. if any. or 80 volts. They are embedded in the earth by bring driven or by burial. Artiiicial grounding electrodes should also be used. plates. Ground-fault current = 20 120 in + = 4 amp Voltage drop from conduit to earth equals 4 X 20. pipes. T h e example used simply .5).1 tahulates the size of wat.

A continuous path of low impedance i5 effeoted by means of a properly designed ground hus. the heating effect of such current can generally be disregarded because of its short duration. 1 FIG.6 0 VOLTS Illustrating the importance of a continuous metallic ground-return path of low imc-edance. For bolted joints the temperature rise should be limited t o 250 C . For brazed joints with initial temperature of 26 C and temperature rise of 450 C. While ground buses and connections must be adequately braced t o withstand the mechanical stresses due t o the initial asymmetrical line-to-ground fault current. based on the maximum allowable temperature rise. The following equations may be used in determining the size of ground bus when copper is used for conductors. The size of the ground bus is determined by the magnitude of current and the time of flow. . For bolted joiuts with initial temperature of 26 C and temperature rise of 250 C.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 41 I stepping or reaching from one point t o another. 7. and for brazed joints t o 450 C:.

manner. these floor ground hnses in turn should be connected by a number of condiictors t o the main ground bus 011 the first floor. impedance-grounded. If the building consists of more than one floor. A ground bus of adequate size for the installation should be run completely around the periphery of the building (see Fig.h adequate (auk protective devices. The around bus should he connected t o electrodes a t int. 7 . For mcclianical st. Grounding conductor material should he soft-drawn or medium-hard-draxn copper wire or copper bar. or S o .o-line fault current.ervals of 200 f t or less. For uiigrouiided arid impedaiice-grourided systems this will approximately equal line-t. amp S = time of floy. For steel-frame buildings the ground bus should be conneoted t o each outside building column (Fig. a i d for solidly grounded systems i t will approximately equal three-phase fault current. 7. Aside from the theoretical considerations t.rength the ground bus should not be smaller t h a n S o . However. Better aocessihility is obtained if an exposed bus is provided in the upper structure. It is not usually necessary t o exceed 500 MCM or equivalent for large generating stations and substations. 3 ) are practical limits which may finally determine the maximum or minimum size of ground bus. . circular mils I = ground fault current. 4/0 Awg for small stations and industrial plants. 7 connection of ground bur to building column.. 2/0-.7). see For ungrounded. For the average grounded or ungrounded power distribution system wit. 7 . a grouiid network equiualent t o the above should be provided. and often it is inore economical t o install it in this FIG..412 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING where A = cross section. Where no steel framework is available. all grounding conductors must he taken directly t o the ground bus. each floor should have its own ground bus. a time of flow of current of 10 sec is conservative atid may be used in thc above calculation. In buildings having no steel frameivork. In large buildings a network should he provided t o include internal buildiiig columns. it may he desirable t o exceed these values where exceptional precaihon is required or where extremely high ground-fault currents are expected. arid solidly grounded systems it is usually easy t o determine the magnitude of fault current t h a t could flow in the ground hus.

9 Cadweld connection to water pipe. .ectcd by pipes or other Siibstaritial guards.side &hebuildiiig wall and 18 in. The loop ground bus should be installed a minimum of 18 in. biiried in the backfill for the columii footings arid foundation wall. 7.o prevent.G. orit. FIG. below the finished grade. All ot. or with approved pressure terminals.ype joiiit (Fig. The ground bus should he coiiiie . " should.d-type buried groundfcct.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 413 T h e gronnd hos may be installed in the form of a loopoiilsidetlie boundaries o f the buildings. Steel-to-copper coririectioiis should he made abovegrouiid wherever possible. If guards are iron pipe or other magnetic matcrial.8 Codwe.her grouridirig comicctions may be ma& by brazing.7.9). 811 hiiritd grounding corinectioiis should be made by brazing or (:nd\\-eld-t.or should be electrically coiiiiected t o both erirls of the guard t. he laid slack t o prevent their being readily broken. 7. Cad\reld. the conduct. 7. ( h i d a c t o r s laid iiiidergroii~id ing connection. Where exposed to mechanical injury the conductor should be suitably prot. urilcss other\\ protected.8). inductive choke ef.S. to a continuous uiidcrgroiirid vater-piping ciri or t o suitable grouiiding e k trodes (Fig. at least at two points.

7. The National Electrical Code requires that such grounding connections shall have a resistance not to exceed 25 ohms. For residential customers it is common practice to ground one side or the neutral of electric services on the premises. which usually provides a very lowresistance grounding connection. requiring that a driven pipe or rod must be installed for the grounding connection. the temperature rise is limited to the same as the ground bus except that where exposed or adjacent to inflammable materials the total temperature is limited to 100 C. Methods of measuring resistance 60 ground are discussed later. indicate that reactance his a much more marked effect than has been previously appreciated. Size of Grounding Conductor or Bus. In small substations a resistance from ground bus to earth of higher values than that in large stations is generally permissible because the ground-fault currents are relatively smaller and they are in general only accessible to qualified personnel. however. In cities this connection is ordinarily made to a water pipe.S. TABLE 7. however. it should not exceed 5 ohms and should be as much lower as can be realized economically. An illustration of this requirement is shown in Fig.P. limiting Values of Resistance from Ground Bus to Earth. In large stations the resistance of the ground bus to earth should not exceed 1 ohm and should be made as much lower as can be realized economically. Where the grounding conductor is insulated (green wire). I n rural locations water systems may not be accessible. Inches I. Preferably. This is particularly true . Separate conductors should be used for neutral conductors and for equipment grounding. it should be the same size as phase conductors.414 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING Grounding Conductors. Where the conductor is bare. Grounding conductors should he large enough to carry the ground fault current safely. no one would contest the fact that reactance as well as resistance influences the return path taken by ground-fault currents.1 Minimum Size Water-pipe Electrodes Sire of water Pipe.4. This is distinguished from neutral conductors which should be white color code. Awg 8 6 A $5 I 1 >i 1% 2 2% $/a 2 1 /o 2/0 4lQ EFFECT OF IMPEDANCE IN EQUIPMENT-GROUNDING CIRCUITS Of course. Recent tests. they should not be used for equipment grounding. Although neutral conductors may be grounded a t the source. Equipment-grounding conductors must be identified with green color code.

12). and 7. POWER PLANT AND DISTRIBUTION EQUIPMENT The frames of stationary or permanently located rotatirig electric equipment and the frames and enclosures of static equipment such as transformer t.rirrr conductor iriside the conduit.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 415 where circuit conductors are enclosed in magnetic materials such as steel conduit or husways.he conduit to 1 in the conductor at low current. . Usually a 2. With this same ret. 7. Each of these metal structures. or metal supports should lie individually connected to the switchgear ground hns. instruments. a substantial voltage appeared between conduit and ground. which may cause fires in combustible materials whirh may he rrear. 4/0 Awg (Figs.s and 10 parts in the conduit t o 1 in the conductor at high rurreiits. bar is used. a ground hus should be provided as part of the equipment for structures or panels contaiiring such primary apparatus as current transformers. When the path by may of the eonduit was opened. This may account for the many fires that are reported tiy insurance statistics as caused hy faulty electrical circuits or of unkiioirii origin. It may also he concluded that t. Driven ground electrodes should be employed a t earh outdoor substation. and meters which require grounding. 6 Amg nor greater than S o . I t was found that. when the enclosing conduit and a return coiiductor (of about equal resistance) outside the conduit were paralleled. and disconnecting switches and such other apparatus as relays.ion of thc fault rurrent and that failure to provide a continuous path will result i n arcing and heating. About the same ratio also held true when the rurrent was allowed to divide hetween the conduit and a very low-resistauce steel-frame huildiirg >&in.he conduit or enrlosing metallic structure will tend to carry an appreciable port.anks and associated equipment permanently lorated should he grounded by dirert roniieotion t o the building grouiid b u s through a grouudiug condurtor equal in size t o the largest conductor in the line connected t o the equipment hut not less than No.11. the current tended to divide about equally hetween conductor and corrduit. To provide a vorrvenient method of grounding switchgear. metal panels. that the 60-cycle reactance of any groundThis leads to the conr~lusion return circuit remote from the outgoirig circuit conductor will likely be high compared ivith its resistance and limit the magnitude of groundreturn current which i t will carry. the current divided approximately 20 parts in t.10. pon-er circuit breakers. potential transformers. which must not he smaller in current-carrying capacity than 25 per cent of the highest rontinuous-current rating of any piece of primary apparatus t o which it is connected. 7..

Grounding connection-tronr- FIG.10 Grounding connection-utdoor circuit breaker FIG.12 Grounding connection-motor frame to building column .416 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING FIG. 7.1 1 former tank. 7. 7.

fence by falling overhead wires. it sliould he inside the conduit which carries the corresponding phase conductors.hs provided outside the conduit.he fence serrarated from the stat.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 417 This switchgear ground hus should. conductor in the line feediiig the equipment but riot larger than No.he enclosing FIG.he current.eel framework of a structure which has been suitably grounded. The reason for t. 4/0 hwg. A rigid conduit system may riot. arid therefore i t should be made adequate if possible. 7-13). STATIONERY UTILIZATION EQUIPMENT The frames arid metallic eiiclosiiig cases of all electric equipment a n d electrically operated equipment not grounded through bus drop cable may he considered adequately grounded if bolted or welded t o the st.iori ground bus. r l 1he frames and metallic eiiclosiiig cases of all electric equipment and . I f this condition does not exist. be connected t o the common station ground bus by suitable conductors having a current-carrying capacity equal t o t h a t of the switchgear ground bus (Pig. because of the high reactauce of pat. i n metal-clad switchgear or other metal strue.13 Switchgeor ground bur. In some suhstatioii installations. If it is necessary t o run a conductor for equipment grounding. However.liis is t h a t during a ground fault the suhstatioii grouiid bus may he elevated in potential above true earth and may constitute a hazard t o personnel who come in contact with the fence. coiistitut.he ground bus. aii individual grounding conductor should be run from the equipment t o t. in turn.ture) apparatus may be considered adequately grounded through their mountiiig on the structure. the conduit will carry a large percentage of t.ioris are underground and there is no possibility of energizing t.c an adequate grounding circuit. 7. A grounding coririectiori run inside the conduit or raceway through which poGer is brought t o the equipment must be an insulated conductor equal in size to the largest. it i s desirable t o keep <. where all connect. I n many cases ( f o r example.

(7. etc.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 419 The lead sheaths. so-called “harmless” devices. of 400 amp in t. and armor of power cables should he grounded a t both ends. 699 nut of the total of 909 reported electrical work injuries. should be grounded by adequate connection to the ground bus. were directly related to relatively small. The sheath. sheath voltage should be limited to 12 to 15 volts. over 77 per cent. The need for proper grounding is even greater on these applications. in which case insulating joints must he provided to permit grounding a t a sufficient number of points to keep sheath voltagrs down t o desirable limits. portable extensions. and armor of such a cable should he insulated from ground throughout the remainder of its length unless the cable is too long. because equipment in this category is widely used by personnel unfamiliar with the potential hazards. The lead sheath. or nearly 75 per cent. shields. Of the 153 reported injuries attributable to inadequate equipment grounding. the mutual reactance bo neut. 1.5 in. wireways. sheath voltages of 40 to 50 volts may be permitted. . however.ral X . weredirectly related to circuits and equipment of 600 volts or less. 82 were associated with portable electrically operated tools and 33 more with “cords. wit. I n long cables it is sometimes desirable that sheaths also be grounded a t several intermediate points. X . Incidentally. = I . and it is usually not so carefully protected. For examplc. etc. for a 500-MCM standard-strand cable. plugs. shield.0525 ohm per 1000 ft. For jacketed cable. and armor of large single-condurtor cables (500 MCM and above) should he grounded a t one end only to prevent rirculating currents.he conductor. is approximately 0.h equivalent. This is emphasized with radher startling clarity by the figures from the Division of Industrial Safety of the State of California. varnished cambric insulated..0525 = 21 volts For lead-sheathed cable in duct. spacing between cables of 3 in. with the exception of single-conductor cables as noted helow. shield. lead sheathed (approximate outside diameter. the induced vokage to neutral per 1000 ft can be calculated from the formula P.). SMALL APPARATUS AND DEVICES Small apparatus and devices present a very serious problem because of their diversity and because they are usually associated with low voltage and relatively small blocks of power which are inclined to be considered as innocuous. Conduits. junction boxes. The minimum requirements for these connections are established by the National Electrical Code. because the jacket acts as an insulator..3) = 400 X 0.” In other words 115 out of 153. busways. Assuming a current I .

there are practical objections which must be overcome by education and manufacturing standardization. . steam pipes. plumbing fixtures. This method does not present an effective solution because there is seldom a good place to fasten the terminal to ground. conductor in the connecting cable. 3. One of the important objections to the adoption of the green conductor in wiring systems is the danger of making a wrong connection in the box or in the tool. shower baths. bathtubs. or grounding. LIGHTING FIXTURES The minimum requirements for grounding of lighting fixtures should be those specified in the National Electrical Code. 4. and intelligent safety practices are employed. This condition is more likely to occur in the small shop or the home where the inexperienced amateur electrician does the job than in a large industrial plant where experienced labor. However. because portable tools are often supplied with a two-conductor cord and a two-pole plug. It i s now standard practice in many plants to use only three-pole outlets throughout the factory area where portable equipment is apt to be plugged in. This has not become an effective solution to the problem as yet. The fixture is not installed within 8 ft vertically or 5 ft horizontally of laundry tubs. Other methods have been used to a limited extent. or if so mounted is insulated from its support and from the metal lath by the use of insulating joints or fixture supports and canopy insulators. The fixture is on a circuit operating a t 150 volts to ground or less. and it is too much bother to fasten it even if there is a good place. a grounding connection can be made by using special three-pole outlets with a third. the three-pole plug will not enter the conventional two-pole outlet. and by so doing connect the exposed metallic case to the ungrounded circuit conductor. which tends to discourage its use until such time as a complete conversion can be accomplished. The fixture is on an outlet wired with knob and tube work or nonmetallic sheathed cable. Furthermore. or other grounded metalwork or grounded surface. as standard. 2. There appears to be a trend toward the adoption of the “green” conductor in wiring systems and the three-pole plug and receptacle. for example. a three-conductor cord with a clamp-type terminal dangling a t the plug end. adequate supervision. The fixture is not mounted on a metal or metal lath wall or ceiling.420 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING In many cases where portable tools and equipment are connected through a plug and receptacle. and i t is difficult to convert to a three-conductor cord and get the third conductor connected to the metallic case of the tool. The Code states that every metal fixture shall be grounded unless all the following conditions exist: 1.

adequate supervision. conductor in the connecting cable. . which tends to discourage its use until such time as a complete conversion can be accomplished. the three-pole plug will not enter the conventional two-pole outlet. The fixture is on an outlet wired with knob and tube work or nonmetallic sheathed cable. for example. and intelligent safety practices are employed. plumbing fixtures. bathtubs. and i t is difficult to convert to a three-conductor cord and get the third conductor connected to the metallic case of the tool. shower baths. there are practical objections which must be overcome by education and manufacturing standardization. This has not become an effective solution to the problem as yet. Other methods have been used to a limited extent. a grounding connection can be made by using special three-pole outlets with a third. or grounding. 2. a three-conductor cord with a clamp-type terminal dangling a t the plug end. LIGHTING FIXTURES The minimum requirements for grounding of lighting fixtures should be those specified in the National Electrical Code. It i s now standard practice in many plants to use only three-pole outlets throughout the factory area where portable equipment is apt to be plugged in. and it is too much bother to fasten it even if there is a good place. One of the important objections to the adoption of the green conductor in wiring systems is the danger of making a wrong connection in the box or in the tool. and by so doing connect the exposed metallic case to the ungrounded circuit conductor. There appears to be a trend toward the adoption of the “green” conductor in wiring systems and the three-pole plug and receptacle. The fixture is not installed within 8 ft vertically or 5 ft horizontally of laundry tubs. The fixture is on a circuit operating a t 150 volts to ground or less. The fixture is not mounted on a metal or metal lath wall or ceiling. Furthermore. 4. However. steam pipes. 3. This condition is more likely to occur in the small shop or the home where the inexperienced amateur electrician does the job than in a large industrial plant where experienced labor. or other grounded metalwork or grounded surface. This method does not present an effective solution because there is seldom a good place to fasten the terminal to ground.420 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING In many cases where portable tools and equipment are connected through a plug and receptacle. because portable tools are often supplied with a two-conductor cord and a two-pole plug. The Code states that every metal fixture shall be grounded unless all the following conditions exist: 1. or if so mounted is insulated from its support and from the metal lath by the use of insulating joints or fixture supports and canopy insulators. as standard.

a local grounding connection should be made by driving rods into tbe earth near the arresters (Fig. 14 Awg.EQUIPMWT GROUNDING 421 Grounding of the fixture is permissible in a11 cases. the lightning-arrester grounding conductor should be connected into the common station ground bus.15 nectim Lighhing-arreiter p r m d m- . Lower values may be desirable. In addition. provided that the r a c e way. or to gas piping. The grounding of high-intensity mercury lighting fixtures and fluorescent lighting fixtures should he accomplished hy running an individual grounding conductor to the ground hus or ik equivalent. The National Electrical Code states that a lightniagarrester ground wire shaii not be maller than No. 7. For the average case. depending on the degree of proteotion required. 7. Grounding of hook-suspended uuits supplied through a disconnecting plug should be accompliihed by means of a separate grounding conductor in the connecting cable equal in currentcarrying capacity to the liie conductors. 2 is suggested for 4160-. 6 Awg. the armor of armored cahle. grounding conductor. the grounding conductor in a nonmetallic sheathed cable.15). or gas pipe is grounded in an approved manner. LIGHTNING AND LIGHTNING-ARRESTER GROUNDS For lightnjng arresters. armor. a minimum of No. It appears to be more RG. a separate grounding conductor not smaller than No. 6900-. and 13. Connection shouid be made through separate grounding contacts in the plug aud receptacle. For instance. Properly made ground connections are an ewential feature of a lightpiug-rod system for protection of buildings.800-volt distrihution circuits. The eonnection from arrester to ground should be as ehort and as straight as possible. TheNationalEleetricalCodealsos b t e s that fixtures shall he considered as grounded when mechanically connected in a permanent and effeetive manner to metal raceway. A larger siee conductor is required as thesystem voltage increases. A continuous row of ktnres may be considered as one fixture if the mechanical connection hetween a 1 1 sections i s such that electrical continuity is assured. an arbitrary upper limit of 5 ohms resistance to ground has been estahlished.

a considerable variation in soil resistivity at a given location may he expected because of normal seasonal changes. These values are indicative of whether the ground is satisfactory for the particular inst.422 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING important to provide ample distribution of metallic contact in the earth than to provide low-resistance connection. The rcsist. and temperature. Usually preiision in such measurements is not required. and if they are within 6 f t of metallic roofs. It has been found that the range of soil resistivity usually encountered varies between 500 and 50. soil resistivity is dependent on soil material.ance may b i measured by the use of a voltmeter and ammeter. or 1000 ohms. formulas for calculating the performance of grounding connections hecome so romplicated and involve so many indeterminate factors that they are of little value. all of which result in approximations of varying degrees of accuracy. Each down conductor should have a ground connection. METHODS OF MEASURING RESISTANCE TO EARTH For new installations of grounding electrodes it is desirable that test electrodes be placed at the site for 60 to 90 days before tests are made in order that the earth around the electrode may become stabilized. Several methods of testing have been devised. but the resistance of any given installation can be determined only by tests.allation or whether improvement is necessary. Ground connections should be made at uniform intervals shout the building. as it is necessary to know only whether the resistance is of the order of 1. By so doing. Obviously. Interior metal parts or structures of a building should he grounded independently. they should be securely connected thereto. Theoret.ically it is possible to calculate the resistance of any system of grounding electrodes.000 ohms per cu cm. and they are useful as general guides. 100. 10. walls. They should make contact with the earth from the surface downward to avoid flashing at the surface. or down conductors. however. The commonly used methods of measuring and testing the resistance of a grounding connect. Also. Many such formulas have been developed. Low-resistance connections are desirable. Ground electrodes should be at least 2 f t away from and should extend below the building foundation. avoiding as much as possible the grouping of connections on one side. that the measurement of grounding connection resistanre be made a t the time of installation and at periodic intervals thercafter to determine the adequacy and permanence of the grounding connection. It is important. moisture content. a more accurate indication of resistance to earth will he obtained. However.ion make use of two auxiliary electrodes in addition to thc one under test. a Wheatstone bridge &h a slide-wire potenti- . and should be provided where practicable.

16 Three-point method of mearuring rerirlonce of earth connoction.Rg t R Z -RZ RI RX = + Rp . or hy self-contained instruments which give direct readings in ohms.Ry . Portahle ground-testing instruments provide the most convenieut and sstisfactory means for measuring the resistance of grounding connections. becanse it does not measure the iow values. however.16.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 423 ometer. i A U X I L I A R Y N0. 7.1 f. 7.RZ RX = RI RX i Rp . Either alternating curreiit of commercial frequency A U X I L I A R Y NO.RZ 2Rx = RI = Rp i . Three-point Method. The common instrument used for measuring insulation resistance is not suitahle for measuring grounding-connection resistance.R 3 RI + R p .A 3 7 FIG. .y '11. Three methods of measuring and testing grounding connections are descrihed helow.2 {Rz RI = R x t R y Rp = R x + R z Ra = R y t R Z Ry R 3 . The connections and measurements of the resistance of grounding connections 5y the three-point method are illustrated in Fig.

A current of known magnitude is passed through the electrode under test and one of the auxiliary electrodes. and the ratio of this voltage drop to the known current will indicate the resistance to earth.18 Ratio method of m e o w i n g resistance of earth connection. The drop in potential betweeu the electrode under test and a second auxiliary electrode is then measured.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 425 potential across the resistance. By using a voltage-measuring device which has a high impedance. 7. L - DETECTOR FOR MEASURING P O I N T OF BALANCE S L I D E WIRE POTENT1 O M E T E R R X t R y I S MEASURED B Y MEANS OF A WHEATSTONE BRIDGE OR OHMMETER IS DETERMINED RAtRB FIG. The connections for this method using alternating current for test are illustrated in Fig. . 7. the resistance of the auxiliary potential electrode will have no appreciable effect on the accuracy of the measurements.17.

and other reasons.18. Furthermore. Current values in earth circuits have been found to vary with the frequency of applied voltage. the effectiveness of ground-fault protective devices which depend on current return in the earth is not easy t o determine. In this method the resistance of the electrode under test in series with an auxiliary electrode is measured by means of a Wheatstone hridge or ohmmeter. The ratio method of measuring and testing the resistance of grounding electrodes is illustrated in Fig. Such machines as these present serious problems with respect to the safety of operators and . Earth resistance varies with applied voltage. in some instances inversely. moisture. A-C and d-c resistances of driven ground rods have heen found to differ greatly.426 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING Ratio Method. Metallic return paths for ground-fault currents ensure a safe and adequate means of providing a level of safety which is predictable. The various methods of measuring resistance previously described are valuable to the extent that they give a magnitude of resistance in the earth circuit which is relatively accurate and will indicate whether ground connections are satisfactory or not. 7. it is difficult to determine the shock hazard from measured resistance in event of a ground fault. They should be used in industrial systems wherever possible. temperature. CHARACTERISTICS OF EARTH AS A CONDUCTOR The characteristics of earth as a conductor are generally variable and unpredictable. Voltage levels of 2400 or 4160 volts are common. The point of balance on the potentiometer fixes the ratio of the resistance of the test electrode to the total resistance of the two in series which was determined in the first measurement. It should not he expected that current magnitude in earth circuits can he calculated by conventional formulas. the resistance of an earth connection varies with earth composition. depth and diameter of rod. such as electric shovels and machines of a similar nature. They are even difficult to measure with any degree of accuracy. season of the year. are not located on permanent foundations and normally receive power by flexible trailing cable a t a relatively high voltage. GROUNDING LARGE PORTABLE MACHINERY FOR SAFETY Large portable machinery. A slide-wire potentiometer is connected across the same two electrodes with the sliding contact connected to a second auxiliary electrode through a detector for determining the point of balance. Because of the nature of earth circuits. Likewise.

Current values in earth circuits have been found to vary with the frequency of applied voltage. A-C and d-c resistances of driven ground rods have heen found to differ greatly. and other reasons. the resistance of an earth connection varies with earth composition. Such machines as these present serious problems with respect to the safety of operators and . temperature. Earth resistance varies with applied voltage. Because of the nature of earth circuits. They should be used in industrial systems wherever possible. The ratio method of measuring and testing the resistance of grounding electrodes is illustrated in Fig. GROUNDING LARGE PORTABLE MACHINERY FOR SAFETY Large portable machinery. are not located on permanent foundations and normally receive power by flexible trailing cable a t a relatively high voltage. They are even difficult to measure with any degree of accuracy. depth and diameter of rod.426 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING Ratio Method. in some instances inversely. Metallic return paths for ground-fault currents ensure a safe and adequate means of providing a level of safety which is predictable. Furthermore. A slide-wire potentiometer is connected across the same two electrodes with the sliding contact connected to a second auxiliary electrode through a detector for determining the point of balance. moisture. CHARACTERISTICS OF EARTH AS A CONDUCTOR The characteristics of earth as a conductor are generally variable and unpredictable. Likewise. the effectiveness of ground-fault protective devices which depend on current return in the earth is not easy t o determine.18. season of the year. 7. Voltage levels of 2400 or 4160 volts are common. The point of balance on the potentiometer fixes the ratio of the resistance of the test electrode to the total resistance of the two in series which was determined in the first measurement. The various methods of measuring resistance previously described are valuable to the extent that they give a magnitude of resistance in the earth circuit which is relatively accurate and will indicate whether ground connections are satisfactory or not. it is difficult to determine the shock hazard from measured resistance in event of a ground fault. such as electric shovels and machines of a similar nature. It should not he expected that current magnitude in earth circuits can he calculated by conventional formulas. In this method the resistance of the electrode under test in series with an auxiliary electrode is measured by means of a Wheatstone hridge or ohmmeter.

and drag-cable impedances Z. and.20.. FACTORS IN SHOCK HAZARD The factors which affect the shock-hazard problem are illustrated in Fig. Magnitude of ground-fault current 2. or other metal parts connected to the frame. The two most important factors with respect to the shock hazard are 1. transmission-line.20A and the equivalent electrical diagram in Fig. such as compressed-air. A protective system designed to handle such large ground currents without creating dangerous shock voltages would require a very extensive and costly low-resistance grounding circuit for the portable machine. approximately equal to the product of the ground current and the frame-to-ground resistance. However. produces a definite shock hazard to personnel.20. The physical arrangement is shown in Fig. the electric connection between the frame and the surrounding earth is a poor one. or water lines. and Z. 7.20. are of necessity relatively low t o permit proper performance of power equipment connected to the system. 7. another means of limiting the shock voltage is by limiting the current which will flow on a ground-fault occurrence. A resistor. 7.20B. This can be done with no sacrifice in the power-machinery performance by introducing a neutral grounding impedance Zo. In the case of a portable machine. Resistance from machine frame t o ground (R. 7. The normal power-system impedance composed of the substation-transformer. Personnel in the vicinity of portable machines may come in contact with this frame-to-ground voltage in various ways. drag chains.428 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING a voltage difference between the frame and ground due to the contact resistance between the two. rather than a reactor. 7. which would be required to .” In making adjustments or repairs to the dipper. a dangerous voltage can he developed when ground current is flowing. Zf. fuel. The fanlt current might be in the order of thousands of amperes if i t were limited only by these impedances.Fig. hence. the workmen usually will be standing on the ground a t some distance from the base of the machine and will be touching the metal parts of the dipper as shown in Fig. tow cables. is used as the neutral grounding impedance for two reasons: (1) to avoid the twice normal transitory current magnitude encountered with high reactance. Workmen during idle moments frequently sit on the ground in the shade of the machine with their backs against the “cats.) The ground-fault current which will flow upon the occurrence of a ground fault is determined by the power-supply voltage acting on the fault circuit impedance. The frame-to-ground voltage will be transmitted along metal. This voltage.

For example. A ground-fault current of 50 amp and a portable-machine ground-return-path resistance of 2 ohms have proved successful as a satisfactory compromise. This practice assures adequate safety even if the ground resistance of these other ground paths is very high. portable switch houses are commonly used which include circuit breakers. The portable-machine frame-to-ground resistance is very indefinite. A common arrangement is that of having circuit breakers at the main substation feeding individual pole-line circuits which go out to the portable-machine areas.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 429 limit the ground-fault current to 50 amp and (2) to avoid the relatively high switching and arcing ground transitory overvoltages which would be permitted by such high-reactance grounding. as represented by impedances Z. the maximum voltage which can occur between the frame and ground is 100 volts. 7. feeder cables are run to . In most cases it will be found that the ground-return-conductor resistance is appreciably under 2 ohms. From the portable switch houses. Since it is not normally desirable t o shut down the entire system because of a ground fault in one of the shovels. Along the pole lines at the point a t which feeders are tapped off to supply portable equipment. and Z. in Fig. (Kote that a 10-ohm ground and a ground-fault current of 100 amp would produce a shock hazard potential of 1000 volts between the machine and ground. the ground resistance will not be low. even if the resistance of the other path is infinite and the ground-fault current is limited to 50 amp. thereby limiting the maximum frame-toground voltage to a value under 100 volts. CIRCUIT PROTECTION To remove circuit elements which have experienced insulation failure and the resulting ground fault.20B. and it may be 100 ohms or more on rock formations. circuit breakers should be located t o isolate the faulty circuit elements.p o f driven ground rods at the line end of a trailing cable may have a ground resistance of 10 ohms or more unless the installation is carefully made and maintained. A reliable ground-circuit resistance of 2 ohms requires a ground-return conductor from the frame of the portable machine back to the electric-supply substation. or cable skids. Even under favorable circumstances.) Available shock-hazard information and data indicate that the possible voltage from frame to ground should not be allowed to exceed 100 volts and that adequate relaying should be provided to deenergize the circuit immediately upon the occurrence of a ground fault. This ground-return circuit alone is designed t o come within the 2-ohm limit since other ground paths are so variable. Even a gr0u. circuit breakers should be located so that the system can be switched in smaller sections.


