It has been wrongly assumed that the advertising function is of recent origin. Evidences suggest that the Romans practiced advertising; but the earliest indication of its use in this country dates back to the middle Ages, when the use of the surname indicated a man’s occupation. The next stage in the evolution of advertising was the use of signs as a visual expression of the tradesman’s function and a means of locating the source of goods. This method is still in common use. The seller in primitive times relied upon his loud voice to attract attention and inform consumers of the availability of his services. If there were many competitors, he relied upon his own personal magnetism to attract attention to his merchandise. Often it became necessary for him to resort to persuasion to pinpoint the advantages of his products. Thus, the seller was doing the complete promotion job himself. Development of retail stores, made the traders to be more concerned about attracting business. Informing customers of the availability of supplies was highly important. Some types of outside promotion were necessary. Signs on stores and in prominent places around the city and notices in printed matters were sometimes used. When customers were finally attracted to the store and satisfied with the service at least once, they were still subjected to competitive influences; therefore, the merchant’s signs and advertisements reminded customers of the continuing availability of his services. Sometimes traders would talk to present and former customers in the streets, or join social organizations in order to have continuing contacts with present and potential customers. As the markets grew larger and the number of customers increased, the importance of attracting them also grew. Increasing reliance was placed on advertising methods of informing about the availability of the products. These advertising methods were more economical in reaching large numbers of consumers. While these advertising methods were useful for informing and reminding and reminding, they could not do the whole promotional job. They were used only to reach each consumer personally. The merchant still used personal persuasion once the customers were attracted to his store. The invention of hand press increased the potentialities of advertising. By Shakespeare’s times, posters had made their appearance, and assumed the function of fostering demand for 1

existing products. Another important event was the emergence of the pamphlet as an advertising medium. The early examples of these pamphlets disclose their sponsorship by companies want to generate goodwill for their activities. The low cost of posters and handbills encouraged a number of publishers to experiment with other methods.



   

To study types of advertisements.

To study effectiveness of advertisements i.e. on sales, profitability.

To study the perception of consumers towards the product due to advertisement.

To find the ways to make it more effective.


The town criers were forerunners of the modern announcer who delivers radio and television commercials. the use of so-called town criers. In 1869 Francis Ayer bought out Palmer and founded N. Palmer set up shop as an advertising agent. In the United States. usually an eye-catching sign painted on the wall of a building. began carrying ads in 1704. and about 25 years later Benjamin Franklin made ads more readable by using large headlines. W. and one found painted on a wall in Pompeii calls the attention of travelers to a tavern situated in another town. printed advertising made little headway until the invention of the movable-type printing press by German printer Johannes Gutenberg about 1450. Agents contracted with newspapers for large amounts of advertising space at discount rates and then resold the space to advertisers at a higher rate. Ayer transformed the standard agent practice by billing 4 . Two hundred years later. the first regularly published newspaper in America. Although graphic forms of advertising appeared early in history. the forerunner of the advertising agency. This invention made the mass distribution of posters and circulars possible. among the Babylonians. Later they became familiar figures on the streets of colonial American settlements. One of the first known methods of advertising was the outdoor display. In medieval times word-of-mouth praise of products gave rise to a simple but effective form of advertising. The ads themselves were created by the advertisers. the advertising profession began in Philadelphia. Pennsylvania. an agency that still exists today. The criers were citizens who read public notices aloud and were also employed by merchants to shout the praises of their wares. The first advertisement in English appeared in 1472 in the form of a handbill announcing a prayer book for sale.HISTORY OF ADVERTISEMENT Archaeologists have found evidence of advertising dating back to the 3000s BC. An outdoor advertisement excavated in Rome offers property for rent. the Boston News-Letter. in 1841 when Volney B. Archaeologists have uncovered many such signs. In the American colonies. Ayer & Son. notably in the ruins of ancient Rome and Pompeii. the first newspaper ad was published offering a reward for the return of 12 stolen horses.

' Bernbach's agency captured the spirit of the new age.' An 5 . advertising had established itself in radio to such an extent that advertisers were producing many of their own programs. so did the sale of TV sets and the advertising that paid for the popular new shows. For example. founder of Doyle Dane Bernbach in New York City.' But it was the advertising for Volkswagen that made the agency's reputation. 'You don't have to be Jewish to love Levy's. sophisticated. Illinois. but because of the high cost of TV sets and the lack of programming. Doyle Dane Bernbach created a magazine ad that showed a small picture of the Volkswagen Beetle surrounded by a sea of white space with the headline. when Bernbach's agency picked up the account for the Henry S. The tone of the advertising was also changing. The early 1930s ushered in dozens of radio dramatic series that were known as soap operas because they were sponsored by soap companies. a borough of New York City. At a time when American cars were getting bigger and bigger and the advertising for them trumpeted that bigger was better. The ads his agency created were understated.advertisers exactly what he paid to publishers plus an agreed upon commission. the agency created an ad that entertained New Yorkers and provided fodder for many conversations. No longer did advertising simply present the product benefit. He also believed that good advertising began with respect for the public's intelligence. 'think small. Soon Ayer was not only selling space but was also conducting market research and writing the advertising copy. and David Ogilvy. Levy Bakery in Brooklyn. Television had been introduced in 1940. Bill Bernbach. The ad showed a Native American eating a slice of the bakery's rye bread with the headline. As the American economy soared in the 1950s. founder of Ogilvy & Mather in New York City. all came to prominence in the late 1950s and 1960s and led what has been called the 'creative revolution. Leo Burnett. founder of the Leo Burnett agency in Chicago. and witty. But the introduction of radio created a new opportunity and by the end of the 1920s. Bernbach believed that advertising had to be creative and artistic or it would bore people. Advertising agencies initially focused on print. it was not immediately embraced. Instead it began to create a product image. Soon TV far surpassed radio as an advertising medium.

but also. they will find it easier to avoid advertising. Consumers will be able to determine not only when they watch something. Some industry observers believe that as consumers gain greater control over their viewing activities. the Volkswagen ads stood out because they admitted failure in a witty way and gave facts in a believable manner that underlined the car's strengths. will likely enable consumers to select from a vast video library. New digital devices even threaten to make it possible to edit out commercials. The chrome strip on the glove compartment is blemished and must be replaced…We pluck the lemons.equally unconventional ad carried the headline 'lemon' beneath a photo of an apparently flawed Volkswagen. to a greater extent than ever before. what they will watch. The development of interactive television. This wit together with a conversational and believable style was a hallmark of the advertising created by Doyle Dane Bernbach and that style became highly influential. you get the plums. The creative foundation established by Bernbach and others has been critical to the success of contemporary advertising. The ad's copy explained that 'this Volkswagen missed the boat. The introduction of the TV remote control and access to hundreds of cable channels mean that today advertising must interest and entertain consumers or else they will simply use the remote to change the channel.' In an era of hype and bombast. 6 . combining the functions of a computer with access to high-speed transmission over cable lines or optical fibers.

