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Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy
PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition
Neil Campbell and Jane Reece
Lectures by Chris Romero
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Overview: Life Is Work Living cells – Require transfusions of energy from outside sources to perform their many tasks Energy – Flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat
CO2 + H2O
Photosynthesis in chloroplasts Organic + O2 Cellular molecules respiration in mitochondria
powers most cellular work
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings
fermentation – Is a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without oxygen • Cellular respiration – Is the most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway – Consumes oxygen and organic molecules such as glucose – Yields ATP Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .1: Catabolic pathways yield energy by oxidizing organic fuels • The breakdown of organic molecules is exergonic • One catabolic process.Concept 9. Inc.
Redox Reactions: Oxidation and Reduction • Catabolic pathways yield energy – Due to the transfer of electrons • The Principle of Redox Redox reactions – Transfer electrons from one reactant to another by oxidation and reduction In oxidation – A substance loses electrons. or is reduced • • • Oxidation of Organic Fuel Molecules During Cellular Respiration : becomes oxidized C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy becomes reduced Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc. or is oxidized In reduction – A substance gains electrons.
publishing as Benjamin Cummings . a coenzyme NADH.Stepwise Energy Harvest via NAD+ and the Electron Transport Chain • • • • Cellular respiration – Oxidizes glucose in a series of steps Electrons from organic compounds – Are usually first transferred to NAD+. Inc. the reduced form of NAD+ – Passes the electrons to the electron transport chain If electron transfer is not stepwise – A large release of energy occurs – As in the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form water Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.
2 e– + 2 H+ NAD+ H N+ 2 e– + H+ H N NADH H O C NH2 O C NH2 + 2[H] (from food) Dehydrogenase Reduction of NAD+ Oxidation of NADH + O O P O– O H H – OH HO O P O CH2 HO O N H O CH2 Nicotinamide (oxidized form) Nicotinamide (reduced form) NH2 N N H O H HO N H OH Figure 9. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.
3 Cellular respiration Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.• The electron transport chain – Passes electrons in a series of steps instead of in one explosive reaction – Uses the energy from the electron transfer to form ATP 2H + (from food via NADH) Controlled 2 Free energy. G H+ + 2 e– release of energy for synthesis of ATP 1/ 2 O2 ATP ATP ATP 2 – e 2 H+ H2O 1/ 2 O2 Figure 9. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.
Inc.The Stages of Cellular Respiration: A Preview • Respiration is a cumulative function of three metabolic stages – Glycolysis – The citric acid cycle – Oxidative phosphorylation Electrons carried via NADH Electrons carried via NADH and FADH2 Glycolsis Pyruvate Glucose Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis Cytosol Mitochondrion ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation ATP Substrate-level phosphorylation ATP Oxidative phosphorylation Figure 9. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.
Glycolysis • • Breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate Concept 9. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.2: Glycolysis harvests energy by oxidizing glucose to pyruvate Glycolysis – Means “splitting of sugar” – Breaks down glucose into pyruvate – Occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell Glycolysis consists of two major phases – Energy investment phase – Energy payoff phase Glycolysis Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation • ATP ATP ATP Energy investment phase Glucose 2 ATP + 2 P 2 ATP used • Energy payoff phase 4 ATP formed 4 ADP + 4 P 2 NAD+ + 4 e.+ 4 H + 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O Glucose 4 ATP formed – 2 ATP used 2 Pyruvate + 2 H2O 2 ATP + 2 H+ 2 NADH Figure 9.5 2 NAD+ + 4 e– + 4 H + Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.
6-bisphosphate 4 Aldolase 5 H P O CH2 Isomerase C O C O CHOH CH2OH CH2 O P Figure 9.6 Dihydroxyacetone phosphate Glyceraldehyde3-phosphate Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.A closer look at the energy investment phase CH2OH HH H HO H HO OH H OH Glucose 1 Glycolysis Citric Oxidative acid cycle phosphorylation ATP ADP Hexokinase CH2OH P HH OH OH H HO H OH Glucose-6-phosphate 2 Phosphoglucoisomerase CH2O P O CH2OH H HO HO H HO H Fructose-6-phosphate ATP ADP 3 Phosphofructokinase P O CH2 O CH2 O P HO H OH HO H Fructose1. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.