20 Simplified circuit showing the factors involved in the shock hazard of portable machines. 7. EQUIVALENT ELECTRIC CIRCUITARROWS INOICATE CONTINUITY OF CIRCUIT ONLY - - = T $ 2 z 0 0 FIG. .SHOVEL FRAME IS AT T n E POTENTIAL O F rnis POINT z2 R2 B 25 8.


then this entire system should be immediately deenergioed. . This in most cases is not acceptable as an operating procedure. selectivity in circuit-breaker tripping can be attained so that upon the occurrence of a grouiid fault only the faulted portion of the circuit is deenergized and the remainder of the system continues to operate as normal. Thus each individual ground fault is automatically removed as soon as i t occurs. II/ POWER SUPPLY UNGROUNDED I 1 1 FEEDER TO PORTABLE MACHINES FIG. 7.21) and could produce unsafe voltages on the protective ground circuit. automatic switching equipment must be applied which will function immediately if a ground fault occurs and isolate that part of the system. locations. This current flow is not limited by the neutral grounding impedance (Fig.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 433 individual shovels. ground-detector equipment can be employed to detect the first ground fault and to operate to clear the entire system since with such operation there is no way of telling upon which feeder circuit the ground fault has occurred. 7.22 Ground-detector system for an ungrounded power supply. On an ungrounded system. Therefore. If the grounded feeder cannot be isolated. current of line-to-line short-circuit magnitude will flow in the protective ground circuit between the two fault locations. SlMULTANEOUS GROUND FAULTS Should two line-to-ground circiiit faults evist simultaneously on different phases a t different. by proper detecting means. As mentioned before. upon the occurrence of a ground fault the possibility of shock hazard makes it essential that the grounded feeder be disconnected from the system immediately. To avoid this possibility. This can be accomplished by means of back-up relaying equipment operating the circuit breaker located a t the substation.

as outlined in Chap. When applying a grounding transformer. as a result of circuit switching or restriking faults. Ungrounded systems are subject to higher transient overvoltages. . extra-sensitive relays are often required. the development of a second ground would permit dangerous voltages to appear where they could produce shock hazards.24. I n order to meet the requirements for both of these types of load. Large portable machines often receive power from the same system which supplies the mill load. RELAYING The portable-machine power system should incorporate relay protection against phase and ground faults. a 1: 1 ratio delta-Y connected isolating transformer is recommended for installation in the feeder supplying the portable machines. it is necessary that care be used in its selection. It is recommended that all relaying equipment used in connection with ground-fault protective system for large portable machinery and shovels be sensitive to current magnitudes of about one-third the solid groundfault value (15 amp when a 50-amp neutral resistor is used) so &s to assure adequate current for relay operation.434 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING For maximum service reliability and safety. 2. If for any reason the feeder breaker is not tripped open upon the occurrence of a ground fault (relays sometimes are blocked). Relays should be applied a t all circuit-breaker locations and in the grounding connection. as outlined in Chap. Because of the low value of groundfault current involved. Because of relaying limitations. Careful attention must he given to the selection of current transformers to be sure that their characteristics are satisfactory a t the operating burden imposed by the protective relay. large portable machines should not he operated on power-supply systems which do not have their neutrals grounded for the reason mentioned in the previous paragraph and also because : 1. which increase the possibility of simultaneous line-to-ground failures. it is still possible to ground the neutral of the system by the use of a zigzag connected grounding transformer in combination with the resistor. The use of such a transformer permits grounding each system separately at the proper level. it is necessary that the ground-fault-current level for the mill power system be considerably higher than that recommended for the portable-machine power system. When the source transformer is not Y-connected. 7. 9 and shown in Fig. The current transformer and relay combination should ensure positive operation a t currents well below the 50-amp level. 6.

it is obvious that this high potential would he distributed t o the frames of all portable machines and thus constitute a serious hazard. Thus during the danger period of the storm the personnel should seek shelter in Ihe metal cab of the machine or at a spot well removed from the machine. If the portablemachine circuit protective ground were physically interconnected with the main substation ground. Sumerous possible protective systems have been investigated. It is recommended that lightning arresters be applied at the junction of the trailing cable and the pole-line feeder to limit the maximum linr-to-ground voltage. . within the portahle machine. 5 ) . is not cont. 7 .000 volts with respect to ground and remain at this potential until the high-voltage-system protective circuit breaker operated (probably % to I see). Surge protective capacitor equipment should be applied on the load side of the circuit breaker. which may be supplied by the high-voltage supply system. 2 0 A ) .anding under a h e . Often a thunderst. to reduce the slope of the wave front for the protection of rotating machines. A 5000-amp ground-fault current (which might easily be equaled or exceeded) in combination with the main substation ground resistance of 2 ohms (which would be considered as a good station ground) would cause the entire main substation structure to be elevated 10. 7. to which the protective ground circuit as well as the lightning-arrester ground leads should be connected (see Fig.o a substation of the same size and voltage ratings (see Chap. Any line-to-ground flashover at the main substation will allow the high-voltage-system ground current to flow into the main substation ground in the manner illustrated in Fig. To stand on the ground near a portahle machine is about as dangerous as st.23. This current would persist for a time interval governe:l by the switching time of the high-voltage protective circuit breaker. The ground-fault current.rolled by the l(ica1 electric-system design and may often be quite large. GROUNDS AT SUBSTATION One important point concerning the design of the main suhstation should be mentioned here. The shork hazard associated with a direct lightning stroke to a portable machine is a real one and extremely difficult to eliminate.nirig protective equipment at the main substation should consist of the protective devices which would normally he applied t.orm means a temporary shutdown of operations anyway. but all are hopeless to attain in practice.EQUIPMENT GROUNDING 435 LIGHTNING PROTECTION The light. h good driven ground should be established a t the tap-off station.

TYPICAL POWER SYSTEM A typical power system for supplying portable-machine loads and illustrating the points discussed in this chapter is shown in Fig. 7. and grounded a t an adjacent separate grounding connection. POTENl'IAL 2. FIG. It is important to avoid any direct interconnection between these two grounds such as would be produced by buried metal pipelines.23 Fault diagram for high-tension system. it is recommended that the protective ground circuit. 7.24. be insulated from the main substation ground system with the same insulation level as applied t o the low-tension line circuit. originating a t the step-down transformer low-voltage neutral. . In general a 50-ft separation between the two grounding terminals is sufficient to avoid any substantial coupling between the two ground beds. As a result of these considerations. etc.A36 EQUIPMENT GROUNDING r---. The voltage gradient in the earth surrounding the main substation diminishes very rapidly as one moves away from the substation.--I I TRANSFDRMEF STATION STRUCTURE- -__ 1 I I R S C HT E C R.

MAIN ----.24 SURGECbP PROTECTIVE TRAILING CbBLt SURGE PROTECTIVE CbP Typical distribution system for supplying power to portable machines. . 7.T T ...1 SUB STATION STRUCTURE FEEQER CB ER FEEDERS NEUTRAL) I I I i C T TO SWITCH :H nousE @Y+!+2L FIG.--.

National Safety Council. Electrical Work Injuries in California Industries Year Ended December 31. R. 2 . U. 3. ..Electric Circuits Effectively. J. 10. Harrison. 1952.S.January to May. Mines Repl. 5. Accident Facts... M. Inuesl.430 EQUIPMWT GROUNDING REFERENCES 1. MeCall. C. National Bureau of Standards Handbook Is' 46. Kaufmsnn. June. Gen. Safety Rules for the Installation and Maintenance of Electric Utilization Equipment. 1952 edition.Princides and Practice... and I. Bur. Groundinv . . 8 . Eaton. 6. 1952. R. ~Ugust. 9. National Buresu of Standards Handbook H33. National Electrical Code. .September. Depsrtment of Industrial Relations. Grounding . Eke. H. Rev. July.. State of Califomin.. a consolidated remint of five srticles Dublished in Eleelrical Efi'nginewing. Safety Rules for the Installation and Maintenance of Electric Supply and Communication L i n q National Bureau of Standards Handbook H32. 1945. Grounding Circuit Design. . R. 7. 903. Some Characteristics the Earth as a Conductor of Electric Current. AIEE Paper 54-244. 1954. Code for Protection Against Lightning. i94i. Some Fundamentals of Equipment. 4.

Ch-apter 8 by W. increased copper losses. the fact that they contribute to lower plant power factor is of secondary importance. C . There are also other factors contributing t o lower power factor. As plants become motorized it can be expected that the plant power factor will become poorer unless some corrective measures are taken. XPWYork. Bloornquist Power-factor Improziement * Why are power engineers interested in plant power factor. Frequently drives are “overmotored. Bloomquist and R. especially where incandescent lamps are used. the effects of low plant operating power factor may be any or all of the following: overloaded cables. Generally. is part of the rate structure and is enforced. transformers. * In summary. low power factor is due to partially loaded induction motors.” i. C . and how can it be improved? The objectives of this chapter are to answer these questions briefly and to include handy application information for power-factor problems. the motor is selected to handle the largest load but usually operated at less than full load. Wilson. h e . from “Capacitors f o r Industry.e. or its equivalent. air-conditioning units. and * P a t s or this chapter are reproduced. resulting in sluggish motor operation. and technological advances. lower manufacturing cost. with permission. such as replacement of incandescent lamps with fluorescent lamps. 1950. and increased installation of various induction devices. reduced illumination from lighting. 439 . copyright General Electric Company. etc.. John Wilcy & Sons. use of rectifiers instead of synchronous motor-generator sets for d-c power supply. and increased power costs where a power-factor clause. Improvement of power factor can reduce power costs. what causes low power factor. raise the voltage level. electronic eqrripments. Most of these changes or replacements are in the interest of worker comfort and efficiency. .. etc.” hy W. release electrical capacity of the power-distribution system. More complete information on this subject can be found in the book from which parts of this chapter were reproduced. reduced voltage level. C.

The two most common methods for improving power factor are shunt capdcitors or synchronous motors. The unit of measurement of the power produced is t. fluorescent lights. energy could not flow through the core of a transformer or across the air gap of an induction motor. The concept used here-hased on the fact that there are two types of current in an a-c circuit--is particularly helpful in understanding the effect of power factor on system operation and understanding capacitor applications. This is especially true when capacitors are used for power-factor improvement because the electrical capacity released is valued at several times the cost of capacitors.he kilowatt (kw). require only power-producing current. while the synchronous motor finds its main application when a new and large motor drive is added. Although the following discussion on fundamentals is written around the use of capacitors because they generally are the most practical and economical means for improving the power factor. Some loads. It is generally made up of both magnetizing current and power-producing . may be considered to be made up of two separate kinds of current: magnetizing current and power-producing current. usually the capacitor method is most economical and practical for existing plants. The current required by induction motors. making a weld.hods. transformers. However. these fundamentals also apply to other met.. Total current is the current that is read on an ammeter in the circuit. Magnetizing current (also known as wattless. such as incandescent lights. or pumping water. the second is becoming more important as engineers recognize the economics. Power-producing current (or working current) is that current which is converted by the equipment into useful work such as turning a lathe. POWER-FACTOR FUNDAMENTALS The usual definition of power factor in terms of the phase relationship of voltage and current in a sine wave is intentionally avoided because it is abstract and difficult to translate into a simple physical concept. Although the first is still of primary importance. etc.440 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT reduce the system losses. induction heating furnaces. The unit of measurement of magrietizing volt-amperes is the IMovar (kvar). Each has its own application. such as synchronous motors and condensers. Without magnetizing current. the two main reasons for improving the power factor are (1) to reduce the power bill when there is a powerfactor incentive in the rate clause and (2) to increase or release electrical capacity of the power-distribution system. resistance welders. or nonworking current) is that current which is required to produce the flux necessary to the operation of induction devices. reactive.

The unit of measurement of total volt-amperes or “apparent power” is the kilovolt-ampere (kva). and kva are substituted for their respective currents: kva = d ( k w ) * (kvar)z kw = 4 ( k v a I 2 . 2.2) (8. 8.83 amp Total current = Therefore.83 AMPS. + + (8. WHAT IS POWER FACTOR? Power factor may be expressed as the ratio of power-producing current in a circuit t o the total current in that circuit. Another definition of power factor.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 441 current. It is unfortunate that instead of follows the simple rule that 2 following such a simple rule the addition of kilovar current and kilowatt current follows a principle of geometry. Fig. which is generally more useful. If the kilowatt and kilovar components of current are each 2 amp. 8.3) KVAR CURRENT TOTAL CURRENT Diagrom showing cornponent currents in a-c circuits.(kw)* 2 AMP.(kvar)z kvar = 4 ( k v a I 2 . kvar. FIG.1. 2 2 does not equal 4. the total current may be found from the right-triangle relationship as follows: + + (Kilovar current)2 + (kilowatt 22 + 22 = (total current)? = (total current)z 4 + 4 = (total current)2 v ‘ ‘ % = 2. Most a-c power systems require both kilowatts and kilovars. Thus . is the ratio of kw or working power t o thb total kva or apparent power.1 2 AMP. The following useful formulas apply when kw.1) (8. 2 2 Does Not Equal 4! The arithmetic applicable to everyday life 2 = 4.

FACTOR IMPROVEMENT Power factor kw kva kw = kva X pf kw kva = Pf = - (8. For the case illustrated in Fig.73 X 460 X 100 = 79. or. or 0.5) Stated another may. The cosine of this angle (cox e) is the power factor. 62/79. 80 per cent. the power factor is that factor by which the apparent power must be multiplied in order to obtain the working power. or.2 the power factor is SO/lOO. as it is commonly expressed. . Example 1. FIG.442 POWER. What is the power factor of the load on a 460-volt threephase system if the ammeter indicates 100 amp and the wattmeter reads 62 kw? Since in a three-phase circuit kva = 4 3 volts x amperes 1000 1. 8. 8.6 -_ = Power factor = kw/kva 78 per cent.2 The actual calc.8. The angle included between the kva and the kilowatt components is called the power-factor angle and is designated by the symbol 8.6 = 0.ulation of power fact.78.or is illustrated hy the following example. 100 K V A \ 6 0 KVAR \ 1000 Right-triongle relationship for power-factorcoldotions in a-c circuits. as it is often expressed.4) (8.

b 8. c Induction Synchronous motor (overexcitedl Synchronous motor In In In Out Out Out Out In Out Lag Lead Lead Lag lundereidtcdl In In I out lag t Power factor measured at the generator * Power factor measured at the load.1 Power Factor of Load and Source Direction of flow I A t load Figure Type of load I Kw I I Kwr Power factor' Kw Kvar Power factorl -___ Log 8.1. in industrial plants only the load power factor is considered. . and they are meaningless unless the direction of both kilowatt and kilovar flow is knoivn. MOTOR z gAG) LOAD [ (LAG1 LOAD LOAD SYN.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 443 LEADING AND LAGGING POWER FACTOR The terms leading and lagging power factor are apt to be confusing.3 Diagram for use with Table 8. a 8. in which case the following rule may be helpful in differentiating between leading and lagging power factor: " The power factor is lagging if the load requires kilovars and leading if the load furnishes kilovars. however. INO." Thus. an induction motor has a lagging power fartor TABLE 8. Generally. MOTOR (UNDER EXCITED 1 (C) FIG. 8.

k ~ a lighting load: Since incandescent lights are primarily a unity poiver-factor load.75 X 300) X 0.he actual magnitude of the magnetizing components.t and kilovar values or read directly from the alignment chart. so such a synchronous motor has a leading power factor. The varmeter has a zero center point with scales on either side. kva = 0.75 X (connected motor horsepower) with an operating power factor of 80 per cent lagging. I n order to avoid this confusion. However.” In most industrial circuits the kilowatt flow is in only one direct. It is obvious from this table that the terms leading and lagging are apt to be confusing. line or transfer circuit a wattmeter with a center point should be nsed.400 = (8.8 = 180 kvar = 4 ( 2 2 5 i z .32.2 5 .(180)2 = 4. Kilovar readings are generally more useful than power-factor readings as they indicate t.9. Fig. so single-scale wattmeters are customarily used. all the current is kilowatt current. The substation power factor is obtained from the total kilovars and kilowatts of the various loads. to a motor load.g. if the power-factor value is needed.. one labeled “ i n ” and the other “out.ion.3 indicate the power factor for common operating conditions for both loads and supply sources based on the direction of kilowatt and kilorar flow. 300 hp of connected induction motor loads: Assume kva load = 0. 5 0 .3) 4 / 1 8 . The poiver factor of a group of different loads should generally be calculated. Example 2. POWER FACTOR OF A GROUP OF LOADS The power factor of an individual load is generally known or can he estimated quite closely. 8. However.he motor d-c field action). On the other hand. and induction motors. Table 8.6 . Find the kilowatts and kilovars of each load so kva = kw. 8. in a t.4 shows a substation supplying three different kinds of loads: incandescent lights. Figure 8. This can he done quite simply by means of t. varmeters are replacing power-factor meters. 2 2 5 = 135 . an overexcited synchronous motor can supply kilovars (from t.5) (8.he relations explained previously. synchronous motors. 50. e.75 X 300 = 225 kw = (0.1 and associated Fig.444 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT berause its magnetizing requirements must be supplied by the power source or other sources. it can he computed from the kiloir. and from these the total substation k r a and poiver factor may be found as follows: 1.

(60)2= 4 5 6 2 5 . 0 PF INDUCTION MOTOR LOADS 225 KVA 0. Find the kilowatts and kilovars that the substation must supply.8 leading power-factor synchronous motor: At full load assume kva = motor-horsepower rating = 75 kva (8.8) = 60 kw = 75 kvar = -\/(75)* .3) 2.5) (8.3600 -\/m 45 = SUBSTATION INCANDESCENT LIGHTS 50 KVA 1 .4 Construction of load diagram for Example 2. = X (0.8 PF (LEAD) 1 5 KVA SO KVAzKW - 180 KW /t 60 K W 45 KVAR 135 KVAR (b) 290 K W 90 KVAR FIG. 8.8 PF (LAG) SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR LOADS 15 KVA 0.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 445 c. 75 hp of 0. .

the power factor may be improved hy supplying the load kilovar requirements by a capacitor. .2.4.44b POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT a.1) (8. the over-all p o w r factor is lagging. if a capacitor is installed t o supply the total or 60 kvar.4) Since the substation must supply some of the kilovar requiremei1t.) Induction motor loads require Synchronous motor supplies Substation must supply 135 kvar 45 90 kvar 3. the line power factor xi11 he 1. If the kilowatt current does not change. 8. Kilovars: Lights Induction motor load Subtotal = o = 135 = 135 kvar (Since an overexcited synchronous motor has the ability t o supply kilovars. d ( k i v ) 2 (kvar)2 d(290)' (90)' = 484. in Fig.100 8100 = d 9 m O = 303 290 Power factor = .956 lagging 303 = = kva + + + (8. all the current is kilowatt current and therefore the power factor will he 1. the power factor will improve as kilovar current is reduced. For example. 8. the net kilovars that must be supplied by the substation is therefore the difference between the kilovars supplied by the synchronous motor and the kilovars required by the induction motor loads.0. Find the substation kva and power factor. the total current is reduced.0 (unity) or 100 per cent. HOW TO IMPROVE POWER FACTOR When the kilovar current in a rircuit is reduced.s (the synchronous motor is riot large enough to supply all the load kilovar requiremeuts). Thus. Kilowatts: = 50 Lights Induction motor load = 180 Synchronous motor = 60 Total = 290 kw b. The various loads are added diagrammatically as shown in Fig. as is usually true.= 0. When the kilovar current becomes zero.

In the example of Fig.2. 8.5 Schematic arrangement showing how capacitors reduce total line current by supplying magnetizing requirements locally. 8. From the right-triangle relationship the following important fact can be drawn: the simple subtraction of kilowatts from total kua never equals the kilovars ezcept at unity power factor. . The working load requires 80 amp. 8. In actual practice. The supply circuit is now carrying only kilowatts. capacitors or synchronous motors are used to supply part of the load kilovar requirements and the supply system the remainder. but because o E the motor magnetizing requirements of GO amp. INDUCTION MOTOR LOADS (0) (b) FIG.5a and b. After a capacitor is installed to supply the motor magnetizing requirements.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 447 This is shown pictorially for another example in Fig. How much of the load magnetizing requirements is furnished by capacitors? (See Fig.6 for diagram construction.) Without capacitors a t 0. the supply circuit must carry 100 amp. 8. so no system capacity is wasted in carrying nonworking current.8 power factor km = 80 kvar = 60 Example 3. it is generally not necessary or economical to improve the power factor to 100 per cent. the supply circuit needs to deliver only 80 amp to do exactly the same work. suppose that the power factor is to be improved from 80 to 90 per cent with capacitors.

9 0.6) (8.7 k m r hiid the load requirement is 80 kvar. 9 )~ (SO)z = 47903 .6 4 5 = 38. From the right-triangle relationship several simple and useful mathematical cxpressions may he written: cos 0 = pf = kva kvar tan 0 = ~kw kvar sin 0 = kva Because the kilowatt component usually remains constant (the kva and kw .7 ~ (8.9 power factor kw = 80 same 80 kva = = 88.6 Diagram for Example 3. CONVENIENT CALCULATION METHODS F O R POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT The calculating method described previously mas primarily intended t o show how kilorars influence the power factor and that in a-c circuits the total kva is obtained by using the right-triangle relationship and not just by arithmptical addition of the kilowatts and kilovars. 8. the capacitor supplies tho difference.38.3) Since the line supplies 38.7 = 21.3 kvar.9 Line kvar = ~ ‘ / ( 8 8 . FIG.448 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT IVith capacitors and 0. It is evident from these ralrulations that the right-triangle method is rather laborious for pover-factor calculations. or 80 .

the leading current taken by the capacitor neutralizes the lagging current taken by the induction device. = .12) ckvar All tables.2 lists the “kw-multiplier” values for a wide range of operating conditions. Eq.8) involving the kilowatt component is the most convenient to use. This action may be explained i d terms of the stored energy. This expression may be rewritten as kvar = kw X tan e (8.10) For example. various trigonometric functions useful in power-factor applications are included in the Appendix.tan 02) (8.11) For simplification (tan O1 - tan Sz) is often written asA tan.e.2. When a capacitor and an induction device are installed in the same circuit.3 Capacitors. since i t actually supplies the magnetizing rkquirements of the induction device. Table 8.12). The concept of a capacitor as a kilovar generator is helpful in understanding its use for power-factor improvement.. there will he an exchange of magnetizing current between them. The “kw multiplier” or A tan as read from the table is 0. kvar a t original pf kvar a t improved pf ckvar* = = = kw X tan 8 . Example 4. Because the capacitor relieves the supply line of supplying magnetizing current to the induction device. assume that it is necessary to determine the capacitor rating to improve the load power factor. ekvar KllOVAR GENERATORS = 80(0. Substituting in Eq. the capacitor may be considered to be a kilovar generator. (8. kw X A tan (8. and curves which have a “kw mu1tiplier”for determining the capacitor on synchronous motor kilovars are based on the above expression. Determine the capacitor rating for Example 3 by using Table 8. A capacitor may be considered a kilovar ‘generator because it supplies the magnetizing requirements (kilovars) of induction devicen. . km X tan O2 Therefore.POWER4ACTOR IMPROVEMENT 44v kvar components change with power factor).266) = 21. charts.266. (8. Therefore. the capacitor rating required to improve the power factor is kw X (tan 8 . i. The prefix “ c ” in ckvar is used to designate the capacitor kvar in order to differentiate it from load kvar.

5490.156 1.9680.982 1.058 1.456 0.9190.6220.6920.1391.1591.lS41.343 0.766 0.904 0.769 0.8850.510 0.66 0.8930.6610.048 1.116 1. I90 1.042 1.672 0.492 0.7770.8120.9961.9020.816 0.88 0.480 0.6520.913 0.67 0.979 1.7070.2921.9660.821 0.761 0.451 0.414 0.80 0.3 I8 0.965 1.033 1.078 0.271 0.9040.024 1. 108 0.935 1.2991.396 0.268 0.941 0.846 0.007 1.974 1.793 0.597 0.483 0.165 1.8750.518 0.0941.906 1.440 0.7300.6970.8750.596 0.3691.96 0.320 0.440 1.0071.8710.71 3 0.511 0.82 0.452 0.403 0.9020.905 0.535 0.9801.2031.61 0.242 0.5001.481 1.0101.8290.838 0.7260.713 0.7960.8720.9030.1741.629 0.351 0.240 0.399 0.565 0.268 1.58 0.8340.6660.91 0.745 0.299 0.1501.713 0.217 1.5080.54 0.004 1.348 0.733 0.8570.749 0.6790.687 0. ~~ 0.292 0.907 0.508 0.369 0.995 1.3540.3280.436 0.7440.743 0.238 0.943 0.5870.569 0.8990.1751.644 0.124 1.8870.231 1.6270.9260.682 0.740 0.9971.4161.7330.7540.1131.97 0.7450.3061.8760.7750.395 1.7590.529 I 589 1.62 0.6020.5380.015 1 .970 1.508 0.466 0.6080.229 1.8470.583 0.92 0.040 1.537 0.3971.728 0.9180.7130.7590.9300.817 0.322 0. 0 4 1 1.4450.358 0.030 1.5940.626 0.73 0.6930.077 1.712 0.71 0.992 0.661 0.519 5 < 0.424 0.280 1.9390.8770.090 1.8930.Desired improved power factor.1871.405 0 0.4850.482 0.131 1.21 4 0.8870.050 1.452 0.90 0.700 0.2761.598 0.308 1.37 I 0.652 0.8060.007 1.95 0.5680.041 1.65 0.8060.849 0.691 0.262 1.59 0.849 0.989 1.682 0.809 0.2771.8070.0791.6850.6830.425 0. I30 I.68 0.609 0.344 0.593 0.1131.462 0.789 0.480 0.52 0.635 0.9130.346 0.509 0.308 1.935 0.5490.1441.192 1.635 0.779 0.600 1.392 1.333 F 5 0.877 0.6570.6810.230 0.87 0.8350.063 1.536 0.63 0.138 0.054 1.374 0.3241.7490.0471.0601.8090.290 0.8400.2391.971 0.8380.191 1.2051.3561.964 0.541 0.237 1.4060.488 0.372 0.685 0.133 1.019 1.9500.384 0.1171.861 0.515 0.936 I ' I ' I .035 1.9360.2671.3161.99 1.9490.3491.7180.0761.60 0.270 0.6190.7850.8730.82 I 0.169 3 2 0.480 j : 0.325 0.9661.201 0.69 0.545 0.571 0.643 1.625 0.31 6 0.8870.1031.846 0.480 0.9280.4740.938 0.921 0.721 0.5940.653 0.427 0.4580.70 0.0471.8220.6290.566 0.86 0.94 0.266 0.7700.294 0.7740.5420.720 0.1471.89 0.6460.075 1.8600.575 0.974 1.0761.023 1.4970.6130.296 0.020 0.351 1.190 1.0881.410 0.112 1.8080.S73 0.60 I 0.6340.4571.6550.5660.063 1.7870.188 1.992 1.601 0.5290.0671.775 0.9370.403 1.970 1.5030.50 0.166 1.049 0.8100.5760.151 1.607 0.7560.9620.9090.248 1.120 l.4320.8490.7430.53 0.821 0.9370.8650.452 0.164 1.453 0.84 0.802 0.0261.83 0.72 0.686 0.5550.7570.8400.7950.096 1.8700.264 0.123 1.0 0.429 0.51 0.536 0.6570.006 1.9861.480 0.654 0.118 1.299 2 0.9520.186 0.671 0.687 1.388 0.202 1.6400.793 0.732 0.7690.196 1.2481.7820.0081.6200.226 1.397 0.8380.9540.8l50.442 2 0.6990.5090.4710.568 0.98 0.085 1.74 I 0.6890.749 0.233 f 0.564 0.358 0.21 2 0.3800.0601.56 0.979 1.9450. COI 92 Originol power factor cos 8 .424 0.8500.5160.70610.663 0.227 1.3371.982 1.156 1.93 0.85 0.7760.1031.877 1.581 0.559 1.5380.5441.5230.9130.484 1.9580.7860.55 0.7820.093 1.220 1.3761.369 ? 0.594 0.723 0.798 0.0861.314 0.624 0.57 0.561 0.015 1.654 0.9400.8730.8270.261 1.266 0.0161.4361.034 1.4190.8570.4401.998 1.337 1.377 0.082 I.7150.732 I' 0.64 0.7170.6450.81 0.623 0.8430.6730.400 0.541 0.

127/0.4290.....909 0.2360....546 0.1060.......1300.026 0...3090.4950.....5530.1~~0. .. ...0830. 0..0260.000 0. .483 0.3370.3170.3970. 0.0370.. ...395 9 .. I09 0....... ......... ....369 0..... .395 0..2350. ..1830....3460.4690..... . . .. .......397 0. .3730.5100....2370...1320....1120.. ....2620.. I37 0..212 0.1600.776 0..... ..477 0...1300.. ........ ..06~0:203 .0000.. . .. ....4260.3640.93 0.....4600.223 0.I98 0. ...... .77 0....2090.... .1860..2620.5260..1830..0.027 0.4840.0000.3240..292 0...1570... .0660.2200... .4990....2380.... 0.. .3420. ... .74 0..691 = 345.089 0..225 0....86 0.1830.. ....... .. .1920. . ..0000....5630.. .131 0...328 0....194 0...5370.0790.. ... .2890.1050......078 0. .. ... .103.. . ..0.. . ..2720..053 0..031 0...3800. . ..2890..3180.. .76 0. .........5900....6090 750 0....159 0. .0260.. .2200... ..211 0... ..104 0.....1620.2920......1860.063 0. .000~0...1830... ..802 0.514 0..6860.4560..421 0. ....... ..453 0...2200. .567 & ...0000..0..83 0.0860. .263 0.....3990.4390. ..3030.2160.1900.... ..0..3430.0280..0... 0. .2100.1050. . . . ....... ...3710..291 0..3980....0000.0550.... 0..048~0. .1300.4070..2940... 0. ..620 0 5 .1830.1040.. .0530...... ....... I67 0. .369 0.....0000...6040..0260. . ..1560..4030..432 0.. .81 0. .. .0520.2040.......6790.......121 0..0320..264 0..1040... ...3150....164 0...3160.5990..417 0....301 0.361 0..450 0. .....3950...829 0.75 0.1600..0270..99 . 0.0840.. ...1490.0780..5190... .855 0... 0......7660.6590.1260.5250.2460. 0.. ....0790.. .1170..521 0....5780...0000..4470.0340. .. ............... ..80 0.. ....89 0... .. ......1450. .298 0........... . .3540.....329 .041 0...473 0.283 0. .87 0. ...I920. . .._...0520.2100.1580......136 0... . ..0000.706/0... ....0280... ....342 0.......6310. .. .0560.0000.....I75 0..261 0.882 0.. ... ..I4l0......3430..4470. . ....2620.0780.2380....0560.. .2750.0000..58110:724 .390 0....95 0.3690.2880...6330.268 0..342 0.. ...1040..78 0..698 ......1340.... 0..98 0...2640.341 0.5550.2090..329 0.. ...1570.... .5030....3090.0260..052.....381 0..2090.0890...........580 0..617 0..88 0. . .. ... ..85 0..2110.4660.1050........149 0. ...... .. 0. ..131 0....257 0..0710.94 0.000 0.2480.3760.540 5 . . _.. _.... .82 0.....5290.... .456 0 ......3170.672 .0.7390..... 0.5730... .205 0...2090.080 0.0260.426 3 .3550......3450..7120.. .. .. _..1560..0000.253 0.... .. .289 0..093 0.2420.......5470....052 0. ....0. ... .000 0.0520.0000.313 0..90 0..........000 0. .4240.. ..1720....421 0.4060..3200...97 0. .............512 m ...363 . ..1570....053 0.143 . ...5000.. ..658 0. . ...184 0.316 0..0780.5 ..1550.0.0580..2350. ..026 0.. ......4870... ..I34 0..5510...2830.. ..4580. _.1570.097 0.061 0.. .0790..4430... .4730..... .......0790.2660.. ~ m io + 1 1 10.. .2620.185 0....000 ckvar = kw X multiplicr = 5on x 0...84 0...425 0.1050... .281 0.484 5 .3350.... .. ...3150..1310.2360.96 0.. .4340..2770.. .2360..79 0......... .2140.0780..030 0..1310..1140...251 0.. . . .6260.240 0.4130.0280..1320. .108 0.. .3500...0000.3870.0.........1080 251 ..2890....593 .230 0..6520.3700...3690..1820.. ..4920. . ..1580.0520....1110... .1440.646 .2330. .1770..1840.. . .2900...081 0....0000......0000. .2520.92 0.1640.91 0...