which means to turn to. nor is it addressed to a specific person. It should give them a more satisfactory expenditure of their rupees. Chicago.DEFINITION OF ADVERTISING The word advertising originates from a Latin word advertise. This keeps the cost per message low. The elements of advertising are: (i) It is a mass communication reaching a large group of consumers. (vi) The communication is speedy. (ii) It makes mass production possible. for it is not delivered by an actual person. The advertiser signs his name to his advertisement for the purpose of publicizing his identity. has defined advertising as “any form of non-personal presentation or promotion of ideas. permitting an advertiser to speak to millions of buyers in a matter of a few hours. (v) Advertising can be economical. The dictionary meaning of the term is “to give public notice or to announce publicly”. goods or services.” What Advertisement Is? Advertisement is a mass communicating of information intended to persuade buyers to by products with a view to maximizing a company’s profits. 7 . (iii) It is non-personal communication. (vii) Advertising is identified communication. The American Marketing Association. Advertising may be defined as the process of buying sponsor-identified media space or time in order to promote a product or an idea. by an identified sponsor. (iv) It is a commercial communication because it is used to help assure the advertiser of a long business life with profitable sales. for it reaches large groups of people. What is Included in Advertising? (i) The information in an advertisement should benefit the buyers.

by person. not the medium. What is excluded from Advertising? Advertising is not an exact science. Store signs. is a waste of money. Circular of all kinds. That is. Dealer help materials. Advertiser cannot afford to play with advertising. Advertising includes the following forms of messages: The messages carried inNewspapers and magazines. On radio and television broadcasts. An advertiser’s circumstances are never identical with those of another. because if advertising is done properly. thorough tradesmen. or by inserts in packages). Window display and counter – display materials and efforts. (iv) Advertising without persuasion is ineffective. The desire and hope for repeat sales insures a high degree of honesty in advertising. either immediately or in the future. (v) The function of advertising is to increase the profitable sales volume. 8 . Advertising funds come from sales revenue and must be used to increase sales revenue. Novelties bearing advertising messages and Signature of the advertiser. (ii) Advertising is not a toy. (iii) Advertisements are not designed to deceive. (whether distributed by mail. advertising expenses should not increase disproportionately. (iii) The content of the advertisement is within the control of the advertiser. he cannot predict with accuracy what results his future advertising efforts will produce. motion pictures used for advertising. both the buyer and the seller benefit from it. The advertisement that fails to influence anyone. Label stags and other literature accompanying the merchandise. (i) Advertising is not a game.(ii) It should suggest better solutions to their problems.

This means that specific objectives should be set for each particular advertisement campaign. This requires that the target consumers should be specifically identified and that the effect which advertising is intended to have upon the consumer should be clearly indicated. the objectives of advertising should be specific. It involves a decision regarding the media. The use of exhibitions and demonstrations at fairs. thus building loyalty to the brand name or the firm. The basic objectives of an advertising programme may be listed as below: (i) To stimulate sales amongst present.. e. (iii) To retain the loyalty of present and former consumers. involving news releases and the activities of personal selling forces. This involves decision regarding copy . it is to view advertising as having communication objectives that seek to inform persuade and remind potential customers of the worth of the product. The objectives of advertising were traditionally stated in terms of direct sales.The activities excluded from advertising are: The offering of premiums to stimulate the sale of products. show and conventions. but for many target buyers. (ii) To communicate with consumers. The entertainment of customers Advertising Objectives Each advertisement is a specific communication that must be effective. TV rather than print . 9 . former and future consumers. Advertising objectives serve as guidelines for the planning and implementation of the entire advertising programme. The payment of advertising allowances which are not used for advertising. not just for one customer. The use of samples and activities. Now. Advertising seeks to condition the consumer so that he/she may have a favourable reaction to the promotional message.g. Advertising may be used to reassure buyers that they have made the best purchase. Advertising is a form of promotion and like a promotion.

it thus contributes to enthusiasts and confidence attitude in the organizational. stressing the advantages of a military career. advertising pays for many of the enjoyable 10 . advertising is a relatively low-cost method of conveying selling messages to numerous prospective customers. preference. Advertising is to stimulate market demand . or even demand for the product. Non-business enterprises have also recognized the importance of advertising. professional sports. It can secure leads for salesmen and middlemen by convincing readers to request more information and by identifying outlets handling the product. It in turn leads to lower prices. The production cost per unit of output is lowered. and the general public. It can help train dealers salesmen in product uses and applications. This message is aimed not only at consumers. and the like might be prohibitive without advertising. Lower consumer prices then allow these products to become available to more people. Advertising has become increasingly important to business enterprises –both large and small. radio and TV programmes. to directly move customers to buying action. The attempt by army recruitment is bases on a substantial advertising campaign. it is seldom solely relied upon. In short. and retailers. Outlay on advertising certainly is the voucher. It can force middlemen to stock the product by building consumer interest. shareholders. It can build dealer and consumer confidence in the company and its products by building familiarity. Advertising assumes real economic importance too. Advertising impliedly bolsters the morale of the sales force and of distributors.(iv) To increase support. Advertising strategies that increase the number of units sold stimulate economies in the production process. but also at the government. wholesalers. Importance of Advertising Generally. While sometimes advertising alone may succeed in achieving buyer acceptance. . Advertising is efficiently used with at least one other sales method. : (v) To project an image. The health department popularizes family planning through advertising Labour organizations have also used advertising to make their viewpoints known to the public at large. Similarly. Advertising is used to promote an overall image of respect and trust for an organization. the price of newspapers. such as personal selling or point-of-purchase display.

its growing productive capacity and output necessitates the finding of consumers and advertising plays an important role in this process. family planning. physical fitness.entertainment and educational aspects of contemporary life. Because of this fact. Advertising helps to increase mass marketing while helping the consumer to choose from amongst the variety of products offered for his selection. Advertising has become an important factor in the campaigns to achieve such societal-oriented objectives such as the discontinuance of smoking. 11 . and the country’s economy. and the elimination of drug abuse. there is a tremendous scope for development so that it may be productively used for the benefit of producers. Though in India. traders. advertising as a profession is in its infancy. advertising was accepted as a potent and recognized means of promotion only 25 years ago. consumers. In India.

Primary Demand (Stimulation) B. Pioneering Advertising B. Trade Advertising A. Advertising Based on Area of operation A. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising 4. Advertising Based on Demand Influence Level. Retentive Advertising 2. Product Advertising A. Public Service Advertising 3. Selective Demand (Stimulation) B. Industrial Advertising 5. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle A. A. Product – Related Advertising A. Competitive Advertising C. Retail Advertising B. Informative Product Advertising B.CLASSIFICATION AND TYPES OF ADVERTISING 1. Institutional Advertising C. Consumer Advertising B. Wholesale Advertising 6. Persuasive Product Advertising C. Functional Classification A. National advertising 12 .