Inc. 3-Bisphosphoglycerate 2 ADP 7 Phosphoglycerokinase 2 ATP 2 O– C CHOH CH2 O P 3-Phosphoglycerate 8 Phosphoglyceromutase 2 O– C O P H C O CH2OH 2-Phosphoglycerate 9 Enolase 2H O 2 2 O– C O C O P CH2 Phosphoenolpyruvate 2 ADP 10 Pyruvate kinase 2 ATP 2 O– C O C O CH3 Pyruvate Figure 9. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .A closer look at the energy payoff phase 2 NAD+ 6 Triose phosphate dehydrogenase 2 Pi 2 NADH + 2 H+ 2 P O C O CHOH CH2 O P 1.7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.
which links the cycle to glycolysis CYTOSOL MITOCHONDRION NAD+ O– NADH + H+ S CoA 2 C O C C O 1 CH3 Pyruvate CO2 Coenzyme A 3 CH3 Acetyle CoA O Transport protein Figure 9.8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.The citric acid cycle • • • Takes place in the matrix of the mitochondrion Concept 9.3: The citric acid cycle completes the energy-yielding oxidation of organic molecules Before the citric acid cycle can begin – Pyruvate must first be converted to acetyl CoA. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.
Inc.An overview of the citric acid cycle Pyruvate (from glycolysis. 2 molecules per glucose) Glycolysis Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation ATP ATP ATP CO2 CoA NADH + 3 H+ Acetyle CoA CoA CoA Citric acid cycle FADH2 2 CO2 3 NAD+ FAD 3 NADH + 3 H+ ADP + P i ATP Figure 9.9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .
publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.A closer look at the citric acid cycle Glycolysis Citric Oxidative acid phosphorylation cycle S C CoA O CH3 Acetyl CoA CoA SH O C COO– CH2 COO– NADH + H+ 1 COO– CH2 HO C CH2 COO– H2O COO– NAD+ COO– HO CH CH2 COO– 8 Oxaloacetate 2 HO CH2 HC COO– CH COO– Malate Citric acid cycle Fumarate 6 COO– Citrate Isocitrate CO2 3 NAD+ COO– CoA SH CH2 CH2 C O COO– H2O 7 COO– CH HC COO– COO– CH2 CH2 COO– NADH + H+ a-Ketoglutarate CoA SH COO– CH2 CH2 C O 4 FADH2 5 FAD NAD+ NADH + H+ CO2 Succinate Pi S CoA GTP GDP Succinyl CoA ADP ATP Figure 9.10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.
Oxidative Phosphorylation • Concept 9. which powers ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation At the end of the chain – Electrons are passed to oxygen. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . chemiosmosis couples electron transport to ATP synthesis NADH and FADH2 – Donate electrons to the electron transport chain.11 H2 O Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. Inc. forming water • NADH 50 FADH2 Free energy (G) relative to O2 (kcl/mol) 40 FMN I Fe•S O FAD Fe•S II Cyt b Fe•S • Multiprotein complexes III 30 20 Cyt c1 IV Cyt c Cyt a Cyt a3 10 0 2 H + + 12 O2 Figure 9.4: During oxidative phosphorylation.
publishing as Benjamin Cummings .Chemiosmosis: The Energy-Coupling Mechanism • • ATP synthase – Is the enzyme that actually makes ATP At certain steps along the electron transport chain – Electron transfer causes protein complexes to pump H+ from the mitochondrial matrix to the intermembrane space – Is an energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy in the form of a H+ gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work • Chemiosmosis Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. Inc.