When underexcited. The curves of Fig. When overexcited (normal operation). it is also a functioii of load. 8. they may be considered as kilovar generators.hey are capable of supplying to the line is a function of excitation and motor load. Thus. Synchronous motors and synchronous condensers may also act as kilovar generators. they can supply all their own kilovar requirements and in addition can supply kilovars to the system. The kilovar output that t. they do not generate sufficient kilovars to supply their own needs and consequently must take additional kilovars from the system.7 show the SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR LOAD FIG. They generate kilovars in the same manner as a conventional generator does. Curves showing approximate kilovan supplied by synchronous motors with rated . 8.7 excitation.IS? POWER-FACTOR IMFROVEMENT Synchronous Motors and Synchronous Condensers. Their ability to generate kilovars is a function of excitation and. in the case of synchronous motors. Synchronous motors are widely used for power-factor improvement.

Vokage readings are especially desirable if automatic capacitor control with a vohge-responsive master elemcnt is contemplated. and volts. There are many t. is not as important as portability. The preferred measurements are kilo&atts. These ratings refer t o t. kilovolt-ampere. . and accuracy within a few per cent is generally acceptable for the purpose.hen the power bills usually furnish sufficient information to determine the kilovars rcquired. Generally.8 power-factor leading. Synchmnous condensers are rarely economical for industrial plants.ion. portable devices are preferred because of their convenience.8 power-factor motor. Indicating instruments are satisfactory for spot checking. If the study is for rate purposcs. always measured at the time of average or normal conditions. They can be used also to good adrantage in place of rerording instruments if readings are taken at frequent intervals. Actual kilowatt demand is usually obtained from a demand register attachment on the watthour meter or by rerording. kilovars. or kilovar values or from kilon-atthours and kilovar-hours.he operating power factor at full load and with normal field excitat. it is almost. A t high overloads (not shown on these curves) a synchronous motor may take magnetizing current from the line.hey provide a permanent record.ypes of meters and instruments available for pomerfactor studies. In the case of the 0.s or loads. such as for indiridual feeder circuit. Power fartor may he measured directly or obtained from other indications such as from kilowatt. Measurements by recording or graphic instruments are most desirable and useful because t. Most rates are based on a “billing” demand which is determined from the actual dcmaiid and power factor. t.8 power factor. it is essential that sufficient and useful data be availahle or taken in order t o select the proper value and loratioti of capacitors. Accuracy.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 453 kilovars that a synchronous motor is capable of delivering under various load ronditions with normal excitation. this always means 0. The two powr-factor ratings of synchronous motors most commonly used in industry are unity power factor and 0. INSTRUMENTS AND MEASUREMENTS FOR POWER-FACTOR STUDIES When power-fartor studies are made. so no further reference will be made to them. If power factor is measured directly. while desirable.or prititing-type instruments. from these the kva and pover factor can be calculated.

and powerfactor meter.he power factor of small industrial plank where the R VALUES F I G . voltmeter. 8. their main advantage is that the circuit does not have to be broken t o measure t.he current component-the instrument is merely hooked over the conduct. Fig.or. Curve for obtaining power factor from ratio o f wattmeter readings (applicable - only for balonced loodl. . this latter method is frequently used by utilities to obtain t. 8.ype of ammeter. These instruments provide a convenient means for obtaiuing the data normally required for plant studies.454 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT There is now availahle for operatiori on circuits up to ti00 volts the hook-on t.8 is useful for obtaining the power factor wheri wattmeter readings are available.V' W.9 is handy when kw and kvar or kmhr and kyar-hr values are known. Figure 8. wattmeter and varmeter.8 R.


8. Whenever possible. These locations are shown in Fig. 8. and reduction of losses. next ‘22.or GOO-volt systems III order t o obtain the minimum cost and maximum benefits. such (IS C I or C2. for maximum over-all benefits. 8. etc. In the case of synrhronous motors the same freedom of electrical location is not always practical or economical. . releasr of system capacity. LOCATION OF CAPACITORS AND SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS All the benefits that shunt capacitors and synchronous motors provide stem from the redurtion of kilovars. The concept of a kilovar generator as described previously is particularly helpful in understanding this point. The power factor can be read directly from Fig. This is true of power-bill savings. c2 Locate FIG. copacilori 01 load. capacitors should be located at or near the load on 180. voltage improvement. 3Iauimum henefit is obtained when they are located at the load. as shown by C1.9 by suhstituting kwhr for kw and kvar-hr for kvar values.10. The most effcctive locatioii is a t the load.10 Electrical location of shunt capacitors on indurtriol power systems.456 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT more expensive types of power-factor measuremeirt are not economically jnstilird. Vsually synchronous motors INC SUPPLY c3 &( DISTRIBUTED LOADS I 0 c2 .

. Typical iris(al1:rtions of capacitors and synchronous motors arc shown in Figs. load bus whose power fact. 8. the common utilization voltages of industrial plants.c.1 1 Installation showing capacitor locoted near the motor ond connected (15 shown in C1 of Fig. FIG. rating than is ecooomical for operation at 2-10 or 480 volts.or is to be impro\wl.11 to 8. 8. connection t o t. 1 1 0 ~ cver.10. 8. 8.13. FIG. 8. the samr principle applies.12 Installation rhowing copocitor Flex-A-Plug and connected as shown in c2 of Fig.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 457 arc of larger horsepon.

in the genersl caae all thwe I d sre not on sll the time. Then. Ah. it is not always practical or economical to locate capacitors at each load. yet theae equipmenta with the proper switching . then a group capacitor need be only h a l f the kilovar ra&g of the total number of kilomra connected at individual loada T h e syetem operating voltage infIuenced the economic Considerations aesoeisted with location of apaeitora and motora For example. although 24Wvdt capacitor units are the most economical. M& industrisl plenta contain a number of small loads.ECONOMIC CONSlDERATlONS Although maximum o v e r 4 operating bendita are obtained when eapacitom are located at the load. if only 60per cent of the total motor load is in o p e n tion at one time.Since capacitors are made in etandard sises it would be imprsetical to apply the m m t capacitor Hovara a t each load. For example. 23O-vdt capscitor equipmta c& more than twice lls much es 460-or 575-volt equipmenta. too. economic c0m-m should include a enitable switching device. EO it is poesible to take advantage of the central loek divemity by instslling a single capacitor equipment at ~ o m e tion. For example.

The best way t o determine the capacitor kilovars t o use is t o calculaGe the rate of return and actual dollar savings for various final power-factor values. and (3) improved voltage conditions. and each case should he studied individually. for which the return will be about half of the above values. ADVANTAGES OF IMPROVED POWER FACTOR Improved power factor may give economir or system advantages or both. The estimated mean return is in the neighborhood of 65 per cent. This figure is based on a study of the power-factor clauses of a number of utilities distributed throughout the country. (2) reduction of power system losses. Generally. Power rates are too varied to permit more than mention of that point here. the return on these investments is many. which in turn depends somewhat upon the voltage class. However. A rough rule that has been used is improvement to 90 to 95 per cent. However. The rate of return will depend upon the cost of capacitors. .POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 459 device usually cost more than 460. the above figures are applicable to most industrial installations. it is generally economical to improve the power factorJo take advantage of the full amount of the penalty and bonus.or 575-volt equipments for prartically all industrial applirations because of the higher cost of siritrhing devires for 2400-volt service. This represents an annual gross return of 200 to 3355 per cent. POWER-BILLING SAVINGS The main use of capacitors in industrial plants and often a deciding factor in the selection of synchronous motors is to reduce purchased power costs when the rate contains a power-factor clause or its equivalent. This advantage ran be readily determined by ralculating power costs a t various plant power factors. The largest economic advantages are usually obtained where power rates include a monetary incentive for improved power factor. the major exception being 230-volt installations. The amount of power-factor improvement depends upon the original power factor and the type of rate structure. many times the return obtained from straight business investments. The system advantages of improved power factor usually are (1) released system capacity. It is common for capacitors to pay for themselves in 56 to 3 years.

Example 5.4) The capacitor kilovars required ckvar = 168 X 0. permit additional load to he added. or generator is overloaded (kva or amperes) because of ION power factor. RELEASE O F POWER-SYSTEM CAPACITY BY POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT What is meant by the expression “release of system capacity”? When capacitors or synchronous motors are in operation in a plant.460 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT Practically every size of plant having the usual type of power-fartor rate structure cau justify capacitors. transformers. and existing plants found they were a quick and economical means of caring for increased loads. The procedure for determining the value of kilovars required to reduce the load to a sperified value can best be explained by an example.. World War I1 demonstrated this quite clearly. they deliver kilovars. What kvar of capacitors is required to reduce the current to 235 amp? 1. Release of system capacity by power-factor improvement-and especially with capacitors-is becoming more important as plant engineers appreciate their economic advantages.5) The kva corresponding to 235 amp is 188.12) Some apparatus such as turbine-genera- . many of the new plants incorporated capacitors as part of the poner-system layout. thus reducing the current from the power supply. Thermally Overloaded Apparatus.7 = 168 (8. Actually.895 say 0. Many cases arise where a cable circuit.73 X 460 X 300 = 240 kva = 1000 kw = 240 X 0. Less current means less kva or load on transformers and main branch feeder circuits. A 460-volt cable circuit is rated a t 235 amp but is carrying a load of 300 amp at 0. if the equipment is not overloaded. etc.536 ckvar = 90 Kilowatt-limited Apparatus.7 power factor. the rate of return will usually be greater for small plauts herause of the higher demand and energy charges for small loads. so the operating power factor corresponding to the new load is 168 cos e1 = K g = 0.90 (8. transformer. This means capacitors and synchronous motors can be used to reduce overloading of existing facilities or. (8. I t is the rafe of retzcrn 011 the capacitor investment which is the important factor. furnishing magnrtizing current for motors.

8 power factor. so neither the kilowatt nor kva load exceeds the generator kva rating. 1250 kva and 0. Therefore. or ckvar = 855 .379 = 444 (8. What value of capacitors is required so that neither the turbine nor the generator will be overloaded? Original load : kw = 1000 kvar = 1000 X 0.= 200 0.75 kva = 1250 Additional load: kw = 170 kvar = 170 X 0.10) (8.379 is the tangent corresponding to the power factor of cos 0 = 0. An additional load of 170 kw a t 0.10) (8. Example 6 . Improvement of the power factor can release both kilowatt and kva capacity.8 and 1.935.444 = 411 .POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 461 tor and engine-generator sets have a kilowatt limit of the prime mover as well as a kva limit of the generator. the capacitors must furnish the difference between the total load kvar and the permissible generator kvar.6) 1000 750 + 105 = 855 0.85 power factor is to be added. and the set is rated a t that kilowatt value a t unity power-factor operation.10) where 0. Intermediate kilowatt values. A 1000-kw turbine-generator set (turbine capability of 1250 kw) is already operating a t rated load.935 + 170 = 1170 The minimum operating power factor for a load of 1170 km and not exceeding the kva rating of the generator is cos e = -= 1170 1250 The maximum load kvar for this condition is kvar = 1170 X 0.0 power-factor operation. are determined by the power factor and kva rating a t the generator.620 = 105 170 kva = . such as those between 0. Usually the kilowatt limit corresponds to the generator kva rating.85 Total load: kw kvar = = = 750 (8.

lso apply t o synchronous motors for the same output of leading kilovars. Since any additional load added because of release of capacity by power-factor improvement may be at any power factor and different. distribution system. shows the electrical capacity released for a specific value of capacitors. To satisfy this requirement. the circle BB' will establish the limits. the followirig equation may be used: T C (in kva) = ckvar X sin 0. i. One approach.11 shows the basic diagram which applies to all the following expressions for T. 8. where T .15 to 8. = capacity released. for convenience.. etc. electrical. cos 0. The determination of the amount of system capacity released by porverfactor improvement is a somewhat arduous procedure.461 POWECFACTOR IMPROVEMENT AMOUNT O F CAPACITY RELEASED BY POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT The foregoing showed how plant kva load could be reduced by powerfactor improvement. Figure 8. although there is a rather involved equation which expresses this relationship. For estimating purposes and when there is not a large charige in powerfactor improvemerit.15. is to assume that any additional load is at the same power factor as the original load. Figure 8. Figs. or system capacity-and is usually abbreviated as T c or S.e. = original power factor cos e2 = improved power factor of original load cos O3 = final power factor of combined load Since the total kva must not exceed the original load OR. load cos 0..15 is also valuable in that it may be used to shew the incremen- . there is 110 single convenient curve which will give the permissible load that can be added. OE must equal OB OC + Tc + = OE = OB where OC = origirial load O B capacitors OF or BC. in terms of kva or per cent.e bren prepared specifically for caparitors. they a. transformer. so several useful curves have been included to eliminate the need for calculations.13) Figure 8.. which includes an example for its use. (8. These data are prcseiited in various forms. to cos &. by improving the power factor of the existing load.17. and a conservative one which also permits rather easy form of expression. This will show how additional load can be added to a fully loaded circuit. Among power engineers this is termed release of capacity-thermal. and also the magnitude of the additional load for a given improvement in power factor. Although the follo\ving data and figurrs ha1. from the original load power factor.

13. which also contains additional useful information. the incremental gain may not necessarily be economically attractive. T. In such cases Fig.he value of capacitors is doubled.5 per cent. or a gain of 50 per cent. this 50 per cent gain in capacity requires a 100 per cent increase in capacitors. 8. 8.14 . However. Even t.5 t o 42.hough there is a gain in the total capacity released. t. FIG. should be used F A 8 : LOAD KVAR BC: OFzCKVAR \ Basic load diogrorn for determining r e l e ~ r e of system electrical capacity by power-factor improvement.l(i. If. in Terms of Power-factor Improvement (cos 8 . to cos &). 8. the capacity released will increase from 28. Often it is more convenient t o work in terms of the original and improved power factor rather than actual values of ckvar. in the example in Fig.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 463 tal gain in capacity released per kilovar of capacitors added.




. 8..oo j ~ AS. . 8.. -- " S" SAPACITOR K V A R I N T E R M S OF O R I G I N A L KW L O A D FIG. i.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 467 Example 7. -... D E T E R M I N A T I O N OF CKVAR TO G I V E D E S I R E D I M P R O V E M E N T OF W O V E R A L L POWER :: : : : -: : . .) Substation rating = 500 kva and operated a t full load Original power factor = 70 per cent (cos 8 . l F it is found that improving the power factor of the load from 70 to 95 per cent releases 28.8 km load at the original 70 per cent power factor can be added without increasing the load on the 500-kva substation. .!:: .. . = 0..17. 28. or. ..e.5) System voltage = AGO volts Improved pover factor of original load = 95 per cent (cos = 0.=I :: ! . 8. in terms of kva..18 Graph for determining the value of capacitors required for improvement in load power factor (COI 61to cos 6a).16. .. 8 .95) From Fig.5 per cent of 350 kw or 99. this is 0. .5 per cent capacity...285 X 500 = 142. .7 X 500 = 350 km (8..5 kva.70) Average kilon-att load = 0. . (Original load power factor improved to a specified value. . There doto are for use only with Fig. See Fig..

The value of capacitors required to release T c for this condition must be obtained from Fig. Table 8. the comparison is dependent upon the cost relationship between new substation and distribution facilities (8) and the cost of capacitors ( C ) . I n addition to releasing capacity. original load plus the additional load. 8. plus the additional load.16 it will also be noted that. Where actual installed cost data of substations and capacitors are not available. I n order to get a true comparison. . 8. i. Thus. 8. so they can he more easily moved as changes occur in system loading or arrangement. 8. For example. this curve gives both the per cent load that can be added (or capacity released) and the final or over-all operating power factor. Fig. in the case of capacitors. their installation need not he so permanent as substation and distribution facilities. or curves given elsewhere in this chapter. i. The examples in Figs. The difference between Figs. Use of Figs. 8.16 and 8. cos 82. Tc in Terms of Final Power Factor (cos 8 . to cos OS).17 is used when the final power factor of the combined load. Then too. ECONOMICS O F CAPACITORS FOR RELEASING SYSTEM CAPACITY System load current-carrying capacity can he increased by power-factor improvement or by additional substation and distribution facilities. I n those cases where it is desirable to know the capacity released for a specific final ouer-all power factor cos R3. Fig. the over-all power factor of the original load and capacitors.e. 8. all costs should he on an installed basis.16 and 8. improvement of the power factor reduces losses and raises the voltage..17.460 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT From Fig.18: the required ckvar value cannot. the reason is that in both cases the original and final power factors (cos 03)are also the same. Actually there are several other factors in favor of power-factor improvement which should be given consideration. use Fig. is 90 per cent.. tables. These charts can be used interchangeably only when the original and final power factors are the same for each case.17 show that the per cent capacity released is the obtained from any of the expressions. as is often true in connection with power-factor rate studies. If the allied benefits are neglected.3 may serve as a guide. 8.17 should be clearly understood for a proper interpretation of T c .e.16 and 8. On the other hand.16 is used when the power factor of the original load is improved to a definite value.17. cos 03. is required to be a definite value. the resultant power factor (cos &). The resultant power factor cos B3 is of secondary importance. 8.

to use total dollars in Figs. From Fig.ewer These data are also applicable to synchronous motors.crmirle the relative economics since.17. the capacitor method is more economical than expanding substation and distribution facilities for handling this amount of load. Example 8. of a I * Instslled cost - 240 480 600 40-50 30-40 25-35 18-20 8-10 8-10 I 2-2. The cost relationship applies t o anu case..3 IS1 System "oltoge Installed Costs (1954) (Cl Capacitors. or 3. (The load-center svstem 1s thc most economical method of distrihution. The S/C ratio is 30/10. Once the ratio S / C has been obtained. lines of various S / C ratios have been plotted. 8. i. and not the total dollar cost. For all points under an S/C curve (or for all S/C values greater than that established by the power-factor points) it is more economical to release system capacity by power-factor improvement.16 and 8.he intersection of the power-factor points (cos = 0. the appropriate S costs should be used. for an existing substation or plant.4 .e.) ' t Installed cost of capacitors with a manually operated switching device. dollars per k v m t SIC Substation and distribution facililie. and transi rncrs. In all cases.16 and 8.5-4.8 3-5 2. respectively. cable. in Figs. for thc C value use the cost of the leading kilovars output in dollars per kilovar. with rapacitors than by expanding substation and distribution facilities. This can be checked in actual dollars as follows: .ional feeder circuits. etc. 8. Therefore. 8. it is a simple matter t o det.'C value of 3..95) lies undcr an S.17 irill give erroneous answers. dollars per kva and dollars per kvar. whether it is for an entirely new substation or for addit. Are capacitors economical for releasing the amount of system capacity stated in Example 71 Assume that new substation and distribution facilities cost $30 per kva installed and capacitors cost $10 per kvar installed.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 469 TABLE 8. dollars per kvo* Id-ccntcr system ineludina primary and secondary switchpear.Q2 = 0.70 and cos .16 i t will be found that t. I t should be specifically noted that the values to use for S arid Care their unit costs..

470 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT The value of ckvar required t o improve the power factor from 70 t o 95 per cent is ckvar = kw X multiplier (8. depending upon hours of full-load and no-load plant operation. and length of main and branch feeder circuits.15) Loss reduction = 1 - The capacitors have losses. Example 9.5 t o 7.5 per cent of the load kilowatthours. POWER-SYSTEM LOSSES The reduction in electrical losses due t o power-factor improvement results in an annual gross return of as much as 15 per cent on the capacitor investment. wire size. This fact was recognized during World War 11.12) = = 350 X 0.5 kva Installed cost of substation and distribution facilities = 142. but they are relatively small-only onethird of 1 per rent of the kvar rating. where the load power factor is low. it is an attractive additional benefit. the losses are inversely proportional t o the square of the power factor. and since current is reduced in direct proportion t o power-factor improvement.5 X $30 = $4275 I n this case. Losses are proportional t o current squared. the kilowatt ( P R ) losses vary from 2. I n most industrial plant power-distribution systems. and many plants incorporated capacitors as part of the power-system design.14) (8. Capacitors are effective in reducing only that portion of the losses that is due t o the kilovar current.691 242 Installed cost of capacitors = 242 X $10 = 52420 Substation capacity released = 142. additional system capacity obtained by use of capacitors costs only 56 per cent as much as new substation anddistrihutionfacilities. kw losses cc original pf improved pf original pf (8. it is economical t o use capacitors in new installations. Not only can capacitors be used economically t o release the capacity of existing facilities hut. Determine the savings in losses due t o improved power factor for the following conditions: . Although the return from loss reduction alone is seldom sufficient to justify t h e installation of capacitors.

or 7500 1.. it is rarely economical t o apply them in industrial plants for voltage improvement alone. When the total current.75 Improvcd power fartor = 0.19) From this expression it is evident that kilorar rurrent operatcs only on * Also S<T Clrap.7 per cent ltedurtioii i n losses = 0.. HOW CAPACITORS RAISE VOLTAGE LEVEL 'l'hc follo\ving simplified expression is usually used to ralculate the voltage drop of a circuit: e = R I ros 8 X I sin 8 (8.377 X 7500 = 2828 kwhr Assuming a net realization of GO per rent. 4. VOLTAGE IMPROVEMENT* The disadvantages of low voltage are so well known that they will not be rcit. the component rurrents may he 0t)taiired from the right-triangle relationship. k w current kvar current = = I. and power factor are known.ioir for voltagc drop may b e rewritten: e = IT'X (kw current) (8..60 = 1697 kwhr.. Akhough caparitors raise voltagelevels.) value for a leading power factor.17) (8....000 Origiiral power factor = 0.15) = = 0.16) where thc ( f ) value is used for a lagging power factor and the ( ...95 Assume losses as 5 per cent of the total kilowatt hours.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 471 Total kilowatthours per year = 150.623 (E)* (8.18) Thus the above equat.cratcd here exrept to state t h a t they are economic and operational liabilities.0. Voltage improvement may therefore be regarded as an additional benefit of capacitors.oss reduction = 1 . sin 8 X X (kvar current) (8.1 . then the actual reduction in losses = 2828 X 0. ..377 or 37. cos 8 I.

(8. (8. hut the voltage leuel is raised. and where the spacing between phase wires is large.he incoming supply source and is not primarily due to the variation or regulation mithin the plant. the practical way t o reduce the voltage drop is by reducing the kilovar cur- . MAGNITUDE OF VOLTAGE RISE DUE TO CAPACITORS There is generally a good deal of misapprehension regarding “high voltage” due to caparitors. As far a s the voltage rhangedue t o capacitors is concerned the ralculations are simple. Also. and sinre raparitors reduce t. The greatest gain in voltage improvement.o predirt the voltage change due to caparitors. and the other part due t o the kilovar current and reactance. Capacitors do not redure the voltage regulation uiiless they are automatirally switched. Therefore. WHY POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT IS SO EFFECTIVE IN REDUCING VOLTAGE DROP From Eq. When the load-center method of distrihution is used for 480. and the rircuit reactance is fixed. it is neressary only t o know the capacitor rating and system reartanre t.h unswitched rapacitors is prartirally the same as without capacitors. I n industrial power systems the reactance is usually much larger than the resistance and in the order of two t o four times for distribution circuits and five t o ten times for power transformers. the voltage improvement will be small.age rise due t o capacitors in industrial plants with modern poiver-distrihotion systems and one t.22) is acrurate enough for this purpose. since the resistance component is tixed for a given kilowatt load. which is usually called the reactance component. Actually.472 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMEN1 reartanre. It is evident. generally Eq.he voltage drop and by an amount equal t o the rapacitor rurrent times the reartance. such a s 0 t o 10 in.ransformation is not very great and is rarely more than 4 or 5 per cant.21) or (8. such as is true of 240-volt systems having long runs o f open wire. The volt.19) above it is seen that voltage drop is made up of two parts. one part due t o the kilowatt current and resistanre.and 600-volt systems.he kilovar current they reduce t. will be i n plant-distribution circuits having high reactance and low system voltage. in most cases where the voltage a t light load is high it will be found t h a t most of the voltage variation is in t. The voltage regulation wit. which is usually called the resistance component. There is some misunderstanding regarding voltage replalion when shunt rapacitors are used. that a change in the kilovar current has a larger effect than the kilowatt current in reduring the total voltage drop. then.

Formulas for Voltage Change v. but the per cent method is perhaps the most practical and simple.) kva. The kilovar current is reduced when the power factor is improved.90.70. amp kv = line-to-line voltage. occasionally data in terms of actual values of volts.20) (8. base kva X 100 system short-circuit kva (8. amperes. = capacitor current. If the power factor is improved to 0.21) (8. and ohms are used. = ICX % % vc = (8.3 per cent.4 pcr cent. CALCULATION OF VOLTAGE RISE DUE T O CAPACITORS There are many calrulating methods for determining the voltage rise due to capacitors (or voltage change due to stvitchiirg blocks of capacitors in and out of service).POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 473 rent. The major part of t.22) ckvar X (% X.7 of 1 per cent.. if a circuit has a resistance of 1 per rent. kvars I. and au operating power factor of 0.23) (8.25) % xs Nomenclature = ckvar = capacitor rating.) base kva ckvar X yo transformer reactance transformer kva rating vc = Other Useful Formulas % ohms = % x*= X X base kva 10 X (kv)z base kva X ( % X. if improved to unity (no kilot-. to determine the voltage change due to capacitors or the leading kilovars from a synchronous motor or condenser.24) (8. t.he voltagc drop is 4. for practical purposes. For example.i few formulas from other sections are repeated here for convenience.he drop is due to reactanre mid is 3. a rcartatire of j per cent. kv kva = kva selected as a base for calculations .ar current): the drop is niiiy 0. . The following few expressions are gcnerally sufficiently accurate.(i per cent. the voltage drop is 2.

1. such as a t. The short-circuit duty of the primary system is 100. cable. the system reactance should be added to the transformer reactance.21) and is based on the assumption that the primary-system reactance is negligible as compared with the transformer reactance. volts (line-to-neutral) per cent volt. What is the approximate per cent voltage rise due to the capacitors? (8. It is generally sufficiently accurate to assume that the transformer reactance is the same as the impedance for this type of approximation. = per cent react. A recent development is the practice of connecting the capacitors directly at the motor . When the available short-circuit kva at the transformer primary is less than 100 times the transformer rating.age change or rise due to capacitors reactance. on its own base voltage change. (8. Actually. ohms of a transformer. I'. but reactance may be assumed equal to impedance in computing voltage rise for this purpose pcr cent reactance of equipment such as that of a transformer on its own kva rating %X.22) is derived from Eq. % Vc = = X 70X b = per cent reactance of equipment. Example 10.22) SELECTION A N D APPLICATION OF M O T O R S A N D CAPACITORS INDUCTION-MOTOR CHARACTERISTICS Power-factor improvement of induction-motor loads by means of shunt capacitors has been a common practice for many years.474 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT kva. Eq.000 kva. Equation (8. The following example illustrates the use of the simplified voltage-rise equation.25) gives per cent impedance. = = kva rating of equipment.ransformer. The error introduced by this assumption is generally small. open wire. (8. such as that on selected common base %X.ance of system. A 360-kvar bank of capacitors is connected t o the secondary of a 1000-kva transformer having an impedance of 5. or busway are included in Chap. = Reactance data necessary for calculating the voltage rise or change in transformers.5 per cent.

which also corresponds to the motor no-load magnetizing requirements. usually between 80 and 90 per cent. The power factor of an induction motor is quite good a t full load. 8.20.19 5 k & Installation of a dkvar 4W-volt three-phase capacitor Iacated on the motor starier.20.19. T h i s unit arrangement is desirable because the capacitors are always on when the motor is in operation. . the no-load operating power factor is unity. The reaaon the power-factor curve with capacitors is so flat over the entire motor-load range is that the . 8. as illustrated in Fig. with a properly selected capacitor the operating power factor is excellent over the entire load range of the motor. however.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMM 475 terminals in order to permit switching the capacitors and motor aa a unit.21. since the capacitor supplies all the motor no-load magnetieing current. The capacitor rating for the motor data of Fig.20 is 5 kvar. note that the motor kilovars are essentially constant. A typical installation is shown in Fig. generally 95 to 98 per cent at full load and higher a t partial loads. aa shown in Fig. 8. This characteristic makes theinduction motor a particularly attractive capacitor application. Therefore. induction motors do not operate at fullload (often thedrive is “overmotored”). Even though the power factor of an induction motor varies materially from no load to full load. 8.~~ FIG. 8. Capacitor is switched with the motor and el&ically connected as shown in (A) in Fig. 8. Generally. At light loads. the power factor drops rapidly. resulting in a low operating power factor. depending upon the motor speed and type of motor.

476 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT net kvar is low and varies only a little with load.0: kvar. . 100 90 KVAR KVA 1 6 KW 80 70 0: 14 60 0 12 a LL : 5 0 1 0 : P I- 40 8 z Y 0 0: w n 30 6 20 4 1 0 2 0 0 - 0 I 4 I 2 MOTOR LOAD 3 - 4- 4 4 FIG. since the kvar load with qapacitors is so small in respect to the kw load. respectively. For example. Therefore.20 Motor characteristics for a typical medium-rile and speed induction motor. for operation without capacitors. the net kvar at no load is zero and at full load only 2. the kiv and kva are almost eyual.6 kvar. The addition of capacitors for power-factor improvement does not change the motor performance characteristics. as the operating speed and shaft output depend upon the motor load and applied voltage. which compares with j and 7. 8. which means that the operating power factor is almost unity.