It is of two types: A. C. Direct Type: It seeks to stimulate immediate buying action. Retentive Advertising: 13 . it provides prices. Example: Airline advertising. Retentive Advertising A. Indirect Type: It attempts to pinpoint the virtues of the product in the expectation that the consumer’s action will be affected by it when he is ready to actionin which case. Local advertising C.. For example. A. Competitive Advertising C. It is concerned with developing a “primary” demand. It seeks to sell a specific brand rather than a general product category. Product advertising is of three types. Air India attempts to bid for the consumer’s patronage either immediately . B. Such advertisements appeal to the consumer’s emotions and rational motives. time tables and phone numbers on which the customer may call for reservations. Competitive Advertising: It is useful when the product has reached the market-growth and especially the marketmaturity stage. or eventually – indirect action – when it suggests that you mention Air India’s name when talking to your travel agent. Product – Related Advertising It is concerned with conveying information about and selling a product or service.B. viz. B. Pioneering Advertising B. Regional advertising 7. Advertising According to Medium Utilized 1. It stimulates “selective” demand. Pioneering Advertising: This type of advertising is used in the introductory stages in the life cycle of a product. and selling a product category rather than a specific brand. It conveys information about. the initial advertisement for black – and – white television and color television.

Selective Demand Stimulation This demand is for a particular brand such as Charminar cigarettes. and not the brand of that product. A. (i) Advertising may be used to stimulate either the primary demand or the selective demand. 2. A much softer selling approach is used. i. Public Service Advertising This is directed at the social welfare of a community or a nation. maturity or declining stage. or only the name may be mentioned in “reminder” type advertising. B. When a product is new. the marketer must inform consumers of the existence of the new item and convince them of the benefits flowing from its use. 3. the advertiser wants to keep his product’s name before the public. Primary Demand Stimulation Primary demand is demand for the product or service rather than for a particular brand. or Vimal fabrics. Advertisements on not mixing drinking and driving are a good example of public service advertising. At this time. It is intended to affect the demand for a type of product. the advertising strategy may be to stimulate the selective demand. Advertising Based on Demand Influence Level. Surf detergent powder. The effectiveness of product service advertisements may be measured in terms of the goodwill they generate in favour of the sponsoring organization. When primary demand has been stimulated and competitors have entered the market. In this type of advertising. To establish a differential advantage and to acquire an acceptable sort of market. It is not to stimulate the demand for the 14 . (iii) It may try to cause indirect action or direct action. Generally in such times. primary demand stimulation is appropriate. Functional Classification Advertising may be classified according to the functions which it is intended to fulfil. (ii) It may promote either the brand or the firm selling that brand.This may be useful when the product has achieved a favourable status in the market – that is. the objective is to put across a message intended to change attitudes or behaviour and benefit the public at large. Some advertise to stimulate primary demand. selective demand advertising is attempted.

it benefits the organization as a whole. this may be referred to as institutional advertising because it is intended to build an overall favorable attitude towards the company and its family of products. such as voters. supports the socialistic pattern of society or provides employment opportunities in the community. is an affair. that its management takes ecologically responsible action. etc. The marketer may use such promotion to generate exposure attention. ii. It is also a useful method or introducing sales persons and new product to consumers. comprehension. for example. emphasizing the quality and research behind its products. Product Advertising Most advertising is product advertising. thus indicating how it aided the development of ancillary industries. It aims at building for a firm a Positive public image in the eyes of shareholders.motive action employer. such as public service work. does considerable institutional advertising of its name. iii. HMT or DCM. government officials. Competitive advertising stimulates selective demand. HMT once told the story of the small-scale industries supplying it with component parts. Institutional advertisements are at consumers or focus them upon other groups. This type of advertising is used frequently by large companies whose products are well known. It may be of either the direct or the indirect type. designed to promote the sale or reputation of a particular product or service that the organization sells. When Indian Oil advertisements describe the company’s general activities. Institutional Advertising Institutional Advertising may be formative. attitude 15 . financial institutions. It does not attempt to sell a particular product. employees. This sells only the name and prestige of the company. Institutional advertising is used extensively during periods of product shortages in order to keep the name of the company before the public. If it is effective.product or service. suppliers. legislators. It notifies the consumers that the company is a responsible business entity and is patriotic. the target groups will respond with goodwill towards. and confidence in the sponsor. The advertiser attempts to differentiate his brand and to increase the total amount of consumption of that product. suppliers. or the general public. persuasive or reminder oriented in character. Indane’s Cooking Gas is a case in point.

Baring a few. It is of three types as follows:A. to some extent. B. It is a type of promotion used in the growth period and. Industrial Advertising 16 . It is used in the maturity period as well as throughout the declining phase of the product life cycle. all these products are all package goods that the consumer will often buy during the year. Marketers of pharmaceuticals. It deals with the non-personal selling of a particular good or service. Informative Product Advertising B. detergents and soaps. Consumer Advertising Most of the consumer goods producers engage in consumer product advertising. 4. Advertising based on Product Life Cycle A. Industrial Advertising A. Informative Product Advertising: This form of advertising tends to characterize the promotion of any new type of product to develop an initial demand.change or action for an offering. in the maturity period of the product life cycle. Consumer Advertising B. scooters. Persuasive Product Advertising: Persuasive product advertising is to develop demand for a particular product or brand. Persuasive Product Advertising C. cosmetics. It is usually done in the introductory stages of the product life cycle. C. cigarettes and alcoholic beverages are examples. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising A. B. It was the original approach to advertising. Reminder-Oriented Product Advertising: The goal of this type of advertising is to reinforce previous promotional activity by keeping the brand name in front of the public. There is a heavy competition among the advertisers to establish an advantage for their particular brand.

Industrial executives have little confidence in advertising. They rely on this form of promotion merely out of fear that their competitors may benefit if they stop their advertising efforts. The task of the industrial advertiser is complicated by the multiple buying influence characteristics like, the derived demand, etc. The objectives vary according to the firm and the situation. They are: To inform, To bring in orders, To induce inquiries, To get the advertiser’s name on the buyer’s list of sources, To provide support for the salesman, To reduce selling costs, To help get items in the news column of a publication, To establish recognition for the firm or its product, To motivate distributors, To recognition for the firm or its products, To motivate distributors, to create or change a company’s image, To create or change a buyer’s attitude, and The basic appeals tend to increase the rupee profits of the buyer or help in achieving his non-monetary objectives. Trade journals are the media most generally used followed by catalogues, direct mail communication, exhibits, and general management publications. Advertising agencies are much less useful in industrial advertising.

5. Trade Advertising A. Retail Advertising B. Wholesale Advertising A. Retail Advertising
This may be defined as “covering all advertising by the stores that sell goods directly to the consuming public. It includes, also advertising by establishments that sell services to the 17

public, such as beauty shops, petrol pumps and banks.” Advertising agencies are rarely used. The store personnel are usually given this responsibility as an added task to be performed, together with their normal functions. The result is that advertising is often relegated to a secondary position in a retail store. One aspect of retail advertising is co-operative advertising. It refers to advertising costs between retailers and manufacturers. From the retailer’s point of view, cooperative advertising permits a store to secure additional advertising that would not otherwise have been available.

