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Table of Contents
Chapter No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name of the Chapter Page No 1 2 3 11 12 20 21 30 31 – 48 49 60 61 77 78 80 81
Course daily schedule Course Contents Introduction NDT processes & their Uses Identification of weld Discontinuities Penetrant Testing Magnetic Particle Testing Ultrasonic Testing Radiographic Testing Eddy Current Testing Comparison and Selection of NDT Methods
Nondestructive Testing The field of Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is a very broad, that plays a critical role in assuring that structural components and systems perform their function in a reliable and cost effective fashion. NDT technicians and engineers define and implement tests that locate and characterize material conditions and flaws that might otherwise cause serious accidents such as, planes to crash, reactors to fail, trains to derail, pipelines to burst, and a variety of troubling events. These tests are performed in a manner that does not affect the future usefulness of the object or material. In other words, NDT allows parts and materials to be inspected and evaluated without damaging them. Because it allows inspection without interfering with a product's final use, NDT provides an excellent balance between quality control and costeffectiveness. Nondestructive Evaluation Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is a term that is often used interchangeably with NDT. However, technically, NDE is used to describe measurements that are more quantitative in nature. For example, a NDE method would not only locate a defect, but it would also be used to measure something about that defect such as its size, shape, and orientation. NDE may be used to determine material properties such as fracture toughness, ductility, conductivity and other physical characteristics. Uses of NDE · · · · · · · Flaw Detection and Evaluation Leak Detection, Location Determination Dimensional Measurements Structure and Microstructure Characterization Estimation of Mechanical and Physical Properties Stress (Strain) and Dynamic Response Measurements Material Sorting and Chemical Composition Determination
Background on Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Nondestructive testing has been practiced for many decades. One of the earliest applications was the detection of surface cracks in railcar wheels and axles. The parts were dipped in oil, then cleaned and dusted with a powder. When a crack was present, the oil would seep from the defect and wet the oil providing visual indication indicating that the component was flawed. This eventually led to oils that were specifically formulated for performing these and other inspections and these inspection techniques are now called penetrant testing. Xrays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (18451923) who was a Professor at Wuerzburg University in Germany. Soon after his discovery, Roentgen produced the first industrial radiograph when he imaged a set of weights in a box to show his colleagues. Other electronic inspection techniques such as ultrasonic and eddy current testing started with the initial rapid developments in instrumentation spurred by technological advances and subsequent defense and space efforts following World War II. In the early days, the primary purpose was the detection of defects. Critical parts were produced with a "safe life" design, and were intended to be defect free during their useful life. The detection of defects was automatically a cause for removal of the component from service. The continued improvement of inspection technology, in particular the ability to detect smaller and smaller flaws, led to more and more parts being rejected. At this time the discipline of fracture mechanics emerged, which enabled one to predict whether a crack of a given size would fail under a particular load if a particular material property or fracture toughness, were known. Other laws were developed to predict the rate of growth of cracks under cyclic loading (fatigue). With the advent of these tools, it became possible to accept structures containing defects if the sizes of those defects were known. This formed the basis for a new design philosophy called "damage tolerant designs." Components having known defects could continue to be used as long as it could be established that those defects would not grow to a critical size that would result in catastrophic failure. A new challenge was thus presented to the nondestructive testing community. Mere detection of flaws was not enough. One needed to also obtain quantitative information about flaw size to serve as an input to fracture mechanics calculations to predict the remaining life of a component. These needs, led to the creation of a number of research programs around the world and the emergence of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) as a new discipline.
NDT/NDE Methods The list of NDT methods that can be used to inspect components and make measurements is large and continues to grow. Researchers continue to find new ways of applying physics and other scientific disciplines to develop better NDT methods. However, there are six NDT methods that are used most often. These methods are Visual Inspection, Penetrant Testing, Magnetic Particle Testing, Electromagnetic or Eddy Current Testing, Radiography, and Ultrasonic Testing. Visual and Optical Testing (VT) Visual inspection involves using an inspector's eyes to look for defects. The inspector may also use special tools such as magnifying glasses, mirrors, or borescopes to gain access and more closely inspect the subject area. Visual examiners follow procedures that range fm simple to very complex.
Penetrant Testing (PT) Test objects are coated with visible or fluorescent dye solution. Excess dye is then removed from the surface, and a developer is applied. The developer acts as blotter, drawing trapped penetrant out of imperfections open to the surface. With visible dyes, vivid color contrasts between the penetrant and developer make "bleedout" easy to see. With fluorescent dyes, ultraviolet light is used to make the bleedout fluoresce brightly, thus allowing imperfections to be readily seen.
Surface and nearsurface imperfections distort the magnetic field and concentrate iron particles near imperfections. dimensional changes. previewing a visual indication of the flaw. Interruptions in the flow of eddy currents.Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) This method is accomplished by inducing a magnetic field in a ferromagnetic material and then dusting the surface with iron particles (either dry or suspended in liquid). are detected. 5 . or changes in the material's conductive and permeability properties. caused by imperfections. Electromagnetic Testing (ET) or Eddy Current Testing Electrical currents are generated in a conductive material by an induced alternating magnetic field This electrical currents is called eddy currents because they flow in circles at and just below the surface of the material.
Screen 1 0 6 Plate . Possible imperfections are indicated as density changes on the film in the same manner as a medical Xray shows broken bones. The resulting radiograph shows the dimensional features of the part. wherein sound is introduced into a test object and reflections (echoes) are returned to a receiver from internal imperfections or from the part's geometrical surfaces Initial pulse Back surface echo Crack echo Probe Couplant Sound waves crack 0 2 4 6 8 .Radiography (RT) Radiography involves the use of penetrating gamma or Xradiation to examine parts and products for imperfections. The most commonly used ultrasonic testing technique is pulse echo. Radiation is directed through a part and onto film or other imaging media. Source Rays Object with defect Film Xray film Defect Image Film with image Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Ultrasonics use transmission of highfrequency sound waves into a material to detect imperfections or to locate changes in material properties. An Xray generator or radioactive isotope is used as a source of radiation.
and/or a simple soapbubble test. Leak Testing (LT) Several techniques are used to detect and locate leaks in pressure containment parts. imperfections within the material emit short bursts of acoustic energy called "emissions. Emission sources can be evaluated through the study of their intensity. acoustic emissions can be detected by special receivers. liquid and gas penetrant techniques. and structures. Leaks can be detected by using electronic listening devices. pressure gauge measurements." As in ultrasonic testing. 7 . rate. and location. pressure vessels.Acoustic Emission Testing (AE) When a solid material is stressed.
gauging composition testing Defects only 8 .The Relative Uses and Merits of Various NDT Methods Test Method Capital cost UT Medium to high Xray High Eddy Current Low to medium Low MPI Medium LPT Low Consumable Very low cost Time of results Effect of geometry Access problems Type of defect Immediate High Medium Medium Delayed Immediate Short delay Not too Important Important Short delay Not too Important Important Important Important Important Important Important Important Internal Most External External Near Surface Low Surface breaking Relative sensitivity Operator skill Operator training Training needs High Medium High Low High High Medium Low Low Important Important Important Important Not Important Low High High Medium Low Portability of High equipment Capabilities Low High to medium Thickness gauging. grade sorting High to medium Defects only High Thickness Thickness gauging.
Interior macroscopic flaws cracks. unfilled craters. When viewed on a fluoroscopic screen. Gives indication of incorrect procedures. no matter what other techniques are required. poorly formed beads. Is the necessary function of everyone who in any way contributes to the making of the weld. Fluoroscopic viewing equipment. and burnthrough. Should always be the primary method of inspection. operating equipment. Useful in qualification of welders and welding processes. Is the only "productive" type of inspection. castings and forgings. Applicable to surface defects only. incomplete root penetration. When the indications are recorded on film. improper fitup Low cost. Radiographic Commercial Xray or gamma units made especially for inspecting welds. Not generally suitable for fillet weld inspection. Can be applied while work is in process. Provides no permanent record. gives a permanent record. Requires safety precautions. Because of cost. porosity.Table 1 Reference Guide to Major Methods for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds Inspection Method Visual Equipment Enables Advantages Limitations Remarks Required Detectiort of Magnifying glass Weld sizing gauge Pocket rule Straight edge Workmanship standards Surface flaws cracks. icicles. misalignments. Film and processing facilities. its use should be limited to those areas where other methods will not provide the assurance required. blow holes. 9 . overwelding. underwelding. slag inclusions Warpage. undercutting. permitting correction of faults. porosity. a low cost method of internal inspection Requires skill in choosing angles of exposure. and interpreting indications. Xray inspection is required by many codes and specifications. nonmetallic inclusions.
Commercial Liquid Penetrant kits containing fluorescent or dye penetrants and developers. Applicable to ferromagnetic materials only. Permits controlled sensitivity. Permanent record is not readily obtained. Easy to use. Very sensitive. Excellent for detecting surface discontinuities especially surface cracks. Requires high degree of skill in interpreting pulseecho patterns. A source of ultraviolet light if fluorescent method is used. Requires skill in interpretation of indications and recognition of irrelevant patterns. either of the pulseecho or transmission type. Especially for detecting subsurface laminationlike defects. Surface and subsurface flaws including those too small to be detected by other methods. Only surface defects are detectable. Relatively lowcost method. Excellent for locating leaks in weldments. irrelevant surface conditions (smoke. Standard reference patterns for interpretation of RF or video patterns. 10 . Permits probing of joints inaccessible to radiography. Simpler to use than radiographic inspection. Application equipment for the developer. Applicable to magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. The transmission type equipment simplifies pattern interpretation where it is applicable. slag) may give misleading indications. Low cost. Difficult to use on rough surfaces. Pulseecho equipment is highly developed for weld inspection purposes. Cannot be used effectively on hot assemblies. Surface cracks not readily visible to the unaided eye. In thinwalled vessels will reveal leaks not ordinarily located by usual air tests. Magnetic powders dry or wet form; may be fluorescent for viewing under ultraviolet light.Magnetic Special Particle commercial equipment. Ultrasonic Special commercial equipment. Elongated defects parallel to the magnetic field may not give pattern; for this reason the field should be applied from two directions at or near right angles to each other.
Cracks will appear as jagged and often very faint irregular lines. These interruptions may occur in the base metal. Cracks are grouped as hot or cold cracks. Cracks can be detected in a radiograph only when they are propagating in a direction that produces a change in thickness that is parallel to the x-ray beam. Hot cracks usually occur as the metal solidifies at elevated temperatures. Cold cracks occur after the metal has cooled to ambient temperatures ( delayed cracks). Discontinuities. weld material or "heat affected" zones. which do not meet the requirements of the codes or specification used to invoke and control an inspection. Cracks can sometimes appear as "tails" on inclusions or porosity. General Welding Discontinuities The following discontinuities are typical of all types of welding.Chapter II IDENTIFICATION OF WELD DISCONTINUITIES Discontinuities are interruptions in the typical structure of a material. Cracks: Crack is tight linear separations of metal that can be very short to very long indications. are referred to as defects. 11 .