Its main advantage is the elimination of a separate switching device for the capacitors.e.” i.. The preferred and most advantageous electrical location from an over-all standpoint is that of Fig. 8. Overvoltage Due to Self-excitation. or capacitors may bepermanentlyconnected to the feeder circuit a t selected starters for convenience. as shown i n Fig. the capacitor furnishes the motor magnetizing current and the motor will “self-excite. These limitations apply when the capacitor is connecled to the load side of the motor starter. as shown in Fig. as shown in Fig. 8.4 may be used for new installations. when the motor line switch is opened &nd the motor disconnected from its power source. In either easethecapacitor and motor are switched as a unit by the motor starter. The magnitude of the . The two factors which limit the value of capacitors to be switched with a motor are (1) overvoltage due to selfexcitation and (2) transient torques. act as a voltage generator. so the capacitor is always in service when the motor is in operation. a t the time of purchase. as the motor overload relay can he selected.4 or B. and the capacitor and motor are switched as a unit. Experience has shown that when difficulties are encountered it is because too large a capacitor bank is used or the capacitors have been applied on jogging or quick reversing service. (Reduhon of current due to capacitor stems from the electrical location hack through the power syskm. This connection also has the advantage that the short-circuit current is less hecause of the impedance of the overload relay. 8.21A or B . 8.21A and B . LIMITATION OF CAPACITOR AND MOTOR WHEN SWITCHED AS A UNIT Capacitors have been applied to induction motors and switched with the motor as a unit with good results except in a few cases. 8. The connection of Fig.21C.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT LOCATION OF MOTOR CAPACITORS 477 Capacitors may he connected t o each motor and switched with the motor.21B may be preferred for existing installations as no change i n the overload relay is required because the current through the overload relay is the motor current.) The arrangement shown in Fig. on the basis of the reduced line current due to the capacitors. Figure 8.21. 8. Thus. therefore the current through the overload relay is not reduced in this case. These limitations also apply to that type of induction motor which has an auxiliary winding in the stator (transformer action) for connection to an external capacitor.21. A capacitor can supply part or all of the motor magnetizing requirements.21C is used when capacitors are permanently connected to the system.

In the usual motor application.21 Electrical location ot capacitors when used with induction motors for powerfactor improvement. the resulting overvoltage with capacitor values to improve the full-load motor power factor to unity will range from 35 to 75 per cent.470 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMEM generated voltage will depend upon the value of the capacitor current. motor speed. Transient Torques. the motor slows down rapidly after the switch is opened. as a bench mark. However. and type of motor. These transient torques may occur when a motor is transferred to the line from the reduced-voltage tap of an autotransformer-type starter or when a running motor is temporarily disconnected from its line and the starting switch is reclosed while the motor is still running and maintaining voltage a t its terminals by self-excitation due t o capacitors. To produce transient electrical torques. Transient electrical torques of twenty times fnllload motor torque have been obtained in tests when too large a capacitor w&s switched with a motor. However. 8. . A 15 to 20 per cent reduction in speed eliminates self-excitation sufficientlyto cause the voltage to collapse in a few seconds. the motor voltage developed POWER SOURCE CONTACTOR RELAY CAPACITOR MOTOR (A) (8) (C) FIG. in a few cases with highinertia loads the voltage of self-excitation has been sustained for several minutes. Self-excitation can he measured by connecting a voltmeter across the motor terminals and reading the voltage after the motor-starter switch is disconnected from the power source. so the voltage rapidly decreases.

21A or R. the trend is toward additional ratings beloy 10 kvar. The operating power factor of motors with the suggested capacitor ratings mill generally range from 95 to 98 per cent a t full load and 95 to 100 per cent a t partial loads. In addition. . electrical characteristics of motors of other manufacturers as obtained from puhlished data have heen correlated and a representative average used. The tabular data may he extrapolated for estimating purposes. For motor ratings not listed in these tables the following conservative rule may he used. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR RATING FOR INDUCTION MOTORS Tables 8. of course. especially if the size of capacitor available is less than the value listed in Tables 8. This is approximately the motor no-load current. The capacitor ratings are conservative and prevent overvoltages due to selfexcitation and limit transient torques to normal values.5. the power-factor characteristic with load is relatively flat from 25 to 100 per cent load. because of the variation in motor electrical characteristics and the fact that capacitors are built in only certain ratings. which can usually be conveniently measured with a hook-on ammeter. However. even so. provided that allowance is made for the fact that the per cent magnetizing current and therefore the capacitor current. The data are also applicable to wound-rotor-type motors.4 and 8. The capacitor values are based on actual tests for transient torques and overvoltages by one large motor manufacturer. The capacitor current should not exceed the motor no-load magnetizing current.5 list the suggested capacitor ratings for the two most popular types of polyphase induction motors when the capacitors and motor are switched as a unit and connected as shown in Fig. and some manufacturers have a line of these ratings to match closely the requirements of motors in the 5. decreases as the motor horsepower rating increases. All the capacitor values listed in these tables do not necessarily correspond to standard S E M A ratings. it is suggested that the closest lower capacitor rating he 25-hp range. For example. 8. a 20-hp 1200-rpm motor with a capacitor rated 25 per cent less than listed in the table will have a power factor of 92 per cent a t half load. This torque is similar to that caused by connecting two synchronous generators which are out of phase. The greatest effect will be a partial-load operation.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 479 by self-excitation must be of appreciable magnitude and out of phase with the line voltage when the switch is closed. There will be exceptions.4 and 8. When capacitors are not available for the values listed.

- - -.5 70 80 87. t.5 27 25 22 21 18 16 .5 6.5 rs 30 82.5 4.4 Suggested Maximum Capacitor Rating When a n Induction Motor and Capacitor Are Switched as a Unit For Normal Starting Torque.5 60 27 32. see footnotes to Table 8.. 1 to 1.5 87.5 4 5.4 to 1.5 I5 18 10 9 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 9 10 12 15 18 21 27 31.8 OF the Yo A R values listed 2.- .5 2 2.5 65 75 85 92.5 72. - 'b K"W r.5 40 47.-- lo 9 9 110 115 NOTE: For 50-cyclp-operation the following representative data may be used: 1. For standard 50-cycle motors operating s t 50 cycles: kvnr = 1 .) Far standard OO-cycle wound-rotor-type motors operating a t 60 cycles.5 41 37 34 31 27 25 23 22 20 I9 I9 18 17 16 15 14 3 5 7t 10 15 20 25 30 1. .5.480 POWER-PACTOR IMPROVEMEN1 TABLE 8.7 of the kvar values listed yo A I l = 1. and NEMA Classification Design B Motors* Nominal motor speed in rpm and number of poles Induction m0tW horsepower rating 3600 2 1800 4 .5 5 6.05 to 1.5 40 47.5 97. (The larger multipliers apply to motors having the higher speeds. IR .5 7..5 37.5 57.4 of the kvar values listed % .5 47.5 7.5 45 52.2.1 of the kvar vslurs listed % A R = 1.5 95 I05 32._.5 52.5 13 13 12 12 I1 I1 10 57 55 ro 75 77 7 7 6 6 6 $0 57.R% .5 8 9 11 3. 10 50 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 25 3 0 35 12. the following representative data may be used: kvar = 1.5 I5 14 13 12 11 10 10 10 10 10 9 9 9 9 9 9 12 15 19 22 26 32.35 to 1.14 I2 I1 10 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 % 1R K"W ~ % AR thr % 4R I .5 9 2 3 4 5 6.05 of the % AIi values listed For explanation of *.5 3 5 3 2 I 2 0 1 I 7 5 35 32 30 27 23 21 20 18 16 15 15 14 6 7. :"or ~ % 4R ~K"a.5 9.- .5 65 77.5 14 13 4 5 6 7 9 11 0 0 0 9 9 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 I2 I1 I1 10 10 10 I2 14 16 20 24 40 50 60 75 100 125 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 II 13 14 16 21 26 30 37.5 13 12 11 I1 11 10 - . 2 2.- 1200 6 900 8 ~ 720 10 600 I2 "0 . and i. 3 4 5 6 7 9 I2 I4 17 22 2 7 1.5 95 100 107. Normal Starting Current.5 60 65 67.4R = 1.5 2 3 3.4 of the '3 A R values listed . For standard 60-cyelc motors opwating a t 50 cycles: kvsr = 1.5 52.

5 15 13 3 4 5 6 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 75 100 13 12 12 13 I4 8 9. 2 2.5 35 42. .21A or B.5 6. These data are representative for three-phase 60-eyele general-purpose open. l o w Starting Current. The operating power factor. 55&. This v d u c is approximately equal to the motor no-load magnetizing kilovars. K"0.5 5 6 7."k 40 36 34 32 28 25 ~ Kvor % AR - 2 2.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 481 TABLE 8.: 22 30 19 19 19 55 1 33 32 30 29 27 25 24 125 I50 200 28 35 42. will range from 95 to 98 per cent a t full load and 95 to 100 per cent a t partial loads.. 440-.': .5 3 . 5 4 5 5 6. t Kvar is the rating of the capacitors in kilovars. for capacitor ratings as listed. the actual percentage reduction in the line current ( % AR) will be approximately proportional to Actual capacitor rating kvsr value in tables The relay selection should be based o n t h e motor full-load name-plate current reduced by the % A R value.5 13 17 5 1 46 41 39 36 35 . - I1 .5 3. . 8.5 8 4.5 50 55 13 I2 12 11 11 11 11 19 24 32. i % A R is the per cent rcduetion in line current due to espaeitars and is helpful for selecting the proper motor-overload relay.~26 2 1 16 18 4 5 6.5 Suggested Maximum Capacitor Rating When an Induction Motor and Capacitor Are Switched as a Unit For High Starting Torque. and N E M A Classification Design C Motors* I Induction~ Nominol motor speed in rpm and number of poles mOlOI horsepower 1800 4 1200 6 720 10 ~ 600 12 % ~ % AR K"or % AR ~ W 3 5 7% 10 K"0. or 2300-volt rating.5 I1 13 16 20 23 27. If a capacitor of lower kilovar rating is used.5 8 9 I2 16 .5 8 9..5 35 42..5 40 45 55 12 12 I1 11 11 11 .or splashproof-type motors of 220-..5 50 60 3 1 29 27 25 2 1 19 17 17 16 16 15 14 13 13 13 13 10 12 14 16 20 25 27.5 50 11 11 11 11 11 II I1 * These data apply when a capacitor and motor are electrically connected RS shown in Fig.

482 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT THERMAL-OVERLOAD PROTECTION O F MOTORS When capacitors are connected to the motor terminals. and often the deciding factor. in the selection between a synchronous motor and an induction . or where a major portion of Lhe load may be switched off leaving a small group of induction motors on tbe same bus with a large capacitor bank. If the motor rating is not included in these tables. if the power factor of the bus is improved to about 95 per cent under fullload conditions.5 are followed in applying capacitors to single motors or groups of motors where a11 motors remain connected to the same bus as the capacitors. Overvoltages and excessive transient torques will seldom occur if Tables 8. First cost is one factor. particnlarly for the motors of lower horsepower rating. Factors Affecting Selection of Synchronous Motors or Induction Motors and Capacitors. INDUCTION MOTORS AND CAPACITORS VERSUS SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS Where power factor has been an importmt consideration in the past. If the capacitors are connected to the motor starter on the load side of the thermal-overload device. the synchronons motor has often been selected on the basis that it will give “free” power-factor improvement.5. as shown in Fig. For the low-speed motors this reduction in line current is rather Iarge. they supply some of the motor magnetizing requirements so that the actual line current is less than it would be without capacitors. PRECAUTIONS IN APPLYING BUS CAPACITORS FOR A GROUP OF MOTORS Wben capacitors are connected to a bus serving a group of motors. there will seldom be harmfnl overvoltages or transient torques. Actnally.load current.4 and 8. However.21A or B . it is often more economical to purchase an induction motor plus capacitors than asynchronous motor. the reduction in line current due to capacitors may be obtained by measuring the line current witb and without capacitors a t full motor load or by ealculation.4 and 8. their effect can be similar to that of switching a capacitor and motor as a unit since overvoltages and excessive transient torques can result. The relay should be selected for a smaller current rating commensurate with the reduced line current due to the effect of the capacitors. 8. However. the overload relay will not provide proper protection to the motor if it is selected for the uncorreeted motor full. special precautions should be taken when applying large banks of capacitors in systems with fast reclosing high inertia loads. The percentage of this current reduction is shown in Tables 8.

or 600-volt systems. Synchronous Motors. From the standpoint of losses.8. the totals are about the same. but when the exciter losses are included with the synchronous motor losses.7 show the motor ratings where the cost of an induction motor plus capacitors (including a separate switching device for the capacitors) and motor starter is less than an 0. and the number can be readily changed by adjusting the motor field rheostat.6 and 8. and starter. Tables 8. Maintenance is apt to be higher on the synchronous motor with its exciter and more complicated control than on the induction motorcapacitor combination. Synchronous motors are generally more efficient than induction motors.POWER. However.8. The synchronous motor has the disadvantage that it must be in operation to produce its kilovars.or unitypower-factor synchronous motor of equal horsepower rating. it is the easiest to evaluate. there is little difference in the net kilovar output for load changes between a synchronous motor with fixed and rated field excitation and an induction motor with capacitors selected for the same kilovar output as the synchronous motor at full load.8. in the induction motor and capacitor comhination. the capacitors do not have to be connected and switched with the motor but can be permanently connected to the power system.or unity-power-factor synchronous motor. .FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 483 motor with capacitors. The net kilovar output increases as the load decreases. if the capacitors can he located on the 480. but above 600 volts it becomes appreciable. This can be important from the loss standpoint if the synchronous motor must be operated just to produce kilovars. For these comparisons. Surely. the capacitor rating was selected on the basis that the induction motor and capacitor Combination will furnish the same amount of power-factor improvement a t full load as an 0. The cost of an extra switch a t low voltage is small. For 2300. Initial cost is perhaps the most important guide in making the selection between the induction motor with capacitors and the synchronous motor. more capacitors must be used than can safely be switched with the motor. However. Synchronous motors have the advantage that they are capable of supplying smoothly varying values of kilovars. To obtain the same power-factor improvement from the induction motor and capacitor arrangement that can be obtained from an 0. Price Comparison of Induction M o t o r and Capacitors vs. In some cases the type of drive or inherent characteristics of the motors dictate the selection.or 4006volt service the synchronous-motor equipment costs less than the induction-motor equipment over the entire horsepower and speed range if a power circuit breaker is used for switching the capacitors. exciter.or unity-power-factor synchronous motor. the two are about equal.

hp Motor speed. and these values can be switched directly with the motors.6 and 8.6 and 8.7.7. There are many cases where the induction motor-capacitor method is economical for much higher motor-horsepower ratings than those indicated in Tables 8.6 Horsepower Ratings Where an Induction Motor and Capacitors Cost Less Than a 0.tarter I I800 t 200 900 600 750 and less 350 and leu 300 and less 300 ond less I 400 350 300 300 and and and and lers INS leu leis . Hp 1800 250 and less 1200 I 5 0 and less 900 150 m d less M)O 200 and loss TABLE 8.6 and 8.484 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT and that is where they mill give the maximum benefit.and 550-volt 60-cycle Equipment Motor Speed.80-power-factor Synchronous Motor 440. the induction motor with capacitors will he au economical selection for motor horsepower ratings much higher than those listed in Tables 8. The kilovars required to improve a load whose power factor is already high increase much faster than the improvement in power factor. it requires just as many ckvar to improve a load power factor from 95 to 100 per cent as it does to improve a load power factor from 80 to 92 per cent or 85 to 96 per cent. The full-load operating power factor of induction motors for the capacitor values suggested in Tables 8. Therefore. For example.7 Horsepower Ratings Where an Induction Motor and Capacitors Cost Less Than a Unity-power-factor Synchronous Motor 440. then the inductionmotor arrangement becomes attractive. as that is generally accepted as a high operating power factor. In that case the motor ratings will he approximately the same as listed in Tables 8. rpm Wilh fullvoltage . Often it is necessary only to improve the power factor of the motor to around 95 per cent. TABLE 8.4 and 8.5 ranges from 95 to 98 per cent.7.toner dtage Wilh reduced. In such cases the capacitor kilovars required are considerably less than those required to equal the full-load kilovar output of a unity-polver-factor synchronous motor. where an operating power factor in the order of 95 per cent is all that is required. Rpm (Full-voltage motor starter1 Motor Rating.and 550-volt 60-cycle Equipment Motor rating.

the rating should be taken as 90 per cent of the open rating. Table 8.8 and 8.8 power-factor motors operate a t leading power factor and are used t o improve the power factor of the power line t o which they are connected. the motor-will operate a t a more leading power factor. should have a current rating of not f the rated capacitor current according to NEMA less than 165 per cent o Standards for Shunt Capacitors. disconnecting devices (except safety switches). power circuit breakers are almost always used. the unity power-factor motor is the lower in price. AMPERE RATING Circuit breakers.e. SELECTION OF CAPACITOR SWITCHING DEVICE AND CABLE SIZE I n low-voltage circuits.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 485 SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS Synchronous motors are available in a wide range of horsepower and speed for various types of drives and for the common utilization voltages. The 0. provided the excitation is maintained a t its rated fullload value. contactors. In medium-voltage circuits.8 lists the recommended minimum ampere rating of safety switches.0 and 0.8 power factor.7 shows the approximate amount of corrective leading kvar delivered by the synchronous motor a t any load. 600 volts and below. . The standard ampere rating for molded-case air circuit breakers is based on 25 C ambient. as well as for delivering rated horsepower output. Tables 8. i. 2400 t o 13. giving more than rated power-factor improvement. For driving a given mechanical load. the more efficient. safety switches. air circuit breakers or fused safety switches are used for manual switching and air circuit breakers or contactors for electrical switching of capacitors. If full-load excitation is maintained while the motor operates a t part load.. Figure 8. General-purpose synchronous motors are available in standard ratings a t 1.9 include the appropriate derating factor for 40 C ambient and for installation of the breaker in an enclosure.800 volts. and draws no lagging or leading current. When contactors are used and they are housed in an enclosure. and air circuit breakers for standard ratings of lowvoltage capacitor equipments. and all other current-carrying parts should have a current rating of a t least 135 per cent of the rated capacitor current. either fusible or nonfusible. contactors.

equipment .oti"g. . Mognetic- Molded- 15 30 45 60 50 100 150 200 90 180 270 450 630 300 600 I000 I600 3000 100 150 300 300 600 900 1350 2500 2500 100 200 70 150 225 200 400 400 300 450 800 For 4MI-mlt Copocitors ~ ~ ~ 30 60 50 I00 150 200 300 600 100 150 90 120 180 300 300 600 100 200 200 400 400 800 70 150 225 300 450 360 540 900 1350 2500 2500 I000 1600 900 1260 3000 ~ __ 30 60 90 I20 For 575-volt Capacitors I 70 125 175 225 350 50 90 I25 I75 250 300 I80 360 540 900 1260 300 600 900 .. 2500 2500 500 800 I200 2000 1I I 200 440 600 Table 8.9 lists the appropriate capacitor kilovar multiplier for selecting the sivitrhing device for nonstandard hank ratings or various comhinations of capacitor units. .

. .. .800 volts. such as the decreased rating of a cable if it is operated at higher than rated 30 C (86 F) ambient. so short-circuit protection should be provided externally. Contactors are designed for an exceedingly large number of operations before requiring maintenance of mechanical parts......9 Approximate Capacitor Kvor Multipliers to Obtain Ampere Rating of Switching Device Three-phase Service [Enclosed Rating end 40 C 1 1 FI Ambientl copocimr "oltoge Switching device 230 ~~ 460 575 Magnetic-type circuit breoken....5 1.. it is well suited for such service... REPETITIVE DUTY OF SWITCHING DEVICES Repetitive duty of the switching device is seldom a factor unless switcbing is automatically controlled..65 1. .34 1....88 2.. . Even then the number of switching operations which occur in practice is relatively small and rarely exceeds five to ten per day in industrial service.....35 1..........69 1............76 4.07 2.. TABLE 8... contoctor....... The number of operations for which low-voltage air circuit breakers and oilless power circuit breakers are designed is not so great as for contactors hut is entirely satisfactory for this type of switching duty.68 1..38 3..14 4.... allowance must be made for the 35 per cent factor plus any additional factors. it . Since a circuit breaker has a relatively high interrupting ability. 2400 t o 13. SELECTION OF CABLE -SIZE FOR CAPACITORS In selecting cables for capacitor applications. the breaker continuous ampere rating is rarely the determining factor in the breaker selection because at these voltages the line current per kilovar is low arid for the usual capacitor ratings the current is well below the breaker ampere rating. 3.87 INTERRUPTING RATING The switching device should also he selected for the short-circuit duty of the system on which it is to operate.... Molded-case ~ i r ~ ubreakers.. Safety switches...... Most contactors have a limited interrupting ability..POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 487 I n high-voltage circuits.

More care should be given in selecting the cable size for capacitors than for usual distribution feeder circuits because the load factor of a capacitor when energized is 100 per cent. anu circuit having inductance and capacitance has a resonance frequency. Although any combination of capacitance and reactance has a resonant frequency. Capacitors do not generate harmonics. they should he automatically switched. The major sources of harmonics are transformer-magnetizing current. A good practical rule for industrial applications is as follows: the kvar rating of the capacitor hank should not be greater than two-thirds of the transformer kva rating. they can be overcome with knovn practical remedies. So many articles have been written on the theoretical aspects of the subject that they have contributed to fear. if more capacitors are required. that fact is not important unless a harmonic voltage of that frequency and of sufficient magnitude is also present. However.488 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT Sinre most capacitors for industrial service are designed for use in an ambient of 40 C (104 F) maximum. Almost invariably these imagined difficulties concern harmonics and resonance. and misunderstanding of capacitors. doubt. but in power systems such resonant combinations rarely occur. This means that for a given harmonic voltage Eh the harmonic current Ihincreases. which invariably is blamed on harmonics and in many cases without any basis of fact. . The reactance of a capacitor decreases as the frequency (harmonic) increases ( X . = 1O6/24' ohms). Allied is capacitor fuse blowing. so from an over-all standpoint the current is small. rectifiers. On rare occasions they may affect telephone communication service or cause capacitor fuses to blow. over 20 million kvar of capacitors are now installed in this country. and there have been relatively few cases of difficulty. H A R M O N I C S A N D RESONANCE AS AFFECTED BY CAPACITORS There are probably more imaginary difficulties associated with capacitors than with any other electrical equipment. If difficulties do arise. but they may reduce or increase harmonics. depending upon the particular circumstances. These fears are often based on the fact that theoretical calculations indicate such possibilities. arc furnaces. Harmonic voltages and current exist on all systems hut generally go unnoticed because of their small effect on operations. and generators. the cables should also be selected for that ambient operation unless it is definitely known that the ambient temperatures are less. in practical power applications the harmonic voltage decreases with increase in harmonic frequency. From a practical standpoint the subject can be dismissed.

the ones most suitable for industrial spplications are Time clock Current. including that of the fundamental and harmonics. it may he stated: i f the voltage i s approximately normal. One exception to the above rule is the power-factor control. it would he necessary that each installation be checked for harmonic content before the switching device and wire sizes could he selected. To control current or circuit loading 3. AUTOMATIC SWITCHING OF CAPACITORS Automatic switching of shunt capacitors is seldom necessary in industrial plants. which is not recommended even though capacitors are used for power-factor improvement. To comply with utility requirements 5. generally multistep I n general. then a load-responsive master element would normally he selected.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 489 Capacitors have a large margin for harmonic currents and voltages. They are designed in accordance with KEMA requirements to carry 135 per cent of rated kilovars. generally single-step Kilovar. To meet the requirements of a rate clause 4. . I t was recognized long ago that high harmonic currents were unusual. To prevent instability of generators during light-load conditions TYPES AND SELECTION OF CONTROL Although many types of automatic controls are available. To reduce plant voltage or losses during light-load conditions 2. This means that they can carry considerably more than 135 per cent of current. single-step Voltage. but when used is generally for one of the following reasons: 1. The reason is that for constant power factor the load kilovars vary directly with the kilowatts. and other thermally rated devices prescribe their selection on the hasis of 135 per cent current rather than kilovars. Unless such a practical approach were taken. In summary. therefore. For example. the master element should be responsive to the quantity to be controlled or regulated. the NEMA standards pertaining t o the rating of switching devices. and such a control would have to be made inoperative when the load kilovars are equal t o capacitor kilovars of the largest step to avoid pumping action of the control equipment. i t i s practically impossible to overload a capacitor by harmonics. if capacitors are to be switched off a t light load. depending upon the magnitude of harmonic voltage. wire sizes.

the simpler controls are preferred. Automatic switching of capacitors in such a case would be of little help. One exception is the current control where the uncorrected load measurement must be used. Ofteii most of the voltage variation is in the incoming supply source and is not due t o the voltage variation or regulation within the plant. The multistep voltage.490 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT Table 8. 8.22 indicate the point of signal measurement for various types of controls.and kilovar-responsive controls should always obtaiii their signal from the corrected load measurement. In most industrial applications involving single-step capacitar switching. However. i t is desirable t h a t the master element obtain its signal from a point of measurement which includes the effect of the capacitor. one should be certain t h a t the overvoltage is due t o capacitors. a current-responsive control usually results in better over-a11 operation than a voltage-responsive control because the operation of a current-respousive control is practically independent of system voltage SUPPLY . I n general. before purchasing automatic controls for this purpose. If there is any question regardiiig the magnitude of voltage rise due t o capacitors. Table 8. capacitors are switched off at the end of the working day.. SWITCHING FOR LIGHT-LOAD CONDITIONS Most attention in automatic switching is directed t o the problem of overvoltage during light-load conditions in a plant. e.10 iiidicates the preferred types of controls t o use. 8. The time-clock control is especialiy applicable where plant working hours are regular.21) or ( 8 . 2 ) . . t h a t can be easily checked by direct measurement or by calculation using the simple formulas (8. " .22 Electrical location of capaciton ond point of signo1 meaiurement. : y va (BUS) r POINT OF SIGNAL FEEDER CIRCUIT u l u T Va BUS n CAPACITOR (0) LOAO ib) FIG.10 and Fig.g. If automatic switching is required.

. . . . . .POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT uuu 3 3 3 " U " U 3 U 3 L U 3 $ 2 5 . . . : . O U uu3 O U uu3 uu . :u = . . . . u uu 3 U 3 u . . . . . . : . . .. . . . . . : U .

23. In that rase. However. switching capacitors on one feeder affects the voltage level on the other feeder. If there is any question regarding the magnitude of voltage rise due to capacitors. Complete information on its applications. 13 in “Capacitors for Industry. These are shown in Fig. graphitizing furnaces. . thus requiring the O N and OFF settings of a voltage-responsive master element to he much wider than desirable.. which is desirable in reducing the voltage. Ine. John W h y & Sons. the capacitors are switched off in accordance with the plant load. It is the type of connection and not the type of capacitor which is implied. most of the voltage variation is in the incoming supply source and is not due to variation or regulation xvithin the plant. If a voltage-responsive control is used.” hy W. Bloamquist and R. * The main applications of series capacitors have been to individual resistance welders. A current-responsive control is also better than a voltage control when capacitors are located on adjacent feeders. 8. Similarly. high-frequency generators. the main power supply for welder services. Furthermore.492 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT fluctuations: also. the current control is generally used because it costs less and requires only a current transformer for signal indication. copyright General Electric Company. New York. C. a voltage-responsive control may switch the capacitors independently of the actual load requirements and thus switch them off when they are needed most. Single-step current and kilovar-responsive controls have the same general application. and operating benefits is available elsewhere. the O N and O FF settings must be wide enough to avoid unnecessary operation due to voltage fluctuations in the supply source. C. in some plants. that can be easily checked by direct measurement or by the calculations. so a t light load the capacitors are off. they perform different functions. a shunt capacitor is a shunt-connected capacitor. limitations. SERIES CAPACITORS It is the purpose of this section t o familiarize the reader briefly with the series capacitor and its functions. The shunt capacitor is simply a capacitive reactance in shunt * Ser Chap. Also. and to the main power system to reduce voltage variation for fluctuating or flicker-producing loads. Wilson. Although the difference between the shunt and series capacitor is the manner in which they are connected in the circuit. 1950. WHAT I S A SERIES CAPACITOR? The term series capacitor is an ahhreviation and is the engineer’s terminology for a series-connected capacitor.