B. Wholesale Advertising
Wholesalers are, generally, not advertising minded, either for themselves or for their suppliers. They would benefit from adopting some of the image-making techniques used by retailers – the need for developing an overall promotional strategy. They also need to make a greater use of supplier promotion materials and programs in a way advantageous to them.

6. Advertising based on Area of Operation
It is classified as follow: A. National Advertising B. Regional Advertising C. Local Advertising

A. National advertising
It is practiced by many firms in our country. It encourages the consumer to buy their product wherever they are sold. Most national advertisements concentrate on the overall image and desirability of the product. The famous national advertisers are: Hindustan Levers DCM ITC Jay Engineering TISCO

B. Regional advertising


It is geographical alternative for organizations. For example, Amrit Vanaspati based in Rajpura claims to be the leading hydrogenated oil producer in the Punjab. But, until recently, it mainly confined itself to one of the vegetable oil brands distribution to Malihabad district (in U.P. near Lucknow).

C. Local advertising
It is generally done by retailers rather than manufacturers. These advertisements save the customer time and money by passing along specific information about products, prices, location, and so on. Retailer advertisements usually provide specific goods sales during weekends in various sectors.

7. Advertising According to Medium
The most common classification of advertising is by the medium used. For example: TV, radio, magazine, outdoor, business periodical, newspaper and direct mail advertising. This classification is so common in use that it is mentioned here only for the sake of completeness.


20 . marketing and advertising objectives i. affect the future sale of the product. (c) Coupon blank etc. In the background of all these efforts.Measuring Advertising Effectiveness All advertising efforts are directed mainly towards the achievement of business. There are several pre and post tests techniques to measure the effectiveness of the advertising copy. to increase the sales turnover and thus to market the maximum profit. As soon as the advertising campaign is over. is an attempt to attract the customer towards the product through advertising.e. The technique is known as keying the advertising. Thus in measuring the effectiveness of advertising we include measuring of the effectiveness of advertising campaign. (b) Different newspapers may be selected for advertisements of different departments.e. The advertiser spends lakhs of rupees in to this advertising activity. advertising copy and the effectiveness of individual media. a need is generally arisen to measure the effectiveness of the campaign. The effectiveness of advertising in a particular media may also be measured in any of the following ways – (a) By giving different addresses to different media. May be provided with the advertisement or (d) Enquiry from consumers should mention the name of the source of information. Pre tests are generally conducted in the beginning of the creation process or at the end of creation process or production stage. This chapter deals these three problems.can be undertaken. Whether. In order to measure the effectiveness of advertising copy. it has achieved the desired results i.. two types of tests pre tests and post tests. desired sales profitability or results in terms the change in customer’ behaviour in favour of the company’s product which will naturally.

It facilitates timely adjustments in advertising to make advertising consumer oriented and result oriented. Evaluating advertising effectives helps in estimating the results in order to avoid complete loss.Importance of measuring the Effectiveness of Advertising (1) It acts as a Safety measure Testing effectiveness of advertising helps in finding out ineffective advertisement and advertising campaigns. The investment in advertising is a marketing investment and its objectives should be spelt out clearly indicating the results expected from the campaign. the advertisement can be considered as effective one. and existing and prospective consumers. (5) To know the communication Effect The effectiveness of the advertisement can be measured in terms of their communication effects on the target consumers or audience. It is therefore desirable to seek post measurements of advertising in 21 . The main purpose of advertising is communicated the general public. Thus waste of money in faulty advertising can be avoided. various information about the product and the company. (3) Avoids possible failure Advertisers are not sure of results of advertising from a particular advertising campaign. (4) To justify the Investment in Advertising The expenditure on advertisement is considered to be an investment. If the expected rate of return is achieved in terms of additional profits. (2) Provides feedback for remedial measures Testing effectiveness of advertising provides useful information to the advertisers to take remedial steps against ineffective advertisements. The rate and size of return should be determined in advance.

changes in dealer display and so on depending upon the objectives sought by the advertiser. The following are some of the methods that are generally used in measuring that advertising effects. There may be two types measures (i) (ii) Direct measures: and Indirect measures:- (1) Direct Measures of Advertising Effectiveness Under direct measures. METHODS OF MEASURING ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS Advertising is aimed at improving the sales volume of a concern so its effectiveness can be evaluated by its impact on sales. A comparison of sales of two periods or two periods or two markets may be done and the corresponding changes may be noted. This technique estimates the contribution that advertising has made to explaining in a co relational manner rather than a casual sales. Most of the managers believe that the advertisement directly affects the sales volume and hence they evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising campaign by the increase in the sales volume. A multiple regression analysis of advertising expenditure and sales over several time periods may be calculated. advertising is published in test markets and results are contrasted with other. It would show how the changes in advertising expenditure have corresponding changes in sales volume. message or appeal of the advertising. (a) Historical Sales Method Some insights into the effectiveness of past advertising may be obtained by measuring the relationship between the advertising expenditure and the total sales of the product. the variation in sales over the time periods covered in the study (b) Experimental Control 22 . change in consumer attitudes. a relationship between advertising and sales is established. The measurements made to determine results may be measurements of change in sales.order to determine whether advertisement have been seen or heard or in other words whether they have communicated the theme. Markets – so called control markets – which have had the regular advertising program. (6) Compare two markets Under this procedure.

be measured by subtracting the amount of post campaign figure of sale from the pre campaign sale figures in test cities (ii) Multivariable Experimental Designs While the experimental design discussed above yields a reasonably accurate estimate of the effects of the advertising on sales. can then. This method is quite expensive when related to other advertising effectiveness measures yet it is possible to isolate advertising contribution to sales. therefore used by some very large firm because of their diagnostic value. it is not successful in explaining the success or failure of the campaign itself. in this experimental model it is possible to evaluate how each individual medium behaves alone and in all possible to evaluate how each individual medium behaves alone and in all possible combinations with other media. One experimental approach to measuring the sales effectiveness of advertising is test marketing. Media schedules expenditure levels or some combination of these advertising decision areas.Brown.H. Cities in which advertising campaigns are affected may be named as test cities and other cities may be called central cities. Thus. (i) Before-after with Control Group Design This classic design uses several test and control cities in this design two types of cities are selected. First of all.The power of this multivariable factorial design is explained by G. the normal sales level is calculated for both type of cities prior to advertising campaign. and then the advertising campaign is presented to the test cities and not the central cities. eight possible geographic areas have been exposed and eight have not been exposed. For any single medium. former Fords Director of Marketing Research. most firms rely heavily on indirect measures. The effect of advertising campaign. Multivariable designs Produce these explanations and are. Moreover this can be done as a pre-test to aid advertising in choosing between alternative creative designs. (2) Indirect Measures As it is very difficult to measure the direct effect of advertising on company’s profits or sales.The other measure of advertising effectiveness is the method of experimental control where a casual relationship between advertising and sales is established. These measures do not evaluate the effects of advertisements directing on sales or profits but all other factors such as customer awareness or 23 .