Lack of Fusion: Lack of fusion (Cold Lap) is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal or the previous weld pass material (inter pass cold lap). 12 . The arc does not melt the base metal sufficiently and causes the slightly molten puddle to flow into base material without bonding.
The moisture turns into gases when heated and becomes trapped in the weld during the welding process. All porosity is a void in the material it will have a radiographic density more than the surrounding area. Sometimes porosity is elongated and may have the appearance of having a tail This is the result of gas attempting to escape while the metal is still in a liquid state and is called wormhole porosity. Porosity can take many shapes on a radiograph but often appears as dark round or irregular spots or specks appearing singularly. Cluster porosity appear just like regular porosity in the radiograph but the together. Cluster porosity: Cluster porosity is caused when flux coated electrodes are contaminated with moisture. in clusters or rows.Porosity: Porosity is the result of gas entrapment in the solidifying metal. indications will be grouped close 13 .
Lack of penetration allows a natural stress riser from which a crack may propagate. It is one of the most objectionable weld discontinuities. jagged asymmetrical shapes within the weld or along the weld joint areas are indicative of slag inclusions. straight edges that follows the land or root face down the center of the weldment. dark. The appearance on a radiograph is a dark area with well-defined.Slag inclusions: Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld and base metal. In a radiograph. Root concavity: 14 . Incomplete penetration (IP): Incomplete penetration (IP) or lack of penetration (LOP) occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate the joint.
Undercutting is not as straight edged as LOP because it does not follow a ground edge. In the radiographic image it appears as a dark irregular line offset from the centerline of the weldment. External or crown undercut: 15 . Internal or root undercut: Internal or root undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the root of the weld.Root or Internal concavity or suck back is condition where the weld metal has contracted as it cools and has been drawn up into the root of the weld. On a radiograph it looks similar to lack of penetration but the line has irregular edges and it is often quite wide in the center of the weld image.
The difference in density is caused by the difference in material thickness. In the radiograph. it appears as a dark irregular line along the outside edge of the weld area. Inadequate weld reinforcement: 16 . The radiographic image is a noticeable difference in density between the two pieces. Offset or mismatch: Offset or mismatch are terms associated with a condition where two pieces being welded together are not properly aligned. straight line is caused by failure of the weld metal to fuse with the land area. The dark.External or crown undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the crown of the weld.
The appearance on a radiograph is a localized. It is very easy to determine by radiograph if the weld has inadequate reinforcement. lighter area in the weld. Discontinuities in TIG welds 17 . Excess weld reinforcement : Excess weld reinforcement is an area of a weld that has weld metal added in excess of that specified by engineering drawings and codes. A visual inspection will easily determine if the weld reinforcement is in excess of that specified by the engineering requirements.Inadequate weld reinforcement is an area of a weld where the thickness of weld metal deposited is less than the thickness of the base material. because the image density in the area of suspected inadequacy will be more (darker) than the image density of the surrounding base material.
therefore. Oxide inclusions: Oxide inclusions are usually visible on the surface of material being welded (especially aluminum). Tungsten inclusions. therefore. tungsten is denser than aluminum or steel. Radiographically. Tungsten is a brittle and inherently dense material used in the electrode in tungsten inert gas ( TIG ) welding. The TIG method of welding produces a clean homogeneous weld which when radiographed is easily interpreted. If improper welding procedures are used. These discontinuities occur in most metals welded by the process including aluminum and stainless steels.The following discontinuities are peculiar to the TIG welding process. tungsten may be entrapped in the weld. radiograph. Oxide inclusions are less dense than the surrounding materials and. appear as dark irregularly shaped discontinuities in the Discontinuities in Gas Metal Arc Welds (GMAW) The following discontinuities are most commonly found in GMAW welds. 18 . it shows as a lighter area with a distinct outline on the radiograph.
"wire like" indications. On a radiograph. Often lumps of metal sag through the weld creating a thick globular condition on the back of the weld. On a radiograph they appear as light. burn through appears as dark spots. visible on the top or bottom surface of the weld or contained within the weld. Burn-Through: Burn-Through results when too much heat causes excessive weld metal to penetrate the weld zone. which are often surrounded by light globular areas (icicles). 19 .Whiskers: Whiskers are short lengths of weld electrode wire. These globs of metal are referred to as icicles.
Penetrant Inspection Improves the Detect ability of Flaws The advantage that a liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) offers over an unaided visual inspection is that it makes defects easier to see for the inspector." excess surface penetrant is removed and a developer is applied. the surface was then coated with a fine suspension of chalk in alcohol so that a white surface layer was formed once the alcohol had evaporated. the penetrant materials are formulated using a bright red dye that provides for a high level of contrast 20 . The technique is based on the ability of a liquid to be drawn into a "clean" surface breaking flaw by capillary action.Chapter III PENETRANT INSPECTION Introduction Liquid penetration inspection is a method that is used to reveal surface breaking flaws by bleedout of a colored or fluorescent dye from the flaw. First. when the magnetic particle method was introduced and found to be more sensitive for the ferromagnetic iron and steels. heavy oil commonly available in railway workshops was diluted with kerosene in large tanks so that locomotive parts such as wheels could be submerged. Colored (contrast) penetrants require good white light while fluorescent penetrants need to be viwed in darkened conditions with an ultraviolet "black light". Later it became the practice in railway workshops to examine iron and steel components by the "oil and whiting" method. The second way that LPI improves the detectability of a flaw is that it produces a flaw indication with a high level of contrast between the indication and the background which also helps to make the indication more easily seen. causing the residual oil in any surface cracks to seep out and stain the white coating. When a visible dye penetrant inspection is performed. LPI produces a flaw indication that is much larger and easier for the eye to detect than the flaw itself. This method was in use from the latter part of the 19th century through to approximately 1940. In this method. The object was then vibrated and stroked with a hammer. After removal and careful cleaning. whereby the carbon black would settle in surface cracks rendering them visible. Many flaws are so small or narrow that they are undetectable by the unaided eye. After a period of time called the "dwell." It draws the penetrant from the flaw to reveal its presence. A very early surface inspection technique involved the rubbing of carbon black on glazed pottery. This acts as a "blotter. There are basically two ways that a penetrant inspection process makes flaws more easily seen.
or immersing the parts in a penetrant bath. the material being inspected. Penetrant Dwell: The penetrant is left on the surface for a sufficient time to allow as much penetrant as possible to be drawn from or to seep into a defect. Penetrant Application: Once the surface has been thoroughly cleaned and dried. Dwell times are usually recommended by the penetrant producers or required by the specification being followed. 2. These and other mechanical operations can smear the surface of the sample. grease. or other contaminants that may prevent penetrant from entering flaws. The surface must be free of oil. Minimum dwell times typically range from 5 to 60 minutes. Basic Processing Steps of a Liquid Penetrant Inspection 1. the penetrant material is applied on the surface by spraying. Penetrant dwell time is the total time that the penetrant is in contact with the part surface. thus closing the defects. 3. or grit blasting have been performed. there is no harm in using a longer 21 . and the type of defect being inspected.between the white developer that serves as a background as well as to pull the trapped penetrant from the flaw. The times vary depending on the application. The sample may also require etching if mechanical operations such as machining. the penetrant materials are formulated to glow brightly and to give off light at a wavelength that the eye is most sensitive to under dim lighting conditions. penetrant materials used. brushing. Surface Preparation: One of the most critical steps of a liquid penetrant inspection is the surface preparation. water. sanding. Generally. When a fluorescent penetrant inspection is performed.
The ideal dwell time is often determined by experimentation and is often very specific to a particular application. 8 Clean Surface: The final step in the process is to thoroughly clean the part surface to remove the developer from the parts that were found to be acceptable. These types are listed below: · · Type 1 . dipping. This development time is usually a minimum of 10 minutes and significantly longer times may be necessary for tight cracks. Fluorescent penetrant systems are more sensitive than visible penetrant systems because the eye is drawn to the glow of the fluorescing indication. 4 Excess Penetrant Removal: This is a most delicate part of the inspection procedure because the excess penetrant must be removed from the surface of the sample while removing as little penetrant as possible from defects. Developers come in a variety of forms that may be applied by dusting (dry powdered). Visible penetrants are also less vulnerable to contamination from things such as cleaning fluid that can significantly reduce the strength of a fluorescent indication. 7 Inspection: Inspection is then performed under appropriate lighting to detect indications from any flaws that may be present. visible penetrants do not require a darkened area and an ultraviolet light in order to make an inspection. or spraying (wet developers).Fluorescent Penetrants Type 2 Visible Penetrants Fluorescent penetrants contain a dye or several dyes that fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet radiation.penetrant dwell time as long as the penetrant is not allowed to dry. 5 Developer Application: A thin layer of developer is then applied to the sample to draw penetrant trapped in flaws back to the surface where it will be visible. Visible penetrants contain a red dye that provides high contrast against the white developer background. direct rinsing with water. 1 Penetrant: Penetrant materials are classified in the various industry and government specifications by their physical characteristics and their performance Penetrant materials come in two basic types. Depending on the penetrant system used. However. or first treated with an emulsifier and then rinsing with water . 6 Indication Development: The developer is allowed to stand on the part surface for a period of time sufficient to permit the extraction of the trapped penetrant out of any surface flaws. Penetrant Testing Materials The penetrant materials used today are much more sophisticated than the kerosene and whiting first used by railroad inspectors near the turn of the 20th century. Today's penetrants are carefully formulated to produce the level of sensitivity desired by the inspector. 22 . this step may involve cleaning with a solvent.
must not be harmful to the material being tested or the inspector. The four methods are listed below: · · · · Method A Water Washable Method B Post Emulsifiable. Properties of good Penetrant To perform well. Solvent removable penetrants require the use of a solvent to remove the penetrant from the part. Post emulsifiable. Lipophilic 23 . a penetrant must possess following important characteristics. remain in the defect but remove easily from the surface of the part. Water washable penetrants are sometimes referred to as selfemulsifying systems. Post emulsifiable penetrants come in two varieties.Penetrants are then classified by the method used to remove the excess penetrant from the part. remain fluid so it can be drawn back to the surface of the part through the drying and developing steps. lipophilic and hydrophilic. be drawn into surface breaking defects by capillary action. use an emulsifier that is a water soluble detergent which lifts the excess penetrant from the surface of the part with a water wash. · · · · · · spread easily over the surface of the material being inspected to provide complete and even coverage. Hydrophilic Water washable (Method A) penetrants can be removed from the part by rinsing with water alone. These are listed below: 1. 2 Emulsifiers: When removal of the penetrant from the defect due to overwashing of the part is a concern. hydrophilic systems (Method D). Post emulsifiable penetrants require a separate emulsifier to break the penetrant down and make it water washable. Method A: WaterWashable 2. These penetrants contain some emulsifying agent (detergent) that makes it possible to wash the penetrant from the part surface with water alone. Most penetrant inspection specifications classify penetrant systems into four methods of excess penetrant removal. the penetrant is oil soluble and interacts with the oilbased emulsifier to make removal possible. be highly visible or fluoresce brightly to produce easy to see indications. Lipophilic Method C Solvent Removable Method D Post Emulsifiable. Method B: Post Emulsifiable. In post emulsifiers. lipophilic systems (Method B). a post emulsifiable penetrant system can be used.