Chemiosmosis and the electron transport chain Glycolysis Oxidative phosphorylation. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . + + which create an H gradient across the membrane Of H back across the membrane Oxidative phosphorylation Figure 9.12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. electron transport and chemiosmosis Inner Mitochondrial membrane ATP ATP ATP H+ H+ Intermembrane space H+ Protein complex of electron carners I Cyt c H+ Q III II FADH2 IV Inner mitochondrial membrane NADH+ FAD+ 2 H+ + 1/2 O2 H2O ADP + Pi ATP synthase ATP H+ NAD+ Mitochondrial matrix (Carrying electrons from. Inc. food) Chemiosmosis Electron transport chain + ATP synthesis powered by the flow Electron transport and pumping of protons (H ).
most energy flows in this sequence – Glucose to NADH to electron transport chain to proton-motive force to ATP Electron shuttles span membrane • There are three main processes in this metabolic enterprise CYTOSOL 2 NADH or 2 FADH2 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH2 MITOCHONDRION Glycolysis Glucose 2 Pyruvate 2 Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Oxidative phosphorylation: electron transport and chemiosmosis + 2 ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation + 2 ATP by substrate-level phosphorylation + about 32 or 34 ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .An Accounting of ATP Production by Cellular Respiration • During respiration. Inc.13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. depending on which shuttle transports electrons from NADH in cytosol Maximum per glucose: About 36 or 38 ATP Figure 9.
which can be reused by glyocolysis Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.• • • • • Concept 9. in aerobic or anaerobic conditions – Couples with fermentation to produce ATP Fermentation consists of – Glycolysis plus reactions that regenerate NAD+.5: Fermentation enables some cells to produce ATP without the use of oxygen Cellular respiration – Relies on oxygen to produce ATP In the absence of oxygen – Cells can still produce ATP through fermentation Glycolysis – Can produce ATP with or without oxygen. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.
Types of Fermentation • In alcohol fermentation – Pyruvate is converted to ethanol in two steps. Inc. one of which releases CO2 2 ADP + 2 P1 2 ATP O– C O Glucose Glycolysis C O CH3 2 Pyruvate 2 NAD+ 2 NADH H C O CH3 2 Acetaldehyde 2 CO2 • During lactic acid fermentation – Pyruvate is reduced directly to NADH to form lactate as a waste product H H C OH CH3 2 Ethanol (a) Alcohol fermentation 2 ADP + 2 P1 2 ATP Glucose Glycolysis O– C O C O O C O H C OH CH3 2 Lactate 2 NAD+ 2 NADH CH3 Figure 9.14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings (b) Lactic acid fermentation .
Inc.15 Glucose CYTOSOL Pyruvate No O2 present Fermentation O2 present Cellular respiration • • • MITOCHONDRION Ethanol or lactate Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.Fermentation and Cellular Respiration Compared • Both fermentation and cellular respiration – Use glycolysis to oxidize glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate Fermentation and cellular respiration – Differ in their final electron acceptor Cellular respiration – Produces more ATP Pyruvate is a key juncture in catabolism Figure 9. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .
6: Glycolysis and the citric acid cycle connect to many other metabolic pathways Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. publishing as Benjamin Cummings . Inc.The Evolutionary Significance of Glycolysis • Glycolysis – Occurs in nearly all organisms – Probably evolved in ancient prokaryotes before there was oxygen in the atmosphere • Concept 9.
publishing as Benjamin Cummings .16 Oxidative phosphorylation Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.P NH3 Pyruvate Acetyl CoA Citric acid cycle Figure 9.The Versatility of Catabolism • Catabolic pathways – Funnel electrons from many kinds of organic molecules into cellular respiration • The catabolism of various molecules from food Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Amino acids Sugars Glycerol Fatty acids Glycolysis Glucose Glyceraldehyde-3. Inc.
Biosynthesis (Anabolic Pathways) • The body – Uses small molecules to build other substances • These small molecules – May come directly from food or through glycolysis or the citric acid cycle Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education. Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings .
17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education.6-bisphosphate Inhibits Pyruvate ATP Acetyl CoA Citrate Citric acid cycle Figure 9. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Oxidative phosphorylation . Inc.Regulation of Cellular Respiration via Feedback Mechanisms • The control of cellular respiration Glucose Glycolysis Fructose-6-phosphate AMP Stimulates + – – Inhibits Phosphofructokinase Fructose-1.