the advertisement must gain exposure. there is no other alternative but to use indirect measures. There are two methods for evaluating the attention getting value of the advertisements.attitude or customer recall of advertising message affect the sales or profits or goals of the business indirectly. The most commonly used measures are – (i) Exposure to Advertisement In order to be effective. Here consumers read. (ii) Attention or Recall of Advertising Message Content This is one of the widely used measures of advertising results. and radio sets at various points of time. a recall of the message content among a specified group or groups or prospective customers is measured within 24 hours of the exposure of the advertisement. This test is conducted in the laboratory setting. they have already seen. (iii) Brand Awareness 24 . Under this measure. and the number of persons switching on their T. Marketers or advertisers may obtain an idea of exposure generated by the medium by examining its circulation or audience data which reveal the number of copies of the magazine. One is pre-test and the other is post-test. Various mechanical devices are being used in the western countries which provide indices of attention such as eye-camera etc. newspaper or journal sold the number of persons passing the billboards or riding in transit facilities. This number can be estimated by interviewing the numbers of the audience for different media. The management is concerned about the number of target audiences who see or hear the organization message set in the advertisement. or the number of persons living in the televiewing or radio listening area. These measures assume that customers can recall or recognize what they have viewed or listened to. Without exposure. Despite the uncertainties about the relationship between the intermediate effects of advertising and the ultimate results. In post-test method. the consumers are asked questions about the indication of recognition or recall after the advertisement has been run. Attention value is the chief quality of the advertising copy the advertisements cannot be said to be effective unless they attract the attention of the target consumers. advertisement is bound to failure.V. hear or listen to the advertisement and then researchers ask question regarding the advertisement just to test the recall and then evaluate it. the consumers are asked to indicate the extent to which they recognise or recall the advertisement. In a pre-test evaluation.

brand or the manufacturer. (iv) Comprehension Consumers generally use advertisements as a means of obtaining information about the product. Another measure of the variable is to ask questions about subjects how much they have comprehended a message they have recently heard or seen.The marketers who rely heavily on advertising often appraise its effectiveness by measuring the customer’s awareness about the particular product or brand. Several measures are used ranging from asking the questions about willingness to buy the likelihood of buying to the measurement of the extent to which specific attributes (such as modern or new) are associated with a product. (vi) Action 25 . It is also affected by many other factors. One may ask typical target consumers from time to time such questions like ‘what did you think of our new commercial?’ and ‘Did it get the message across’? The answers of these questions will provide sufficient insight into advertising decision making. Various tests for valuating comprehension are available – One is recall tests – an indicator of comprehension because it is evident that consumers recall what they comprehend. (v) Attitude Change Since advertising is considered to be one way of influencing the state of the mind of the audience towards a product. service or organisation. The assumption of this type of measure is that there is a direct relationship between the advertisements and the awareness. They cannot be informed unless they comprehend the message (grasp the message mentally and understand it fully). changes in awareness can often be attributed to the influence of advertising. This type of measure is also subject to the same criticisms as is applicable to direct measures of effectiveness (sales measures because awareness is also not the direct result of the advertisements. for new products. the results are very often measured in terms of attitudes among groups exposed to advertising communication. But. One may employ somewhat imprecise test of the comprehension of a newspaper and radio advertisement.

An advertising budget that is spent on some poorly defined task or on undefined tasks may be regarded as an economic waste as compared to that spent to achieve the well defined objectives for which the results can be measured. The effectiveness of advertising can be measured by the extent. The assumption is that if an increase in sales follows a decrease in advertising expenditure. In this sense. Under this type of measure. Logic suggests that measurement of sales is preferable to other measurements. Both practitioners and critics 26 . advertising can be recognized as a business activity like other activities. Advertising can be said to be effective otherwise it will be a waste of money and time. it is a source of discomfort that specific results of advertising activities have not always been subject to precise measurement. the short comings and the plus points would be revealed and the management would be able to improve the campaign by negating the shortcomings and retaining the favorable point. The action or intention to take an action may be measured on the intention to buy measuring instrument. But this is very difficult task because measurements are imperfect and imprecise. If it succeeds in attaining the objectives. the change in sales levels are good indicators of the effectiveness of advertising. it to which it achieves the objectives set for it. One type of action that advertisers attempt to induce is buying behavior. In a very real sense the integrity of promotional activities rests on how well those activities work. these above measures (direct or indirect) are used to evaluate the effectiveness of advertisements. Indeed. it is very necessary to know how advertising affects the buyer’s behaviors. It seems from the analysis of the above methods of measuring effectiveness that directly or indirectly changes in sales or profits are taken as the measuring rod of the effectiveness of the advertising. Thus.One objective of advertisement may be assumed to be to stimulate action or behavior. Any social institution upon which a significant portion of our total productive efforts is expanded should be able to point to its specific accomplishment. For this purpose. consumers are asked to respond why they are interested in purchasing the product or brand. By regular evaluation of the effectiveness. COMMUNICATION EFFECTS OF ADVERTISEMENT The management should attempt to evaluate the effectiveness of the advertising campaign if the firm’s advertising goals are to be achieved and the ad effectiveness is to be increased.

What caused the success of sale? They message theme colors etc. It is entirely possible that a poor advertising support may push up the sale because everything else falls into its proper place or the reverse may be possible.V. Pre. and whether on going campaign should be stopped continued or changed.) cannot be accurately anticipated. various tests of effectiveness (Pre.. commercials as good as those of our competitors? Will the print advertisement. 27 . make consumers aware of our new product? To get answers of these questions.(a) The reaction of consumer – buyers to the advertising efforts cannot be known in advance. It is so because the cause and effect – relationship cannot be established in advance when a multitude of variable impinge upon a particular event. The advertising executives are much concerned about the assessment of the effectiveness of the advertising efforts. Weather conditions or the goodwill of the firm etc. The advertisement is seen and the response is much greater than it is anticipated.5000 on advertisement with a local newspaper for a special sales even. The overwhelming success of the sale is the joint result of all the above variables and it is quite impossible to isolate the role of any one variable. Such events may influence the results of the advertising efforts. the management needs answers to such questions as: was the advertising campaign really successful in attaining the advertising goals? Were our T. The exact result of advertisement expenditure is very difficult to predict because. (b) The reaction of competitors in the field cannot be guessed in anticipation and (c) The unexpected events (such as change in social and economic environment and the government policies etc. If we take a hypothetical case of a retailer who contract to spent Rs. But it does not mean that that we cannot measure the effects of particulars advertising effort.tests are conducted before exposing target consumers to the advertisements and post tests after consumers have been exposed to them. and if they are not satisfactory how they might be improved. of the advertisement or the low prices quoted during the sale of the superior quality of the product or absence of competition in the market on the day or the favorable. For this purpose.tests and post – tests ) are deeded to determine whether proposed advertisement should be used.feel that promotional activities should only be accepted as socio – economic – institution with full right and privileges “when the means exist to prove that advertising super are productive rupees’ It is undoubtedly a source of embarrassment that we cannot exactly measure the effectiveness of advertising in definitive terms. which we have designed.