Another function that some developers performs is to create a white background so there is a greater degree of contrast between the indication and the surrounding background. This is why indications are brighter than the penetrant itself under UV light. The mechanical action of the rinse water removes the displaced penetrant from the part and causes fresh remover to contact and lift newly exposed penetrant from the surface. Method B and D penetrants require an additional processing step where a separate emulsification agent is applied to make the excess penetrant more removable with a water wash. The fine developer particles both reflect and refract the incident ultraviolet light. a variation of one minute or more in the contact time will have little effect on flaw detectability when a hydrophilic emulsifier is used.Lipophilic emulsifiers (Method B) were introduced in the late 1950's and work with both a chemical and mechanical action. Method D: Post Emulsifiable.3. During the emulsification time. The major advantage of hydrophilic emulsifiers is that they are less sensitive to variation in the contact and removal time. The developer also allows more light to be emitted through the same mechanism. Hydrophilic emulsifiers (Method D) also remove the excess penetrant with mechanical and chemical action but the action is different because no diffusion takes place. Developer Forms 24 . Lipophilic emulsification systems are oilbased materials that are supplied in readytouse form. The hydrophilic emulsifier breaks up the penetrant into small quantities and prevents these pieces from recombining or reattaching to the surface of the part. Hydrophilic Method C relies on a solvent cleaner to remove the penetrant from the part being inspected. the emulsifier diffuses into the remaining penetrant and the resulting mixture is easily removed with a water spray. mechanical action starts to remove some of the excess penetrant as the mixture drains from the part. a variation of as little as 15 to 30 seconds can have a significant effect when a lipophilic system is used. 3 Developers The role of the developer is to pull the trapped penetrant material out of defects and to spread the developer out on the surface of the part so it can be seen by an inspector. Method C: Solvent Removable 4. Method A has emulsifiers built into the penetrant liquid that makes it possible to remove the excess penetrant with a simple water wash. While emulsification time should be controlled as closely as possible. allowing more of it to interact with the penetrant. After the emulsifier has coated the surface of the object. However. The hydrophilic post emulsifiable method (Method D) was introduced in the mid 1970's and since it is more sensitive than the lipophilic post emulsifiable method it has made the later method virtually obsolete. causing more efficient fluorescence. Hydrophilic emulsifiers are basically detergents that contain solvents and surfactants. Hydrophilic systems are waterbased and supplied as a concentrate that must be diluted with water prior to use .
indications tend to stay bright and sharp since the penetrant has a limited amount of room to spread. they are seldom used for visible inspections. Drying is achieved by placing the wet but well drained part in a recalculating warm air dryer with the temperature held between 70 and 75°F. 2. fluffy powders that can be applied to a thoroughly dry surface in a number of ways. The best method for applying water soluble developers is by spraying it on the part. pale white coating over the entire surface. When a dry developer is used. Since dry powder developers only stick to the part where penetrant is present. or by using a puffer to dust parts with the developer. The goal is to allow the developer to come in contact with the whole inspection area. These forms are listed below: 1. Properly developed parts will have an even. Having a uniform light background is very important for a visible inspection to be effective and since dry developers do not provide one. A) Dry Powder Dry powder developer is generally considered to be the least sensitive but it is inexpensive to use and easy to apply.Water Soluble As the name implies. Electrostatic powder spray guns are also available to apply the developer. water soluble developers consist of a group of chemicals that are dissolved in water and form a developer layer when the water is evaporated away. Form a Dry Powder Form b Water Soluble Form c Water Suspendible Form d Nonaqueous Type 1 Fluorescent (Solvent Based) Form e Nonaqueous Type 2 Visible Dye (Solvent Based) The developer classifications are based on the method that the developer is applied. Dipping. 4. The penetrant will try to wet the surface of the penetrant particle and fill the voids between the particles. the indications will will be blurred and indistinct. If the parts are not dried quickly. Unless the part is electrostatically charged. the dry developer does not provide a uniform white background as the other forms of developers do. B) . The part can be wet or dry. Parts can also be placed in a dust cabinet where the developer is blown around and allowed to settle on the part. or dissolved or suspended in a liquid carrier. which brings more penetrant to the surface of the part where it can be seen. Each of the developer forms has advantages and disadvantages. 3. The developer can be applied as a dry powder. Dry developers are white. 25 . or brushing the solution on to the surface is sometimes used but these methods are less desirable. 5. Aqueous developers contain wetting agents that cause the solution to function much like dilute hydrophilic emulsifier and can lead to additional removal of entrapped penetrant. The developer can be applied by dipping parts in a container of developer.The AMS 2644 and MilI25135 classify developers into six standard forms. pouring. the powder will only adhere to areas where trapped penetrant has wet the surface of the part.
varnish. the impact of other contaminants such as the residue from previous penetrant inspections is less clear. are much more elastic than metal and will not fracture even though a large defect may be present just below the coating. Common coatings and contaminates that must be removed include: paint. Some of these contaminants would obviously prevent penetrant from entering defects and it is. oxide. However. or blasted prior to the penetrant inspection. plating. etchant. A nonaqueous developer should be applied to a thoroughly dried part to form a slightly translucent white coating. The solvent tends to pull penetrant from the indications by solvent action. grease. such as paint. wax. Surface contaminants can also lead to a higher level of background noise since the excess penetrant may be more difficult to remove. flux. If the parts have been machined. machining fluid. Parts coated with a water suspendible developer must be forced dried just as parts coated with a water soluble developer are forced dried. Take the link below to review some 26 . oil. and residue from previous penetrant inspections.C) Water Suspendible Water suspendible developers consist of insoluble developer particles suspended in water. it is possible that a thin layer of metal may have smeared across the surface and closed off defects. This layer of metal smearing must be removed before inspection. All coatings. Water suspendible developers require frequent stirring or agitation to keep the particles from settling out of suspension. The part must be thoroughly cleaned as surface contaminates can prevent the penetrant from entering a defect. such as paints. therefore. varnishes. and heavy oxides must be removed to ensure that defects are open the surface of the part. sanded. Contaminants Coatings. smut. Nonaqueous developers are commonly distributed in aerosol spray cans for portability. The surface of a part coated with a water suspendible developer will have a slightly translucent white coating. rust. dirt. It is even possible for metal smearing to occur as a result of cleaning operations such as grit or vapor blasting. forced drying is not required. Water suspendible developers are applied to parts in the same manner as water soluble developers. scale. B) Nonaqueous Nonaqueous developers suspend the developer in a volatile solvent and are typically applied with a spray gun. clear that they must be removed. decals. but they can have a disastrous affect on the inspection. Preparation of Part One of the most critical steps in the penetrant inspection process is preparing the part for inspection. Since the solvent is highly volatile. plating.
tumble deburring. A good cleaning procedure will remove all contamination from the part and not leave any residue that may interfere with the inspection process. etc. titanium. Researchers in Russia have also found that some domestic soaps and commercial detergents can clog flaw cavities and reduce the wettability of the metal surface. It is perhaps less recognized that some cleaning operations. Take the link below to learn more about metal smearing and its affects on LPI. 27 . and related compounds can adhere to the surface of parts and form a coating that prevents penetrant entry into cracks. grit blasting.5 percent.of the research that has been done to evaluate the effects of contaminants on LPI sensitivity. Sodium metasilicate. hand sanding. It is very important that the material being inspected has not been smeared across its own surface during machining or cleaning operations.) Glass Many ceramic materials Rubber Plastics LPI offers flexibility in performing inspections because it can be applied in a large variety of applications ranging from automotive spark plugs to critical aircraft components. and peening operations can cause a small amount of the material to smear on the surface of some materials. Microphotographs of cracks after plastic media blasting showed media entrapment in addition to metal smearing. honing. thus. Conrad and Caudill found that media from plastic media blasting was partially responsible for loss of LPI indication strength. steel. such as steam cleaning. Its popularity can be attributed to two main factors. which are its relative ease of use and its flexibility. can also cause metal smearing in the softer materials. LPI can be used to inspect almost any material provided that its surface is not extremely rough or porous. sodium silicate. It has been found that some alkaline cleaners can be detrimental to the penetrant inspection process if they have silicates in concentrations above 0. Materials that are commonly inspected using LPI include the following: · · · · · Metals (aluminum. shot peening. It is well recognized that machining. reducing the sensitivity of the penetrant. lapping. hand scraping. Common Uses of Liquid Penetrant Inspection Liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) is one of the most widely used nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. copper.
28 . · The method has few material limitations. magnetic and nonmagnetic. The primary advantages and disadvantages when compared to other NDE methods are summarized below. Liquid penetrant inspection is used to inspect of flaws that break the surface of the sample. and conductive and nonconductive materials may be inspected. These large machined aluminum forgings are used to support the number 3 engine in the tail of a DC10 aircraft.Penetrant material can be applied with a spray can or a cotton swab to inspect for flaws known to occur in a specific area or it can be applied by dipping or spraying to quickly inspect large areas. · Penetrant materials and associated equipment are relatively inexpensive. At right. Penetrant inspection systems have been developed to inspect some very large components. Advantages and Disadvantages of Penetrant Testing Like all nondestructive inspection methods. Primary Advantages · The method has high sensitive to small surface discontinuities. visible dye penetrant being locally applied to a highly loaded connecting point to check for fatigue cracking. DC10 banjo fittings are being moved into a penetrant inspection system at what used to be the Douglas Aircraft Company's Long Beach. · Parts with complex geometric shapes are routinely inspected. liquid penetrant inspection has both advantages and disadvantages. California facility.e. · Large areas and large volumes of parts/materials can be inspected rapidly and at low cost. Some of these flaws are listed below: · · · · · · · · · Fatigue cracks Quench cracks Grinding cracks Overload and impact fractures Porosity Laps Seams Pin holes in welds Lack of fusion or braising along the edge of the bond line As mentioned above. metallic and nonmetallic. · Indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and constitute a visual representation of the flaw. one of the major limitations of a penetrant inspection is that flaws must be open to the surface. In this picture. i.
29 . Only materials with a relative nonporous surface can be inspected. MPI is a fast and relatively easy to apply and surface preparation is not as critical as it is for some other NDT methods. The inspector must have direct access to the surface being inspected.Primary Disadvantages · · · · · · · · · Only surface breaking defects can be detected. Metal smearing from machining. Chemical handling and proper disposal is require Chapter IV Magnetic Particle Inspection Introduction: Magnetic particle inspection is a nondestructive testing method used for surface and near surface defect detection. Multiple process operations must be performed and controlled. Precleaning is critical as contaminants can mask defects. These characteristics make MPI one of the most widely utilized nondestructive testing methods. Post cleaning of acceptable parts or materials is required. and grit or vapor blasting must be removed prior to LPI. Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity. grinding.
nickel. cobalt. Basic Principles In theory. thus. The magnetic field spreads out when it encounter the small air gap created by the crack because the air cannot support as much magnetic field per unit volume as the magnet can. The magnetic field exits the north pole and reenters the at the south pole.MPI uses magnetic fields and small magnetic particles. such as iron filings to detect flaws in components. If the magnet is just cracked but not broken completely in two. automotive. Some examples of industries that use magnetic particle inspection are the structural steel. it is called a flux leakage field. Ferromagnetic materials are materials that can be magnetized to a level that will allow the inspection to be effective. and weldments. and aerospace industries. Many different industries use magnetic particle inspection for determining a component's fitnessforuse. Consider a bar magnet. Underwater inspection is another area where magnetic particle inspection may be used to test items such as offshore structures and underwater pipelines. When the field spreads out. A pole where a magnetic line of force exits the magnet is called a north pole and a pole where a line of force enters the magnet is called a south pole. Any place that a magnetic line of force exits or enters the magnet is called a pole. forgings. power generation. it appears to leak out of the material and. The only requirement is that the component being inspected must be made of a ferromagnetic material such iron. magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a relatively simple concept. It has a magnetic field in and around the magnet. The method is used to inspect a variety of product forms such as castings. a north and south pole will form at each edge of the crack. When a bar magnet is broken in the center of its length. or some of their alloys. 30 . two complete bar magnets with magnetic poles on each end of each piece will result. petrochemical.
In the early 1920’s. He noticed that the metallic grindings from hard steel parts. and Faraday discovered that all matter including liquids and gasses were affected by magnetism. Cannon barrels were checked for defects by magnetizing the barrel then sliding a magnetic compass along the barrel's length. The first step in a magnetic particle inspection is to magnetize the component that is to be inspected. If any defects on or near the surface are present. William Hoke realized that magnetic particles could be used with magnetism as a means of locating defects. are applied to the surface of the magnetized part.If iron particles are sprinkled on a cracked magnet. iron particles. After the component has been magnetized. This discovery was brought to his attention in the machine shop. The earliest known magnetic inspection an object took place as early as 1868. but only a few responded to a noticeable extent. Becquerel. thus forming a visible indication that the inspector can detect. which were being held by a magnetic chuck while being ground. the particles will be attracted to and cluster not only at the poles at the ends of the magnet but also at the poles at the edges of the crack. History of Magnetic Particle Inspection Magnetism is the ability of matter to attract other matter. Later on Bergmann. either in a dry or wet suspended form. This cluster of particles is much easier to see than the actual crack and this is the basis for magnetic particle inspection. The particles will be attracted and cluster at the flux leakage fields. formed patterns on the face of the parts 31 . These early inspectors were able to locate flaws in the barrels by monitoring the needle of the compass. Hoke discovered that a surface or subsurface flaw in a magnetized material caused the magnetic field to distort and extend beyond the part. The ancient Greeks were the first to discover this phenomenon in a mineral they named magnetite. the defects will create a leakage field.
The Source of Magnetism All matter is composed of atoms. Today. A magnetic field is produced whenever an electrical charge is in motion. For example. This change in energy can be detected and measured. the name dipole. This sectioning and creation of dipoles can continue to the atomic level.. many components of high performance race cars are inspected whenever the engine. A magnetic field can be measured leaving the dipole at the North Pole and returning the magnet at the South Pole. consider electric current flowing through a conductor. Therefore. If a magnet is cut in two. The term "magnetic field" simply describes a volume of space where there is a change in energy within that volume. Uses of magnets range from holding pictures on the refrigerator to causing torque in electric motors.the atom. Applying a fine ferromagnetic powder to the parts caused a build up of powder over flaws and formed a visible indication. and atoms are composed of protons.. The strength of this field is called the magnetic moment. Electrons carry a negative electrical charge and produce a magnetic field as they move through space. the MPI inspection method is used extensively to check for flaws in a large variety of manufactured materials and components. thus. The location where a magnetic field can be detected exiting or entering a material is called a magnetic pole. two magnets or dipoles are created out of one. the source of magnetism lies in the basic building block of all matter. A bar magnet can be considered a dipole with a north pole at one end and South Pole at the other. MPI is used to inspect some highly loaded components that have been inservice for a period of time. drive train and other systems are overhauled. MPI is also used to evaluate the integrity of structural welds on bridges. 32 . Critical automotive components are inspected for flaws after fabrication to ensure that defective parts are not placed into service. neutrons and electrons. The protons and neutrons are located in the atom's nucleus and the electrons are in constant motion around the nucleus. MPI is used to check materials such as steel bar stock for seams and other flaws prior to investing machining time during the manufacturing of a component. Magnetic poles have never been detected in isolation but always occur in pairs and.which corresponded to the cracks in the surface. When the electrons (electric current) are flowing through the conductor. a magnetic field forms around the conductor. Magnetism Magnets are very common items in the workplace and household. storage tanks. pipelines and other critical structures.
the domains become aligned to produce a strong magnetic field within the part.The magnetic field can be detected using a compass. there opposite spins cause their magnetic fields to cancel each other. In these domains. Diamagnetic. silver. not all materials react the same way. Magnetic Domains Ferromagnetic materials get their magnetic properties because the material is made up of small regions known as magnetic domains. all of the atomic dipoles are coupled together in a preferential direction. 12 15 large numbers of atoms moments (10 to 10 ) are aligned parallel so that the magnetic force within the domain is strong. are diamagnetic. This alignment develops as the material develops its crystalline structure during solidification from the molten state. electrons occur in pairs. However. lithium. Most elements in the periodic table. all materials are affected in some way by a magnetic field. Iron. nickel. Therefore. Each electron in a pair spins in the opposite direction. and cobalt are examples of ferromagnetic materials. and gold. 33 . the domains are nearly randomly organized and the net magnetic field for the part as a whole is zero. These materials are slightly attracted by a magnetic field and the material does not retain the magnetic properties when the external field is removed. The magnetic field will place a force on the compass needle. diamagnetic or paramagnetic. including copper. materials with some unpaired electrons will have a net magnetic field and will react more to an external field. and tantalum. Paramagnetic metals have a small and positive susceptibility to magnetic fields. Paramagnetic materials include magnesium. They get their strong magnetic properties due to the presence of magnetic domains. and Ferromagnetic Materials In most atoms. Since all matter is comprised of atoms. They exhibit a strong attraction to magnetic fields and are able to retain their magnetic properties after the external field has been removed. So when electrons are paired together. When a magnetizing force is applied. Most materials can be classified as ferromagnetic. Ferromagnetic materials have a large and positive susceptibility to an external magnetic field. no net magnetic field exists. Diamagnetic metals have a very weak and negative susceptibility to magnetic fields. In each domain. Diamagnetic materials are slightly repelled by a magnetic field and the material does not retain the magnetic properties when the external field is removed. When a ferromagnetic material is in the unmagnitized state. Alternately. molybdenum. Paramagnetic.
When all of the domains are aligned. Even though the domains are magnetically saturated. Some or all of the domains can become aligned. Their density decreases (they spread out) when they move from an area of higher permeability to an area of lower permeability. They never cross one another. Their density decreases with increasing distance from the poles. the stronger the magnetic field in the material. They are considered to have direction as if flowing. In a single bar magnet as shown to the right. The more domains are aligned. which include: · · · · · · They seek the path of least resistance between opposite magnetic poles. they attempt to form closed loop from pole to pole. They flow from the south pole to the north pole within the material and north pole to south pole in air. This can be done by placing the material in a strong external magnetic field or by passing electrical current through the material. They all have the same strength. the material is magnetically saturated and additional amount of external magnetization force will not cause any increase in its internal level of magnetization. Electromagnetic Fields 34 .During solidification a trillion or more atom moments are aligned parallel so that the magnetic force within the domain is strong in one direction. the bulk material may not show any signs of magnetism because the domains develop themselves are randomly oriented relative to each other. though no actual movement occurs. Unmagnetized Material Magnetized Material Magnetic Field Characteristics Magnetic lines of force have a number of important properties. Ferromagnetic materials become magnetized when the magnetic domains within the material are aligned.
In most conductors. A threedimensional representation of the magnetic field is shown above. The magnetic field is essentially uniform down the length of the coil when it is wound tighter. the fingers will circle the conductor in the direction of the magnetic field. The magnetic field circling each loop of wire combines with the fields from the other loops to produce a concentrated field down the center of the coil. It is called the righthand rule. Magnetic Field Produced by a Coil When a current carrying conductor is formed into a loop or several loops to form a coil. A loosely wound coil is illustrated below to show the interaction of the magnetic field. the magnetic field exists only as long as the current is flowing the direction of the magnetic field is dependent on the direction of the electrical current in the wire. There is a simple rule for remembering the direction of the magnetic field around a conductor. 35 . If a person grasps a conductor in ones right hand with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current. a magnetic field develops that flows through the center of the loop or coil along longitudinal axis and circles back around the outside of the loop or coil.
A long straight coil of wire is called a solenoid and can be used to generate a nearly uniform magnetic field similar to that of a bar magnet. The Hysteresis Loop and Magnetic Properties A great deal of information can be learned about the magnetic properties of a material by studying its hysteresis loop. A hysteresis loop shows the relationship between the induced magnetic flux density B and the magnetizing force H. An example hysteresis loop is shown below. It is often referred to as the BH loop. The concentrated magnetic field inside a coil is very useful in magnetizing ferromagnetic materials for inspection using the magnetic particle testing method. Please be aware that the field outside the coil is weak and is not suitable for magnetize ferromagnetic materials.The strength of a coil's magnetic field increases not only with increasing current but also with each loop that is added to the coil. 36 .
the curve moves to point "c". this is referred to as the point of retentivity on the graph and indicates the remanence or level of residual magnetism in the material. Reducing H to 37 . the greater the amount of current applied (H+). (Some of the magnetic domains remain aligned but some have lost there alignment." At this point. the material will again become magnetically saturated but in the opposite direction (point "d").Plotting the change in magnetic flux B induced a ferromagnetic material while the magnetizing force H is changed generates the hysteresis loop. (The reversed magnetizing force has flipped enough of the domains so that the net flux within the material is zero. The material has reached the point of magnetic saturation. At point "a" almost all of the magnetic domains are aligned and an additional increase in the magnetizing force will produce very little increase in magnetic flux. is called the coercive force or coercivity of the material.) As the magnetizing force is reversed. As the line demonstrates. the stronger the magnetic field in the component (B+). This is called the point of coercivity on the curve. As the magnetizing force is increased in the negative direction. the curve will move from point "a" to point "b. it can be seen that some magnetic flux remains in the material even though the magnetizing force is zero. When H is reduced back down to zero. A ferromagnetic material that has never been previously magnetized or has been thoroughly demagnetized will follow the dashed line as H is increased. where the flux has been reduced to zero.) The force required to remove the residual magnetism from the material.
However. The shape of the hysteresis loop tells a great deal about the material being magnetized." It will have a level of residual magnetism equal to that achieved in the other direction. the level of residual magnetism may be lower than the retentivity value when the magnetizing force did not reach the saturation level. The curve will take a different path from point "f" back the saturation point where it with complete the loop. The hysteresis curves of two different materials are shown in the graph. Reluctance is analogous to the resistance in an electrical circuit. it is a material's ability to retain a certain amount of residual magnetic field when the magnetizing force is removed after achieving saturation. Coercive Force The amount of reverse magnetic field which must be applied to a magnetic material to make the magnetic flux return to zero. (The value of B at point B on the hysteresis curve.) Residual Magnetism or Residual Flux the magnetic flux density that remains in a material when the magnetizing force is zero. From the hysteresis loop. Magnetic Field Orientation and Flaw Detectability To properly inspect a component for cracks or other defects. a number of primary magnetic properties of a material can be determined. Note that residual magnetism and retentivity are the same when the material has been magnetized to the saturation point. 38 . Reluctance Is the opposition that a ferromagnetic material shows to the establishment of a magnetic field. There are two general types of magnetic fields that can be established within a component. Increasing H back in the positive direction will return B to zero. Retentivity A measure of the residual flux density corresponding to the saturation induction of a magnetic material.zero brings the curve to point "e. it is important to understand that orientation between the magnetic lines of force and the flaw is very important. (The value of H at point C on the hysteresis curve.) Permeability A property of a material that describes the ease with which a magnetic flux is established in the component. Notice that the curve did not return to the origin of the graph because some force is required to remove the residual magnetism. In other words.
39 . A circular magnetic field has magnetic lines of force that run circumferentially around the perimeter of a part. A circular magnetic field is induced in an article by either passing current through the component or by passing current through a conductor surrounded by the component. if the magnetic field is parallel to the defect.A longitudinal magnetic field has magnetic lines of force that run parallel to the long axis of the part. To determine most of the defects. An orientation of 45 to 90 degrees between the magnetic field and the defect is necessary to form an indication. It can also be accomplished using permanent or electromagnets. Longitudinal magnetization of a component can be accomplished using the longitudinal field set up by a coil or solenoid. To magnetize the part in two directions is important because the best detection of defects occurs when the lines of magnetic force are established at right angles to the longest dimension of the defect. Since defects may occur in various directions. each part is normally magnetized in two directions at right angles to each other. the field will see little disruption and no flux leakage field will be produced.
Magnetizing Equipment for Magnetic Particle Inspection To properly inspect a part for cracks or other defects. Flaws that are normal (90 degrees) to the magnetic field will produce the strongest indications because they disrupt more of the magnet flux. Some equipment is designed to be portable so that inspections can be made in the field and some is designed to be stationary for ease of inspection in the laboratory or manufacturing facility.Demagnetization After conducting a magnetic particle inspection. A variety of equipment exist to establish the magnetic field for MPI. it is usually necessary to demagnetize the component Remanent magnetic fields can: · · · · Affect machining by causing cuttings to cling to a component. Arc blow may cause the weld arc to wonder or filler metal to be repelled from the weld. Cause abrasive particle to cling to bearing or faying surfaces and increase wear. Interfere with electronic equipment such as a compass. one of the primary requirements for detection of a defect in a ferromagnetic material is that the magnetic field induced in the part must intercept the defect at a 45 to 90 degrees angle. As discussed previously. Permanent magnets 40 . Create a condition known as "ark blow" in the welding process. it is important to become familiar with the different types of magnetic fields and the equipment used to generate them.
most of the equipment used to create the magnetic field used in MPI is based on electromagnetism. The two primary types of permanent magnets are bar magnets and horseshoe (yoke) magnets. However. This type of magnet generates a very strong magnetic field in a local area where the poles of magnet touch the part to be inspected. These industrial magnets are usually very strong and may require significant strength to remove them from a piece of metal. where electromagnets cannot be used.Permanent magnets are sometimes used for magnetic particle inspection as the source of magnetism. A switch is included in the electrical circuit so that the current and. and sometimes difficult and dangerous to place the magnets. therefore. their use is not particularly popular. Permanent magnets can also be made small enough to fit into tight areas where electromagnets might not fit Electromagnets Today. also the magnetic field can be turn on and off. Some permanent magnets require over 50 pounds of force to remove them from the surface. It is basically made by wrapping an electrical coil around a piece of soft ferromagnetic steel. An electromagnetic yoke is a very common piece of equipment that is used to establish a magnetic field. such as in an explosive environment. That is. Because it is difficult to remove the magnets from the component being inspected. a diver for inspection in an underwater environment or other areas sometimes uses permanent magnets. They can be powered with alternating current from a wall socket or by direct current from a battery pack. Some yokes can lift weights in excess of 40 pounds. 41 . using an electrical current to produce the magnetic field.
electrical arcing can occur and cause damage to the component. the use of prods are not allowed when inspecting aerospace and other critical components. 42 . For this reason. One of the prods has a trigger switch so that the current can be quickly and easily turned on and off. the prod tips should be inspected frequently to ensure that they are not oxidized.Portable yoke with battery pack Portable magnetic particle kit Prods Prods are handheld electrodes that are pressed against the surface of the component being inspected to make contact for passing electrical current through the metal. To help to prevent arcing. or damaged. Prods are typically made from copper and have an insulated handle to help protect the operator. Sometimes the the two prods are connected by any insulator as shown in the image to facilitate one hand operation. If proper contact is not maintained between the prods and the component surface. This is referred to as a dual prod and is commonly used for weld inspections. covered with scale or other contaminant. The current passing between the prods creates a circular magnetic field around the prods that is can be used in magnetic particle inspection.
When a preformed coil is used. Coils typically have three or five turns of a copper cable within the molded frame.Portable Coils and Conductive Cables Coils and conductive cables are used to establish a longitudinal magnetic field within a component. the component is placed against the inside surface on the coil. Portable coil Conductive Cable 43 . Conductive cables are wrapped around the component. The cable used is typically 00 extra flexible or 0000 extra flexible. The number of wraps is determined by the magnetizing force needed and. A foot switch is often used to energize the coil. of course. Normally the wraps are kept as close together as possible. When using a coil or cable wrapped into a coil. Ampereturns is the amperage shown on the amp meter times the number of turns in the coil. the length of the cable. amperage is usually expressed in ampereturns.
When current is passed through the central conductor. When an inspection is being performed using the visible color contrast particles. particles that fluoresce red. This "particle glow" provides high contrast indications on the component anywhere particles collect. A central conductor is an electrically conductive bar that is usually made of copper or aluminum. This type of a setup is used to inspect parts that are hollow such as gears. but a variety of light sources can be used. a circular magnetic field flows around the bar and enters into the part or parts being inspected. Fluorescence is defined as the property of emitting radiation as a result of and during exposure to radiation. However. and green colors are available. special ultraviolet light must be used. 44 . The bar is inserted through the center of the hollow part and the bar is then clamped between the contact pads. Particles used in fluorescent magnetic particle inspections are coated with a material that produces light in the visible spectrum when exposed to the nearultraviolet light. no special lighting is required as long as the area of inspection is well lit. yellow. A light intensity of at least 1000 lux (100 fc) is recommended when a visible particles are used. When fluorescent particles are used. Lights for Magnetic Particle Inspection Magnetic particle inspection can be performed using particles that are highly visible under white lighting conditions or particles that are highly visible under ultraviolet lighting conditions.central conductor. Particles that fluoresce yellowgreen are most common because this color matches the peak sensitivity of the human eye under dark conditions. and other ringshaped objects. tubes. blue.
000 Angstroms 2. and eye damage can occur. This wavelength of radiation is found in the arc created during the welding process. it should not be used because harmful effects such as skin burns. UVC (1.200 Angstroms 2. yellow (6220 A) and orange (6770 A) are also usually produced.000 Angstroms fall into the visible light spectrum and are seen as the color violet. Class UVA UVB UVC Wavelength Range 3.000 Angstroms The desired wavelength range for use in nondestructive testing is between 3. the particles that are used for magnetic particle inspection are a key ingredient as they form the indications that alert the inspector to defects.800–1. This wavelength range is used because it is in the UVA range. Particles start out as tiny milled (a machining process) pieces of iron or iron oxide. Magnetic Particles As mentioned previously.800 Angstroms with a peak wavelength at about 3. such as flaws.800) is even more dangerous to living cells and is used to kill bacteria in industrial and medical settings. Dry Magnetic Particles 45 . Wavelengths in the visible violet range (4050 A to 4350 A). and C. The metal used for the particles has high magnetic permeability and low retentivity. the more energy that is carried in the light and the more dangerous it is to the human cells.340 A are produced in low levels. The output of a UV bulb spans a wide range of wavelengths. B. It is a very energetic form of light that is invisible to the human eye.000 to 4. The desired wavelength range for use in NDT is obtained by filtering the ultraviolet light generated by the light bulb. The shorter the wavelength. UVB will do an effective job of causing substances to fluoresce. High magnetic permeability is important because it makes the particles attract easily to small magnetic leakage fields from discontinuities.120 A to 3.800–3.500 and 3.000 Angstroms (100 to 400 nm) wavelength range in the electromagnetic spectrum. A pigment (somewhat like paint) is bonded to their surfaces to give the particles color. UV is separated according to wavelength into three classes: A. Wavelengths above 4. The filter allows only radiation in the range of 3200 to 4000 angstroms and a little visible dark purple to pass. greenyellow (5460 A).650 A. Low retentivity is important because the particles themselves never become strongly magnetized so they do not stick to each other or the surface of the part. which is the safest to work with. Particles are available in a dry mix or a wet solution. A peak wavelength of 3650 A is produced at a very high intensity.200–4. however.Ultraviolet Light Ultraviolet light or "black light" is light in the 1. The short wave lengths of 3.000 to 2.
The mix of globular and elongated particles result in a dry powder that flows well and maintain good sensitivity. which make them more sensitive to the leakage fields from very small discontinuities. Most dry particle mixes have particle with L/D ratios between one and two. However. the application process would be less than desirable. dry testing particles cannot be made exclusively of the fine particles. reclaiming the dry particles is not recommended because the small particle are less likely to be recaptured and the "once used" mix will result in less sensitive inspections. yellow and several other colors so that a high level of contrast between the particles and the part being inspected can be achieved. Additionally. Coarser particles are needed to bridge large discontinuities and to reduce the powder's dusty nature. The wet magnetic particle testing method is generally more sensitive than the dry because the suspension provides the particles with more mobility and makes it possible for smaller particles to be used since dust and adherence to surface contamination is reduced or 46 . Long. Also. small particles easily adhere to surface contamination. slender particles tend align themselves along the lines of magnetic force. It should also be recognized that finer particles will be more easily blown away by the wind and. black. slender particles. globular particles are added that are shorter. Dry magnetic particle products are produced to include a range of particle sizes. Wet Magnetic Particles Magnetic particles are also supplied in a wet suspension such as water or oil. and get trapped in surface roughness features producing a high level of background. therefore. gray. The fine particles are around 50 m (0. The size of the magnetic particles is also very important. However.Dry magnetic particles can typically be purchased in red.002 inch) in size are about three times smaller in diameter and more than 20 times lighter than the coarse particles (150 m or 0. Elongated particles come from the dispenser in clumps and lack the ability to flow freely and form the desired "cloud" of particles floating on the component. Therefore. such as remanent dirt or moisture.006 inch). The particle shape is also important. windy conditions can reduce the sensitivity of an inspection. research has shown that if dry powder consists only of long.
Waterbased solutions are usually formulated with a corrosion inhibitor to offer some corrosion protection. This very small size is a result of the process used to form the particles and is not particularly desirable.0004 inch) and smaller and the synthetic iron oxides have particle diameters around 0. which are either black or brown in color. and are easier to clean from the part. The carrier solutions can be water or oilbased. Fluorescent particles are coated with pigments that fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light. due to their slight residual magnetism.) The particles used with the wet method are smaller in size than those used in the dry method for the reasons mentioned above. Most nonfluorescent particles are ferromagnetic iron oxides. Chapter IV 47 . as the particles are almost too fine to settle out of suspension. However. are generally less expensive. present little or no fire hazard. give off no petrochemical fumes.eliminated. see the penetrant inspection material. Waterbased carriers form quicker indications.1 m (0. Wet particles are also a mix of long slender and globular particles. The wet method also makes it easy to apply the particles uniformly to a relatively large area. Wet method magnetic particles products differ from dry powder products in a number of ways.000004 inch). Particles that fluoresce greenyellow are most common to take advantage of the peak color sensitivity of the eye but other fluorescent colors are also available. However. This makes it possible to see and measure the concentration of the particles for process control purposes. oilbased carrier solutions offer superior corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement protection to those materials that are prone to attack by these mechanisms. the oxide particles are present mostly in clusters that settle out of suspension much faster than the individual particles. (For more information on the color sensitivity of the eye. The particles are typically 10 m (0. One way is that both visible and fluorescent particle are available.
Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation. Initial pulse Probe Crack echo Back surface echo Plate 0 2 4 6 SCREEN Crack 8 10 Ultrasonic Inspection is a very useful and versatile NDT method for detecting both surface and subsurface volumetric defects and is widely used in pipeline. The reflected wave signal is transformed into electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen. part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface. or flaw detector screen 48 .Ultrasonic Testing Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path. material characterization. Oscilloscope. oil and gas and processing industry. and more. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves. dimensional measurements.
It is high accuracy in determining reflector position and estimating size and shape. which include: 49 . Detailed images can be produced with automated systems. Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Inspection As with all NDT methods.Sound Spectrum Audible range Ultrasonic testing range 16Hz 20 kHz 200 kHz 15 MHz 256 Hz 70 kHz 15 MHz Usual steel testing range Advantages of Ultrasonic Inspection Some of the advantages of ultrasonic inspection that are often cited include: · · · · · · · · It is sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities. Only singlesided access is needed when the pulseecho technique is used. The depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other NDT methods. ultrasonic inspection also has its limitations. in addition to flaw detection. It has other uses such as thickness measurements. Minimal part preparation required. Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results.
Materials that are rough. which is generally referred to as acoustics. surface waves. they are also called compressional waves.· · · · · · · Surface must be accessible to transmit ultrasound. Since compressional forces are active in these waves. In solids. The particle movement responsible for the propagation of longitudinal and shear waves is illustrated below. and characterization of flaws. Sound can propagate as longitudinal waves. Longitudinal and shear waves are the two modes of propagation most widely used in ultrasonic testing. All material substances are comprised of atoms. Compression waves can be 50 . which may be forced into vibrational motion about their equilibrium positions. sound waves can propagate in four principle modes that are based on the way the particles oscillate. Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam may go undetected. irregular in shape. Skill and training is more extensive than with some other methods. It normally requires a coupling medium to promote transfer of sound energy into test specimen. Cast iron and other coarse grained materials are difficult to inspect due to low sound transmission and high signal noise. shear waves. and in thin materials as plate waves. exceptionally thin or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect. very small. Reference standards are required for both equipment calibration. Properties of sound wave Wave Propagation Ultrasonic testing is based on timevarying deformations or vibrations in materials. Longitudinal waves: In longitudinal waves the oscillations occur in the longitudinal direction of the direction of wave propagation.
Lamb waves are a complex vibrational wave that travels through the entire thickness of a material. are not effectively propagated in materials such as liquids or gasses. and material properties of a component.generated in liquids. therefore. elastic. as well as solids because the energy travels through the atomic structure by a series of comparison and expansion (rarefaction) movements. Propagation of Lamb waves depends on density. 51 1 Second 1 Second . therefore can be used to inspect areas that other waves might have difficulty in reaching. and they are influenced by a great deal by selected frequency and material thickness. the particles oscillate at a right angle or transverse to the direction of propagation. The particle movement has an elliptical orbit. Lamb waves are the most commonly used plate waves in NDT. Transverse or shear wave: In the transverse or shear wave. Shear waves are relatively weak when compared to longitudinal waves Surface or Rayleigh waves : Surface or Rayleigh waves travel on the surface of a relative thick solid material penetrating to a depth of one wavelength. This relationship is shown by the following equation. Velocity: How quickly a sound wave will travel Frequency: How many vibrations per second Wave length: How far a sound wave will advance in completing one cycle The wavelength is directly proportional to the velocity of the wave and inversely proportional to the frequency of the wave. Raleigh waves are useful because they are very sensitive to surface defects and since they will follow the surface around curves. Plate waves: Plate waves can be propagated only in very thin metals. Shear waves require an acoustically solid material for effective propagation and.
A change in frequency will result in a change in wavelength. In ultrasonic testing, the shorter wavelength resulting from an increase in frequency will help in the detection of smaller discontinuities. Sensitivity: Sensitivity is the ability to locate small discontinuities. Sensitivity generally increases with higher frequency (shorter wavelengths). Resolution: Resolution is the ability of the system to locate discontinuities that are close together within the material or located near the part surface. Resolution also generally increases as the frequency increases. Velocity of sound traveling through materials: Velocity of sound varies with the material in which it is traveling. Material Compression Velocity m\sec Steel Water Air Copper 5960 1490 344 4700 Shear Velocity m\sec 3245 NA NA 2330
Attenuation of Sound Waves When sound travels through a medium, its intensity diminishes with distance. This weakening results from two basic causes, which are scattering and absorption. The combined effect of scattering and absorption is called attenuation.
Refraction and Snell's Law When an ultrasound wave passes through an interface between two materials, it produces both reflected and refracted waves. Refraction takes place at an interface due to the different velocities of the acoustic waves within the two materials. The velocity of sound in each material is determined by the material properties (elastic modules and density) for that material. Snell's Law describes the relationship between the angles and the velocities of the waves. Snell's law equates the ratio of material velocities v1 and v2 to the ratio of the sine's of incident ( ) and refraction ( ) angles, as shown in the following equation.
Where: VL1 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 1. VL2 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 2.
Ultrasonic Probes The conversion of electrical pulses to mechanical vibrations and the conversion of returned mechanical vibrations back into electrical energy is the basis for
ultrasonic testing. The active element is the Probe. It converts the electrical energy to acoustic energy, and vice versa. Characteristics of Probes The probe is a very important part of the ultrasonic instrumentation system. The probe converts electrical signals into mechanical vibrations (transmit mode) and mechanical vibrations into electrical signals (receive mode). Many factors, including material, mechanical and electrical construction, and the external mechanical and electrical load conditions, influence the behavior a transducer. Mechanical construction includes parameters such as radiation surface area, mechanical damping, housing, connector type
Types of Probes
Ultrasonic transducers are manufactured for a variety of application and can be custom fabricated when necessary. Careful attention must be paid to selecting the proper transducer for the application It is important to choose transducers that have the desired frequency, bandwidth, and focusing to optimize inspection capability. Most often the transducer is chosen either to enhance sensitivity or resolution of the system.
Transducers are classified into groups according to the application.
Contact transducers are used for direct contact inspections, and are generally hand manipulated. They have elements protected in a rugged casing to withstand sliding contact with a variety of materials. These transducers are designed so that they are easy to grip and move along a surface. They also often have replaceable wear plates to lengthen their useful life. Coupling materials of water, grease, oils, or commercial materials are used to remove the air gap between the transducer and the component inspected. Contact probes are classified as.
· · · ·
Single crystal probe Twin crystal probe Normal beam or zero degree probe Angle beam probe
and where near surface resolution is not critical. Single crystal probe normal probe: The flat contact transducer shown above is used normal beam inspections of relatively flat surfaces. Active elements can be chosen for their sending and receiving capabilities providing a transducer with a cleaner signal. such as inspection of course grain material. a shoe that matches the curvature of the part may need to be added to the face of the transducer. The two elements are angled towards each other to create a crossedbeam sound path in the test material.In the fixed angle versions.) Dual element transducers are very useful when making thickness measurements of thin materials and when inspecting for near surface defects. Twin crystal normal probe: contain two independently operating elements in a single housing. which is usually steel. Dual element transducers are especially well suited for making measurements in applications where reflectors are very near the transducer since this design eliminates the ring down effect that singleelement transducers experience. One of the elements transmits and the other receives. and transducers for special applications. They are also used to generate surface waves for use in detecting defects on the surface of a component.Contact transducers are available in a variety of configurations to improve their usefulness for a variety of applications. the angle of refraction that is marked on the transducer is only accurate for a particular material. the element can not start receiving reflected signals until the element has stopped ringing from it transmit function. The angled sound path allows the sound beam to be reflected from the back wall to improve detectability of flaws in and around welded areas. (When singleelement transducers are operating in pulse echo mode. If the surface is curved. 56 . Angle beam transducers: Angle beams are typically used to introduce a refracted shear wave into the test material.
Couplant is generally necessary because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and solids Calibration Blocks Standard blocks are used to calibrate the instrument and to calculate different features of probe and the instrument.Couplant A couplant is a material (usually liquid) that facilitates the transmission of ultrasonic energy from the transducer into the test specimen. 57 . These blocks consists accurately cut and fine polished surfaces. holes .angles etc.
is first used to locate any laminations in or near the heataffected zone. lack of sidewall fusion. and longitudinal or transverse cracks.Inspection of Welded Joints The most commonly occurring defects in welded joints are porosity. lack of interrun fusion. producing a longitudinal wave at normal incidence into the test piece. slag inclusions. lack of root penetration. This is important because an angle beam transducer may not be able to provide a return signal from a laminar flaw. 58 . Ultrasonic weld inspections are typically performed using a straight beam probe in conjunction with an angle beam probe A straight beam probe. undercutting.
Chapter VI RADIORGAPHIC TESTING 59 .
and velocity The Electromagnetic Spectrum 60 . Thicker and denser area will stop more of the radiation and show on the film lighter than thinner or less dense area. Most weld defects will show on the film darker than the surrounding area. The object will stop some of the radiation. are not influenced by electrical and magnetic fields and will always travel in straight lines. Xrays or gamma rays pass through the object. and radio wave. The object to be inspected is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. felt. microwaves.Introduction: In this method of Nondestructive testing the penetration property of Xray and Gamma rays to detect the discontinuities. but xrays and gamma rays cannot been seen. or heard. therefore. They possess no charge and no mass and. They are waveforms as are light rays. wavelength. Nature of Penetrating Radiation Xrays and gamma rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum. They can be characterized by frequency.
Gives a permanent record 2.The International System (SI) unit for activity is the Becquerel (Bq).Can check for correct assembly 61 .Can be used on most materials 5.Detects volumetric flaws readily 4. w Wavelengths of Electro Magnetic Spectrum Electro Magnetic Radiation Type Wave length in nm Visible Light Ultraviolet light X-Rays Gamma -Rays 700-400 400-100 1 nm =109 Meters Advantage of Radiography 1.Detects internal Flaws 3.
They may be scattered 10.They have no effect on the human senses 2.They ionize gases 9. diffracted and polarized Xray Tube High Electrical Potential Electrons + Xray Generator or Radioactive Source Creates Radiation 62 Exposure Recording Device Radiation Penetrate the Sample .Real time Image is possible Disadvantages of Radiography 1Radiation Health 2Can be sensitive to defect orientation and could miss planar flaws 3Has limited ability to detect fine cracks 4Access is required to both sides of the object 5Limited thickness of the material can be penetrated 6Skilled radiographic interpretation is required 7Require high capital cost 8Relatively slow process 9Require high capital cost 10Require high running cost Properties of Xrays and gamma rays 1.They move in straight line 5.Gives direct Images 7.They may be refracted.They are part of electromagnetic spectrum 6.They travel at the speed of light 7.They penetrate matter 4.They have adverse effect on the body tissues and blood 3.They obey the inverse square law 8.They make certain materials fluoresce 11.6.
iridium (Ir192). Focal spot size should be big to absorb more heat but to produce good quality radiograph this size should be the smallest 7.More voltage generates the shorter wave length or quality of x rays more penetrating power 11. Potential difference of around 300 kv is used 2. More time more radiation more exposure 9. The most useful gammaemitting radioactive isotopes for radiological purposes are found to be cobalt (Co60).Increase in voltage increases the speed of the electrons. Area of the target struck by the electrons is called as focal spot 6.cesium (Cs137). 612 Amp are usually used 10. air or water is also used 4 Target is made up of tungsten 5. Anode is made up of cupper to carry out the heat. Amperage control and Voltage control 8. therefore high kinetic energy and high penetration Gammarays: Gammarays are electromagnetic radiation emitted by the disintegration of a radioactive isotope and have energy from about 100 keV to well over 1 MeV. and thulium (Tm170).ytterbium (Yb169). Approximately around 97 99% heat & 13 % of x rays are generated 3. Amperage controls the intensity or quality of Xray.Properties of Xrays 1. Important control points of the xray machine are timer. 63 . Additional cooling using oil.
cylindrical or spherical shape 6The discs: 3.6 – 3.Properties of Gammarays 1.The mass number of Radio active Isotope will be different from same element 4.Gamma rays are emitted from artificial radio active isotope 2. stacked together 7Cylindrical: Typically upto 4 mm in length 8Spherical: 0.0 mm diameter and 1 mm thick.The radio active isotope disintegrate continuously releasing electromagnetic energy (gamma rays) 5Gamma ray sources are usually disc.0 mm diameter 9Sources are encapsulated in the capsules of 316 \ S12 grade Stainless steel Isotope Decay Rate (Decay of the Gamma Source) Loss of activity of a radioactive nuclease due to Disintegration Half Life of Gamma source: Time taken for a radio active Isotope to reduce its out put by half Source 60Cobalt 192Iridium Ytterbium 169 Halflife 26 Years 74 days 31 days Penetration range steel 75 150 mm 20 – 45 mm 64 115 mm .Radio active isotope is an unstable state of element which has different number of neutrons to the normal state of the same element 3.
Remote handling is necessary Radiographic Techniques 1) 2) 3) 4) SWSI : ( Film Inside Source Outside ) SWSI : ( Film Outside Source Inside ) DWSI : ( Film Outside Source Outside ) DWDI : (Film Outside Source Outside 65 .Places inaccessible to xray equipment are accessible to gamma equipment 5.Sources need replacing at regular intervals 4.No electrical or water supply are needed 2.Advantages of Gamma rays over Xrays 1.Because of high energy there is less scatter 6.Due to the higher energy. poorer contrast and definition 2.Gamma equipment is less expensive than xray equipment 7.Gamma equipment is usually smaller and lighter and therefore more portable 3.Exposure times are longer 3.The equipment is more simple 4.SFD is shorter. resulting in poorer geometric unsharpness 6.The radiation cannot be switched off 5.Greater penetrating power than xrays Disadvantages of gamma rays over xrays 1.
In other words. Radiographic contrast has two main contributors: subject contrast and detector or film contrast. the more visible features become. The contrast between different parts of the image is what forms the image and the greater the contrast. Subject contrast is determined by the following variables: Absorption differences in the specimen Wavelength of the primary radiation Scatter or secondary radiation Film contrast is determined by the following: Grain size or type of film Chemistry of film processing chemicals Concentrations of film processing chemicals Time of development Temperature of development Degree of mechanical agitation (physical motion) Exposing the film to produce higher film densities will generally increase contrast.Radiographic Contrast Radiographic contrast describes the differences in photographic density in a radiograph. Reasons for low contrast Radiation wave length too short Over exposure Prolonged development Too cold developer 66 . darker areas will increase in density faster than lighter areas because in any given period of time more xrays are reaching the darker areas.
the specimen and detector should be as close together as possible. which is the distance between the specimen and the detector. Radiographic Density 67 . These geometric factors include: Focal spot size. which is the distance from the source to the part. Specimen to detector (film) distance. Source to film distance. For optimal definition. Also. increased development of the film will increase the apparent graininess of the radiograph. and screen mottling will decrease definition. Abrupt changes in specimen thickness may cause distortion on the radiograph. Definition increases as the source to film distance increase. . Film graininess.The focal spot size should be as close to a point source as possible to produce the most definition. The grain size of the film will affect the definition of the radiograph. As the wavelength shortens and penetration increases. There are a number of geometric factors of the Xray equipment and the radiographic setup that have an effect on definition. Wavelength of the radiation will influence apparent graininess. which is the area of origin of the radiation. Movement of the specimen during the exposure will produce distortion on the radiograph. the apparent graininess of the film will increase.Insufficient fixing Fog on the film Reasons for High contrast Radiation wave length too long Incorrect developer Under exposure Definition Radiographic definition is the abruptness of change in going from one density to another.
Sensitivity is measured by using Image Quality Indicators ( IQI ). Sensitivity depends on Radiographic contrast and Density. IQIs comes in a variety of material 68 .Radiographs with very low density and with very high density are not acceptable. Density is measured by a densitometer. A density reading of 2. Over exposure to Radiation • Excessive development time • Development temperature too high • Incorrect Developer sensitivity The ability of the radiographic technique to detect the smallest possible defect. A high density area absorbs more light than the low density area Density is the log of the intensity of light incident on the film to the intensity of light transmitted through the film. consistency and quality could not be maintained and defects could go undetected. Without such a reference point.also called as Penetrameters.5. Controlling Radiographic Quality One of the methods of controlling the quality of a radiograph is through the use of image quality indicators (IQI).5 and 2. Image quality indicators take many shapes and forms due to the various codes or standards that invoke their use. or holetype and the wire IQI.0 is the result of only 1 percent of the transmitted light reaching the sensor. In the United States two IQI styles are prevalent; the placard. Reasons for low density • Under exposure to radiation • Insufficient development time • Development temperature too low • Incorrect developer Reasons for Excessive density .High density area is a dark area and low density area is a light area. The IQI indicates that a specified amount of material thickness change will be detectable in the radiograph. and that the radiograph has a certain level of definition so that the density changes are not lost due to unsharpness.Degree of blackening of a radiograph. IQIs provide a means of visually informing the film interpreter of the contrast sensitivity and definition of the radiograph. Density required in the area of interest should be between 1.
69 . Image quality levels are typically designated using a two part expression such as 22T. Discontinues within the part may contain gradual changes. Therefore. The holes in the penetrameter represent sharp boundaries. The penetrameter is used to indicate quality of the radiographic technique and not intended to be used as a measure of size of cavity that can be located on the radiograph. and a small thickness change. A notching system is incorporated into the requirements allowing the radiographer to easily determine if the penetrameter is the correct material type for the product.375 inch wide depending on the thickness of the shim. This presentation of a 22T IQI in the radiograph verifies that the radiographic technique is capable of showing a material loss of 2% in the area of interest.types so that one with radiation absorption characteristics similar to the material being radiographed can be used. E1025 designates eight groups of shims based on their radiation absorption characteristics. The thickness in thousands of an inch is noted on each pentameter by a lead number 0. a defect of the same diameter and material loss may not be visible. It should be noted that even if 22T sensitivity is indicated on a radiograph. and are often less visible. a 22T callout would mean that the shim thickness should be two percent of material thickness and that a hole that is twice the IQI thickness must be detectable on the radiograph. HoleType IQIs ASTM Standard E1025 gives detailed requirements for the design and material group classification of holetype image quality indicators. The second term in the expression refers to the diameter of the hole that must be revealed and it is expressed as a multiple of the IQI thickness.250 to 0. The first term refers to the IQI thickness expressed as a percentage of the region of interest of the part being inspected. Military or Government standards require a similar penetrameter but use lead letters to indicate the material type rather than notching system as shown on the left in the image above.
Wire IQIs consist of a set of six wires arranged in order of increasing diameter and encapsulated between two sheets of clear plastic. When a block is used. The same image quality levels and expressions (i.WireType IQIs ASTM Standard E747 covers the radiographic examination of materials using wire penetrameters (IQIs) to control image quality. The IQI should also be placed slightly away from the edge of the part so that atleast three of its edges are visible in the radiograph. B. The number in the lower left corner indicates the material group. Often secondary radiation is thought of as radiation striking the film 70 .79 (constant form factor forwire) Placement of IQIs IQIs should be placed on the source side of the part over a section with a material thickness equivalent to the region of interest. The scattered radiation create a loss of contrast and definition. If this is not possible. 22T) used for holetype IQIs are typically also used for wire IQIs. The wire sizes that correspond to various hole type quality levels can be found in a table in E747 F = 0. the IQI may be placed on a block of similar material and thickness to the region of interest. E747 specifies four wire IQIs sets. Secondary (Scatter) Radiation Secondary or scatter radiation must often be taken into consideration when producing a radiograph. The set letter (A. which control the wire diameters.e. the IQI should the same distance from the film as it would be if placed directly on the part in the region of interest. C or D) is shown in the lower right corner of the IQI.
such as a wall.004 to 0. or from the table or floor where the part is resting. Lead screens in the thickness range of 0. Undercut Another condition that must often be controlled when producing a radiograph is called undercut.015 inch typically reduce scatter radiation at energy levels below 150. or placing a collimator at the exit port thus reducing the diverging radiation surrounding the central beam. 000 volts. Side scatter originates from walls. It is a common practice in industry to place 0.reflected from an object in the immediate area. moving the xray tube to the center of the vault. It is often called backscatter when it comes from objects behind the film. Control of back scatter radiation is achieved by backing the film in the cassette with sheets of lead typically 0. Above this point they will emit electrons to provide more exposure of the film to ionizing radiation thus increasing the density of the radiograph. Parts with holes.005 lead screen in front and 0. If the letter "B" shows as a "ghost" image on the film the letter has absorbed the back scatter radiation indicating a significant amount of radiation reaching the film. or abrupt thickness changes are 71 . or objects on the source side of the film.010 backing the film. Control of side scatter can be achieved by moving objects in the room away from the film. Industry codes and standards often require that a lead letter "B" be placed on the back of the cassette to verify the control of back scatter.010 inch thick. hollow areas.
Radiographic Film 72 . filters consist of material placed in the useful beam to absorb. the intensity of the radiation reaching the film is much greater than in the thicker areas of the part.likely to suffer from undercut if controls are not put in place. Undercut appears as lightening of the radiograph in the area of the thickness transition. Undercut occurs due to scattering within the film. The high level of radiation intensity reaching the film results in a high level of scattering within the film. Filters in Radiography At xray energies. The use of filters produce a cleaner image by absorbing the lower energy xray photons that tend to scatter more. Scattering from within the walls of the part also contributed some to undercut but research has shown that scattering within the film is the primary cause. Filtration is required to absorb the lowerenergy xray photons emitted by the tube before they reach the target. It should also be noted that the faster the film speed. the more undercut that is likely to occur. radiations based on energy level or to modify the spatial distribution of the beam. Masks are used to control undercut. Sheets of lead cut to fill holes or surround the part and metallic shot and liquid absorbers are often used as masks. This results in a loss of resolution or blurring at the transition area. preferentially. At the edges of a part or areas where the part transitions from thick to thin.
0005 inch thick. excellent radiographs require the highest possible degree of consistency and quality control. temperature. and physical movement. Film Processing Processing film is a strict science governed by rigid rules of chemical concentration. 73 . 3.Xray films for general radiography consist of an emulsiongelatin containing a radiation sensitive silver halide and a flexible. 4. the type of radiation used. Whether processing is done by hand or automatically by machine. The emulsion layers are thin enough so developing. time. whether xrays from an xray generator or gamma rays from a radioactive source. Listed below are some of the factors that must be considered when selected a film and developing a radiographic technique. the composition. Putting emulsion on both sides of the base doubles the amount of radiationsensitive silver halide. its weight and location. fixing. 1. transparent. Film Selection The selection of a film when radiographing any particular component depends on a number of different factors. bluetinted base. and size of the part being examined and. in some cases. the emulsion is coated on both sides of the base in layers about 0. 2. Usually. the kilovoltages available with the xray equipment or the intensity of the gamma radiation. and thus increases the film speed. shape. and drying can be accomplished in a reasonable time. the relative importance of high radiographic detail or quick and economical results.
the viewing equipment and area should be considered. Thus protecting the film from any water or chemicals that may be located on the surface of the wet side. but subdued lighting. An area dry and free of dust and dirt should be used to load and unload the film. Viewing Radiographs Radiographs (developed film exposed to xray or gamma radiation) are generally viewed on a lightbox.Film viewers should provide a source of defused. will be used to process the film.01 percent of the incident light to pass. Proper viewing conditions are very important when interpreting a radiograph. While another area. wash out residual processing chemicals. and relativity cool light as heat from viewers can cause distortion of the radiograph. masking aids. A film having a measured density of 2. Next.0 will allow only 1. The brightness of the surroundings should be about the same as the area of interest in the radiograph. Thin cotton gloves should be available and worn to prevent fingerprints on the radiograph. adjustable. It should also be verified that the proper image quality indicator was used and that the required sensitivity level was met.0 percent of the incident light to pass. and to provide adequate shelf life of the radiograph. A film containing a density of 4. The area should be clean and free of distracting materials. and film markers should be close at hand.A radiograph may be retrieved after 5 or even 20 years in storage. Magnifying aids. Room illumination must be arranged so that there are no reflections from the surface of the film under examination.0 will allow only 0. is preferable in the viewing room. Ambient light levels of less than 2 fc are often recommended.Manual Processing & Darkrooms Manual processing begins with the darkroom. should first be determined. the 74 . Film viewers should be clean and in good working condition. It should be verified that the radiograph was produced to the correct density on the required film type. The viewing conditions can enhance or degrade the subtle details of radiographs. as required by the procedure. Before beginning the evaluation of a radiograph. Ambient light levels should be low. the wet side. Radiographic film quality and acceptability. and that it contains the correct identification information. Each of step in film processing must be excited properly to develop the image. rather than total darkness. With such low levels of light passing through the radiograph the delivery of a good light source is important.
Viewing the actual component being inspected is very often helpful in developing an understanding of the details seen in a radiograph. When viewing a particular region of interest. the interpreter will increase his or her probability of detecting defects. One part of the interpretation process. sometimes overlooked. an understanding of applied loads and history of the component is helpful. visual acuity with knowledge of materials. or changing the intensity of the light source will help the radiographer identify relevant indications. Interpretation of radiographs is an acquired skill that is perfected over time. left to right top to bottom etc. techniques such as using a small light source and moving the radiograph over the small light source. The mind as well as the eyes needs to occasionally rest when interpreting radiographs. is rest. is helpful and will prevent overlooking an area on the radiograph. and their associated discontinues. If the component is inspected while in service. Radiographic film interpretation is an acquired skill combining. Spurious Indications on the films or ( Artefacts ) Spurious Indications are caused by incorrect processing or careless handling of the film The common artefacts are 1 Radiation Fogging: This occurs when the film is stored too close to a source of radiation or when the film is accidentally left in the exposure area during the exposure of another film 2 Light Fog: Due to the storage of the film in a faulty storage storage box where white light is leaks into the film OR due to the wrong type of safe light in the dark room 75 . manufacturing processes..radiograph should be checked to ensure that it does not contain processing and handling artifacts that could mask discontinuities or other details of interest. A process for viewing radiographs. Magnifying tools should also be used when appropriate to help identify and evaluate indications. Once a radiograph passes these initial checks it is ready for interpretation. By using the proper equipment and developing consistent evaluation processes.
Chapter VII Eddy Current Testing Introduction 76 .3 Pressure Markings: Due to careless handling of the film during loading and unloading of the film 4 Static Marks:This has the appearance of the dark branched and jagged fine lines. It is due to rapid removal of the film from the wrapper 5 Scratch Marks: Usually caused by a finger nail or abrasive material on the screens or during handling 6 High or Low Density Marks: Caused when handling the films with greasy or chemically – stained fingers 7 Low density Patches or smears : Due to splashes of water or fixing solution on the film 8 High density Patches or smears : Due to splashes of Developer on the film 9 Film Mottle: Due to the use of old films 10 Light Spots: Caused by dust particles between the film and the intensifying Screen 11 Screen Marks: Due to contamination of the intensifying screens with chemicals OR due to the defects on the screen such as cracking or buckling 12Air bells: These are shown discs of lower density caused by air traped on the surface of the emulsion. due to insufficient agitation 13 Patches or Streaks: Due to insufficient agitation during developer or in the rinse bath 14 Reticulation:This is the appearance of leather grain and due to rupture of the emulsion caused by great differences between succesive processing solutions 15 Drying Marks: Due to drops of water remaining on the surface of the film. often occur due to rapid drying the film in the high temperature cabinet.
Cracks and other surface conditions modify the eddy currents generated in the conductor and give rise to a local brief change in the impedance.A discontinuity parallel to the eddy current can be missed by this method Basic Principle Coil's Coil magnetic field Eddy current's magnetic field Eddy currents Conductive Material Eddy current testing method can be successfully used to detects surface breaking and near surface discontinuities such as · Cracks 77 .A varying electric current flowing in a coil gives rise to a varying magnetic field. Eddy currents always flow parallel to the plane of the winding of the test coil producing them . A nearby conductor resists this magnetic field and this produces an eddy current flowing in the surface layer of the conductor and flowing in the direction opposite to the current in the coil. This change is accurately monitored. It is this impedance change that is to be detected with a high degree of accuracy by the measuring equipment. An induced eddy current in a conductor produces a magnetic field that opposes the magnetic field produced by the coil. resulting in a change of impedance.
· · · · Inclusions Dents Holes Scratches Eddy current testing method can also identify the material properties such as · Alloy composition · Heat treatment · Hardness · Grain size · Magnetic Permeability Eddy current testing method can also be used to monitor the surface condition such as · Surface coating · Corrosion · Specimen Temperature Eddy Current Testing Depends on · Electrical conductivity of the material 78 .
· · · · · · · Nature of discontinuities in the material Magnetic permeability of the material Dimensions and shape of the specimen Current frequency Coil size Number of turns in the coil Metal condition Advantages of Eddy Current Testing Method · · · · · · · Instantaneous results Sensitive to a range of physical properties Firm contact between inspection coil and specimen not required Equipment is small and selfcontained Can detect very small discontinuities Defects in tubes and other circular parts can be detected using special probes Internal surface of cylinders can be using special probes Disadvantages of Eddy Current Testing Method · · · · · This method can be used on electrical conductors only Depth of penetration is restricted Interpretation needs skill Defects parallel to coil surface can be missed Ends of the parts can not be tested 79 .
RT RT if weld root is not visible UT. MPI. Underflush Root concavity Convexity UT & RT for deep defects MPI for near surface defects RT.RT VT. PT PT is most sensitive RT. MPI. DPI & RT&PT for all metals ET MPI for Ferrous Metals ET for conductive materials UT if the rear side of the weld is not visible RT & UT RT is sensitive for vertical or inclined defects UT is sensitive for horizontal or inclined defects UT UT is very sensitive VT.RT RT if other side is not visible VT. if not visible VT.RT RT gives clear image VT. MPI.UT RT is most sensitive VT. MPI & Eddy Current Comments PT for all metals MPI for Ferrous Metals ET for conductive materials UT.RT RT if weld face is not visible VT. RT & MPI (i) Lack of sidewall fusion ( ii ) Lack of inter run fusion Laminations Surface Porosity Internal Porosity Undercut Mismatch Inadequate weld reinforcement BurnThrough Whiskers Underfill.UT.RT RT for root undercut.UT.Chapter VIII Selection of NDT Methods Defect to be detected Surface Cracks ( i ) Grinding cracks ( ii ) Heat treat cracks ( iii ) Solidification Cracks ( iv ) Crater Cracks ( v ) Cold Cracks Inclusions Lack of penetration Lack of root fusion Concavity Most Suitable Method PT.RT VT VT & RT are better RT if weld root is not visible Welder Gauge is used to measure 80 . PT.
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