8.= I 2 7 I Ec (0) SHUNT CAPACITORS (b) SERIES CAPACITORS FIG.LINE LINE LOAD U'OAD 9 ORIGINAL POWER FACTOR ANGLE 8' POWER FACTOR ANGLE WITH CAPACITORS B 2 ? 2 i 5 F I' z =I . showing how power-factor improvement is obtained. (Lower) Vector diagram c w 0 .23 (Upper] Typical shunt and rerier connections of capacitors.

which accomplishes this by an out-ofphase component of current. However. in contrast to the shunt capacitor. the effect of the series capacitor on the circuit voltage depends upon the power factor of the load current and is ec = I X . or Ec = IXc (8. Eq. ) sin 0 (8. It provides power-factor improvement by an out-of-phase component of voltage. The voltage across a series capacitor is a function of its reactance and current. sin 0 (8.28) where P = circuit roltage drop or change. reduced system losses. released system capacity. it differs from an induction or step voltage regulator in one very important respect-it cannot compensate for voltage variations originating in the supply source. The voltage rise across the caparitor. WHAT THE SERIES CAPACITOR DOES If a series capacitor is thought of as a negative reactance to neutralize the system reactance.23. its function in the system performance may he more readily understood. these relationships are shown in Fig. 8. a function of the circuit current. (8. so the series capacitor may be thought of as a voltage regulator. A series capacitor may be considered a nrgative (capacitive) reactance in series with the line. Unswitched shunt capacitors do not improve voltage regulation caused by load changes. and the reduction in the power bill all stem from the improvement in power factor. rather than a device producing a voltage rise 180 degrees out of phase with the system reactive drop. is automatic and practically instantaneous. the series-capacitor kilovar rating is too low to improve the power factor significantly.16). The benefits of improved voltage level.27) The basic voltage-drop formula. but they do increase the normal voltage level. A series capacitor at rated load provides power-factor improvement to the same degree as do the same kilovars of shunt capacitors. I n the usual application for power service. = voltage across series capacitor only . volts ec = circuit voltage rise due to series capacitor E .494 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT with the load or system and is fundamentally for power-factor improvement.for three-phase service may be rewritten to inrlude series capacitance as follows: e = I R cos 0 + Z(X.26) However. Principle of Operation. - X .

using the voltage at the receiving end or load. 8. as indicated by the relative lengths of the voltage vectors En and E.” theii it is very probable that a series rapacitor is the reference. ohms ( X . ohms X . it is equivalent t o one with a higher iriterrupting duty.or stiffens the system.. the less the voltage regulation.ed by vector E S I .. the capacitor completely neutralizes the system reactance.. W H E N TO USE THE SERIES CAPACITOR h good test for the application of series capacitors for line-rractance compensation is: “Would the problem be satisfactorily sol\wl by an induction or step regulator that could automatically and almost instantaneously correct the voltage drop for the new load rendition:"' If the answer is “yes. Even though a series capacit. therefore. As far as the power-system operation is concerned.. which is usually the largest portiori of the voltage drop on industrial power systems.ancc i n many iirdustrial systems.24. Ex.28) indicates that the voltage drop and. vtrirh is usually only a few per cent. amps 0 = power-factor angle X c = capacitive reactance. However. Convention also defines the effect of a lagging power-factor current through a n inductive reactance as voltage drop. A system with zero voltage regulation is equivalent t o an infinitely large power system. which is especially beneficial for starting large motors from ail otherwise weak power system. This may be improved even further by overcompensation as indicated by E. ctc. which is the case for zero regulation.or stiffens the system. I t is practical t o compensate for all the react.ive equipment. = inductive reactance. it docs not increase the interrupting duty herause of the control scheme associated ivith the series-capacitor protect. a series rapacit. Thus. so the regulation is reduced considerahly as indicat. i. the “stiffer” the system is electrically.tuatiiig loads siiice the voltage drop itself is used to initiate the voltage correction..c.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 495 I = total current. is positive and X C is negative in accordance with accepted terminology.) Because of the instantaneous aud automatic response of the serics . (Voltage regulators arc riot applicahle for flui. The effect of the negative reactance of a series capacitor on voltage regulation is illustrated hy the vector diagram of Fig. The voltage regulation of a system without a series capacitor is large. for reducing light flicker caused by large fluctuating loads. = X.) Equation (8. with a series capacitor of X . the voltage regulation are reduced by reducing the reactive drop I X . so the voltage regulation is only that due t o the resistance component.

If the power fart. it is admirably suited to compensate for voltage drop or fluctuation assoriated with intermittent. and shovels.oris low (sin 0 is large). elevators. such as sawmills. such as n-elders. arc furnaces. or fluctuating motor loads.X . 8. with the ratio of X r / R ranging from 3 to 10. fluctuating. or suddenly applied loads. then the I X drop will be the largest portion. \ \ \ ES ESI Esz I . the reactance is much higher than the resistance. I n most industrial power systems.24 xc ) xs Diagram showing now o series copocitor reducer voltoge regulation. and motor-starting conditions. The rlne to the applicahility of a series capacitor lies in an examination of the voltage-drop formula F = I R cos 0 + I ( X L . X C ' X S ESp FIG. ES XsONLY I 9 III r. ) sin 8 and the relative values of the resistance I R and reactance [ X companents. as is true for motor starting.. rubber mills. .496 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT capacitor. and a series capacitor mill be helpful in reducing the voltage drop.

if the power factor varies appreciably. 1.24. The capacitive reactance can be selected greater than the inductive reactance and will thus compensate for part or all of the resistance drop a t a given power factor. The resistance and reactance of cables. will have very little effect on the voltage drop. regardless of changes in the load power factor. Thus. The ideal application is that in which the capacitive reactance completely neutralizes the inductive reactance. etc.25 shows actual voltage charts for a highly fluctuating motor load. The reactance is greater than the resistance. Note how flat the voltage is with the series capacitor. The series capacitor is effective when 1. leaving only the small resistance component. will he useful for preparing data for predicting the performance of a system with capacitors. lines. Chart B shows the effectiveness of the series capacitor for improving the voltage. Figure 8. as indicated in Fig. fluctuating loads.. 8.25 Voltage charts on ( I system with a highly fluctuating rowmill motor lood. transformers. However. overcompensation may cause a voltage rise a t . The load power factor is low. 2.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 497 FIG. 8. given in Chap.

vibrate excessively. Applications involving overcompensation should be carefully scrutinized to make certain that the over-all voltage pattern will be satisfactory. it is well that each series-capacitor application be thoroughly checked. The difficulty arises when the circuit constants become nonlinear. is not so simple as for steady-state conditions as expressed in Eq. The power factor of an induction motor a t no load ranges from 10 to 40 per cent and a t full load from 80 to 90 per cent. causing motors to lock into step a t suhsynchronous speed..g. a motor load fluctuating from light to full load will have a much greater effect on voltage drop than a load changing from 100 to 200 per cent of rated load. hunting of synchronous motors during normal operation. e. Some of the difficulties which may occur are self-excitation of induction and synchronous motors during starting. some manufacturers have additional ratings. so a word of caution is mentioned here. i. CAPACITOR RATINGS AND OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS KILOVAR R A T I N G S Standard ratings of individual shunt capacitor units are listed in Table 8. It is important to know something about the motor characteristics to predict the effect of a fluctuating motor load on the voltage drop. A typical characteristic is shown in Fig. SERIES-CAPACITOR LIMITATIONS There are several limitations of series capacitors relating to circuit performance. the power factor changes very little in the motor overload region.28). loads suddenly applied or removed. 8. Therefore.12. Even though such abnormal operations can be eliminated. Although the performance can be predicted.20. the practical solution for most applications of this type is based on experience. and even then prediction is usually difficult without the aid of a network or differential analyzer. Although the standards list only a limited number of ratings for low-voltage service.e.11 and of capacitor equipments in Table 8. such as motor starting and welder operation. depending primarily upon the motor speed. However. The prediction of circuit performance during transient conditions. (8. and ferroresonance in transformers. or produce large current pulsations. Therefore.498 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT some load and power-factor conditions. usually in unit sizes from 1 t o 10 kvar. for a 100 per cent overload the power factor may change only 5 points. a great many data are necessary. especially if the series capacitor does not compensate completely for the system reactance.. .

.5 5. 15 1.25 15.5. although manufacturers are often able to supply low-yoltage units in standard kilovar raliirgs.. 10. industrial plant voltages under normal load conditions are about 460 volts. Most other electrical apparatus has an allowance for a duty cycle or load factor. 25 15 15 I 2...... 25 15 15 I Single. 25 15.. 15 5. three Single. three Single. The actual plant operating voltage is less than the supply voltage by the voltage drop from the supply point to the load....160 4.. .... 25 15...200 7. threet Single . There are no S E M A standards for two-phase caparitors..... t Three-phase ratings outdoor only......4 Standard CA1-1949. .. 10. Generally..... ... and generators are rated 480 volts..5 1. motors for this service are rated 440 volts.5... 15 I 5. taking advantage of partial-load or noncontinuous operation to allow for short-time overload or overvoltages. 10.. three Single. 25 15..... TABLE 8.5 10. The capacitor then operates a t or near rated voltage and output which contributes to long life.. take a nominal 480-volt system. Capacitors are suitable for operation a t a terminal-to-terminal voltage ......POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 499 to cover applications of small motors..... lndaor nonenclosed ""it. The capacitor voltage ratings mere selected that way for very sound reasous...25 15..800 0. definite overvoltage limits must be established.... For example.. ... 5.threet Single... .... three Single. ... Phase Outdoor units 230 460 575 2.. 2.15 15.960 12. 5. 7..11 NEMA Standard Ratings for 60-cycle Shunt Capacitor Units* 1 Kilovor ratings I Indoor enclosed ""it.. Single Single * From KE41.400 4. VOLTAGE Because shunt capacitors are designed for operation a t comparatively high electrical stresses and continuous full load. which correspond to the capacitor voltage rating for that service..15 10. 25 IS.800 7. 7. 2....25 15. 25 15. I .5. 15 15.. 10..470 13....11 that the standard capacitor voltages generally correspond t o the system operating voltages... three Sngle. 7....... 5.. 2. It will he noted from Table 8...5.. supply transformers are usually rated 480 volts secondary a t no load.

260 90' 135..700 3...12 Standard Kilovar Ratings of Indoor and Outdoor Types of Capacitor Equiprnents for 60-cycle Operation 230 1 46iLld 1 15 Copocitor d t a g e rating 2...160 ~ 4.800 Kilovor rating of units ~ ~ 15 25 7% 15 ~ ~ 25 ~ 15 30 45 60 90 180 270 450 30 45' 60 90 120 180 360 540 900 1.. but exclusive of transients.. and the plus kilovar tolerance in manufacture.. 600 900 PO* 630 . 900 1..700 3. i t is a rare application where this margin is not ample. is 35 per cent. (including harmonics) a t a maximum of 110 per cent of rated voltage for either continuous or short-time operation.. . an industry standard.. harmonic currents if present in the power system.. 180. ...800 2. 180' 1.400 and 4.. KlLOVAR MARGIN From a practical standpoint it is necessary to allow some kilovar margin in capacitors for increased output due to operation above rated voltage. .. This kilovar margin.. ....... .600 4.400 * Outdoor equipments may be pole or base mounted.500 5.. .200 1..500 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT TABLE 8.... it will retain its charge (voltage) and therefore be a hazard to personnel unless some . TIME OF DISCHARGE When a capacitor is disconnected from its power source..800 2.600 .. .800-13. .

it may not he the same as the name-plate voltage and the actual kilovar output will be different from the rated value as follows: Actual ckvar = rated ckvar X operating vo~tagc rated voltage )' (8.29) Frequency.30) USEFUL DATA FOR CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS Nomenclature C Xc f kvar E kv I = = = = = = = = kva capacity in microfarads reactance in ohms frequency in cycles per second kilovars. reactive kilovolt-amperes line-to-line voltage line-to-line voltage in kilovolts amperes kilovolt-amperes Formulas Capacitor connected in parallel: c = c1+ c 2 + C3 + . Capacitor kilovar output is directly proportional to the frequency of the applied voltage. While the operating voltage should he vithin the voltage limits discussed previously. All modern capacitors have built-in discharge resistors. Thus (for a given voltage) Actual ckvar = rated ckvar X operating frequency rated frequency (8. The NEC requires capacitors to he discharged to a residual voltage of 50 volts or less in 1 min for capacitors rated 600 volts or less and in 5 min for capacitors rated more than 600 volts.POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 501 means is provided to discharge it. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS Voltage. which usually discharge a unit in less time than is required by the National Electrical Code.

760 17.400 4.9 211.041 87 0.54 8.4606 0.01 706 0.840 63.01393 52.800 50.if = 2653 ohms) 1000(kv)2 kvar 106 (2d)xc C' = 1000 kvar 2rf( kv) * 2lrfC(kv) * kvar = 1000 1000 (kv)* kvar = kvar = c=- X. t To find ohms for other kvar valucs divide hy t h e number of kvar.200 7.300 23.960 12.1534 0.500 190. .470 13. = 2653 xc = at 60 cycles C (1 .15 12.800 7.040 51.502 POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT Capacitor connected in series: x.160 4.025 0.400 * To find microfarads for other kvar values m n l l i p l y by t h c number of kvar.6 5.1151 0. G E X I (three phase) 1000 (kv) X I phase) = 4X 13I 1000 (kv) I kvar = -(single = Capacitor Constants Single-phase capacitors: Capacitor volts Microfarads per k v d 230 460 575 2.05118 0.6 330.360 155.

.POWER FACTOR IMPROVEMENT 503 Three-phase. delta-roiruerted capacitors: Line-to-line microfarads are one-third of the single-phase values. Y-ronnerted caparitors: Line-to-neutral microfarads per kvar and line-to-neutral ohms for 1 kvar are same as single-phase values. line-to-line ohms are three times the siugle-phase values. Three-phase.

or inherently have the desired characteristics incorporated in their design. rharacteristics. Direct-acting trips on circuit breakers 3. Second. and relays-are the watchmen of a power system. or subsequently set on the adjustable ones. circuit breakers. Brightman Svstem Overcurrent Protection Fault-current (also designated overcurrent or short-circuit-current) protective devices-fuses. These basic devices are: 1 .Chapter 9 by Francis P. First. Relays 2. to evplain how the time-current operating characteristics of the various devices should be selected initially i n the case of nonadjustable devices. to describe the various types. The objectives of this chapter are twofold. Selection of the correct devices to do the job 2. whose job it is to detect trouble and get rid of it as expeditiously aspossible. and principal uses of the fault-current protective devices commonly used ou industrial plant electric power systems as a guide to the reader in selecting suitable protective devices for his system. to obtain the selective operation essential to good system performance. BASIC TYPES OF SHORT-CIRCUIT DETECTION DEVICES There are three fundamental types of devices designed to detect overcurrents due to short circuits somewhere on the system. Thedesign of surh a protective system iuvolves two separate although iriterrelated steps: 1. Fuses 504 . Choice of correct current and time settings for the adjustable devices that \rill enable them to function selectively with other adjustable and nonadjustable devices to disconnect that portion of the system in trouble with as little disturbance to the rest of it as possible The two steps are interrelated in that the devices selected for a given system must be capahle of the required range of current and time settings needed.

3 for further discussion of the economics and other factors involved in their application.hey are occasionally used. but direct-acting trips on high-voltage (2300 volts and above) circuit breakers are usually energized from the secondaries of current transformers.S Y S T u l OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 505 RELAYS Relays are devices installed on the system to detect trouble and complete a circuit to electrically trip their associated circuit breakers. Refer to Chap. when necessary to isolate the trouble spot. Fuses are subject to the disadvantages of being nonadjustable and . Also they can be designed to operate on only one direction of power flow to the point of fault or t o locate the fault by measuring the line impedance (distance) from the relay to the trouble spot. etr. The majority of relays in modern power systems operate from the secondaries of current and potential transformers rather than from series current coils or line voltage. differences in the current a t two ends of a circuit. Although direct-acting trip coils are much less accurate than relays. but some of them and many of the instantaneous trips are preset a t the. current balance. FUSES Fuses are thermally operated devices that combine the functions of fault detection and circuit clearing in one device. The direct-acting trips on low-voltage (600 volts and below) air circuit breakers are almost always actuated by the current in the circuit. DIRECT-ACTING CIRCUIT-BREAKER TRIPS Direct-acting trips are mounted directly on the circuit breaker they are associated with and trip it by direct mechanical action in response to current magnitude in the circuit. they are good enough for most low-voltage power system applications and for the small medium-voltage systems where t. or they may have a combination of current and voltage. distance. to detect the direction of current flow. They are used on both high. or current and current coils. Relays provide the best protection. or eontactors. They can he built to a much higher degree of accuracy than fuses and direct-acting trips. Relays may be simple nvercurrent devices responsive to current magnitude only. and they are adjustable both as to time and current. The justification of their use is strictly economic. Most time-delay direct-acting trips on low-voltage air circuit breakers are adjustable in the field.and low-voltage systems. factory to operate a t a given multiple of the trip-coil rating of the breaker.

but comparable n i t h direct-acting lomvoltage cirruit-breaker trips on high-current and superior to them on lowcurrent short circuits. Electromagnetic attraction 2. Pickup current is that value of current at which the plunger or armature will just start to move. putting it another way. A N D USES OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES In order to use any tool or device correctly. TYPES. The farther it has to travel. Hinged-armature-type construction is used in the direct-acting trips of air circuit breakers (600 volts and below) and also in some relays. how they operate.506 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION quite slow in operation on moderate values of short-circuit rurrent. the greater the amount of current or combination of current and potential required to operate the device. it is essential to know how it works and what it can do. OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS. Changes in pickup setting of plunger-type devices are accomplished by varying the position of the plunger in the coil. Electromagnetic induction ELECTROMAGNETIC-ATTRACTION-TYPE RELAYS AND OTHER DEVICES Devices of the electromagnetic-attraction class are operated by means of a magnetic plunger drawn into a solenoid or a hinged magnetic armature attracted t o the poles of an electromagnet. Therefore. what can be done with it. or. . They are less accuratc than relays. All relays and other short-circuit protective devices except fuses and the thermal trips on some low-voltage breakers work on one or the other of two fundamental operating principles: 1. The pickup of hinged-armature devices may likewise be vaTied by changing the air gap or by maintaining a fixed air-gap setting and varying the spring tension. and what their time-current characteristics are. the first step in learning t o apply and coordinate short-cirruit protection relays and other devices is to find out what types are available. which may cause trouble if the circuit is not properly protected with a thermal or other type of relay that will operate quickly enough on the current drawn during single-phase operation to protect the motor or other equipment on the circuit involved. I n some cases the operating coil has taps to permit adjustment of the pickup-current setting. or the greater the spring tension holding it back. thereby leaving the circuit operating on single phase. Fuses also have the disadvantage that only one may be hlown.



Plunger type construction is used for direct-acting trips on power circuit hreakers (2400 volts and above) and some relays. In modern practice most of t,he plunger-type relays are instantaneous units. Those used i n industrial plants are usually intended to provide fast tripping on high-magnitude short-cirruit currents. In such cases accuracy of the pickup setting is not so important as it is with time-delay relays, which may he required to operate accurately on relatively low currents. However, plunger-type relays with a bellows and adjustable air valve are available for use on systems where time-delay operation is required, but the more accurate and expensive induction-type relays cannot be justified. Since electromagnetic-attraction devices work about equally well on either direct riirrent or alternating current of the frequencies ordinarily used, all instantaneous plunger and hinged-armature-type relays and other devices are affected by the d-c component of asymmetrical shortcircuit current. Consequently, the offset (asymmetrical) factor must be taken int,o account when determining the performance of such devices.

The electromagnetic-induction principle is used in the design of many relays but not for direct-acting trip mechanisms. Such relays are essentially induction motors. The “stator” has current, or current and potential coils, and the fluxes created by the flow of current in them induce corresponding currents in a disk or cup. Interaction of the induced currents and fluxes creates torque to drive the rotor and thereby close or open the relay contacts. Surh relays are commonly referred to as “induction” relays. Figure 9.1 shows an induction-type overcurrent relay removed from its case. Electromagnetic-induction relays do not operate on direct current and consequently are not affected by the d-c component of an asymmetrical short-circuit current, as plunger-type relays are. Actually, the rate of change of the d-c component has some effect, but i t is of no practical significance. The rotor of the relay, which usually carries the moving contact, works against a restraining spring which returns it to the normal position when the relay is deenergized. It rotates a very small fraction of a turn, in the fast-operating nonadjustable time-setting relays, or almost a full revolution on the maximum time-dial setting of the adjustable time-current characteristic relays. Variations in time are accomplished by moving the time dial, or lever, t o a specified setting previously determined from a family of time-current curves supplied by the manufacturer for that



FIG. 9.1 Induction avMulrent relay wHhDut cam.

particular type of relay. Moat adjustable induction-type overcurrent relays have 10 or 11 timedial positions, whose identifying numbers are arbitrarily assigned without regard to the actual operating time for the particular setting. The relay contacts are closed a t zero setting, and the contact gap opens progressively aa the timedial settings are increased. All short-circuit protection relays have silver contacts capable of cloaidg breaker tripping circuits up to 30 amp without injury to themselv& They cannot open them, however, without being damaged by the resulti arc. Consequently, they are sealed in by a seal-in unit, and an auxilia switch on the breaker mechanism is connected in the circuit to open it when the breaker opens. If the tripping current exceeds 30 amp, auxiliary tripping relay must be used. Occasionally, induction relays have to operate on quite small values f Short-circuit current. When doing so, there is relatively little torque available to hold the relay contacts tightly closed while the auxiliary switch on the breaker ia opening the tripping circuit. Therefore, in order to prevent the possibility of damaging the relay contacts by arcing which may occur with light contact pressure and also to ensure positive tripping,





provision is made t o bypass the main relay contacts with a seal-in circuit or alternatively t o hold them closed magnetically until the tripping circuit is interrupted by an auxiliary switch on the circuit breaker being tripped. The seal-in, or holding-coil, circuit is completed when the main relay contact closes. The holding coil energizes an electromagnet which attracts a soft-iron armature mounted on the rotating element of the relay, thus holding the relay contacts firmly in the closed position. The seal-in coil closes a seal-in contact which completes a circuit t o bypass the main relay contact. I n some cases the contacts are both held closed and bypassed, in which case one coil accomplishes both functions. The usual practice is t o have the holding, or seal-in contact, coils simultaneously release the operation-indication target also. I n some designs, targets are positively actuated, and in others they are gravity operated when a latch is released. They are always manually reset by means of a button on the outside of the relay case. Sometimes a separate auxiliary seal-in relay is provided inside the main relay case to bypass the relay contacts. Its coil is connected in series with the trip coil and the main relay contacts so that it is energized and closes its contacts as soon as the tripping circuit is completed. The seal-in relay does double duty by completing its own coil circuit and sealing itself in, as well as bypassing the main relay contacts in the tripping circuit. I n such cases, the operation target is actuated by the same coil. Both seal-in and holding coils are in series with the main relay contacts and the breaker trip coil, or auxiliary relay coil, and therefore must be capable of picking up on the current drawn by them when the main relay contacts close. These coils are usually supplied with 0.2-amp and 1.0-or 2.0-amp taps. The 0.2-amp tap is for use with trip coils and auxiliary relays that take 0.2 t o 3.0 amp and can safely carry tripping currents as high as 5 amp. The 1- or 2-amp coils should he used when the protective relay contacts trip a circuit breaker directly and the tripping current is not more than 30 amp. In some cases, i t is necessary for the fault protective relay t o energize several tripping circuits simultaneously, e.g., common practice is to trip the generator main and field breakers and the turbine throttle valve, and possibly also sound an alarm and operate an annunciator when the generator differential relay operates. I n such cases an auxiliary tripping relay having multiple contacts, each capable of energizing a trip-coil circuit, is provided. The opefating coil of the auxiliary relay is connected in series with the main relay contacts. When the main relay contacts close, they energize the target and hold-in or seal-in contact coils, as well as energizing the auxiliary relay coil. The generator-differential auxiliary relay is hand reset, i.e., its tripping and alarm contacts stay in the closed position even though its coil circuit is opened. This makes i t possible for the auxiliary



relay t o open its own coil circuit without having any risk of a “race” between the breaker-tripping contacts and the self-deenergization operation of the auxiliary relay. Sometimes auxiliary relays are used simply as a means of increasing the number of trip circuits without including the lockout (hand-reset) feature.

All short-circuit-current protective relays and other devices can be classified under one of these headings: (I) instantaneous, (2) highspeed, (3) time-delay, (4) combination instantaneous or high-speed and time-delay. By ASA (American Standards Association) definition, instantaneous relays are those which have no intentional time delay. Some of them operate in less than one-half cycle, while others may take as much as 0.1 sec (six cycles). Those which operate in three cycles or less are also classified as high-speed relays. Time-delay relays may he induction, hinged-armature, or solenoid type. Usually the time delay is adjustable. Most of them are induction type with an inverse characteristic, i.e., the relay speeds up progressively as the actuating quantity (rurrent alone or the product of current and voltage, etr.) inrreases. However, a few time-delay relays operate a t a constant speed predetermined by adjustment and are independent of current magnitude as long as the current is sufficient to operate the relay. These are known as definite-time relays. The dirert-arting trip mechanisms on rircuit breakers may be instantaneous, or time-delay, or a combination of the two. R’ormal fuses are instantaneous or time-delay in their operation, depending on the magnitude of the short-circuit current. Some fuses, however, are designed t o give evtra time delay on moderate values of overcurrent in order to ride through permissible high overloads.

There are many types of short-circuit-detecting relays. Some work on current magnitude only, and some operate on rurrent only, but take into account the direction of current flow. Others work on a differential principle, and still others on the basis of measuring the impedance in the circuit as represented by the current and voltage to determine when the relays shall work. Following is a hrief description of the relays in the different rategories and their general operating chararteristirs.


51 1

Relays Operating on Current Only (Nondirectional). Probably the most commonly used short-circuit protection relays in industrial plant power systems are the instantaneous and time-delay relays responsive to current magnitude alone without regard to the direction of current flow. Most instantaneous overcurrent relays are plunger or hinged-armature type. They may he supplied as an instantaneous element mounted inside the ease of a time-delay induction relay or as single or multiple instantaneous elements alone mounted in a case. Even though such relays are classified as instantaneous, a finite length of time is required for them to operate at different current magnitudes, as shown in the lower left corner of Fig. 9.3. Instantaneous relays are available in a wide range of current coil ratings from 1.5 to 80 amp or even more if required. Most time-delay overcurrent relays are inverse-induction type. An “inverse” time-current characteristic means that the relay operating time decreases as its operating current inrreases. Such relays are classified as “inversetime,” “very inverse-time,” and “extremely inverse-time.” Current pickup of the relay is selected by means of the taps in the operating coil, and time adjustments are made by means of a time dial or a time lever. For convenience in making adjustments, the total dial or lever-movement scale is arbitrarily divided into 10 or 11 divisions. Each design of relay has a family of time-current operating curves corresponding to the numhered divisions on the scale. Figure 9.2 shows such a family of curves for a relay with an inverse-time characteristic. The same family of curves is applicable for all current ranges of a given model of relay. There are different models of relays with varying degrees of inverseness. Figure 9.3 shows the difference in the time-current characteristics of inverse-time, very inverse-time, and extremely inverse-time types of relays on minimum and maximum time-dial settings. It also shows the time-current charact,eristic of the instantaneous element when it is provided in any of these three types of relays. The time-current curves of the three relays are quite different, making it difficult to obtatn satisfactory coordination when relays with different characteristics operate in series (see Fig. 9.17). The inverse-time relay is widely used for general application. It is better than either of the others on systems where there are wide variations in short-circuit current levels because of changes in the number of power sources in use. Its relatively flat time-current curve permits the relay to give reasonrtbly fast operation over a much wider range of shortcircuit current than the others can. This feature enables the inverse-time relay to afford a satisfactory degree of fault protection with one or all of the power sources in operation. The very inversetime relay has a steeper curve, which makes it slower on lox values of current and faster on the higher magnitudes of fault cur-



rent. I t is not so good for systems with variable generating capacity as the inverse-time relay, but it is better on systems supplied from large power company systems where the short-circuit-current level at a given point is more or leas fixed by the impedance of the system up to that point. The latt,er limitation restricts the current range over which the relay has to provide fast, performance so the curve ran he steepened. The extremely inverse-time relay was designed primarily for use on power company distribution system feeders, where it is necessary t o have a relay which will ride through the high initial-load current encountered when reenergizing a feeder after an outage and yet provide fast operation when needed for short-circuit protect'ion. At first glanre, one might think that the extremely inverse-time relay was partirularly well suited for coordination with fuses, since the shape of its time-current curve is nearer that of fuse melting-time curves than






FIG. 9.2

Time-current curyes of inverse-time induction overcurrent relay.



are the other relay curves. Practically, however, this relay is undesirable immediately ahead of a large fuse operating 011 the same magnitude of fault current, because it is so fast on high values of current that it is quite likely to tripits breaker unnecessarily when the fusealoneshould bloivfora fault on its load side. The behavior of this relay when installed on the

FIG. 9.3 Curves of time-current characteristics of inverse-time (A), very inverse-time (El, extremely inverse-time (C) induction relays, and instantaneous element ( D ) .



line side of large fuses is discussed further in the section on coordination and is illustrated in Fig. 9.21. However, the extremely inverse-time relay is satisfactory when the fuses on its load side are relatively small, or when the circuit impedance between relay and fuse results in sufficient current differential to permit selectivity, and also when used to trip a circuit breaker with a fuse ahead of it. I t will be noted that the time-current curves in Figs. 9.2 and 9.3 are plotted in terms of multiples of minimum pickup. Pickup current of a relay is the rating of the current tap in use. Induction relays generally have several taps brought out of their operating coils to permit selection of the desired pickup current. For euample, the tap range of a 4- to 16-amp relay coil is 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 amps. To illustrate the meaning of multiples-of-pickup current, a relay operating with a 6-amp tap setting connected to the secondary of a 200/5-amp current transformer (40/1 ratio) would see 2400/(40 X 6) = 10 multiples of its pickup setting with 2400 amp flowing in the primary of the current transformer. Since standard relays are built on a production-line basis, manufacturers are allowed certain tolerances in operating characteristics. Therefore, an induction overcurrent relay meets standard specifications if i t operates Ivithin 2 to 7 per cent of the standard characteristic time-current curves for that type of relay. I n general, the accuracy will be highest a t high values of operating current, i.e., high multiples of pickup. However, after a given relay has been adjusted t o have a specific time-current curve by putting current through it and accurately checking its operating time for varying values of current, it should operate consistently within approximately 2 per cent of that time-current curve. Induction-type overcurrent relays are available as standard devices for 25-, 50-, and 60-cycle service and in a variety of current ranges such as 0.5 to 2, 1.5 to 6 and 4 to 16 amp. The low-current coils rated 0.5 t o 2 and 1.5 to 6 amp may, of course, be used wherever low-current pickup is desired, but they are primarily intended for residual connection in the neutral (Fig. 9.4) of the phase-short-circuit-relay current transformers t o detect ground-fault currents. It should be noted that the low-current relays impose heavier burdens on their current transformers than the others do. All time-delay overcurrent induction relays will start t o move and will eventually close their contacts on current equal t o their current-tap (pickup) setting, assuming that they are in good operating condition and free from dust, etc. However, because of the manufacturing tolerances allowed and the low operating torque available from such small currents, i t is desirable to select a current-tap setting such that the relay will not be expect,ed to give accurate time-current performance below approximately 1.5 multiples of minimum pickup.




FIG. 9.4

I _
Schematic diagram of residual connection for a ground reloy.

The reset time of induction overcurrent relays, i.e., the time for their contacts t o returii t o their completely open position when the relay is deenergized, varies with the time-dia1 setting and the type of relay. On the 10 time-dia1 setting, the approximate reset time is O sec for the inverse-time and GO sec for the very inverse-time and extremely inversetime relays. For loiver time-dia1 settings, the reset time is reduced approximately in proportion t o the setting. The relay contacts will also reset eventually, if t,hey are not sealed closed, mhen the current decreases t o less than 90 per cent of t h e pickup setting. Although the complete reset time of a relay for a given time-dia1 position may he quite long, the contacts wili have separated in six cycles (0.1 sec) with normal adjustment or “ivipe.” This permits using the relay in instantaneous reclosing schemes; i.e., a circuit breaker can be automatically reclosed following an outage without having t o mait for the disk t o reset completely. The relay contacts will not be in their normal position, however, and therefore, if the circuit is still short-circuited, the relay will operate t o trip its hreaker in much less than the normal time for the time-current setting of t h a t particular relay. Basically, different manufacturers’ versions of a given type of relay will conform t o the general patterns discussed. Nevertheless, there are sufficient variations in time-current curves t o necessitate procurement of the manufacturers’ d a t a for the particular device involved, if reasonably accurate settings and performanee are t o be ohtained. Generator Overcurrent Relay with Voltage Restraint. An overcurrent relay with voltage restraint is an induction-disk unit with a voltage-



restraining circuit which restrains or bucks the actiou of <he rurrent element. This relay was designed especially for gerrerator eyternal-shortrircuit protection. The presence of the restraining coil enables the relay to distinguish between normal operating overload rurrents and shortcircuit currents of the same magnitude. This discriminatiou is accomplished by the fact that voltage is esseiitially normal during any permissible operating load condition, so that the voltage-restraining element of the relay is able to keep the current element from operating the relay. When a short circuit occurs, the voltage drops, thereby reducing the restraining effect and permitting the relay to operate. Its sensitivity and speed inrrease as the voltage restraint decreases, reaching a maximum at zero restraint during a three-phase fault close to the generator. Figure
1 0





0 0 ' w




0. I

p I


0. I

Time-current characteristic curves of generator overcurrent relay with voltage


FIG. 9.5



The amount of voltage restraint will depend on the type, location, and severity of the fault. The curves for intermediate values of voltage restraint, which will fall inside these two extremes, can he obtained from the manufacturer. The relay has current taps, to permit adjustment of the current pickup setting, and time-dial adjustment. to control the operating time for a given combination of current and voltage restraint. Voltage-controlled Overcurrent Relay. The voltage-controlled overcurrent relay has an induction-disk time-delay overcurrent element and a solenoid-operated undervoltage element. The two elements are interconnected so that the voltage element must close its rontacts before the overcurrent element can start t o move. The overcurrent element can have a n inverse, inverse-definite-time, or very-inverse time-current characteristic as desired. It has current t,aps and a time-dial adjustment. The relay is applicable where it is desired that an overcurrent element be set t o operate on less than full-load current when the voltage falls helow a predetermined value. A typical application is overcurrent backup protection for generators. Directional Relays-General. A directional relay operates when the current in the rircuit floivs in a given direction and ignores current flowing in the opposite direction regardless of its magnitude. It ran he designed t o work on either useful power (kw) or short-circuit current (most,ly reactive). This discussion will be confined to the latter type. Directional short-circuit-detecting relays may he of the directionalovercurrent type or directional-product type. The current-measuring element of the overcurrent t,ype is a simple inst,ant,aneous and/or timedelay overcurrent relay. In the product-type relay, which is iised only for directional ground-fault protection, a single operating element,artuated by the product of two currents, or a current and a potential, indicates the direction of current flow as well as its magnitude. Some of the uses of directional relays are the following: 1. T o permit tripping a circuit breaker for one valne of time and cnrrent when the short-circuit current flows in one direction in the cirruit and a different time and current when the current is flowing in the opposit,e direction. 2. T o obtain selective tripping between circuit breakers at the receiving ends of parallel lines when a fault occurs on one of the lines causing the same current to flow thi-uugh the relays on the good line and the one in trouble. 3. T o obtain selective tripping of a grounded-neutral generator or transformer circuit breaker -when a ground fault occurs in the protected unit and there are other sources supplying ground-fault current.

9.5 shows the zero- and 115-volt-restraint time-current curves.



Phase-fault directional relays will also operate on ground faults provided that the ground current is large enough t o operate the relay, i.e., is not unduly restricted by external impedance in the neutral of the transformer, or generator, supplying power t o the system. However, directional ground relays, either overcurrent or product type, are usually supplied in addition t o the directional phase relays on both solid and resist,ance-grounded-neutral circuits. Directional-overcurrent Relays. One design of directional-overcurrent relays has a low-energy instantaneous directional-control element whose contacts prevent operation of both the instantaneous and time-delay overcurrent elements unless the short-circuit current is flowing in the direction for which it is desired t o have the associated circuit breaker tripped. The dirertional element operates on the same hasic principle as the wattmeter, but is designed t o respond t o out-of-phase short-circuit current rather than in-phase load current. This element responds t o the direction of current flow without regard t o its magnitude. The overcurrent element, \yhich measures the magnitude of the current, may be instantaneous or time-delay, or the relay may have both elements. The time-delay element is essentially the same as that in the ordinary inversetime or very inverse-time overcurrent relays. It has current taps t o permit adjustment, so that the relay will operate on the desired magnitude of short-circuit current. The relays also have a time dial, or lever, with which t o adjust the distance which the induction disk has t o travel, therchy controlling the time required for the relay t o close its contacts. Their dial, or lever, wales are arbitrarily divided into approximately 11 divisions as in the case of ordinary overcurrent relays, and their timecurrent curves are the same. In other designs of directional-overcurrent relays the time-delay element is (.ont,rolled hy the directional element, hut the instant,aneous element picks up independently of it. Directional operation when the instant,aneous element operates is ohtained hy having the contacts of the dirertional and instautaneous elements in series, so that, even though the instantaneous clement does pick up, nothing happens unless the contacts of thc directional clemciit are also closed. Provision is made to prevent possihle false operation that might occur because of the fact that for a given fault loration t,he current might, he flowing in the wrong direction for tripping and yet the nondirectional instantaneous element would pick up, therehy (.omplet,ing the tripping circuit falsely, if the sensitive, fastoperating ilirertional element should suddenly reverse and close its contarts before the instantaneous element had time t o drop out during the surge folloiving interruption of the short circuit by some other breaker. Iiirectional-o~erciirretit relays for phase-phase and three-phase faults arc single-phase units, and three are normally used for a three-phase cir-



cuit. Both the directional and overcurrent-element current coils are connected t o current transformers in the line, and the potential coils are usually connected to t,wo open-delta or three Y-Y potential transformers in a quadrature or 90" arrangement (i.e., the current at unity power factor leads the potential 90'). Directional-overcurrent ground relays are similar in construction t o the directional phase-fault protection relays. I n order t o simplify the application and also reduce the number of varieties to be carried in stock, some of the designs of direcbional-overcurrent ground relays have provision for dual polarization, i.e., they have both current and potential polarizing coils. The use of both coils is often advantageous in that it assures polarization of the relay whether or not the grounded-neutral generator or transformer at a given location is in service. The operating-current coil of a directional-overcurrent ground relay is connected in the neutral of the line-current transformers (Fig. 9.4). Normal load currents in t,he current-transformer secondaries even though unbalanced and phase-to-phase or three-phase short-circuit currents do not cause current to flow in the neutral. Therefore, only ground-fault current flows in the neutral connection except for error currents which will be discussed later under the general subject of coordination. The polarizing-current coil is connected to a current transformer in the neutral ground connection of a power transformer or generator, where the current flow will always he in the same direction (Fig. 9.6.4). The potential polarizing coil of t,hese relays is connected across the open corner of the broken-delta secondary of Y-delta-connected potential transformers, as shown in Fig. 9.6B. Under normal operating conditions the three voltages are equal and no voltage appears across the relay coil, but as soon as a ground fault occurs the relay potential coil sees a voltage, whose phase angle corresponds to that of the grounded primary phase and whose magnitude is three times the zero-phase-sequence voltage. On highvoltage systems, polarizing voltage can also be obtained from hushing potential devices and coupling capacitor potential devices. The latter are seldom required on industrial plant power systems because the power system voltages are relatively low. The potential coils of the phase-fault directional relays can be connected to the same potential transformers by using a 60" connection, i.e., the current at 1.0 power factor leads the voltage 60'. An alternative arrangement would consist of Y-Y-connected potential transformers for the phase-fault relays with Y-broken-delta auxiliary transformers for the . polarizing coil. Product-type Directional Ground Relays. Product-type directional ground relays indicate the direction, as well as the magnitude, of the




ETC r.




t m D

e .

. ,





4 . d


/. +

FIG. 9.6



Schemotic diagrams of directional ground relay polarized with current ( A ) or potential (8) for operation on ground-fault current flowing in direction of owow in tie line.



short-circuit current flowing in the tripping direction by means of a single element operating on torque obtained from the product of ground-fault current and a polarizing current or potential. The main coil is connected in the neutral of the three Y-connected line current transformers (Fig. 9.4). The polarizing effect required for directional operation is obtained by means of a current or potential coil. The connections of both operating and polarizing coils would be the same as for the directional-overcurrent ground relays. Either the overcurrent or product type of dirertional ground relay will afford essentially the same degree of protection to industrial plant power systems, which are relatively compact and usually have the system neutral grounded a t only one station. The product-type relays are somewhat more sensitive and permit greater selectivity between relays under certain conditions, which factors may be advantageous on a complex power company system but are of minor, if any, advantage in industrial plants. Directional-overcurrent relays are simpler to apply and adjust than the product type, because only the current magnitude and time-dial setting affect their operating time, whereas the operation of a product-type relay is affected by the line current and the polarizing voltage or current, or both, and the phase angle between them. Directional-overcurrent Relays with Voltage Restraint. These relays are the same as the ordinary directional-overcurrent relays except that there is an additional voltage-restraint circuit in the directional unit. This feature enables the relay to distinguish between short-circuit and heavy-load currents, which may not be very differentin magnitude under some conditions. Under normal overload conditions the system voltage is essentially normal and the voltage-restraining coil prevents operation of the directional element of the relay. As soon as a short circuit occurs, however, the voltage decreases and the restraining effect is reduced or entirely removed, whereupon the contacts of the directional element close and permit operation of the overcurrent element. Since these relays are intended for use on circuits with low magnitudes of shortcircuit current, they are available with 2- to 8-amp coils, as well as the usual 4- to 12-amp or 4- t o 16-amp rating. Differential Relays-General. Differential relays depend for their operation on the fact that when conditions are normal the current flowing into one end of a generator winding, one side of a transformer, or one end of a circuit is balanced by an equivalent current flowing out the other end, i.e., what goes in has t o come out, if everything is in order. This makes it possible to build relays that “watch” the ingoing and outgoing currents difference between them indicates that something is and operate when i wrong inside the protected equipment or circuit. Plain overcurrent relays can be used as differential relays. However,



since they work on simple current differential without the help of restraining windings, they must he set quite high in current t o avoid false operation due to current-transformer inaccuracies. Therefore, specially designed differential relays have replaced them almost entirely. Generator Differential Relays. As shown in the diagram of Fig. 9.7, two current transformers of equal capacity and similar characteristics are installed in opposite ends of each generator phase winding, and their secondaries are connected in series with the restraining coils (RC) of the differential relay. Under normal operating conditions the same current flows through the two current-transformer primaries, and corresponding secondary currents circulate through the restraining coils of the relay in the direction of the arrows. When a short circuit develops inside the generator, the current in the two current transformers is no longer the same and the difference in current will circulate through the operating coil (OC) of the relay. When this difference-current flowing through the operating coil exceeds the current in the restraining coil by a certain percentage, the relay operates instantly to trip the generator line and field circuit breakers through an auxiliary relay. These differential relays are of two types. One works on a constant percentage difference in current in the two current transformers (Fig. 9.7) and the other works on a percentage difference that increases rapidly as the short-circuit current increases (Fig. 9.8). They are commonly referred to as constant-slope and increasing-slope relays, because of the shape of their operating characteristic curves. Both types work on the same basic principle of checking the balance of current in the ingoing and outgoing current transformers. The important difference between them is the fact that the increasing-slope type, while costing slightly more, requires less arcuracy in the performance of its current transformers than the constant-slope type does. This means that less time need be spent in calculating the performance of the current transformers, less accurate and consequently less expensive current transformers might possibly be used, or other relays or meters, etc., could be connected in the same circuit with the differential relays, without running the risk of false relay operation due to unequal current-transformer behavior. The purpose of the slope in the two relays is t o prevent false operation due to current-transformer-error currents that might flow in the differential-relay circuit during a severe short circuit outside the differentially protected zone. Error currents ocrur because no two current transformers will perform exactly alike even though made to the same specifications and from the same lot of material. Because the current transformers are not absolutely alike, they saturate unequally when high currents flow through them during external short circuits and t,heir ratio breaks down unequally. If this happens, the unbalanced current flows in the differential-relay circuit, and the relay has no way of knowing



l l / V X A A / I / ~ / W l















1 1 4


1 6


FIG. 9.8 Schematic connection diagram and operating choraderirticr of increaring-slope generator differential relay.



whether the current it sees indicates a fault in the generator or a “mistake” on the part of the current transformers, which the relay should ignore. The constant-percentage differential relay works on a 10 per cent slope, as shown in Fig. 9.7. The V-shaped shaded area represents the plus or minus 10 per cent margin allowed for current-transformer errors due to unequal characteristics and saturation. The current transformers to be used with such a relay should be selected so that the difference in secondary current output of I , and I , current transformers will not exceed 5 per cent under maximum fault conditions, which leaves a safety factor of 5 per cent without exceeding the 10 per cent margin built into the relay. The increasing-slope differential relay works on the same principle of watching the difference in current output of the current transformers in opposite ends of the generator winding. The essential difference is that the relay is designed so that the margin allowed for current-transformer errors increases rapidly as the short-circuikcurrent magnitude increases. This permits the relay to operate on 10 per cent current differential on low-magnitude faults when there is no danger of current-transformer errors and still not operate incorrectly during severe through faults (external to the generator) even though one current transformer falls down completely. In order for generator differential relays to operate when current is flowing from the generator to the bus, two requirements must be met, namely, (1) the per cent difference between I I and 12 must be greater than the per cent slope shown in the relay curves for the current magnitude involved in that particular fault, and (2) the differential current must equal or exceed the minimum pickup current of 0.1 or 0.2 amp. The relays will always operate on internal faults in a generator when there is feedback current from other power sources, provided the differential current exceeds their minimum pickup current. For all practical purposes both the constant- and increasing-slope differential relays are instantaneous in operation, but the latter is slightly faster. The limitation of ground-fault current, which is usually done on industrial plant power systems for reasons discussed elsewhere in t,his book, reduces the sensitivity of generator differential-relay protection in varying degrees, depending on the relative magnitude of the ground-fault and rated-load current of the generator and the characteristics of the current transformers. The generatar neutral relay can be set to compensate for this deficiency as far as sensitivity is concerned, but i t is only an ordinary overcurrent relay and hence may not operate selectively ip case of an internal fault in one of several individually grounded generators in parallel. Consequentk, a sensitive differentially connected directional ground



relay should be installed to supplement the main generator differential relay unless the nature of the load is such as to permit shutting down all generators in the plant, if an internal fault in one generator happens to be close enough to its neutral to limit the ground-fault current to such a low value that the main differential relays cannot operate. The unprotected area varies from about 11 to 19 per cent when the neutral current is limited to generator full-load current, and increases if the ground-fault current is further reduced. Transformer Differential Relays. Transformer differential relays are of the constant-percentage-differential type. They work on the same basic principle as generator differential relays, i.e., they watrh to see that when current enters one winding a corresponding amount leaves the other winding, or windings in the case of multiple-winding units. The connections of a transformer differential relay are the same as for a generator differential relay except that the current transformers in the different circuits to transformers have to be of different ratios to compensate for the fart that there is a different voltage in each circuit, and ronsequently the currents are not the same. One type of differential relay used with large transformers has a harmonic restraining feature \\ hich prevents false operation of the relay on the magnetizing current when the transformer is first energized. Since this magnetizing current may be as much as twelve to fifteen times normal, a differentially connected relay responsive only to current magnitude has to be set high enough in current and time to ride through the magnetizing period, which means corresponding reduction in the protection it can provide. The harmonir-restraint feature works on the basis of the fact that the magnetizing inrush current has a distorted wave form containing mostly second- and third-harmonic components, which are not present in short-circuit current. These harmonic components are filtered out and used to restrain the relay and prevent its operation on the inrush of magnetizing current. Provision is made to keep the harmonic-restraint circuit from blocking desired relay operation on internal transformer faults severe enough to create substantial amounts of third-harmonic current due t o a-c saturation of the current transformers. Another form of differential relay used with large transformers uses a supplementary tripping suppressor to prevent false operation on inrush current. The suppressor introduces the necessary time delay to ride through the magnetizing-current inrush under normal conditions and also makes provision for immediate tripping in the event that there is a fault inside the protected zone during the magnetizing period. The non-harmonic-restrained relays used with relatively small transformers depend on a slight time delay to enable them to ride through the magnetizing inrush. I n some cases, however, the inrush current is so

while others are adjustable for different slopes. i. the current transformers for a Y-delta-connected transformer would he connected delta on the Y-connected side of the transformer and Y on the delta side. Therefore. and i t becomes necessary t o supply supplementary desensitizing equipment.526 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION high that this time delay is not sufficient t o prevent false operation.e. so it is seldom possible to obtain a cornhination of current transformers that will produce exactly equal current in their secondaries. a 5 per cent change in transformer taps causes a corresponding change in the current in that winding. The tap range is sufficiently broad to take care of the requirement that the current-transformer secondaries must be connected in the reverse order of the main-transformer windings. The desensitizing equipment automatically makes the relay less sensitive until the magnetizing current inrush has disappeared.7 amp in the relay coil when a 5-amp secondary current transformer had full load in its primary. a greater per cent difference in the output of t. There are three types of relays available for differential protection of buses: .. This means that the relay coil connected to the delta-connected current transformers would see 1.e. to allow for the unbalances in current caused by transformer-tap changing in addition t o the differences due to currenttransformer saturation. The currents in the different connections to transformers differ depending on the voltage ratio. as in load-ratiocontrol equipment. e...her winding remains essentially t. however. Other designs of relays depend on external tapped autotransformers to do this. there would he 8. whereas the c. Some transformer differential relays have a single per cent slope characteristic.nrrent in the ot. Differential relays are available for hoth two.. Without the extra slope it would be necessary to readjust the relay taps whenever the tap ratio of the transformer was changed. Transformer differential relays require more slope. and consequently different current-transformer ratios are required.g. The higher percentage slopes are for use with transformers having a wide tap range. Bus Differential Relays. some transformer differential relays are provided with several taps in their windings to permit balancing the ampere-turns in the relay elements connected to the different main-transformer circuits.and three-winding transformers. i.g. e.he same for a given kva load. or the suppressor just mentioned.73 times the current in its individual current-transformer sesondaries. Those designed for use with three-winding transformers work on the same principle as the others.heir current transformers than generator differential relays do. I t is necessary for economical reasons to use standard current transformers.

the vertor sum of these secondary currents is zero. T h e couplers are installed in all the circuit. they are too slow and insensitive to he very effective. .ors (linear rouplers).SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 527 1. which look like conventional bushing current transformers. Because the voltage appearing across the relay for any magnitude of bus fault is greater than that during an external fault. however. the vector sum is no longer zero and the flow of unbalanced current creates a voltage drop across the relay. Current-actuated bus differential relays with restraining coils 3. The current-actuated differential relays have restraining coils and are much better than the ordinary overcurrent relays. It is designed for use with hushing-type or the through or window-type current transformers used in metal-clad switchgear. the voltages generated in the couplers in the incoming power circuits' rancel those in the outgoing circuits and no current circulates through the relay. hut they are still not so effective as the voltage-actuated relays. Under normal load and external fault conditions. They are not particularly well adapted for the purpose. is to set them high in both current and time. The other form of voltage-actuated bus differential relay is known as a linear-coupler relay. But as soon as either a bus (internal) or external fault occurs.s connected to the hns and generate volt. The relay is connected across the paralleled secondaries of current transformers i n each of the incoming and outgoing circuits. because of d-c and a-c saturation during a severe external fault on a feeder. These relays are connected in series with air-core mutual react. because the only vay to prevent their false operation when the ratio of a current transformer breaks down. even though one or more of the current transformers in the group become completely saturated. Ordinary time-delay overcurrent relays 2. V h e n a bus fault occurs. When so set. and no voltage appears across the relay coil. the relay is able to distinguish between an external and internal fault. When conditions are normal.ages in proportion to the flow of current in their primary circuits. The latter are able to discriminate instantly between faults in the bus and external short circuits on feeders outside the differentially protected zone. so t h a t they will operate on the difference between the summation of the currents entering and leaving the bus. the voltages do not cancel each other. Voltage-actuated relays either differential-voltage or linear-coupler type Ordinary overcurrent relays can he differentially connected. One form of these voltage-actuated relays is known as a differentialvoltage relay. and the resulting current flow causes the relay to operate. however.

This obstacle is overcome in the a-c mire-pilot protection system. the secondary current from the current transformers circulates continuously through the relay and current transformers over a set of four control wirea. the pattern of current flow changes and the relays operate to trip the breakers. single circuits with no t. As soon as a fault occurs in the line between the relays. however. the samples match each other and the relays do not operate. such a system is impractical unless the latter are within a few hundred feet of each other and the relay. . In an ordinary differential-relay circuit. When a fault occurs inside the protected zone. and the relays operate. In an opposed-voltage system. actually f l o ~ through s the pilot wires. or even when short-circuit current flows through the line to a fault outside the protected zone (through short circuit). but they can be modified for use with some combinations of lines with branch circuits or taps.C wire-pilot-relay protection is a form of currentdifferential relaying modified so that a very small portion of the current appearing in the secondary of the current transformers at opposite ends of t. In the circulating-current system. the current samples taken at each end of the line create voltages that are equal and opposite to each other. indicating that there is trouble in the protected zone. because the relays and auxiliary devices are designed to take just a “sample” of the currents flowing in the current transformers at each end of the cable or transmission lines and then compare these samples over a pair of relatively small pilot wires. There are two types of a-c wire-pilot relay systems. with the result that no current f l o w in the pilot mires under normal conditions. Both systems incorporate the necessary restraint features t o prevent . Since the four wires must be large enough to limit the impedance sufficiently to avoid saturaliou trouble by overburdening the current transformers. although each has some minor advantages that might make it bett.aps or branches. When a fault occurs. the samples no longer match each other.e. I t is designed to provide fast phase-phase. These systems work best on two-terminal adapted for a specific application. Either system will provide adequate protection. Under normal load conditions.he circuit.. and the relays operate instantly t o trip their respective circuit breakers. One operates on the opposed-voltage principle and the other on the circulating-current principle. and ground-fault protection of tie cables or relatively short transmission lines. the small sample current circulates continuously through the pilot wires and directional relays a t each end. i. three-phase. 4 .528 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION A-C Wire-pilot Relays (Tie-cable and Relatively Short Transmissionline Protection). the voltages are thrown out of balance. current flows through the pilot wires.

e. Current-halance relays provide phase-phase and three-phase fault protection. the load current which was formerly divided between the parallel lines will unbalance and. Distance relays obtained their family name from the fact that they operate on the basis of the balance between voltage and current. Supplementary eouiprnent can be provided. Industrial plant tie cables are generally of moderate length installed inside the plant.. operate the relay when i t is all thrown onto the remaining line or lines. either manually or by relay operation.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 529 false operation due to current-transformer errors during severe short circuits outside the protected zone.5 pf. Current-balance Relays. current-balance protection of transmission lines is losing popularity in favor of distance relays. Since impedance. if desired. With certain special modifications. and privately owned multipleconductor control cables are used for pilot wires. the relays operate instantly to trip the circuit breaker on the line in trouble. permitting smaller wires or a longer pilot circuit. is an electrical measure of distance on a trans- . Otherwise. Distance Relays. These systems will work with pilot wires having a total loop resistance of 2000 ohms and a capacitance of 1. the systems will work with higher resistance pilot v. which is equivalent to approximately 23 miles of single-conductor No.ires. to rent pilot wires from the local telephone company for the longer circuits involved in transmission-line protection. Current-halance protection of lines is subject to the handicap that the fast-operating current-halance relays must he disconnected from the tripping circuit when one of the circuit breakers is opened. the current will be balanced between the two lines. The transfer from current-balance to plain overcurreut relay protection is accomplished automatically by means of auxiliary switches on the circuit breakers. i. Pilot-wire Supervisory Equipment. It is common practice. If the currents become unbalanced by a predetermined amount because of a fault in one line.5 power-line-circuit miles). under normal load or through-fault conditions. 19-Awg telephone wire (11. Current-balance relays are available in induction-disk and induction-cup-type construction for the protection of parallel transmission lines that feed a common terminal and have no branch lines. Because of this disadvantage. which provide highspeed protection to the lines whether they are operating individually or in parallel. which will continuously check on the condition of pilot wires to give warning in case the wires become short-circuited or open-circuited. reversion to ordinary overcurrent protection on occasion. They operate on the principle that. in turn. therefore. however. the ratio of which can he expressed in terms of impedance.

the fuses are classified as current-limiting. it would not be able to successfully interrupt the current when the link finally melted. They are a very versatile and useful family of relays operating on the hasis of the location of the fault without regard t o the magnitude of the short-circuit current. it seemed quite appropriate to call them “distance” relays. Fuse time-current operating characteristics are given in terms of the . are designed to give somewhat longer melting time than standard fuses on high values of fault current in order t o clear the instantaneous trip in the rircuit breaker. Most fuses have a “smooth.” that is. Practically all fuses will melt in considerably less than one-half cycle on a 60-cycle basis when subjected t o high values of fault current. Such fuses have a jog in their melting-time curves a t the point of transition from slow t o st. a continuous melting-time curve. They are seldom used on industrial power systems. the arc is a conductor and enables the current to reach its mavimum crest value unless provision is made to put the arc out before the current can reach its crest. but certain types are purposely designed to give more time on moderate overloads of two or three times fuse rating.andard melting-time characteristic. capable of interrupting currents that would require more than 10 sec to melt the fuse link. they can give much faster tripping than relays depending on current magnitude and time settings for selectivity. Otherwise the entire fuse unit might he overheated to such an extent that. However. where it is desired to have selective operation between the fuse and a transformer secondary breaker. Consequently. Most fuses are self-protecting.530 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION mission line. because the latter are too compact and the distances too short in most cases to permit proper application of these relays. Some current-limiting fuses used in the primary of load-center transformers. Consequently. or other circuitinterrupting device. When such provision is made. that is. Current-limiting fuses for motor-starting service are purposely designed t o carry low values of current for considerable periods of time t o permit repeated starting or jogging of motors. however. it seemed best not to attempt t o discuss them in detail in this book. Such fuses must he used in conjunction with a thermally controlled contactor. they are capable of extinguishing the arc for any value of current within their interrupting-capacity rating limit. which these relays are rommonly used to protect. CURRENT-LIMITING AND STANDARD FUSES I The two basic types of fuses are the current-limiting and non-currentlirnking or what might he termed standard fuses.


and this must be added to the maximum melting time t o obtain the total clearing time curve. whether they should be plotted on t. for example. the latter must operate and clear the fault in less than the time shown by the damage-tolerance curve. I n some cases the damage tolerance is minus 25 per cent in time for any given current. or an undervoltage device.e. The short-time curves sometimes provided include the damage tolerance. t o trip the breaker. 9. The suffix “ E ” on fuse current ratings simply means that the fuse or fuse link is made to meet the 1944 EEI-NEMA Committee Standards for temperature rise a t certain loads.. Both the N and E fuses will carry their rated current continuously. Distribution-type fuse links have a smaller manufacturing tolerance..9. 9. Direct-acting trips may be operated by (1) an armature attracted by the . Specific curves for the particular fuse involved should be obtained from the manufacturer. If. whereas a relay works through the medium of an a-c or d-c potential trip coil. DIRECT-ACTING-TRIP DEVICES-GENERAL A direct-acting-trip device is one that trips its circuit breaker by direct mechanical action when the flow of short-circuit current reaches a predetermined value.e. the damage tolerance is given in per cent current. maximum melting. and the suffix“ N ” means that the fuse or fuse link conforms to the corresponding 1936 NEMA Standards. the protective device on the load side of the fuse should open and clear the circuit for any given value of current before that time is reached in order t o avoid overheating the fuse detrimentally. or total clearing time. but unfortunately there is no accepted industry-wide standard as t o the method of showing them.9). This is an allowance that must be made if the fuse is used ahead (on the power-source side) of some other shortcircuit protective device. the maximum melting time can be determined by plotting another curve 20 per cent higher in current for each value of time t o allow for variations in manufacture of the fuse wire. the characteristic of a power fuse is given in terms of minimum melting time. in order t o avoid any possibility of overheating the fuse link sufficiently t o weaken i t and thereby eventually cause false operation. i. some time is required for the arc t o go out.he basis of short time. If the fault is on the load side of one of these other devices. After the fuse melts. Another factor that must be considered in determining the over-all time-current characteristic of a fuse for coordination purposes is the damage tolerance (see Fig. or minimum melting. I n other cases. i. The various timecurrent characteristics of a fuse can be calculated from the given characteristic by adding or subtracting allowances. as shown in Fig.532 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION melting time for a given value of current.

They can he built with instantaneous and long.he flow of current through coils in series with the circuit. They are electromagnetic. (3) instantaneous and long or . All direct-acting-trip devices are less accurate ill their time-current characteristics than relays. They are usually operated from the secondary of current transformers rather than being connected in series with the primary circuit.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 533 electromagnetic force crrated by the short-circuit current flowing through a series trip coil or (2) a bimetallic strip or the equivalent actuated by the heat generated by the fault current. ( 2 ) long and short time-delay. These different trips-can he used in a variety of combinations: (1) instantaneous. but.or short-time-delay trips. It might he possible to build such devices capable of developing sufficient force to trip their breakers directly and still have as high a degree of accuracy as is afforded by overcurrent relays.ery available. The bimetallic strip is usually in series with the circuit on small breakers. Time-delay direct-acting-trip devices have an oil dashpot with provision for adjustment of the time delay. plunger operated. they are also used on power (above 600 volts) circuit breakers in small installations as the only form of short-circuit protection and in conjunction with relays to avoid the use of a tripping battery. Direct-acting trips are commonly used on relatively low-interrupting-capacity power circuit breakers and are available when required on some of the larger breakers. and may he either instantaneous or time delay. but the cost would not be justifiable on systems where this type of device is used. Direct-acting-trip Devices on Power Circuit Breakers (above 600 volts). for the most part. On large breakers it may be heated by induction. Inasmuch as their construction varies. However. Direct-acting-trip Devices on Air Circuit Breakers (600 Volts a n d below). the discussion mill he continued under the heading of the types of breakers with which they are used. They are usually of hingedarmature construction actuated by t. The majority of direct-acting trips are used on low-voltage (600 volts and below) air rirruit breakers. they are used in conjunction with time-delay overcurrent relays to trip the circuit breakers when there is no tripping batt. Instantaneous-trip direct-acting-trip devices may he used alone to trip their respective circuit breakers.antaneous-trip devices is accomplished by varying the position of the plunger in the solenoid. The direct-acting-trip devices on low-voltage circuit breakers (600 volts and helow) are electromagnetic. Adjustment of the current pickup of either the time-delay or inst. Three tripping devices are provided on each three-phase breaker.

140. They can also be set a t any intermediate value between these calibration points. because only one of a possible choice of pickup settings will coordinate properly with the characteristics of the tripping devices on the other hreakers in series with it in a factorydesigned selective-tripping system. or so-called ‘‘ frame size. 100. so that their significance could be explained in order to give the reader a better understanding of the operation of the device. but the operating time for different current values is not adjustable. and 1600 amp for the 50. but the curves have the same basic characteristics as those shown here.000-. 120. 10 times the trip-coil rating are supplied unless another combination is requested..000-amp interruptingcapacity low-voltage air circuit breakers is shown in Fig. and pickup-setting calibration markings are a t 80. and some published curves are plotted in that manner. if a 400-amp trip is set a t 80 per cent pickup. 756. A “family” of long. I n other designs. This is 225 amp for the 15. The shape of different manufacturers’ direct-acting-trip curves differs somewhat. . The NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers’ Association) standard calibration markings of 5.10. The current rating of a circuit breaker is determined by its trip-coil rating rather than its maximum continuous-current-carrying capacity. and 160 per cent of the trip-coil rating.and short-time-delay tripping-device time-current characteristic curves for 15-. Short-time-delay trips are sometimes supplied without provision for adjustment of the setting. I n the design of a tripping device whose curves are shown in Fig. 25-.” The current setting of long-time-delay trip devices is adjustable in the field. etc. Some short-time-delay trip devices are also adjustable. The area hetween these NEXA limits is shown divided into it. 600 amp for the 25. Tripping-device operation coils are available in a wide range of current ratings up to and including the maximum continuous-current-carrying capacity of the circuit breakers. (4) instantaneous and both long and short time-delay. They can he had with ealihrations anywhere in the range of 2 to 10 times the trip-coil rating. in which case they usually have three current pickup settings marked on the calibration scale. Present NEMA Standards refer only to upper and lower boundaries of air-circuit-breaker tripping-device curves. both the current trip and the time delay may be adjustable.10 are plotted in “multiples-of-the-pickup setting” of the trip coil. 9. 1 multiple of pickup would be 320 amp.000-. as long as the desired maximum setting is not more than 255 times the minimum setting. 9. the current pickup is adjustable. The curves in Fig.s two components in the curves of Fig. and 50. respectively.10.g.534 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION short time-delay. 9. 2 multiples would he 640 amp. e. 9.000-amp interruptingcapacity (IC) breakers.10.

points on the upper curves show the maximum limit of the tripping time of the device plus the arc-clearing time of the breaker. . These maximum and minimum tripping-time curves represent the manu- FIG. Similarly. Points on the lower of these lines represent the minimum time required for the device to trip on a given value of current. 9.10 Typical time-current choracterirtic curves of long clnd short time-delay trips on6W-volt aircircuit b r e o k e n ( l 6 0 0 a m p and below).SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 535 The solid-line curves represent the boundaries of the tripping-time zones of the respective devices.

10.e.ime-delay (LTD) device.he current in the cirSERIES TRIP COIL ON ARMATURE POSITION cuit exceeds the pickup setting of BREAKER AT RESET TIME either a long. All mechanically operated devices have a certain amount of overtravel. plus oil-viscosity changes due to temperature.ially picked-up position designated position at resettime” . as explained below. Also. they continue to move in the original direction of motion because of inertia after removal of the driving force. the current in the circuit must he reduced immediately to 80 per cent or less of the pickup setting of a long-t.10 and a current-magnitude ordinate. The dash-dot (reset-time) curves in Fig. These tolerances include allowance for variations in magnet and armature structure performance due to machining and slight differences in magnetic material. hut it is impractical to try to make allowance for such-variations. and the operating-time tolerance hand of a given tripping device will be much narrower. The position of the reset-time curve shifts somewhat with variations in the magnitude of the current left flowing in the circuit after the major reduction in current is effected. the armature starts to at a rate proportional to the move ARMATURE PoSITIoN NORMAL series-connected electromagnetic force trip exerted coil. At by the w/ / f in Fig. i. or 20 per cent or less of the pickup setting of a shortbtime-delay device. Otherwise the armature will continue to move and eventually trip the breaker. less current is required to creat. make allowance for these factors in order to avoid false tripping of circuit breakers on the line side of another hreaker. 9. The permissible 80 per cent current limit on the long-time-delay trips enables the hreaker t o carry some normal load current after the high overcurrent period has passed. When the armature of the tripping device reaches this position.11. 9.. This continuation of movement in the closing direction from the reset-time position is caused by a combination of overtravel and the increased effectiveness of current in the series coil.536 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION facturing tolerances adopted by the industry to define the limits of acceptable performance of hreaker time-delay tripping devices.or short-time-delay AIR trip device.c the same pull in an electromagnetic circuit when the air gap is reduced. which correspond to the lower boundary of the operating zones of the tripping device as defined by S E M A .1 1 Schematic diagram rhowing operation of 6Mlvolt air-circuit-breaker tripping mechanirm. the armature will have reached a part. time indicated by the intersection of the dash-dot curves in Fig. 9. These two curves represent the extremes of acceptable performance. 9. As soon as t. The same is true of the 20 per cent limit FIG.

when supplied alone. or both. Instantaneous trips. assume that a 200amp 1C long-time-delay tripping device. 8. 9. Consequently. is more generous than appears a t first glance. respectively) should he reserved for the tripping device of each circuit breaker. when it is used in conjunction with a long-time or instantaneous trip.10 and the typical combination of long-time-delay and instantaneous-trip curves shown in Fig. the long-time-delay curves “blend” smoothly into the instantaneous-setting curves.000-amp interrupting-capacity circuit breakers. however. 9. has its pickup set a t 100 per cent of the coil rating and that the current in the circuit is five times normal. DIRECT-ACTING THERMAL-MAGNETIC TRIPS ON MOLDED-CASE BREAKERS A combination of thermal and instantaneous magnetic trip is commonly used on the so-called molded-cape low-voltage circuit breakers t o provide time-delay operation on moderate overcurrents and instantaneous opera- . as in the typical combination of curves shown in Fig. the current must be reduced to 80 per cent of the pickup setting by the opening of some ot. and 50. When this is done. or 15 times normal.7 sec. otherwise the device will continue to move and eventually trip the breaker. The latter.aneous trips are usually combined in a common device. that the multiples of rated current times the current rating of the particular trip coil must not exceed the interrupting capacity of the breaker. are applicable t o any rating of trip coil available in the 15-. The long-time-delay and instant. even though its minimum normal tripping time would be 11 sec with five times normal current flowing. the area hetween the reset-time and the maximum-time curves (NEMA’S lower and upper boundaries. I n order t o prevent false operation.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 537 on the short-time-delay trip device. To illustrate the meaning of the reset-time curves. It should he borne in mind. The short-time-delay trip is usually a separate device and does not blend with the others. 9.10.13.her device. a t not later than 5. Some of the instantaneous devices furnished in combination with time-delay trips are also adjustable. or by a reduction of the start.12. incidentally. whereas others have a fixed setting a t perhaps 4. whichever is deemed best suited for the intended use of that particular breaker. 9. therefore. as shown in Fig. there are sharp corners where its time-current curves meet the others. are generally adjustable in the field. as shown by the broken lines on the trip-coil curves in Fig. 12. The instantaneous curves are plotted in multiples of rated current and. since minimum pickup on the commonly used short-time-delay devices is five times normal. current in the case of motor-starting duty. When plotting coordination curves of time-delay air-circuit-breaker tripping devices.

538 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION CURRENT I N TIMES BQEDUER RATING F I G . .12 Time-current curve of long time-delay and instantaneous trips on MX)-volt air circuit breakerr (1600 amp and below). 9.

SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 539 FIG. 9.13 Time-current curves of long and short time-delay and instantaneous trips on 600-volt air circuit breakers (1603 amp and below). .


9. The thermal characteristic is usually nonadjustable after installation. or “Hi.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 541 tion on high-magnitude short-circuit currents.14 is adjustable from 2. The manufacturer’s operating-tolerance bandwidth decreases from plus or minus 25 per tent a t the “Lo” setting.” setting is the same for all ratings. Breaker trip units are usually supplied with the instantaneous trip set at the maximum position. Intermediate instantaneous-trip settings would blend in a similar manner a t whatever point they intersected the thermal-trip curves for that tripunit rating.14. Figure 9.14.” setting varies with the breaker (trip-unit) rating as shown by the short heavy lines a t the left side of the magnetic-trip-adjustment range in Fig.6 t o 10 times normal in seven uniformly spaced steps. provided for this purpose. A molded-case breaker having a nonadjustable instantaneous as well as thermal trip would have a time-current characteristic curve similar t o one of the combinations that might be made up from the curves of Fig. Adjustment to other trip positions is made by means of a lever. I n some cases the thermal element only is used on small circuit breakers. The minimum. or “Lo. usually ten times normal.14 shows how the “Lo” setting of a 600-amp breaker and the “Hi” setting of all ratings blend into the time-delay thermal-trip curves. including the “ H i ” and “Lo” positions. Figure 9. The maximum. 9. until it reaches the plus or minus 10 per cent allowable tolerance a t the maximum current (“Hi”) setting. is the same for all ratings. whereas the maximum tripping-time curve varies with the current rating of the trip unit. The number of steps varies with different breaker designs and frame sizes.” respectively. The instantaneous trip on the W a m p frame-size breaker of Fig. or knob.14 shows the a-c time-current tripping characteristic curves of the nonadjustable thermal trips in combination with adjustable instantaneous trips for the various ratings available in a 600-amp frame-sizemolded-case breaker. approximately proportional t o the pickup setting. as shown in Fig. 9. . It will he noted that the minimum tripping-time curve of the timedelay thermal device.14. Arc-clearing time is included in both the time-delay and instantaneous-trip curves. hut the iustantaneons trip is available in adjustable or nonadjustable eonstrnction. The two lighter lines on either side of the heavy ones show the manufacturing tolerance in the low-current-adjustment pickup. Maximum and minimum tripping current positions are stamped “ H i ” and “Lo. 9.

DeRnition of Device Numbers and Abbreviations 50 51 51 * 51N 51G 67 67N 87 87G ACB LTD STD Instant MCB Inrtmtmeous overcurrent relay [phase protection) Time-delay overcurrent relay (phore protection) Time-delay generator overcurrent relay with voltage restraint Time-delay overcurrent residually connected ground relay Time-deloy overcurrent ground relay in neutrol circuit Directional overcurrent relay (phase) Directional overcurrent relay (ground) Differential relay Generotor differential ground relay Air circuit breaker Long time-delay direct-acting trip Short time-deloy direct-acting trip Instantaneous direct-acting trip Molded-care breaker with nonadjurtoble thermal and instantaneous trip .542 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION FIG.15 Schematic diagram of typical industrid power system showing possible choice of fault proteclive devices. 9.

A complete list of the industry standard ( M A ) device function numbers is given in the Appendix.e. The possihility of such a collapse can be prevented by the use of underfrequency relays and other devices whose characteristics and use are outside the scope of this book. and direct-act. trips described in this chapter. In accordance with usual practice.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 543 TYPICAL INDUSTRIAL POWER SYSTEM FAULT-CURREN1 PROTECTIVE-DEVICE LAYOUT The schematic diagram of a typical industrial plant electric power supply and distribution system shown in Fig. can cause serious trouble by overloading the local plant generators to such an extent that the whole system collapses and shuts down the plant.15 with the fault-current protective devices that might he used on it illustrates the use of the various relays. fuses. This plant has some generators of its own in addition to an incoming circuit from the local power company. as well as the case where t. coordinated nith each other. If for any reason this protective device fails t o function on schedule. or other circuit interrupting devices.. This condition. the numbers that are used on the diagram are identified in the tabulation helow it. WHAT IS COORDINATION? On all but the simplest systems there will be two or more circuit breakers. hetween a fault and the source of power. with some of the power company’s load being fed from the industrial plant generators. namely. in successive steps t o the power-source circuit breaker . these devices should be selective in operation. how t o disconnect the local plant’s system from the power company line in the event that something goes wrong on the power company’s system resulting in the two systems being split apart. For convenience. i.he local generation is inadequate to carry its own plant load in case the incoming line is disconnected. In order to localize the disturbance as much as possible. and so. so that the one nearest the fault on its power-source side nil1 have the first chance to operate. the next device in the chain must be ready to take over the task of opening the circuit. COORDINATION OF PROTECTIVE DEVICES The final step in the creation of an adequate a-c short-circuit protective system is to be sure that the various devices are selective in their operation. the protective devices are identified on the diagram by means of standardiaed device function numbers. This necessitates the use of directional relays for selective fault detection on the incoming line and also introduces another prohlem.

. rotating machines. assuming that they and the nonadjustable devices have been selected correctly for the application. showing the type and rating of the protective devices and their associated instrument transformers and t.e. an understanding of their individual behavior. the damage to equipment.ive device whose performance is to be studied under varying operating conditions. as in the case of fuses and instantaneous trips. but i t is still necessary to choose a current setting compatible with the load characteristics. or be capable of adjustment to operate on the minimum current that will permit them to distinguish between fault current and perniissible load-current peaks and to function in the minimum possible time and still be selective with others in series with them. frequently termed a relay study. A one-line diagram of the power system involved. The necessary data on their individual characteristics were given earlier in this chapter under the heading Types. fuses. or both. is a logical starting point for a coordination study. T o accomplish this objective.he impedances of all transformers. there is no coordination problem. and Uses of Protective Devices. and plunger or induction-t. All the adjustable devices must be set in the field to achieve the desired Characteristics. i. On very simple systems with but one fault-current protective device between the power source and the load.544 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION itself. will also be a t a minimum. . if necessary. The next problem is to secure the necessary data from which specific relay or other overcurrent-proteetive-devieesettings may be determined.ype relays. and so forth. 2. Following is a detailed discussion of some of the basic fundamental procedure involved in making the necessary study of an a-c power system to determine what the current and time settings of the adjustable devices should be. and feeder circuits. DATA REQUIRED FOR A RELAY-SETTING STUDY ' An overcurrent protective system is simply a multiplicity of coordinated individual devices. direct-acting trips. These data can be obtained from a short-circuit study based on the information contained in the complete detailed diagram of item 1. in so far as it affects their coordination with other devices. Following is a list of the basic information needed for this purpose: 1. When these two requirements are met. Maximum and minimum values of short-circuit current that are expected to flow through each protect. the faulecurrent protective devices must have been selected. or the interference with production due to loss of power during a short circuit. Operat. to clear the fault. Therefore.

that is. The magnitude of the short-circuit currents. Also the decrement effect will . Usually the fault-current contribution from the power company can be calculated on the Basis of a single reactance value because the relatively high reactance of the tie circuit supplying the industrial plant is sufficient to limit the fault current so much that the effect of differences between maximum and minimum generating capacity and subtransient X y and transient X : reactances are unimportant. and fuses to be coordinated. Starting current requirements of motors. 5. and so forth. and their maximum peak-load current. plus that contributed by all rotating machines directly connected to the local power system. must be capable of giving the desired sequential operation on the maximum possible magnitude of current. Any special overcurrent protertive requirements such as those stipulated by the National Electrical Code or dictated by the load characteristics. Any special overrurrent-protective-device setting reqnirements stipulated by the public-utility company with which the industrial plant may be interconnected. 4. Manufarturers’ performance curves of current transformers. should be calculated on the basis of the fault current from any power-company ties. In a relay study the problem is t o determine the characteristics of devices that will (1) be sure to operate on the minimum values of fault current expected at certain fixed times following the instant of short circuit. which will determine the settings of the overcurrent protective devices. Decrement curves showing the rate of decay of the fault current supplied by generators. trip coils. Manufacturers’ characteristic performance curves of the relays. 6.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 545 3. especially bushing types. the user’s own power generation and distribution system. It is. SHORT-CIRCUIT-CURRENT CALCULATIONS FOR A RELAY STUDY The basic data and procedure required for making short-circuit calculations as a preliminary t o a relay study are the same as for a circuitbreaker-duty study. but the combinations studied will be somewhat different. 8. so that the relay or other device nearest t o the fault will be the first to operate. but it could be the case during transfer periods when load is being switched from one machine to another. unlikely that every one of the local machines will he in operation simultaneously under normal conditions. hence the relays. and (2) be selective in their sequence of operation over the range between minimum and maximum values of short-circuit current. of course. and so forth. 7.

16. 9. I t must he taken into account. variations in power-rompany system reactance will affect the magnitude of fault current on the industrial system sufficiently to require taking them into account. decreases very rapidly and reaches steady-state short-circuit current in 0.20) and (2) setting relays or circuit-breaker trip coils on small systems with very limited generating capacity. where the total reactance is relatively low. I t would be advisable in all cases t o check the effect of any variations in power-company reactance until enough experience has been accumulated t o warrant deciding by inspection whether or not their effert would be significant. If. hut their general behavior and effect on the magnitude of fault current must he visualized mentally and taken cognizance of t o he sure that the protective devices will operate on the current available a t the time they are supposed t o function. the decrement factor must be given consideration in those cases where a relatively small generator unit supplies power to a large system over week ends.546 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION he eliminated for all practical purposes. the tie circuit hetween the power company and industrial plant is of large kilovolt-ampere capacity and relatively low reactance. In case 1 an actual decrement curve is needed to determine the settings of the generator and feeder relays. Fig. The decrement can be neglected when selecting settings for feeder relays. or time-delay trips. The operating time of all time-delay overcurrent protective devices is affected by the decay of fault current due to this current decrement of the rotating machines supplying the short-circuit current. current supplied by generators to a local bus.19 and curve 1 of Fig.e them and the number of relays in series is small so that the accumulated operating-time error will not he objectionable (see discussion relative to Fig. however. when (1) setting a generator overcurrent relay with voltage restraint (Fig.16. On such a system it is quite possible that the available fault current will he insufficient t o operate the relays on large feeders. 9. in which case a practical solution would be t o let the generator relay trip the generator circuit breaker and shut down the whole system in case of trouble on such feeders.5 to 1. the fault. It is particularly important to keep the current decrement in mind when . For example.20).0 see for the usual industrial-plant-size generators. 9. EFFECT O F FAULT-CURRENT DECAY DUE T O GENERATOR-CURRENT DECREMENT O N RELAY PERFORMANCE As shown by the upper curve of Fig. I n case 2 i t may not be necessary actually to construct a decrement rurve or curves. 9. if the steady-state short-circuit current will be sufficient t o operat. 9. however. see curve 4.

I L I N E ONLY IN USE 3 2 m 1 . 5 2.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 547 selecting the devices. 9.LINES I 8 2 IN PARALLE NO 3 FAULT AT S U E 6 . as well as their settings. 0 0.16 and 9. 9.000. It will he noted from the curves in Figs. 0 1 .0 SECONDS T I M E AFTER SHORT CIRCUIT 0 20 40 60 60 00 120 140 CYCLES FIG.and four Moo-kw hrrbine-generator-h~nrformerunits. because even their initial fault current is quite low herause of their high inherent reactance.19 that the presence of a voltage regulator and the addition of evternal circuit impedance have 40 30 25 20 15 1 0 9 E 7 6 5 4 KV BUS AT POWERHOUSE NO 2 FAULT AT SUB 3.2 LINES PARALLELED NO 4 FAULT AT SUE 9 .5 ! .16 Short-circuit decrement curves on 33-kv system supplied by two 10. for a system supplied from one or two engine-driven or geared-turbine-driven salient-pole generators.

the initial X y symmetrical fault current may also be used as their operating current. The amount of external impedance in the circuit between the central station generators and the industrial plant is usually sufficient virtually t o wipe out the decrement on short-circuit current from that source. Time-delay Relays and Direct-acting Trips. Therefore. Generally speaking. Since these relays operate in three cycles or less.6 multiplier t o obtain the magnitude of the asymmetrical or offset current. Therefore. except on systems of 5 kv and below when there are transformers or appreciable line resistance between the point of fault and the source. the fault-current magnitude will drop during the three cycles because of the generator-current decrement. so that any reduction in their operating time simply increases the time margin between that relay and the one ahead of it. condensers. the current will be maintained a t the magnitude determined by the system reactance.1 sec (six cycles) or less on high-current magnitudes are theoretically an exception to this rule. Use a 1. the devices of this class are too slow t o be appreciably affected by the subtransient reactance Xl: values of fault current. The procedure involved and the effect on relay operating time. Therefore. and motors). the influence of this reduction can generally be neglected in industrial-system relay studies. Actually.5 multiplier. Current-time settings of such devices that permit operation in approximately 0. such relays usually are the first in a series of relays (farthest from the power source). hut practically. when . but. SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENTS NEEDED TO PREDICT THE OPERATION OF VARIOUS OVERCURRENT PROTECTIVE DEVICES Instantaneous Induction or Plunger-type Relays and Circuit-breaker Trip Coils. their maximum operating current will be the initial value of symmetrical transienb reactance ( X i ) current supplied by the power company and the local plant’s synchronous equipment (generators.548 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION a pronounced effect on the magnitude of fault-current contributed by generators. in which case use a 1. High-speed Induction-type Relays. All these devices are responsive to direct current as well as alternating current and are fast enough t o operate on the first half-cycle of fault current. Unless very accurate relay operating time is needed. the reduction in fault current acting on it due to generator decrement can be neglected. their operating current will he the initial (instantaneous) asymmetrical fault current contributed by all rotating equipment (including induction motors and generators) calculated on the basis of its suhtransient reactance ( X y ) .

The melting time of fuses varies from less than 0. so the initial asymmetrical subtransient current will affect fuse operation. For example. or else might be objectionably slow. the lOOE current-limiting fuse in Fig. There are certain types of low-voltage fuses that are purposely designed . Under such a condition the difference between the initial symmetrical X y current as represented by the curve and the initial X : value of current as represented by the “dot” is negligible. Nevertheless.033 sec). However. and so is the decrement effect. i t will often be found that the available ground-fault current will be so low as to make large fuses either extremely slow or inoperative.01 sec (0. When such a condition is encountered. if the X i current is sufficient to blow the fuse in a few cycles. Fuses. In such cases. 9. Therefore. If it cannot do that. 9. the following discussion of expected fuse performance seems desirable a t this point to afford a better understanding of the problem of coordinating them with other devices. The performance of fuses is an inherent characteristic of the particular unit involved and must be taken into account when they are selected for the job. the application is satisfactory. Also there would be no margin t o allow for any current limitation due to fault impedance.1 sec a t 780 amp.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 549 allowarce is made for the decay in generator current. Fuses of all types depend on the beat created by the passage of the fault current through them to melt their fusible elements. depending on the fault-current magnitude. An exception would be the case of a fuse a t a location where the fault current was reduced substantially by high circuit impedance. the effect of the d-c offset current decreases in importance very rapidly as the expected fuse melting time increases.16. Modern power systems are often designed to have quite low values of line-to-ground fault current. For good performance on a system which has most of its power locally generated. the fuse minimum melting-time curves should show that the initial magnitude of unrestricted (no intentional limitation) fault current under minimum power-supply conditions is sufficient to blow the particular fuse within 1 or 2 cycles (0. and 300 sec a t 200 amp. d-c as well as a-c components of current will affect them. as shown in curve 4 of Fig.6 cycle) a t 2700 amp. 0. Since the heat is due solely to the P R loss.01 sec to several hundred seconds. 10 sec at 320 amp. are discussed in detail later in this chapter under the heading How to Make Allowance for Current Decrement on Operation of Feeder and Generator Overcurrent Relays.9 has a melting time of 0. additional means such as relays and circuit breakers must be provided for opening the circuit under line-to-ground fault conditions. the use of fuses should be carefully scrutinized because the rapid generator-current decrement may reduce the fault current so much that the fuses either might not blow a t all.

5 times the full-load rating of the transformer for units without secondary circuit breakers and up to six times transformer full-load current if there is a secondary circuit breaker and the transformer reactance is around 0. Such possibilities must be recognized and provided for initially when designing the protective system by specifying devices that do not depend on current magnitude alone for operation and selectivity.06 per unit. SETTING OF RELAYS AS AFFECTED BY THEIR FUNCTION When the short-circuit currents are all calculated. The following general rules will serve as guides in determining the minimum relay current settings that will not trip on permissible load currents. Such fuses. there will be plenty of margin between the minimum shortcircuit-current level and the relay setting dictated by the maximum permissible load. a relay current setting corresponding t o 1. The fact that the Code permits it. The National Electrical Code states that time-delay overcurrent relays on a feeder for a single transformer should he set not more than 2. however. does not mean that the relays always should be set at these upper limits. a relay current setting of 1. Occasionally.5 times the total full-load rating of the several transformers should be . have normal fastmelting characteristics on high-magnitude fault currents. If there are several transformers on the feeder without individual primary-side fault protection. Ordinary time-delay overcurrent relays are too slow t o be operated by the transformer magnetizing current inrush. such as in the case of high-reactance generators whose total output is transmitted over a single line.550 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION t o be slow on low magnitudes of fault current in order to ride through high normal-load peak currents. however.5 times transformer rating is often sufficient to enable time-delay relays t o carry normal load-current swings. The latter is the magnitude of current ralculated with minimum power supply available and assuming a solid short circuit with no allowance for any current limitation due to impedance in the fault itself. Relays on Transformer Feeders. If the load on the transformer is diversified with no relatively large motor units whose starting current might be the limiting item. however. The minimum current setting of the relays must be high enough to carry normal load swings and yet low enough t o be sure that they will operate positively on the minimum expected short-circuit current. Normally. that will not be true. the next step is to start at the load end of each circuit and work back toward the power source.

However. This is necessary because any time-delay overcurrent relays that are expected to afford worthwhile fault protection are much too fast to ride through motor starting current. the relay current setting should be increased slightly until the circuit breaker will stay closed. If there are several transformers on a main feeder. since they are fast enough to operate on the first half-cycle of short-circuit. The minimum setting of the instantaneous relay in a high-voltage feeder with several transformers on it will quite likely be dictated hy the need for riding over their total magnetizing current inrush. This setting is usually high enough to clear the magnetizing current inrush of the transformer. although the latter may theoretically be as much as 15 times normal for a few cycles. This current. normally are used to provide fast short-circuit protection in case of a fault in the motor or its leads. the setting selected should not he more than the six times full-load current of the smallest transformer as required by the National Electrical Code. The longtime-delay induction relays that can be set lower than this in current and still he able to ride through the starting period afford a measure of normal overload (overheating) protection hut are much too slow to provide adequate short-circuit protection. As stated. Relays on Single-motor Feeders. Therefore. which should he high enough to clear any probable condition such as a short circuit on the secondary of one or two units and normal load current on the others. with a current range of 10 t o 40 or 20 to 80 amp. An instantaneous relay in the primary circuit of a single transformer with an instantaneously tripped secondary circuit breaker should he set a little above the asymmetrical value of the fault current in the primary during a short circuit close t o the transformer secondary terminals.. except in those cases having large individual motors. each of which has its own primary protection.he full-voltage lockedrotor starting current. If the primary feeder circuit breaker trips when the transformer is energized. These relays should not operate on the short-circuit current which their particular motor will cootribute to a fault elsewhere on the system. this will be in the neighborhood of 10 to 15 times normal. usually plunger type. Instantaneous relays. it is necessary t o set them slightly above the initial asymmetrical fault current which their motor can supply.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 55 I ample. which-may he slightly higher than t. The minimum setting of a timedelay relay intended t o provide short-circuit protection for a motor feeder has to he above the maximum motor-starting current so that the relay will not operate on the latter. this Code rule does not apply and the main feeder relays should he set t o coordinate with the transformer primary protective devices. current and also are affected by the d-c component. can be determined by dividing the full-load current .

9.6 to account for the d-c component. . Relays on Incoming lines and Feeders with Miscellaneous load.4). These relays will operate satisfactorily over their entire tap range when connected to high-accuracy current transformers. but they may not on the 0. which may include one or more motors. it will be possible usually to obtain satisfactory operation by using a higher current tap on the relay or bushing current transformer. ground-fault current will be of different magnitude than the phase-fault current. This will hold unless it is intended to start more than one motor a t a time normally or the motor controls are so designed that the motors would restart automatically when the circuit is reenergized following an outage.0 amp. This is due to the fact that the bushing-current-transformer ratio breaks down because of the high volt-ampere burden imposed by the relay on the low-current tap. a grounding transfomer might be used to ground a system supplied by a delta-connected generator. Also its source may be different. However. Residually Connected Ground-fault Relays.5 to 6. This usually itill be the total of the starting current of the biggest motor plus full load on the other circuits. they should be set a little above the total of initial asymmetrical short-circuit current which all the motors could contribute to a short circuit elsewhere on the system. no current will flow in the residual relay. Therefore. and it may not appear in all parts of the system since a transformer in the circuit blocks its flow. or both. Instantaneous relays may not be usable on such circuits because of inability to coordinate them with other instantaneous relays in the branch circuits. Such relays are normally rated 0. Under normal balanced three-phase load conditions.552 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION by per unit subtransient reactance ( X y ) of the motor (either synchronous or induction) and then multiplying by the factor of 1. which incidentally are the most common variety. Ground relay current and time settings are handled in the same manner as phase relays. it can be set at low current levels to give sensitive operation on ground fanlts. It is unlikely that any normal load snrges would exceed this value.5-amp tap when connected to the low turn ratio taps of some bushing current transformers. plus full-load current on t.0 amp or 1. should be just above the expected peak load on the circuit. Residual ground-fault relays are connected in the Y of three current transformer secondaries where they see only the unbalanced residual current flowing during ground faults (Fig. If a check of the bushing-current-transformer performance curves with the expected volt-ampere burden indicates that the relay may not operate. If they can be used. for example.5 to 2. The minimum setting of a time-delay overcurrent relay on an incoming line or feeder with miscellaneous load.he nonmotor load. as previously discussed.

If there are single-phase loads connected from line to neutral. Consequently. 9.15). however. hut probably the odds are in favor of the latter combination. 9. This possibility is caused by the fact that duplicate current transformers are not exactly alike. if the ground relay tripped a main-line circuit breaker. This.4) to feeder current transformers or t o the secondary of a current transformer in the neutral of a generator or transformer (Fig. . 9. Although the variations are small. available data regarding current-transformer saturation indicate that the possible magnitude of error currents due t o differences in ratio breakdown caused by unequal saturation because of differences in their burdens.4) are subject to possible false operation because of the current-transformer error currents during a phase fault. whereas a residual ground relay on the primary will not see ground-fault current in the secondary system. combined with d-e saturation and the differences permissible under manufacturing tolerances. The other and better way is t o keep ground-fault current and relaycurrent settings a t a minimum consistent with positive low-current relay operation and then prevent false operation by timing the ground relay to be selective with any phase relays on its load side. even though made from the same batch of material. One possible solution t o the error-current tripping problem is to design the system t o have sufficient ground-fault current to ensure positive tripping with the ground relays set above the expected maximum currenttransformer error current. resulting in far greater damage during a ground fault. they are enough t o cause appreciable amounts of unbalanced current to flow in the Y of residually connected current transformers during severe phase-phase or three-phase short circuits. however. thereby shutting down several branch feeders when only one of the latter was in trouble.4 sec) slower operating time. It is a difficult qnestion t o answer. Such unnecessary operation of the ground relay is of minor importance if the ground and phase relays involved control the same circuit breaker.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 553 Frequently ground-fault relays can be set to operate faster than the phase relays a t the same location because the latter must coordinate with other phase overcurrent protective devices on the secondary of transformers. of course. any expected unbalance in current must be taken into account when setting ground relays. raises the question as to which causes more damage. Unfortunately. Residually connected ground-fault relays (Fig. may he as much as 30 to 40 per cent or even more. this solution would require increasing the ground-fault current to several thousand amperes. high ground-fault current and less sensitive relay pickup with slightly shorter relay operating time or minimum ground-fault current and sensitive relay pickup but maybe one step (0. I t might be quite troublesome. whether they are connected residually (Fig. for example.

I n actual practice i t is doubtful that the operator was able to do much in the 60 see allowed. if there is one. This seems preferable. the relay would have t o be set for 7 t o 10 sec in such cases. The relays usually furnished for this purpose are capable of being set slow enough to permit the flow of ground-fault current up to the thermal limit of the neutral grounding resistor. As mentioned previously. Such a slow setting is probably a carry-over from former days when it was standard practice t o use a 60-sec or longer rated resistor. Another method of setting the neutral relay is t o time it to coordinate with the other system ground relays. This combination. It is general practice to connect a final backup ground-fault relay to a current transformer in the generator or transformer neutral earth connection. A low-current relay and a current transformer whose current rating is 25 or 30 per cent of that of the neutral grounding resistor for that unit is the combination generally used. are represented by families of single-line curves (Fig. and time-delay thermal devices include the necessary allowance for overtravel. 9. which affords maximum sensitivity and protection. manufacturing tolerances.554 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION Ground-fault Relays in Series with Generator or Transformer Neutral. is permissible since current flows in the neutral of a balanced threephase three-wire circuit only during a ground fault.5 multiples of minimum closing current or pickup setting because their performance cannot be predicted too accurately below that value. Sinceitisfairlygeneralpresent-day practice t o ust 10-sec rated resistors. and he could accomplish even less in a 10-sec resistor-heating-time allowance. fuses. on the other hand. and (2) if necessary trip the main generator or transformer circuit breaker in time to avoid dangerous overheating of the resistor. The time-current characteristics of relays. . The accompanying relay system would (1) sound an alarm immediately in the hope that the operator might be able to clear the fault soon enough t o avoid system shutdown by manually tripping a circuit breaker which had failed to open. that is. which means that any further delay simply means more damage caused by the ground fault. COORDINATION OF RELAYS IN SERIES Time-delay Relays. Most relay time-current curves begin a t 1. and many users set the neutral relays todo that. and so forth.2) to which tolerance bands must be added. one time step slower. since experience indicates that if a relay or circuitbreaker trip coil is going t o work a t all i t will do so in its normal time. the time-current curves of direct-acting time-delay trips.

however. or higher than. the latter’s contacts will continue to close for approximately 0.1-sec overtravel. Then after the first circuit breaker has opened the circuit and deenergized the second relay.13-sec circuit-breaker opening time (eight cycles). 9. and a safety factor of 0. so that the positioning error is reduced. when two relays in series are set t o coordinate properly under the maximum value of fault current expected. This is nominally eight cycles for the circuit breakers commonly used in industrial systems. they will always be satisfactorily selective on lower values of current if they have the same shape time-current curves and the current setting of the slower relay is equal to. When selecting current-tap and time-dial settings for induction relays.4 see with maximum fault current flowing should be sufficient to afford satisfactory selectivity between inverse-time relays. when choosing between two combi- . and the slow relay will beat the fast one for all currents below that value (curves 2 and 3. Generally speaking. Another factor t o be considered. This time margin or tolerance band is based on the fact that the second relay in a “chain” of relays continues t o see fault current until the circuit breaker associated with the first relay has opened and the arc has been extinguished. A minimum total time margin of 0.33 see because their overtravel is less and a shorter safety factor is needed since the difference in relay operating time caused by changing from one timedial setting t o another is also shorter on these higher speed relays. Fig. 9.1 times pickup usually can be obtained if required. that of the faster relay. the fraction of a second saving that might be made in the time margin between these values and the minimum possible settings that would not cause false operation is not of sufficient importance on industrial power systems to warrant the extra trouble involved in making the settings. curves showing expected time-current performance down t o 1.1). the operating-time curves of the two relays will cross each other a t some low value of fault current.17).SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 555 However. The minimum time margin between very inverse-time and extremely inverse-time relays can be reduced t o about 0. it should be borne in mind that.1 sec because of the inertia in the induction disk to which the movable contact is attached (Fig. the total time can be reduced a little by very careful checking of relay operating time. If the current setting is lower.17 see t o cover manufacturing variations and inaccuracies in positioning of the time dial or lever when setting the relay. This margin allows for the 0. although actually the opening time will be four to five cycles. If the total accumulation of even these short time intervals makes the operating time of the last relay (one nearest the source) undesirably long. 0.

000 6Q 0 AMPERES AT 2400 VOLTS FIG. For example.000 amp.5 sec is desired with a relay connected to 1000/5-amp current transformers in a circuit with maximum symmetrical fault current of 20. since the current is only 1. The reason is that such a setting will be more sensitive and faster on low values of short-circuit current (curves 1 and 2. Fig.7 time-dial settings will both give the desired time.0 times relay pickup.17).1 sec.17 Examples of incorrect coordination of induction relays. the first relay will still operate in 2. either of which will give a desired operating time with maximum fault current flowing. at which point operation is uncertain. 9. . suppose an operating time of 0.25 sec compared with 2 sec for the 10-amp combination.556 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION nations of current-tap and time-dial settings. the relay with the 6-amp setting would operate in 1.000 20. very slow. But in case of a fault involving only 3000 amp.1 time-dial or 10-amp tap and 1. is that the combination with the lower current and higher time-dial setting is usually preferable. Relays with 6-amp tap and 2. If the current is still further reduced to 2000 amp. 9.000 40. but the second one will be very. 901 TD = R E L A Y T I M E DIAL SETTING 250 MVA AVAILA0LE '0 1500 2000 3000 5000 10.

This will afford fast selective tripping of the branch circuit in trouble.15). Ordinary instantaneous overcurrent relays should not be used on low-impedance ties between two buses with power sources connected to each. because it is quite common practice to include instantaneous attachments on all timedelay overcurrent relays on switchgear equipment so that the relays will be interchangeable. the second relay must be rendered inoperative by short-circuiting its coil or opening its contacts. Usually the impedance of a transformer is sufficient to permit coordinating an instantaneous relay on the high-voltage feeder panel with the instantaneous trip coil of the low-voltage secondary circuit breaker. Such being the case. They should be plotted on a single sheet of graph paper. the reactance of open transmission lines is frequently sufficient to provide the necessary differential in short-circuit-cnrrent magnitude t o permit the use of instantaneous relays a t both ends. Instantaneous relays cannot be coordinated on ordinary-length cable systems (2400 volts and above) because the circuit impedance is too low t o cause the necessary current differential. whereas using the instantaneous relay on the main feeder circuit hrea.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 557 Instantaneous Relays. When two instantaneous relays are used in series. Incidentally. This is so. their selectivity is dependent solely on their current settings. Also. It seems t o work out best to use a scale corresponding t o the currents expected a t the lowest voltage level. the fact that a relay-setting study reveals that some of the instant. for faulhcurrent protective devices on both sides of a 2400-480volt transformer plot everything on a 480-volt current scale. for example. Therefore. On such circuits it is preferable t o use the instantaneous relays on the branch feeders a t the receiving end of the main feeder cable (Fig. If this ohjective cannot be attained. 9. there must be sufficient impedance in the circuit between instantaneous relays in series t o create the necessary current differential. using a common current scale. because rarely will all the fault protective devices involved have the same shape time-current curves. To plot .ker a t the bus would shut down all the branch circuits regardless of fault location. they must be set so that the second relay will not pick up on the maximum asymmetrical current which the first relay (nearest the source side of the fault) can see.aneous relays must be made inoperative should not be interpreted as a sign of a poorly designed protective system. and it is difficult to visualize mentally the relationship of the many different shapes of curves. GRAPHICAL PROOF OF DEVICE COORDINATION I t is always advisable t o plot the curves of relays and other devices that are t o operate selectively in series.

and that is when the effort required t o plot the curves proves worthwhile. On this basis.8-kv system (60.17 illustrates the importance of doing this by revealing two conflicts that otherwise might have escaped notice. representing the desired setting for relay C.000-kva short-circuit level without appreciable decrement and that there was no pump-hack short-circuit-current contribution from synchronous equipment on the 2400-volt system.8-kv system was coordinated with those on the 2400-volt system on the same value of fault current (3480 amp a t 13.558 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 2400-volt device time-current curves on the 480-volt scale. Curve 2 setting.000 amp. Preferably the curves should be plotted progressively as each circuit is studied. is slower and less sensitive than that represented by curve 1 throughout most of its range.000 amp.17. Then. Thus curve 2 setting on relay D would mean that much poorer short-circuit protection could be provided by either C or D. The three sets of 2400-volt relays were coordinated by selecting timecurrent settings that would make their operating times 0.5 sec a t 20. This was accomplished by selecting time-current settings that would give 0. curve 2 crosses curve 3.8 kv). I t was also assumed that the end relay in the chain ( D ) must be set a t a minimum of 0. Figure 9. first determine the desired time and current settings in the usual manner on the basis of current expected in the 2400-volt circuit. the single set of relays on the 13.000-amp fault on the 2400-volt system.5 see. .4 see between relays A and B for a 20. the maximum symmetrical fault current would he 20. it is easy to overlook one.000 amp on a 2400-volt base). 9. Then plot time directly since that scale is unchanged. but multiply the 2400-volt currents by 5 (ratio of voltages) before plotting on the 480-volt scale. This procedure would give satisfactory results without plotting the curves. thereby compelling desensitization of C to make i t selective with D. starting with the device a t the end of the chain (farthest from the source).4 sec apart at the maximum current of 20. Unfortunately. it was assumed that the power supply was capable of maintaining a 250. As shown in Fig. time-current settings on relay D that would give either curve 1 or curve 2 would satisfy the requirement that it take a minimum of 0. however. if the basic rules for coordinating relays were observed: (1) use relays with the same shape curves in series with each other. of these basic rules. Furthermore. I n the case illustrated.000 amp on the 2400-volt system and 10. because that is all that the relays at A would see during a fault on the 2400-volt side of the transformer. that of the relays ahead of them.250 amp on the 13. however. This procedure will show whether or not the proposed timecurrent characteristic of each successive device coordinates with the one on its load side. or both. or below. and (2) make sure that the relays farthest from the source o f power always have current settings equal to.

Actually. which would mean that the tripping sequence of the breakers would be reversed.000 amp. If the curves had not been plotted. This would mean that A and B could both be more sensitive and faster and. thereby making it possible to se: B to give performance as shown by curve 5. however. which may be subjected to high levels of fault current. The extent of this breakdown in current-transformer ratio depends on the burden imposed by the impedance of the relays. some of the current transformers in such plants may be subjected to symmetrical short-circuit currents as high as 200 times their rating. that would not be too serious. and leads connected to their secondaries and the primary current imposed on them. and 7 illustrate what would happen if relay B had a very inverse-time characteristic instead of an inverse-time curve. if the very inverse-time relay was used a t B . Also curve 6 satisfies the requirement that relay A be 0. the very inverse-time characteristic of relay B causes its curve to cross that of A a t a high level of fault current. instruments. because of the big “gap” in the pickup currents (sensitivity) of relays B and C . as the others do. so it would be better to substitute an inverse-time relay for the very inverse-time relay a t B . 6. when both ere operating on 20.4 sec slower than B when A is operating on the equivalent of the 20. Curve 4 meets the requirement that i t be 0. most curient transformers will saturate. and multiplies of 50 t o 100 times current-transformer rating will be quite common. For this particular circuit. representing relay C. could afford better protection for the system. hut it apppars that the ratio can break down so badly that only 50 per cent. and then their accuracy breaks down badly. as shown by curve 7. the backup protection that relay B could afford t o C would beverypoor indeed. This would presumably result in greater damage during a short circuit. since tripping either breaker would shut down the whole circuit. there would be reason to believe that the contemplated settings for A and B as represented by curves 6 and 4 would be satisfactory. I t should also be noted that. EFFECT O F CURRENT-TRANSFORMER SATURATION ON RELAY BEHAVIOR Industrial plants have a considerable number of relatively small feeders operating at the main-bus voltage.4 sec slower than curve 3. t o he selective with B. especially when there are “local” generators. the setting of relay A would have to be desensitized and increased in time. consequently. or even . The available data are not conclusive. U hen subjected to such magnitudes of fault current.SYSTEM OVERCURRENl PROTECTION 559 Curves 4. 5 . as shown by curves 3 and 4. Consequently.000-amp 2400-volt system short-circuit current. If it was necessary to retain the very inverse-time relay a t B . but it would still nullify the effectiveness of the relays in giving indication as t o where the trouble was.

of the theoretically correct secondary current will be available (Fig. FIG. 9.560 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION less. This factor should be taken into account when coordinating relays in series that are subjected to the same fault current. thereby reducing the time margin needed for selectivity between the relays. 9. The relays connected t o them would. they would probably show a greater breakdown in transformation ratio. For a given fault condition the smaller transformers would be subjected t o a greater ndmber of multiples of their rating. therefore. . and if their burden was the same as that on the larger current transformers. but connected to different size current transformers. see fewer multiples of their tap setting and be slower in operation than they would have been if the current-transformer ratio had been maintained. Such a breakdown in current-transformer ratio means that relays connected t o them will not operate so fast as their time-current curves indicate they should. Meanwhile the relays connected t o the larger current transformers would be seeing more current in proportion and consequently would be operating nearer to their theoretical time-current curves.18).18 Approximate performance of 4@3/>8W/5-amp wound-type current transformers with varying secondary burdens and primary overcurrentr. assuming perfect performance of the transformers. The possibility of nonselective operation from this cause should he investigated when it is important to have selective operation of relays connected to widely different current transformers or having substantially different burdens on their respective current transformers.

so that the current transformers are not subjected to such high multiples of their rating. the fault current is maintained at the initial X : or X y level. depending on . the short-circuit-current output of a generator with a voltage regulator decays t o a steady-state value of 2 to 3.6 sec after the short circuit occurs. On those portions of utility systems where the blocks of power are smaller. The recommended current setting is between 200 and 250 per cent of generator full-load rating if there is a generator voltage regulator and 150 to 200 per cent if there is no regulator. power company st.19. are affected sufficiently by the reduction in operating current t o warrant making allowanre for it as evplained below. hecause a t the generating stations where the short-circuit-current levels are high. such as the generator-overcurrent and main-feeder relays.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 561 This problem is less likely to he encountered on power company systems. when supplied by “house” generators rather than transformers. it is usually permissible on indnstrial plant systems to ignore the slowing-down effect of the fault-current decrement when selecting time-hrrent settings for devices that are expected to operate in not over approvimately 0. I n such rases the settings are made on the basis that. However. H O W T O M A K E A L L O W A N C E FOR CURRENT DECREMENT ON OPERATION FEEDER A N D GENERATOR OVERCURRENT RELAYS O F As indicated earlier in this chapter. because a t the present time the published ratio-correction-factor (RCF) curves stop a t 20 times current-transformer rating. Also.5 times normal. but it should be given consideration when trying t o make closely coordinated relay settings on large systems. as shown in Fig. requiring smaller current transformer. those devices having loager time settings. In many cases it will be possible to ignore the effect of current-transformer saturation. meaning less current for the same short-circuit kva. The problem in setting a generator external-fault backup relay is to select time-current settings that are selective with the feeder relays and will also enable the relay to distinguish between fault currents and legitimate high-overload currents.ation auxiliary power systems. the fault-current magnitudes are also greatly reduced by system impedance. larger blocks of power are being dealt with on the average utility system. The reason for the difference in settings is that. so the current transformers are of higher ampere rating. However. I t will be necessary t o obtain the required current-transformer-performance curves from the manufacturer for the specific case involved. 9. the voltages are higher than in industrial plants. These two factors comhined mean fewer multiples of their rating when current transformers are subjected to short-circuit current. will often encounter the same problem.

800-volt 3600-rpm generator for faults on o m bur and on 4160-roll bur fed through 2Mx) h a 0. the worst conditions for coordination with the feeder relays is for a threephase fault close to the bus under which condition there would be zerovolts restraint on the relay so that it operates a t maximum speed for a given current. it would be necessary t o use the appropriate time-current curves for voltage restraints between zero and 115 volts. If the system connections were such that a three-phase fault on or close to the bus did not produce zero-volts restraint on the relay. current levels when there is a fault. but without a regulator the steady-state fault current would he less than twice normal. 9. During normal operation with 115 volts restraint. the relay curves are even more inverse than those of an extremely inversetime induction-overcurreut relay. as is the usual practice in industrial plants.5.055 per-unit reactance transformer. and the relay picks up at about 25 per cent of the 115-volt-restraint setting. With zero-volts restraint their shape approximates that of a very inverse-time relay.562 SYSTEM OVERCURRWT PROTECTION generator characteristics and exciter ceiling voltage. 9.19 . or lower. In the following discussion i t is assumed that the generator and feeders are connected directly to the hiis. The shape of the generator-relay time-current characteristic curves changes radically with variations in the amount of voltage restraint. Consequently. as shown in Fig. This change in the shape of the operating curves makes it possible to set the relay so that i t will permit the generator t o carry any permissible overload likely to he encountered and yet be capable of operating quickly on the same. FIG. To illustrate the procedure involved in selecting the settings for a 30 60 90 120 CYCLES Short-circuit decrement wrvei of 9375-kw 13.

allowance could be made for it as described later. and 200 per cent of that would be 780 amp. 9.0 sec with this much current. in order to be selective with other devices on its load side. because for practical purposes the 4160-volt-system decrement curve in Fig.17 multiples of its tap setting for a 3320-amp fault on the 4160-volt circuit.4.2). Since relay R has to be selective with C. I t was necessary to set B on its 6-amp tap in order to ride through the starting current of a large 4160-volt motor on another feeder. B’s time-current curve should be extended to the right of point D’where it coordinates with C. If this were done. I t was assumed that relay C had to be set on the 6-amp tap and 2 time dial (TD) to give 0. Generator relay A must be made selective with B for faults a t H on the 13. consider a portion of a power system supplied by a 9375-kva 13. which is greater than the 720-amp current-transformer primary rurrent corresponding t o the nearest current tap on the relay (6 amp).SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECllON 563 generator external-fault backup relay. With this tap setting. Full-load rurrent of the generator is 390 amp.20). 9. Consequently.800 x (CT 6 (tap) . it must be 0. which is the equivalent of 960 amp primary current. I n making this time-dial selection the effect of generator fault-current decay was neglected.20). it could be assumed that the fault current on the 13. If extreme accuracy is desired. 9. it will require a 2.8-kv system would also be sustained a t the transient reactance X i level. Since the short-circuit-current magnitude there is much bigher than a t I. relay B would see 3320 200 (CT Pri) 4160 13.19 is so flattened out because of the transformer impedance that the effect of variations on relay performance is unimportant. which in turn must be selective with relay C farthest from the power source. Since B is an inverse-time relay. or 246 per cent of generator rating.4 see slower when the two are operating on the 3320-amp fault current on the 4160-volt side of the transformer (see points D and D’ on curves C and B of Fig. 9. generator relay A could easily be .8-kv side of the transformer.5 time-dial setting to give the required 1. 9.800-volt 3600-rpm turbine-generator with direct-connccted exciter controlled by a voltage regulator (see Fig.6 sec on the maximum symmetrical X i fault current of 3320 amp for a fault a t I on the 4160-volt circuit.20 selective with relay B. which will make the generator relay A in Fig. it mill be neressary to use the 8-amp tap. The next step is to select a time-dial setting. as determined from the family of time-current curves for the relay (Fig. Then if the user was willing to sacrifice some of the benefit from the generator relay by acrepting slow operation.

20 Coordinated time-current C U W ~ Sof feeder and generotor overcurrent relays.20. 9.564 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION coordinated with feeder relay B by selecting a zero-restraint time-dial setting from Fig. . 9.5 that mould make il 0.4 sec slower than B at this maximum value of current. N CURRENT IN AMPERES ON 4160 VOLT BASE FIG. as shown by points F and F’ on curves B and A’ of Fig. 9.

as shown by points E arid 12’ on curves R and 4 of Fig. continue the same procedure until the contacts will close in the total time allowed.85 times B’s &amp pickup setting.75 see t o close its contacts with this much current when-set on 2.SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 565 If greater accuracy is desired i n order t o obtain maximum value from the money invested in the relays.47 times generator rating. is neglected when determiuiiig the performance of relays assumed t o he operating on fault current sustained at the initial value.assumed that 36 cycles mould be long enough for B t o close its contacts for a fault at H . 9.5 time dial. 9. The first.. whirh is set on its 8 amp tap. t o make it 0. The difference in time between curves . 9. so it is necessary . that the first estimate was too short as the relay still has t o go 0.19) and calculat.19 for the estimated period of time required by the relay t o dose its coritacts when operating on the decaying rurreut.6 see.20 of its t.2). and find the operating-time rate of the relay on that much current from its time-current curves (Fig. I t appears. therefore. the decrement-curve ordinates that are averaged should be uniformly spaced and close enough together that the segment of the curve between adjacent ordinates is essentially a straight line. The relay curves in Fig. relay B would have traveled 0.4 see slower than B . I n determining the average current.75 = 0.h C.or relay 4 on the decaying current. Then convert this average value of short-circuit current t o multiples-ofthe-tap setting of relay R .80 of the required distance t o close its contacts.8-kv-circuit decrement curve in Fig.6/0. The average current under the decrement curve for 36 cycles is 5. or 8. Incidentally.5 time dial as required t o coordinate xit. For this illustration. it was first . step would be to determine how long it would take for relay B t o close its contacts on the decaying current for a three-phase fault at N when set a t 6 amp and 2. First determine the arithmetical average of the symmetrical fault current represented by the 13.e the performance of both feeder relay I ?arid generat. it will be necessary to secure a generator decrement curve (Fig. Then select a zero restraint time-dial setting for A .4‘ represents the worthwhile improvement in performance of the relays made possible hy simply taking the trouble to determine the effect of the generator-current. Thus.otal distance. The behavior of relays A and B on the decaying generator current is a cut-and-try operation. whereas it.4 and . for the first 0. 9. decrement. If the rate of speed thus determined is insufficient t o complete the closing operation in the estimated time.2 show that an inverse-time induction overcurrent relay would travel at a rate that would take it 0.20. it should be noted that the subtransient reactance ( X y ) value of fault current is included when using decrement curves. 9.

it is a relatively long time electrically. This setting should be selected on the basis of zero-volts restraint corresponding to a solid three-phase fault close t o the bus. which condition prevails in less than twice pickup current in the case of inverse-time relays and only a little later in the case of the generator and very inverse-time relays. Adding this to the 0. The total time therefore is 36 11 cycles. travel 11/(60 X 0.4 see slower than relay B ) a t point E . 11 more cycles with an average current of 3. then summing up the total distance traveled for the successive increments. therefore.004. The disk will. and could be the major factor in the amount of damage done by the short circuit.90) = 0. Since the decrement curve has flattened out considerably by this time.70 times the relay pickup setting) gives a rate of travel that would close the contacts in 0. The latter involves determination of the percentage of its total travel that the disk would move when subjected to the arithmetical averege for each portion (increment) of the decrement curve that follows a straight line. Curve A" shows how the 115-volt restraint imposed under normal load conditions pulls relay A ' s operating curve out of the way of any permissible short-time overloads.he estimated 11 cycles.2 sec. which is close enough. These factors should be taken into account when selecting coordination settings for either the generator + . it is relatively easy to pick an average. 9. If A is selective with B for a maximum fault with zero-volts restraint (curves A and B ) . This procedure gives the same results as the so-called step-by-step method.20 that neglecting the effect of generator fault-current decay would slow down the generator relay about 0. It appears from an inspection of the curves of Fig. Either method applies only when a relay is working on the saturated portion of its curve. when the system voltage is higher.his case. because any voltage restraint slows down the generator relay. and find the rate of travel from the relay curves. The next step is to select a time-dial setting for generator relay A that will make it selective (0.566 SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION to estimate how many more cycles are needed for it to close.783 see. it will be selective a t any lesser fault condition. While this may seem too short a space of time to be conrerned about. 9.5 sec. On low-voltage systems (600 volts and below) the circuit and fault impedance have a very pronounced effect on both the magnitude of fault current and the voltage a t the generator. when operating a t the slower rate of speed which the lower magnitude of fault current available during an additional period will produce. which would be the worst condition in the average industrial plant. I n t.8 of the distance already traveled makes a total of 1.51 times generator rating (5.5 time-dial setting would meet the requirement of 1. or 0.90 see. convert it to multiple@-of-relaypickup. The generator-relay curves (Fig.204 of its total distance in t.5) show that a 4.

when selecting the time-current settings for coordinating these relays. Transformer-differential relays have current taps to compensate for differences between current-transformer ratios and the currents on opposite sides of a transformer. The instantaneous voltage element controls operation of the induction overcurrent element and should be set to operate a t a voltage below the minimum value expected under the worst conditions likely to be encountered in normal plant operation. parallel-line current-balance. Wire-pilot relays have provision for adjustment to (1) compensate for variations in length-(resistance) of the pilot wire. Detailed instructions for selecting the proper taps are supplied by the manufacturer. Generator-differential relays require no adjustments of any kind. (2) vary the phase and ground-fault sensitivity. and wire-pilot relays operate only on faults within the zones they protect and. when used for generator external-fault backup protection should he set so that it will not operate on any maximum permissible overload but will operate on short-circuit current selectively with feeder relays. as well as the effect of Y-delta phase shift. do not require time-current-characteristic coordination with other devices. (3) permit the use of current transformers of different ratios. In order t o obtain maximum benefit from them. The shape of the time-current curves depends on which of three possible time-current-characteristic elements was supplied by the manufacturer for that particular relay. CURRENT-BALANCE.2. SETTING DIFFERENTIAL. therefore. The manufacturer’s instruction book contains the . AND WIRE-PILOT RELAYS Generator and transformer-differential. as described in the preceding paragraphs. The current element has essentially the same time-current characteristics as a conventional induction overcurrent relay and is provided with current-tap and time-dial adjustments. the effect of fault-current decay due t o generator-current decrement should be taken into account. 9.SYSTEM OVERCURRB(1 PROTECTION 567 overcurrent relay with voltage restraint or the voltagecontrolled overcurrent relay discussed in the following section. SELECTING SETTING FOR VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED OVERCURRENT RELAY FOR GENERATOR EXTERNAL-FAULT PROTECTION The voltage-controlled overcurrent relay. The desired time-current setting is obtained from a family of curves similar t o those in Fig.

Curve 1 shows t. The diagram of a portion of the distribution system in a plant and the coordinated time-rurrent curves of the various overcurrent protective devices installed on it are shown in Fig.he long and short-time tripping mechanism time-current characteristics of the 225-amp frame size 15.6 per cent of that which would flow in a three-phase fault. The phase shift is import.000-kva level in case of a severe short circuit on the 2400-volt system. and it was also connected t o a large utility system. t. whereas the phase-to-phase short-circuit current on the faulted side of the transformer is only 86. so there was no pump-back fault oirrent. 9. EFFECT OF Y-DELTA AND DELTA-Y CONNECTED TRANSFORMERS ON OVERCURRENT-RELAY COORDINATION Y-delta and delta-Y connected transformers introduce a 30” shift in the phase relationship of fault currents ou opposite sides of them. The entire load on this port. EXAMPLES O F OVERCURRENT-PROTECTIVE-DEVICE COORDINATION The following two examples of artual overcurrent-protect.560 SYSTW OVERCURRENT PROTECTION necessary information for making or changing any of these adjustments in the field. The calculated mavimum symmetrical fault current was approvimately 6500 amp on the 480-volt buses and 36.21.he system consisted of electrical heating equipment.21. In this case. however. and the phase shift causes current to appear in the three line leads on the unfaulted side in the ratio of 2: 1:1. so for all practical purposes it was safe to assume that the fault current could be maintained a t the 150. This factor should be taken into account when selecting relay settings if complete selectivity is desired.ive-device roordination graphically illustrate the application of some of the principles discussed in this chapter. continuity of power supply mas of sufficient importance to require selective operation of all short-circuit protective devices.000-amp interrupting- .e sides of a transformer for phase-phase faults.ant.. This plant had some local generators. Case 1. On threephase fanlts this does not matter as Ear as ordinary overcurrent relays are coucerned.100 amp on the 2400-volt bus. when coordinating overcurrent deviccs on opposit. The magnitude of this “ 2 ” current is the same as that which would flow during a three-phase short circuit on the other side of the transformer. 9.he currcrits are no longer balanced. as indicated by the heavy “stub” ordinates at the bottom of the graph in Fig. Also.ion of t. because the currents in the three phases are still halanccd.

fuses. 9.21 Coordination of time-current curves of relays. and oir-circuit-breaker hips (Case 1). .SYSTEM OVERCURRENT PROTECTION 5bQ FIG.

As long as there is clear space on the graph between the areas allocated t o the various circuit-breaker tripping mechanisms and fuses.and maximum-melting-time curves. the right-hand edge of the operating-time zone of the 2C trip is tapered to allow for the effect of the decay of the d-c component on its operating time.and short-time-delay trips required on the transformer secondary breaker t o make it selective with the feeder breakers. The fact that one corner of the short-time trip 2 B overlaps slightly on . It was necessary to use the 2C short-timedelay trip instead of an instantaneous trip for high-current faults in order t o make the feeder breakers selective with the devices in the branch circuits supplied hy them. because the necessary allowance for relay overtravel. they will coordinate satisfactorily with each other. The short-time-delay 2C trip. Therefore. which must be allowed to avoid the possibility of the fuse being damaged. and the area between them is the accepted man