In the short run. In the past. Indirectly it will affect the sales in the long run. The communication effect on sales may be presented in the following figure:Communication Effect on Sales Awareness ↓ Attitude ↓ 28 . So they test the proposed advertisement with pre test and measure the actual results with a post test. The advertisers are therefore.As indicated earlier. concerned with their impact on consumer awareness and attitude. During protesting there is often research on three vital questions:(i) Do consumers feel that the advertisement communicates something desirable about the product? (ii) Does the message have an exclusive appeal that differentiates the product from that of the competitors? (iii) Is the advertisement believable? Although a lot of money is spent on protesting yet the advertisers like to confirm the results by post testing of their promotional campaigns due to the following reasons:(i) There is a need produce more effective advertising by retaining the good and removing the bad. the advertisers are interested in knowing what they are getting for their advertising rupees. by changing the consumer awareness and attitude. Pre test may be done either before an advertisement has been designed or executed after it is ready for public distribution or at both points. protesting was done by the advertising agencies but now the advertisers have been taking an increasingly active role in protesting process. (ii) The advertising executives can prove to the satisfaction of the management that a higher advertising budget will benefit the firm. Most research focuses on the communication effect rather than sales effect because it is a long run process. however sales may be slight and important but in the long run its effects ob brands and companies may be of great importance. (iii) There is a need for measuring the results to determine the level of expenditure that is most promising.

If consumer is satisfied with the trial he may decide to purchase the product. But qualitative data collected through interviews may provide information that short answer questions never can.Trial ↓ Satisfaction ↓ Purchases or repurchase Awareness builds a favorable or at least a curious attitude towards the product which leads to experimentation. Print advertisements are tested through dummy magazine portfolio tests. the effect is the result of so many variables. a distinct effect of advertising on sales cannot be correctly measured. Since. For example direct mail advertising can effectively be measured by the inquiries received. Among these are:(1) Exposure Conditions – Should advertising be tested under realistic conditions or under more controlled laboratory conditions? (2) Execution – Protesting a finished advertisement as an expensive and time consuming. commercials are tested by inviting a group of people to the studio to view a program. Quantity Data.Quantitative data are the easiest and the almost precise measurement. Although there may be some exceptions. There are many critical and unresolved issues in determining how to test the communication effects of advertising. Many firms try to measure the effectiveness of advertising in terms of sales results but this practice is always misleading. The audience is then surveyed about the commercials. Many types of advertising tests are conducted (different methods of pre tests and post – test are given in question number) In T. Does protesting a preliminary execution produce accurate and useful data? (3) Quality Vs. Compunction Effectiveness Vs Sales Effectiveness It is easier to assess the communication effect of advertising than the sales effect. But in 29 .V.

the size of the headline and the appeals used. Added to this is the fact that advertisement itself is made of a variety of variables such as media. 30 . messages. We can correctly assume that some sales will occur even though there is no advertising or little advertising or conversely there will be no increase in sales after the point of saturation is reached or it may be that sales will show a decreasing trend at this point in spite of large amount of expenditure on advertising is done. we may conduct that sales effect of advertising is difficult to measure because a number of variables affect the quantum of tales and the contribution of advertisement cannot be measured separately unless all other variables are presumed to be constant. page or time of the day. It is so because advertising is no the only variable that effect the sales. colours. The big business house. Thus even if the advertising variable is separated this would still not answer the question about the effectiveness of the individual components of the advertising campaign. may decide on the more relevant and expensive measures. Suitability In small business firms where the marketing research resources are limited advertising managers may decide on less expensive and less relevant measures. locations. which has more access to research. Thus. This situation is quite hypothetical and almost nonexistent. So advertisers try to measure the communication effect of the advertising.many situations the exact relationship between advertising activity and sales cannot be established satisfactorily.

and advertiser who attempts to provide specific. One solution is to create brand advertising that is vague and contains little specific information.Factors Affecting Advertising The final external factor in the planning framework concerns environmental factor social. by it can lessen the social value of advertising by reducing the amount for useful information that it provides to society. and the use of environmental and health claims in advertising. especially when it is more irritating than entertaining. However. relevant information must be well aware of advertising regulation. Law forbids deceptive advertising. and global. such an approach can result not only in ineffective advertising. 31 . Thus. Even more difficult consideration for people involved in the advertising effort is broad social and economic issues. A whole set of rules is emerging to cover advertising directed at children. is an intrusion into an already excessively polluted environment. legal. and advertising for products such as alcohol and cigarettes. Another concern is that advertising. Thus advertising has a tremendous impact on international marketing and the two concepts therefore go hand in hand and are dependent on each other.

This is especially true in the United States where the advertising industry plays such a prominent role. The increased volume of sales enables companies to produce individual units at lower costs and therefore. By stimulating the development of new products. Manufacturers know that advertising can help sell a new product quickly. Advertising thus benefits consumers by helping lower prices. Economic Impact Most economists believe that advertising has a positive impact on the economy because it stimulates demand for products and services. advertising helps increase competition. Many economists believe that increased competition leads to lower prices. thereby benefiting consumers and the economy as a whole. strengthening the economy by promoting the sale of goods and services. advertising enables manufacturers and others to sell their products in larger quantities. These economists also argue that by interesting consumers in purchasing goods. 1. and political system. sell them at a lower price. culture. 32 .IMPACT OF ADVERTISEMENT Advertising has an important effect on a country’s economy. society. enabling them to recoup the costs of developing new products.

however. Other critics express concern over the way advertising has affected women and racial minority groups. Although millions of women worked outside the home in the 1960s. Social Impact Advertising can have wide-ranging repercussions on a society. Ads in the 1950s depicted women primarily as decoration or sex objects. many ads today still emphasize a woman’s sexuality. African Americans were usually shown in a subordinate position. many 33 . ads continued to focus on their role as homemakers. or business people. Due to the influence of the civil rights movement. However. They argue that advertising creates a consumer culture in which buying exciting new products becomes the foundation of the society's values. advertisers by the 1980s had begun to depict African Americans as students. after the 1960s it became more common to see women depicted in professional roles. believe that advertising is wasteful. however. According to this view. Some critics suggest that advertising promotes a materialistic way of life by leading people to believe that happiness is achieved by purchasing products.Other economists. The way advertising has depicted racial minorities has also been harmful. 2. They argue that the cost of advertising adds to the cost of goods and that most advertising simply encourages consumers to buy one brand rather than another. However. and goals. professionals. advertising simply moves sales from one company to another. Whether owing to the feminist movement or to women's increasing economic power. Prior to 1960. rather than increasing sales overall and thereby benefiting the economy as a whole. pleasures.

African American organizations and community activists continue to object to the way that alcohol and tobacco companies have seemingly targeted low-income minority communities with a heavy preponderance of outdoor advertising for their products. radio. Native Americans. however. As ads have begun to more fully reflect the lives of women and African Americans in the United States. to the public. and broadcast television all receive their primary income from advertising. some critics warn that because advertising plays such a major economic role. companies that sponsor TV programs prefer relatively wholesome. many of these forms of mass communication might not exist to the extent that they do today. for example. Asians. Reporters and editors. Advertising has a major social impact by helping sustain mass communications media and making them relatively inexpensive. This preference 34 . noncontroversial programming to avoid offending a mass audience. if not free. As a result. At the same time. In-depth news programs. may be hesitant to develop a news story that criticizes a major advertiser. too. and free entertainment might no longer be widely available. Most members of the news media deny that pressure from an advertiser prevents them from pursuing news stories involving that advertiser. There is still considerable debate over how advertising influences public perception of gender and of particular ethnic groups. and Eastern Europeans. magazines. offer less variety. or they might be considerably more expensive. critics charge. Advertisers may affect media programming in other ways. or even be subject to government control through subsidies. Without advertising. society might not be alerted to harmful or potentially harmful conduct by the advertiser. increasing attention has been paid to the way in which advertising shows other ethnic groups. For example. but some members of the media acknowledge that they might not be inclined to investigate an issue aggressively if it threatened to offend a major advertiser. a diversity of magazines. Newspapers. including Hispanics. it may exercise undue influence on the news media and thereby curtail the free flow of information in a free society.

Research indicates that many adolescent girls are unduly influenced by this standard of beauty. shows that are more likely to interest and to be of value to older audiences are not produced. If the ratings show that a program is not attracting large audiences. New research suggests that adolescent boys are also being influenced by advertising images of bulked-up. which makes them especially vulnerable to advertising. There is also concern about the way in which adolescent girls respond to advertising that features beautiful. The result is that society may be denied the benefits of being able to view challenging or highly original entertainment programs or news programs on controversial issues. and may even take drugs that have harmful side effects in order to develop more muscle. Those over the age of 60 are thought to be less influenced by advertising. advertisers often withdraw support. Political advertising is a relatively new development in U. but some elderly people no longer process messages as easily as younger people. As a result. Research suggests that children see television advertising as just another form of programming and react uncritically to its messages. Advertising professionals did 35 . That amount of spending placed political advertising in the ranks of the country’s 30 leading advertisers that year. In 1998 more than $467 million was spent on election campaigns in the United States. Because advertisers are especially interested in attracting the 18 to 34 year olds who account for most consumer spending. and may develop eating disorders in pursuit of a thin figure. become dissatisfied with their own bodies. The impact of television on young children has received much attention. making them more susceptible to questionable advertising claims. many become dissatisfied with their own body image. Political Impact Advertising is now a major component of political campaigns and therefore has a big influence on the democratic process itself.causes TV networks to emphasize this type of programming. history. which causes a program to be canceled.S. thin models. television shows are often developed with this audience in mind. As a result. particularly among 18 to 34 year olds. devote large amounts of time to weightlifting. buffed bodies. 3.

political advertising has grown in sophistication and complexity. They contend that this practice is harmful to good government. Critics say this factor jeopardizes the democratic process by making elected officials beholden to wealthy contributors and by making it more likely that only the wealthy will run for office. even after they have been elected to office. Issues are simplified. But since then. Candidates can also use advertising to respond effectively to the charges of their opponents. and candidates are “packaged and sold” much like a consumer product. Television advertising is especially effective for candidates running for national or statewide office because it can reach so many people at once. multinational corporations often use the same advertising to sell to consumers around the world. 4. but television and radio networks have resisted this idea. the costs of political campaigns have skyrocketed. have tried to address the impact of television advertising on political campaigning. Critics of political advertising also charge that the 30-second television spot has become more important to a political campaign than a thorough discussion of the issues. Some critics argue that advertising messages are thus helping to break down 36 . As a result. Some advertising messages. which may clash with the traditional cultural values of a country where the collective or group is emphasized over the individual or humility or modesty is preferred to aggressiveness. Political advertising enables candidates to convey their positions on important issues and to acquaint voters with their accomplishments and personalities. Because of the high cost of television ads. Some reform proposals have called for free airtime. voters are bombarded with image advertising rather than being acquainted with the candidate’s positions. encourage aggressive individualism. however. With the globalization of the world economy.not become involved in electoral campaigns until the 1950s. for example. making it necessary for candidates to raise money continually. Cultural Impact Advertising can affect cultural values. Various campaign finance reform proposals. thereby distorting the political process.

During a primary debate one of the candidates used the ad slogan to suggest that his opponent’s campaign lacked substance. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design Data Source : Descriptive : Primary data : Secondary data Research Instrument Sample design Sample size Sample location : Questionnaire : Simple random design : 100 : Durg : Bhilai Sample element : Students : Business class 37 . Humor in advertising has made many ad campaigns widely popular. have universal appeal.distinct cultural differences and traditional values. a popular ad campaign for a fastfood chain with the slogan “Where’s the beef?” became part of the 1980 Democratic presidential primary campaign between Gary Hart and Walter Mondale. however. overriding cultural differences. The ad ridiculed a competitor by depicting a small hamburger patty dwarfed by a huge bun. causing the world to become increasingly homogeneous. in some cases achieving the status of folklore or taking on new life in another arena. or they contribute to culture in a positive way. Many advertising campaigns. For example.

3. 2.: House hold : Service class SAMPLING UNIT Sampling Unit is the total number of samples differed in different locality. Sl. 4. Classes Students Business class Household Service class Total No. 1. of Classes 25 25 25 25 100 Data have been collected through the survey method while surveys have been conducted in one city: 38 . No.

magazines. I have considered 100 as sample size. 39 . The primary data was collected through questionnaires and was collected personally. The secondary data was collected through books.i) ii) Durg Bhilai The data collected was both from the primary and secondary source. All the area had segmented according the population of this area. company website and other websites. HYPOTHESIS TESTING H0: The difference among the parameter which influences the perception of consumers towards the product is significant. H1: The difference among the parameter which influences the perception of consumer towards the product is insignificant.

36) = 2.DETERMINANTS STILL IMAGE MOVING IMAGE ENTERTAINMENT INFORMATION LANGUAGE CELEBRITY INTENSITY SOCIAL ISSUE NATIONAL ADS LOCAL ADS STUDENTS 3 22 10 22 5 19 16 5 23 2 BUSINESS CLASS 8 17 5 22 19 14 12 17 23 2 SERVICE CLASS 8 17 4 24 18 19 11 18 16 9 HOUSEHOLD 9 16 7 19 21 17 13 19 14 11 Source of variation Column Rows Total Sum of Samples 21.8 1454.29 40.77 1476.8387 0.57 Degree of freedom 3 36 39 40 Mean Square 7.41 F-Ratio 5% F-Limit (from F-table) F(3.179 .

of respondents 42 26 11 .36) = 2. Interpretation:Since when the statistical value is less than table value then the null hypothesis is accepted and hence we can say that the difference among the determinants and parameters is insignificant. GRAPHICAL INTERPRETATION 1.05) level of significance of (3.8387 Here in this case F1-statistics < F1-table value. Hence the null hypothesis is accepted. From where do you get information about the new product? Answers Television Newspapers Magazines 41 No.F1-TABLE VALUE at (0.

Internet Peers (Family / Friends) 6 15 Interpretation: A large size of population is influenced by Television and Newspapers. of respondents 28 72 . 2. Which form of advertisement do you like more? Answers Still image Moving image 42 No.

of respondents 62 43 . For you advertisement is a source of : Answers Information No.Interpretation: People are more affected by advertisement with moving image. 3.

4.Entertainment 38 Interpretation: More number of people consider advertisement as a source of information rather than a source of entertainment. Does entertaining advertisement affect your opinion about the product? Answers 44 No. of respondents .

Yes No 26 74 Interpretation: Entertaining advertisement does not affect the opinion of customer about the product 5. Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? 45 .

6. Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? 46 . of respondents 87 13 Interpretation: Information provided in the advertisement affect very much on the opinion of consumers about the product.Answers Yes No No.

of respondents 63 37 Interpretation: Language used in the advertisement affects a lot on the opinion of consumers about the product. 47 .Answers Yes No No.

7. 48 . Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No. of respondents 69 31 Interpretation: Presence of any celebrity affects on the opinion of consumers about the product.

49 . of respondents 52 48 Interpretation: The effect of intensity is very powerful on the opinion of consumers about the product.8. Does intensity of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No.

Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? Answers Yes No No. of respondents 59 41 Interpretation: Presence of social issues in advertisements affects very much on the opinion of consumers about the product.9. 50 .

of respondents 87 13 Interpretation: Advertisement helps very much in increasing the sales of any product.Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product? Answers Yes No No. 51 .10.

52 . of respondents 76 24 Interpretation: National advertisements affect people’s opinion more than the local advertisements.11.Which type of advertisement influences you more? Answers National advertisement Local advertisement No.

 Information provided in the advertisement has more influence on consumer’s perception about the product.  Intensity of advertisement affects the perception of consumers towards the product and leads them for its purchase. 53 .  Social issues included in advertisement affects the perception of high age group people.  Language used in the advertisement also plays important role in increasing effectiveness of an advertisement.FINDINGS  Advertisements with moving image are more effective than advertisement with still image.  National advertisement has more influence on consumer’s perception about the product instead of local advertisement.  Advertisement increases the sales of any product.

In such cases their habitual. questionnaire and hence Marketing researchers studies the behavior that is rational. which are faced by researchers as follows: -    Sample size restricted to 100 only which was very less according total population. uncontrollable and others are controllable. they do not express their feeling correctly what they think. He knows the limitation beforehand. practice. 54 . Some important limitations.LIMITATIONS The marketing researcher has to face certain difficulties while he carries out the research work.   Sometimes the respondents are not willing to fill the the resultant may not be correct. Survey is a time consuming process but the time to collect the data for research was very less. Very often. The responses given by respondents were not always accurate because the respondents gave the response according to their understanding. preferences cannot be assessed correctly.

2. which approach (communication effectiveness or sales effectiveness). Relevance of advertising objectives on the overall performance objectives: Generally advertising managers would like to know the role of advertisements on the overall performance of the business firm i. Difficulty and cost of obtaining data needed to evaluate effectiveness: Generally communication measures are easy to follow than sales effectiveness measures. If the measures of advertising are more relevant they will be difficult and costly. Therefore. In order to measure the effectiveness of advertising. If it is less difficult and cheap the measures will not be more relevant. all the parameters are not internally equal they are significantly different from one another. Similarly. 55 . is more suitable? Two factors are to be considered in deciding the approach. return on investment and on profitability..CONCLUSION ANOVA reveals that all the determinants are not internally equal they are significantly different from one another. They are 1. A sale is a determining factor of company performance.e. the advertising manager has to make a balance between these two approaches.

 Advertisers should develop new and more effective ways of advertisement.  To make advertisement more effective all the determinants of effectiveness should be taken care of.  Advertisement should be according to the product and its suitability with different age groups.  Investment in advertisement should be made with great care of media of advertisement and type of advertisement.SUGGESTIONS  Advertisement should be made with keeping the determinants of effectiveness in mind. 56 .

com 57 . 4.Ratra 6. Advertising Management – concepts and cases Mahendra Mohan. www. www. www. Marketing Management – Philip Kotler Branding – Geoffrey Randoll 4.REFERENCE Books 1.paulbeelen. 3. 2. Internet 1.L. Strategic Brand Management – Kapferer 2.Saravanavel.scribd. Advertising and Sales Promotion Management – S. Advertising and Salesmanship – P.

Name: ………………………………. Above 40 Occupation: a. Below 20 b. 30 to 40 d......T. 20 to 30 c.. House hold [ d. From where do you get information about the new product? a........Questionnaire I am Vishal Kumar Sharma pursuing II Semester of Master of Business Administration from B. Student [ ] ] ] ] [ [ [ [ ] ] ] ] a... Business class [ c. Television [ ] 58 ... Sex: Age: a. Male [ ] b.. ( Durg ).... I am doing my research report on “ A Study on Effect of Advertisement on Consumers” as a part of my course curriculum... For this I require you to please fill this questionnaire...I. Service class [ 1........ Female [ ] b.

Moving image (Television / Internet) 3. Which form of advertisement do you like more? a. Entertainment [ [ ] ] [ [ ] ] 4.b. No [ [ ] ] 5. Peers (friends/family) [ 2. Information b. Internet [ [ [ ] ] ] ] e. Yes b. No [ [ ] ] 6. Does information provided in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Magazines d. Does presence of any celebrity in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? 59 . Still image (Magazines / Newspapers) b. Yes b. For you advertisement is a source of a. Does an entertaining advertisement influences your opinion about the product? a. Does language used in advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Yes b. No [ [ ] ] 7. Newspapers c.

No [ [ ] ] 9. Does intensity of the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Yes b. No [ [ ] ] 11. Does presence of social issues in the advertisement affects your opinion about the product? a. Do you think advertisement helps in increasing sales of any product? a. No [ [ ] ] 10. No [ [ ] ] 8. Yes b. Local advertisement [ [ ] ] 60 . Which type of advertisement influences you more? a. Yes b. Yes b. National advertisement b.a.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful