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Table of Contents
Chapter No: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Name of the Chapter Page No 1 2 3 11 12 20 21 30 31 – 48 49 60 61 77 78 80 81
Course daily schedule Course Contents Introduction NDT processes & their Uses Identification of weld Discontinuities Penetrant Testing Magnetic Particle Testing Ultrasonic Testing Radiographic Testing Eddy Current Testing Comparison and Selection of NDT Methods
Nondestructive Testing The field of Nondestructive Testing (NDT) is a very broad, that plays a critical role in assuring that structural components and systems perform their function in a reliable and cost effective fashion. NDT technicians and engineers define and implement tests that locate and characterize material conditions and flaws that might otherwise cause serious accidents such as, planes to crash, reactors to fail, trains to derail, pipelines to burst, and a variety of troubling events. These tests are performed in a manner that does not affect the future usefulness of the object or material. In other words, NDT allows parts and materials to be inspected and evaluated without damaging them. Because it allows inspection without interfering with a product's final use, NDT provides an excellent balance between quality control and costeffectiveness. Nondestructive Evaluation Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is a term that is often used interchangeably with NDT. However, technically, NDE is used to describe measurements that are more quantitative in nature. For example, a NDE method would not only locate a defect, but it would also be used to measure something about that defect such as its size, shape, and orientation. NDE may be used to determine material properties such as fracture toughness, ductility, conductivity and other physical characteristics. Uses of NDE · · · · · · · Flaw Detection and Evaluation Leak Detection, Location Determination Dimensional Measurements Structure and Microstructure Characterization Estimation of Mechanical and Physical Properties Stress (Strain) and Dynamic Response Measurements Material Sorting and Chemical Composition Determination
Background on Nondestructive Testing (NDT) Nondestructive testing has been practiced for many decades. One of the earliest applications was the detection of surface cracks in railcar wheels and axles. The parts were dipped in oil, then cleaned and dusted with a powder. When a crack was present, the oil would seep from the defect and wet the oil providing visual indication indicating that the component was flawed. This eventually led to oils that were specifically formulated for performing these and other inspections and these inspection techniques are now called penetrant testing. Xrays were discovered in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen (18451923) who was a Professor at Wuerzburg University in Germany. Soon after his discovery, Roentgen produced the first industrial radiograph when he imaged a set of weights in a box to show his colleagues. Other electronic inspection techniques such as ultrasonic and eddy current testing started with the initial rapid developments in instrumentation spurred by technological advances and subsequent defense and space efforts following World War II. In the early days, the primary purpose was the detection of defects. Critical parts were produced with a "safe life" design, and were intended to be defect free during their useful life. The detection of defects was automatically a cause for removal of the component from service. The continued improvement of inspection technology, in particular the ability to detect smaller and smaller flaws, led to more and more parts being rejected. At this time the discipline of fracture mechanics emerged, which enabled one to predict whether a crack of a given size would fail under a particular load if a particular material property or fracture toughness, were known. Other laws were developed to predict the rate of growth of cracks under cyclic loading (fatigue). With the advent of these tools, it became possible to accept structures containing defects if the sizes of those defects were known. This formed the basis for a new design philosophy called "damage tolerant designs." Components having known defects could continue to be used as long as it could be established that those defects would not grow to a critical size that would result in catastrophic failure. A new challenge was thus presented to the nondestructive testing community. Mere detection of flaws was not enough. One needed to also obtain quantitative information about flaw size to serve as an input to fracture mechanics calculations to predict the remaining life of a component. These needs, led to the creation of a number of research programs around the world and the emergence of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) as a new discipline.
NDT/NDE Methods The list of NDT methods that can be used to inspect components and make measurements is large and continues to grow. Researchers continue to find new ways of applying physics and other scientific disciplines to develop better NDT methods. However, there are six NDT methods that are used most often. These methods are Visual Inspection, Penetrant Testing, Magnetic Particle Testing, Electromagnetic or Eddy Current Testing, Radiography, and Ultrasonic Testing. Visual and Optical Testing (VT) Visual inspection involves using an inspector's eyes to look for defects. The inspector may also use special tools such as magnifying glasses, mirrors, or borescopes to gain access and more closely inspect the subject area. Visual examiners follow procedures that range fm simple to very complex.
Penetrant Testing (PT) Test objects are coated with visible or fluorescent dye solution. Excess dye is then removed from the surface, and a developer is applied. The developer acts as blotter, drawing trapped penetrant out of imperfections open to the surface. With visible dyes, vivid color contrasts between the penetrant and developer make "bleedout" easy to see. With fluorescent dyes, ultraviolet light is used to make the bleedout fluoresce brightly, thus allowing imperfections to be readily seen.
Surface and nearsurface imperfections distort the magnetic field and concentrate iron particles near imperfections. dimensional changes. Interruptions in the flow of eddy currents. Electromagnetic Testing (ET) or Eddy Current Testing Electrical currents are generated in a conductive material by an induced alternating magnetic field This electrical currents is called eddy currents because they flow in circles at and just below the surface of the material. or changes in the material's conductive and permeability properties. caused by imperfections. 5 . are detected.Magnetic Particle Testing (MT) This method is accomplished by inducing a magnetic field in a ferromagnetic material and then dusting the surface with iron particles (either dry or suspended in liquid). previewing a visual indication of the flaw.
Possible imperfections are indicated as density changes on the film in the same manner as a medical Xray shows broken bones. An Xray generator or radioactive isotope is used as a source of radiation.Radiography (RT) Radiography involves the use of penetrating gamma or Xradiation to examine parts and products for imperfections. Screen 1 0 6 Plate . The most commonly used ultrasonic testing technique is pulse echo. The resulting radiograph shows the dimensional features of the part. Radiation is directed through a part and onto film or other imaging media. Source Rays Object with defect Film Xray film Defect Image Film with image Ultrasonic Testing (UT) Ultrasonics use transmission of highfrequency sound waves into a material to detect imperfections or to locate changes in material properties. wherein sound is introduced into a test object and reflections (echoes) are returned to a receiver from internal imperfections or from the part's geometrical surfaces Initial pulse Back surface echo Crack echo Probe Couplant Sound waves crack 0 2 4 6 8 .
and/or a simple soapbubble test. Leaks can be detected by using electronic listening devices. Leak Testing (LT) Several techniques are used to detect and locate leaks in pressure containment parts. Emission sources can be evaluated through the study of their intensity. liquid and gas penetrant techniques. acoustic emissions can be detected by special receivers. pressure vessels.Acoustic Emission Testing (AE) When a solid material is stressed. and structures. imperfections within the material emit short bursts of acoustic energy called "emissions. 7 . rate. and location." As in ultrasonic testing. pressure gauge measurements.
grade sorting High to medium Defects only High Thickness Thickness gauging. gauging composition testing Defects only 8 .The Relative Uses and Merits of Various NDT Methods Test Method Capital cost UT Medium to high Xray High Eddy Current Low to medium Low MPI Medium LPT Low Consumable Very low cost Time of results Effect of geometry Access problems Type of defect Immediate High Medium Medium Delayed Immediate Short delay Not too Important Important Short delay Not too Important Important Important Important Important Important Important Important Internal Most External External Near Surface Low Surface breaking Relative sensitivity Operator skill Operator training Training needs High Medium High Low High High Medium Low Low Important Important Important Important Not Important Low High High Medium Low Portability of High equipment Capabilities Low High to medium Thickness gauging.
Should always be the primary method of inspection. porosity. underwelding. Is the necessary function of everyone who in any way contributes to the making of the weld. overwelding. incomplete root penetration. Useful in qualification of welders and welding processes. Interior macroscopic flaws cracks. Film and processing facilities. its use should be limited to those areas where other methods will not provide the assurance required. Xray inspection is required by many codes and specifications. a low cost method of internal inspection Requires skill in choosing angles of exposure. gives a permanent record. When viewed on a fluoroscopic screen. improper fitup Low cost. Is the only "productive" type of inspection. porosity. Provides no permanent record. operating equipment. slag inclusions Warpage. Applicable to surface defects only. Can be applied while work is in process. undercutting. unfilled craters. misalignments. Because of cost. and burnthrough. Radiographic Commercial Xray or gamma units made especially for inspecting welds. and interpreting indications. permitting correction of faults. nonmetallic inclusions.Table 1 Reference Guide to Major Methods for the Nondestructive Examination of Welds Inspection Method Visual Equipment Enables Advantages Limitations Remarks Required Detectiort of Magnifying glass Weld sizing gauge Pocket rule Straight edge Workmanship standards Surface flaws cracks. blow holes. Not generally suitable for fillet weld inspection. poorly formed beads. icicles. castings and forgings. 9 . no matter what other techniques are required. When the indications are recorded on film. Gives indication of incorrect procedures. Requires safety precautions. Fluoroscopic viewing equipment.
Very sensitive. Relatively lowcost method. Ultrasonic Special commercial equipment. Excellent for detecting surface discontinuities especially surface cracks. Difficult to use on rough surfaces. Elongated defects parallel to the magnetic field may not give pattern; for this reason the field should be applied from two directions at or near right angles to each other. Applicable to ferromagnetic materials only. Simpler to use than radiographic inspection.Magnetic Special Particle commercial equipment. Especially for detecting subsurface laminationlike defects. Surface cracks not readily visible to the unaided eye. Pulseecho equipment is highly developed for weld inspection purposes. Surface and subsurface flaws including those too small to be detected by other methods. Commercial Liquid Penetrant kits containing fluorescent or dye penetrants and developers. Magnetic powders dry or wet form; may be fluorescent for viewing under ultraviolet light. Requires skill in interpretation of indications and recognition of irrelevant patterns. The transmission type equipment simplifies pattern interpretation where it is applicable. Excellent for locating leaks in weldments. irrelevant surface conditions (smoke. Applicable to magnetic and nonmagnetic materials. Permits controlled sensitivity. Low cost. Easy to use. 10 . Permits probing of joints inaccessible to radiography. Only surface defects are detectable. Permanent record is not readily obtained. A source of ultraviolet light if fluorescent method is used. slag) may give misleading indications. Cannot be used effectively on hot assemblies. In thinwalled vessels will reveal leaks not ordinarily located by usual air tests. Application equipment for the developer. Requires high degree of skill in interpreting pulseecho patterns. either of the pulseecho or transmission type. Standard reference patterns for interpretation of RF or video patterns.
Cracks: Crack is tight linear separations of metal that can be very short to very long indications.Chapter II IDENTIFICATION OF WELD DISCONTINUITIES Discontinuities are interruptions in the typical structure of a material. are referred to as defects. weld material or "heat affected" zones. These interruptions may occur in the base metal. Cracks can sometimes appear as "tails" on inclusions or porosity. Cracks will appear as jagged and often very faint irregular lines. Cold cracks occur after the metal has cooled to ambient temperatures ( delayed cracks). General Welding Discontinuities The following discontinuities are typical of all types of welding. Cracks are grouped as hot or cold cracks. Discontinuities. Hot cracks usually occur as the metal solidifies at elevated temperatures. Cracks can be detected in a radiograph only when they are propagating in a direction that produces a change in thickness that is parallel to the x-ray beam. which do not meet the requirements of the codes or specification used to invoke and control an inspection. 11 .
The arc does not melt the base metal sufficiently and causes the slightly molten puddle to flow into base material without bonding. 12 .Lack of Fusion: Lack of fusion (Cold Lap) is a condition where the weld filler metal does not properly fuse with the base metal or the previous weld pass material (inter pass cold lap).
All porosity is a void in the material it will have a radiographic density more than the surrounding area. in clusters or rows.Porosity: Porosity is the result of gas entrapment in the solidifying metal. Porosity can take many shapes on a radiograph but often appears as dark round or irregular spots or specks appearing singularly. Cluster porosity: Cluster porosity is caused when flux coated electrodes are contaminated with moisture. Sometimes porosity is elongated and may have the appearance of having a tail This is the result of gas attempting to escape while the metal is still in a liquid state and is called wormhole porosity. The moisture turns into gases when heated and becomes trapped in the weld during the welding process. indications will be grouped close 13 . Cluster porosity appear just like regular porosity in the radiograph but the together.
Root concavity: 14 . It is one of the most objectionable weld discontinuities. In a radiograph. Incomplete penetration (IP): Incomplete penetration (IP) or lack of penetration (LOP) occurs when the weld metal fails to penetrate the joint.Slag inclusions: Slag inclusions are nonmetallic solid material entrapped in weld metal or between weld and base metal. The appearance on a radiograph is a dark area with well-defined. Lack of penetration allows a natural stress riser from which a crack may propagate. dark. straight edges that follows the land or root face down the center of the weldment. jagged asymmetrical shapes within the weld or along the weld joint areas are indicative of slag inclusions.
On a radiograph it looks similar to lack of penetration but the line has irregular edges and it is often quite wide in the center of the weld image. In the radiographic image it appears as a dark irregular line offset from the centerline of the weldment. Undercutting is not as straight edged as LOP because it does not follow a ground edge. External or crown undercut: 15 .Root or Internal concavity or suck back is condition where the weld metal has contracted as it cools and has been drawn up into the root of the weld. Internal or root undercut: Internal or root undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the root of the weld.
Offset or mismatch: Offset or mismatch are terms associated with a condition where two pieces being welded together are not properly aligned. straight line is caused by failure of the weld metal to fuse with the land area. Inadequate weld reinforcement: 16 . The dark. The difference in density is caused by the difference in material thickness.External or crown undercut is an erosion of the base metal next to the crown of the weld. it appears as a dark irregular line along the outside edge of the weld area. In the radiograph. The radiographic image is a noticeable difference in density between the two pieces.
Excess weld reinforcement : Excess weld reinforcement is an area of a weld that has weld metal added in excess of that specified by engineering drawings and codes. A visual inspection will easily determine if the weld reinforcement is in excess of that specified by the engineering requirements. because the image density in the area of suspected inadequacy will be more (darker) than the image density of the surrounding base material. lighter area in the weld. It is very easy to determine by radiograph if the weld has inadequate reinforcement. Discontinuities in TIG welds 17 . The appearance on a radiograph is a localized.Inadequate weld reinforcement is an area of a weld where the thickness of weld metal deposited is less than the thickness of the base material.
therefore. tungsten is denser than aluminum or steel. The TIG method of welding produces a clean homogeneous weld which when radiographed is easily interpreted. Tungsten is a brittle and inherently dense material used in the electrode in tungsten inert gas ( TIG ) welding. radiograph. These discontinuities occur in most metals welded by the process including aluminum and stainless steels. it shows as a lighter area with a distinct outline on the radiograph. Tungsten inclusions. 18 . Oxide inclusions: Oxide inclusions are usually visible on the surface of material being welded (especially aluminum). Radiographically. appear as dark irregularly shaped discontinuities in the Discontinuities in Gas Metal Arc Welds (GMAW) The following discontinuities are most commonly found in GMAW welds.The following discontinuities are peculiar to the TIG welding process. therefore. tungsten may be entrapped in the weld. If improper welding procedures are used. Oxide inclusions are less dense than the surrounding materials and.
Whiskers: Whiskers are short lengths of weld electrode wire. These globs of metal are referred to as icicles. which are often surrounded by light globular areas (icicles). Often lumps of metal sag through the weld creating a thick globular condition on the back of the weld. Burn-Through: Burn-Through results when too much heat causes excessive weld metal to penetrate the weld zone. On a radiograph. On a radiograph they appear as light. "wire like" indications. visible on the top or bottom surface of the weld or contained within the weld. 19 . burn through appears as dark spots.
causing the residual oil in any surface cracks to seep out and stain the white coating." It draws the penetrant from the flaw to reveal its presence. This method was in use from the latter part of the 19th century through to approximately 1940. the penetrant materials are formulated using a bright red dye that provides for a high level of contrast 20 . Later it became the practice in railway workshops to examine iron and steel components by the "oil and whiting" method. The second way that LPI improves the detectability of a flaw is that it produces a flaw indication with a high level of contrast between the indication and the background which also helps to make the indication more easily seen. When a visible dye penetrant inspection is performed. the surface was then coated with a fine suspension of chalk in alcohol so that a white surface layer was formed once the alcohol had evaporated. After removal and careful cleaning. First. when the magnetic particle method was introduced and found to be more sensitive for the ferromagnetic iron and steels. In this method. There are basically two ways that a penetrant inspection process makes flaws more easily seen. whereby the carbon black would settle in surface cracks rendering them visible. The object was then vibrated and stroked with a hammer. The technique is based on the ability of a liquid to be drawn into a "clean" surface breaking flaw by capillary action. Colored (contrast) penetrants require good white light while fluorescent penetrants need to be viwed in darkened conditions with an ultraviolet "black light". LPI produces a flaw indication that is much larger and easier for the eye to detect than the flaw itself." excess surface penetrant is removed and a developer is applied. This acts as a "blotter. A very early surface inspection technique involved the rubbing of carbon black on glazed pottery. Many flaws are so small or narrow that they are undetectable by the unaided eye. Penetrant Inspection Improves the Detect ability of Flaws The advantage that a liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) offers over an unaided visual inspection is that it makes defects easier to see for the inspector. heavy oil commonly available in railway workshops was diluted with kerosene in large tanks so that locomotive parts such as wheels could be submerged. After a period of time called the "dwell.Chapter III PENETRANT INSPECTION Introduction Liquid penetration inspection is a method that is used to reveal surface breaking flaws by bleedout of a colored or fluorescent dye from the flaw.
penetrant materials used. or immersing the parts in a penetrant bath. brushing. the material being inspected. Dwell times are usually recommended by the penetrant producers or required by the specification being followed. These and other mechanical operations can smear the surface of the sample. thus closing the defects. sanding. The times vary depending on the application. the penetrant material is applied on the surface by spraying. 3. Penetrant dwell time is the total time that the penetrant is in contact with the part surface. grease. water. the penetrant materials are formulated to glow brightly and to give off light at a wavelength that the eye is most sensitive to under dim lighting conditions. and the type of defect being inspected. there is no harm in using a longer 21 . The surface must be free of oil. Basic Processing Steps of a Liquid Penetrant Inspection 1.between the white developer that serves as a background as well as to pull the trapped penetrant from the flaw. When a fluorescent penetrant inspection is performed. Generally. The sample may also require etching if mechanical operations such as machining. Penetrant Dwell: The penetrant is left on the surface for a sufficient time to allow as much penetrant as possible to be drawn from or to seep into a defect. Minimum dwell times typically range from 5 to 60 minutes. or grit blasting have been performed. or other contaminants that may prevent penetrant from entering flaws. 2. Penetrant Application: Once the surface has been thoroughly cleaned and dried. Surface Preparation: One of the most critical steps of a liquid penetrant inspection is the surface preparation.
Visible penetrants contain a red dye that provides high contrast against the white developer background. Visible penetrants are also less vulnerable to contamination from things such as cleaning fluid that can significantly reduce the strength of a fluorescent indication. 4 Excess Penetrant Removal: This is a most delicate part of the inspection procedure because the excess penetrant must be removed from the surface of the sample while removing as little penetrant as possible from defects. Developers come in a variety of forms that may be applied by dusting (dry powdered). 5 Developer Application: A thin layer of developer is then applied to the sample to draw penetrant trapped in flaws back to the surface where it will be visible. 6 Indication Development: The developer is allowed to stand on the part surface for a period of time sufficient to permit the extraction of the trapped penetrant out of any surface flaws.Fluorescent Penetrants Type 2 Visible Penetrants Fluorescent penetrants contain a dye or several dyes that fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. or spraying (wet developers). The ideal dwell time is often determined by experimentation and is often very specific to a particular application. visible penetrants do not require a darkened area and an ultraviolet light in order to make an inspection. Today's penetrants are carefully formulated to produce the level of sensitivity desired by the inspector. direct rinsing with water. 1 Penetrant: Penetrant materials are classified in the various industry and government specifications by their physical characteristics and their performance Penetrant materials come in two basic types. 8 Clean Surface: The final step in the process is to thoroughly clean the part surface to remove the developer from the parts that were found to be acceptable. this step may involve cleaning with a solvent. Depending on the penetrant system used. 7 Inspection: Inspection is then performed under appropriate lighting to detect indications from any flaws that may be present. 22 . These types are listed below: · · Type 1 . Penetrant Testing Materials The penetrant materials used today are much more sophisticated than the kerosene and whiting first used by railroad inspectors near the turn of the 20th century.penetrant dwell time as long as the penetrant is not allowed to dry. dipping. This development time is usually a minimum of 10 minutes and significantly longer times may be necessary for tight cracks. Fluorescent penetrant systems are more sensitive than visible penetrant systems because the eye is drawn to the glow of the fluorescing indication. However. or first treated with an emulsifier and then rinsing with water .
a penetrant must possess following important characteristics. Post emulsifiable. remain fluid so it can be drawn back to the surface of the part through the drying and developing steps. These are listed below: 1. The four methods are listed below: · · · · Method A Water Washable Method B Post Emulsifiable. Lipophilic 23 . Water washable penetrants are sometimes referred to as selfemulsifying systems. These penetrants contain some emulsifying agent (detergent) that makes it possible to wash the penetrant from the part surface with water alone. the penetrant is oil soluble and interacts with the oilbased emulsifier to make removal possible. Post emulsifiable penetrants require a separate emulsifier to break the penetrant down and make it water washable. In post emulsifiers. lipophilic and hydrophilic. remain in the defect but remove easily from the surface of the part. hydrophilic systems (Method D). 2 Emulsifiers: When removal of the penetrant from the defect due to overwashing of the part is a concern. Lipophilic Method C Solvent Removable Method D Post Emulsifiable.Penetrants are then classified by the method used to remove the excess penetrant from the part. Solvent removable penetrants require the use of a solvent to remove the penetrant from the part. Method A: WaterWashable 2. be highly visible or fluoresce brightly to produce easy to see indications. Properties of good Penetrant To perform well. · · · · · · spread easily over the surface of the material being inspected to provide complete and even coverage. be drawn into surface breaking defects by capillary action. Most penetrant inspection specifications classify penetrant systems into four methods of excess penetrant removal. use an emulsifier that is a water soluble detergent which lifts the excess penetrant from the surface of the part with a water wash. must not be harmful to the material being tested or the inspector. lipophilic systems (Method B). a post emulsifiable penetrant system can be used. Hydrophilic Water washable (Method A) penetrants can be removed from the part by rinsing with water alone. Method B: Post Emulsifiable. Post emulsifiable penetrants come in two varieties.
Method D: Post Emulsifiable. the emulsifier diffuses into the remaining penetrant and the resulting mixture is easily removed with a water spray. Method C: Solvent Removable 4. After the emulsifier has coated the surface of the object. Hydrophilic emulsifiers are basically detergents that contain solvents and surfactants. Method A has emulsifiers built into the penetrant liquid that makes it possible to remove the excess penetrant with a simple water wash. a variation of one minute or more in the contact time will have little effect on flaw detectability when a hydrophilic emulsifier is used. The fine developer particles both reflect and refract the incident ultraviolet light. The hydrophilic post emulsifiable method (Method D) was introduced in the mid 1970's and since it is more sensitive than the lipophilic post emulsifiable method it has made the later method virtually obsolete. Hydrophilic systems are waterbased and supplied as a concentrate that must be diluted with water prior to use . During the emulsification time. mechanical action starts to remove some of the excess penetrant as the mixture drains from the part. The mechanical action of the rinse water removes the displaced penetrant from the part and causes fresh remover to contact and lift newly exposed penetrant from the surface. The major advantage of hydrophilic emulsifiers is that they are less sensitive to variation in the contact and removal time. a variation of as little as 15 to 30 seconds can have a significant effect when a lipophilic system is used. While emulsification time should be controlled as closely as possible. Developer Forms 24 . This is why indications are brighter than the penetrant itself under UV light.3.Lipophilic emulsifiers (Method B) were introduced in the late 1950's and work with both a chemical and mechanical action. 3 Developers The role of the developer is to pull the trapped penetrant material out of defects and to spread the developer out on the surface of the part so it can be seen by an inspector. Hydrophilic Method C relies on a solvent cleaner to remove the penetrant from the part being inspected. Method B and D penetrants require an additional processing step where a separate emulsification agent is applied to make the excess penetrant more removable with a water wash. However. Hydrophilic emulsifiers (Method D) also remove the excess penetrant with mechanical and chemical action but the action is different because no diffusion takes place. Another function that some developers performs is to create a white background so there is a greater degree of contrast between the indication and the surrounding background. The hydrophilic emulsifier breaks up the penetrant into small quantities and prevents these pieces from recombining or reattaching to the surface of the part. causing more efficient fluorescence. allowing more of it to interact with the penetrant. Lipophilic emulsification systems are oilbased materials that are supplied in readytouse form. The developer also allows more light to be emitted through the same mechanism.
The AMS 2644 and MilI25135 classify developers into six standard forms. A) Dry Powder Dry powder developer is generally considered to be the least sensitive but it is inexpensive to use and easy to apply. The developer can be applied by dipping parts in a container of developer. Since dry powder developers only stick to the part where penetrant is present. pale white coating over the entire surface. Dry developers are white. B) . Unless the part is electrostatically charged. or brushing the solution on to the surface is sometimes used but these methods are less desirable. Form a Dry Powder Form b Water Soluble Form c Water Suspendible Form d Nonaqueous Type 1 Fluorescent (Solvent Based) Form e Nonaqueous Type 2 Visible Dye (Solvent Based) The developer classifications are based on the method that the developer is applied. 5. The part can be wet or dry. The penetrant will try to wet the surface of the penetrant particle and fill the voids between the particles. or dissolved or suspended in a liquid carrier. These forms are listed below: 1. The goal is to allow the developer to come in contact with the whole inspection area. indications tend to stay bright and sharp since the penetrant has a limited amount of room to spread. The best method for applying water soluble developers is by spraying it on the part. they are seldom used for visible inspections. Dipping. Each of the developer forms has advantages and disadvantages. If the parts are not dried quickly. Having a uniform light background is very important for a visible inspection to be effective and since dry developers do not provide one. or by using a puffer to dust parts with the developer. 2. The developer can be applied as a dry powder. Electrostatic powder spray guns are also available to apply the developer. Properly developed parts will have an even. which brings more penetrant to the surface of the part where it can be seen. 25 . When a dry developer is used. pouring. 3. the dry developer does not provide a uniform white background as the other forms of developers do. the powder will only adhere to areas where trapped penetrant has wet the surface of the part. Parts can also be placed in a dust cabinet where the developer is blown around and allowed to settle on the part. Drying is achieved by placing the wet but well drained part in a recalculating warm air dryer with the temperature held between 70 and 75°F. water soluble developers consist of a group of chemicals that are dissolved in water and form a developer layer when the water is evaporated away.Water Soluble As the name implies. 4. Aqueous developers contain wetting agents that cause the solution to function much like dilute hydrophilic emulsifier and can lead to additional removal of entrapped penetrant. fluffy powders that can be applied to a thoroughly dry surface in a number of ways. the indications will will be blurred and indistinct.
A nonaqueous developer should be applied to a thoroughly dried part to form a slightly translucent white coating. grease. If the parts have been machined. sanded. It is even possible for metal smearing to occur as a result of cleaning operations such as grit or vapor blasting. such as paints. wax. etchant. the impact of other contaminants such as the residue from previous penetrant inspections is less clear. All coatings. Water suspendible developers are applied to parts in the same manner as water soluble developers. smut. Surface contaminants can also lead to a higher level of background noise since the excess penetrant may be more difficult to remove. varnishes. clear that they must be removed. Common coatings and contaminates that must be removed include: paint. forced drying is not required. oil. flux. Some of these contaminants would obviously prevent penetrant from entering defects and it is. and residue from previous penetrant inspections. Water suspendible developers require frequent stirring or agitation to keep the particles from settling out of suspension. it is possible that a thin layer of metal may have smeared across the surface and closed off defects. The solvent tends to pull penetrant from the indications by solvent action. machining fluid. and heavy oxides must be removed to ensure that defects are open the surface of the part. plating. such as paint. oxide. are much more elastic than metal and will not fracture even though a large defect may be present just below the coating. This layer of metal smearing must be removed before inspection. Take the link below to review some 26 . or blasted prior to the penetrant inspection. therefore. plating. Nonaqueous developers are commonly distributed in aerosol spray cans for portability. However.C) Water Suspendible Water suspendible developers consist of insoluble developer particles suspended in water. Preparation of Part One of the most critical steps in the penetrant inspection process is preparing the part for inspection. Contaminants Coatings. varnish. Parts coated with a water suspendible developer must be forced dried just as parts coated with a water soluble developer are forced dried. The surface of a part coated with a water suspendible developer will have a slightly translucent white coating. decals. but they can have a disastrous affect on the inspection. Since the solvent is highly volatile. dirt. scale. The part must be thoroughly cleaned as surface contaminates can prevent the penetrant from entering a defect. rust. B) Nonaqueous Nonaqueous developers suspend the developer in a volatile solvent and are typically applied with a spray gun.
titanium. grit blasting. tumble deburring. and peening operations can cause a small amount of the material to smear on the surface of some materials. Sodium metasilicate. copper. hand sanding. Researchers in Russia have also found that some domestic soaps and commercial detergents can clog flaw cavities and reduce the wettability of the metal surface. lapping. It has been found that some alkaline cleaners can be detrimental to the penetrant inspection process if they have silicates in concentrations above 0. thus. can also cause metal smearing in the softer materials. Take the link below to learn more about metal smearing and its affects on LPI. It is well recognized that machining.5 percent. 27 . LPI can be used to inspect almost any material provided that its surface is not extremely rough or porous. Conrad and Caudill found that media from plastic media blasting was partially responsible for loss of LPI indication strength. which are its relative ease of use and its flexibility. and related compounds can adhere to the surface of parts and form a coating that prevents penetrant entry into cracks.) Glass Many ceramic materials Rubber Plastics LPI offers flexibility in performing inspections because it can be applied in a large variety of applications ranging from automotive spark plugs to critical aircraft components. steel. It is very important that the material being inspected has not been smeared across its own surface during machining or cleaning operations. honing. reducing the sensitivity of the penetrant. Microphotographs of cracks after plastic media blasting showed media entrapment in addition to metal smearing. shot peening. Materials that are commonly inspected using LPI include the following: · · · · · Metals (aluminum. Its popularity can be attributed to two main factors. Common Uses of Liquid Penetrant Inspection Liquid penetrant inspection (LPI) is one of the most widely used nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods. hand scraping. etc.of the research that has been done to evaluate the effects of contaminants on LPI sensitivity. such as steam cleaning. sodium silicate. A good cleaning procedure will remove all contamination from the part and not leave any residue that may interfere with the inspection process. It is perhaps less recognized that some cleaning operations.
DC10 banjo fittings are being moved into a penetrant inspection system at what used to be the Douglas Aircraft Company's Long Beach. · The method has few material limitations. Some of these flaws are listed below: · · · · · · · · · Fatigue cracks Quench cracks Grinding cracks Overload and impact fractures Porosity Laps Seams Pin holes in welds Lack of fusion or braising along the edge of the bond line As mentioned above. i. liquid penetrant inspection has both advantages and disadvantages.e. Advantages and Disadvantages of Penetrant Testing Like all nondestructive inspection methods. Primary Advantages · The method has high sensitive to small surface discontinuities. one of the major limitations of a penetrant inspection is that flaws must be open to the surface. At right. In this picture. and conductive and nonconductive materials may be inspected. Penetrant inspection systems have been developed to inspect some very large components. These large machined aluminum forgings are used to support the number 3 engine in the tail of a DC10 aircraft. California facility. magnetic and nonmagnetic.Penetrant material can be applied with a spray can or a cotton swab to inspect for flaws known to occur in a specific area or it can be applied by dipping or spraying to quickly inspect large areas. visible dye penetrant being locally applied to a highly loaded connecting point to check for fatigue cracking. · Penetrant materials and associated equipment are relatively inexpensive. · Indications are produced directly on the surface of the part and constitute a visual representation of the flaw. The primary advantages and disadvantages when compared to other NDE methods are summarized below. 28 . · Large areas and large volumes of parts/materials can be inspected rapidly and at low cost. · Parts with complex geometric shapes are routinely inspected. Liquid penetrant inspection is used to inspect of flaws that break the surface of the sample. metallic and nonmetallic.
29 . and grit or vapor blasting must be removed prior to LPI.Primary Disadvantages · · · · · · · · · Only surface breaking defects can be detected. Chemical handling and proper disposal is require Chapter IV Magnetic Particle Inspection Introduction: Magnetic particle inspection is a nondestructive testing method used for surface and near surface defect detection. The inspector must have direct access to the surface being inspected. Surface finish and roughness can affect inspection sensitivity. These characteristics make MPI one of the most widely utilized nondestructive testing methods. Only materials with a relative nonporous surface can be inspected. Multiple process operations must be performed and controlled. Metal smearing from machining. Precleaning is critical as contaminants can mask defects. grinding. MPI is a fast and relatively easy to apply and surface preparation is not as critical as it is for some other NDT methods. Post cleaning of acceptable parts or materials is required.
Many different industries use magnetic particle inspection for determining a component's fitnessforuse. and weldments. automotive. When a bar magnet is broken in the center of its length. it is called a flux leakage field. When the field spreads out.MPI uses magnetic fields and small magnetic particles. A pole where a magnetic line of force exits the magnet is called a north pole and a pole where a line of force enters the magnet is called a south pole. two complete bar magnets with magnetic poles on each end of each piece will result. Any place that a magnetic line of force exits or enters the magnet is called a pole. power generation. The magnetic field exits the north pole and reenters the at the south pole. it appears to leak out of the material and. Ferromagnetic materials are materials that can be magnetized to a level that will allow the inspection to be effective. or some of their alloys. Basic Principles In theory. thus. cobalt. Underwater inspection is another area where magnetic particle inspection may be used to test items such as offshore structures and underwater pipelines. forgings. such as iron filings to detect flaws in components. and aerospace industries. The magnetic field spreads out when it encounter the small air gap created by the crack because the air cannot support as much magnetic field per unit volume as the magnet can. petrochemical. The only requirement is that the component being inspected must be made of a ferromagnetic material such iron. magnetic particle inspection (MPI) is a relatively simple concept. Consider a bar magnet. Some examples of industries that use magnetic particle inspection are the structural steel. It has a magnetic field in and around the magnet. The method is used to inspect a variety of product forms such as castings. a north and south pole will form at each edge of the crack. If the magnet is just cracked but not broken completely in two. 30 . nickel.
are applied to the surface of the magnetized part. Hoke discovered that a surface or subsurface flaw in a magnetized material caused the magnetic field to distort and extend beyond the part.If iron particles are sprinkled on a cracked magnet. but only a few responded to a noticeable extent. Later on Bergmann. which were being held by a magnetic chuck while being ground. This cluster of particles is much easier to see than the actual crack and this is the basis for magnetic particle inspection. Becquerel. In the early 1920’s. The earliest known magnetic inspection an object took place as early as 1868. This discovery was brought to his attention in the machine shop. History of Magnetic Particle Inspection Magnetism is the ability of matter to attract other matter. The particles will be attracted and cluster at the flux leakage fields. Cannon barrels were checked for defects by magnetizing the barrel then sliding a magnetic compass along the barrel's length. and Faraday discovered that all matter including liquids and gasses were affected by magnetism. formed patterns on the face of the parts 31 . He noticed that the metallic grindings from hard steel parts. The ancient Greeks were the first to discover this phenomenon in a mineral they named magnetite. the defects will create a leakage field. iron particles. The first step in a magnetic particle inspection is to magnetize the component that is to be inspected. either in a dry or wet suspended form. After the component has been magnetized. thus forming a visible indication that the inspector can detect. the particles will be attracted to and cluster not only at the poles at the ends of the magnet but also at the poles at the edges of the crack. If any defects on or near the surface are present. William Hoke realized that magnetic particles could be used with magnetism as a means of locating defects. These early inspectors were able to locate flaws in the barrels by monitoring the needle of the compass.
The term "magnetic field" simply describes a volume of space where there is a change in energy within that volume. consider electric current flowing through a conductor. Magnetic poles have never been detected in isolation but always occur in pairs and. A bar magnet can be considered a dipole with a north pole at one end and South Pole at the other. and atoms are composed of protons. When the electrons (electric current) are flowing through the conductor. a magnetic field forms around the conductor. This sectioning and creation of dipoles can continue to the atomic level. Uses of magnets range from holding pictures on the refrigerator to causing torque in electric motors. Magnetism Magnets are very common items in the workplace and household. thus. Today. The Source of Magnetism All matter is composed of atoms. pipelines and other critical structures. the source of magnetism lies in the basic building block of all matter. Therefore. storage tanks. Electrons carry a negative electrical charge and produce a magnetic field as they move through space. The protons and neutrons are located in the atom's nucleus and the electrons are in constant motion around the nucleus. A magnetic field is produced whenever an electrical charge is in motion. This change in energy can be detected and measured. MPI is used to inspect some highly loaded components that have been inservice for a period of time. the name dipole. Applying a fine ferromagnetic powder to the parts caused a build up of powder over flaws and formed a visible indication. For example. MPI is used to check materials such as steel bar stock for seams and other flaws prior to investing machining time during the manufacturing of a component. neutrons and electrons. the MPI inspection method is used extensively to check for flaws in a large variety of manufactured materials and components. MPI is also used to evaluate the integrity of structural welds on bridges.. drive train and other systems are overhauled. If a magnet is cut in two.which corresponded to the cracks in the surface.the atom. 32 . many components of high performance race cars are inspected whenever the engine. Critical automotive components are inspected for flaws after fabrication to ensure that defective parts are not placed into service. A magnetic field can be measured leaving the dipole at the North Pole and returning the magnet at the South Pole.. two magnets or dipoles are created out of one. The location where a magnetic field can be detected exiting or entering a material is called a magnetic pole. The strength of this field is called the magnetic moment.
Alternately. In each domain. These materials are slightly attracted by a magnetic field and the material does not retain the magnetic properties when the external field is removed. They get their strong magnetic properties due to the presence of magnetic domains. When a ferromagnetic material is in the unmagnitized state. When a magnetizing force is applied. Magnetic Domains Ferromagnetic materials get their magnetic properties because the material is made up of small regions known as magnetic domains. there opposite spins cause their magnetic fields to cancel each other. all of the atomic dipoles are coupled together in a preferential direction. including copper. Diamagnetic. the domains become aligned to produce a strong magnetic field within the part. So when electrons are paired together. diamagnetic or paramagnetic. 33 . Most elements in the periodic table. not all materials react the same way. silver. Iron. and gold. are diamagnetic. nickel. Since all matter is comprised of atoms. Paramagnetic materials include magnesium. Diamagnetic metals have a very weak and negative susceptibility to magnetic fields. materials with some unpaired electrons will have a net magnetic field and will react more to an external field. the domains are nearly randomly organized and the net magnetic field for the part as a whole is zero. lithium. electrons occur in pairs. molybdenum. Paramagnetic. Therefore. no net magnetic field exists. and tantalum. Each electron in a pair spins in the opposite direction. and cobalt are examples of ferromagnetic materials.The magnetic field can be detected using a compass. and Ferromagnetic Materials In most atoms. Ferromagnetic materials have a large and positive susceptibility to an external magnetic field. Most materials can be classified as ferromagnetic. 12 15 large numbers of atoms moments (10 to 10 ) are aligned parallel so that the magnetic force within the domain is strong. They exhibit a strong attraction to magnetic fields and are able to retain their magnetic properties after the external field has been removed. Diamagnetic materials are slightly repelled by a magnetic field and the material does not retain the magnetic properties when the external field is removed. In these domains. The magnetic field will place a force on the compass needle. all materials are affected in some way by a magnetic field. This alignment develops as the material develops its crystalline structure during solidification from the molten state. However. Paramagnetic metals have a small and positive susceptibility to magnetic fields.
During solidification a trillion or more atom moments are aligned parallel so that the magnetic force within the domain is strong in one direction. they attempt to form closed loop from pole to pole. the bulk material may not show any signs of magnetism because the domains develop themselves are randomly oriented relative to each other. Their density decreases with increasing distance from the poles. When all of the domains are aligned. They never cross one another. This can be done by placing the material in a strong external magnetic field or by passing electrical current through the material. Electromagnetic Fields 34 . the material is magnetically saturated and additional amount of external magnetization force will not cause any increase in its internal level of magnetization. which include: · · · · · · They seek the path of least resistance between opposite magnetic poles. They flow from the south pole to the north pole within the material and north pole to south pole in air. Even though the domains are magnetically saturated. In a single bar magnet as shown to the right. They are considered to have direction as if flowing. Ferromagnetic materials become magnetized when the magnetic domains within the material are aligned. though no actual movement occurs. The more domains are aligned. Unmagnetized Material Magnetized Material Magnetic Field Characteristics Magnetic lines of force have a number of important properties. the stronger the magnetic field in the material. Some or all of the domains can become aligned. Their density decreases (they spread out) when they move from an area of higher permeability to an area of lower permeability. They all have the same strength.
a magnetic field develops that flows through the center of the loop or coil along longitudinal axis and circles back around the outside of the loop or coil. The magnetic field is essentially uniform down the length of the coil when it is wound tighter. There is a simple rule for remembering the direction of the magnetic field around a conductor. It is called the righthand rule. Magnetic Field Produced by a Coil When a current carrying conductor is formed into a loop or several loops to form a coil. the fingers will circle the conductor in the direction of the magnetic field. A loosely wound coil is illustrated below to show the interaction of the magnetic field. The magnetic field circling each loop of wire combines with the fields from the other loops to produce a concentrated field down the center of the coil. If a person grasps a conductor in ones right hand with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current. 35 .In most conductors. A threedimensional representation of the magnetic field is shown above. the magnetic field exists only as long as the current is flowing the direction of the magnetic field is dependent on the direction of the electrical current in the wire.
36 .The strength of a coil's magnetic field increases not only with increasing current but also with each loop that is added to the coil. The Hysteresis Loop and Magnetic Properties A great deal of information can be learned about the magnetic properties of a material by studying its hysteresis loop. Please be aware that the field outside the coil is weak and is not suitable for magnetize ferromagnetic materials. A hysteresis loop shows the relationship between the induced magnetic flux density B and the magnetizing force H. An example hysteresis loop is shown below. A long straight coil of wire is called a solenoid and can be used to generate a nearly uniform magnetic field similar to that of a bar magnet. It is often referred to as the BH loop. The concentrated magnetic field inside a coil is very useful in magnetizing ferromagnetic materials for inspection using the magnetic particle testing method.
) The force required to remove the residual magnetism from the material." At this point.Plotting the change in magnetic flux B induced a ferromagnetic material while the magnetizing force H is changed generates the hysteresis loop. where the flux has been reduced to zero. The material has reached the point of magnetic saturation. it can be seen that some magnetic flux remains in the material even though the magnetizing force is zero. the greater the amount of current applied (H+). As the line demonstrates. (The reversed magnetizing force has flipped enough of the domains so that the net flux within the material is zero.) As the magnetizing force is reversed. the curve will move from point "a" to point "b. This is called the point of coercivity on the curve. (Some of the magnetic domains remain aligned but some have lost there alignment. When H is reduced back down to zero. is called the coercive force or coercivity of the material. At point "a" almost all of the magnetic domains are aligned and an additional increase in the magnetizing force will produce very little increase in magnetic flux. this is referred to as the point of retentivity on the graph and indicates the remanence or level of residual magnetism in the material. the curve moves to point "c". the stronger the magnetic field in the component (B+). As the magnetizing force is increased in the negative direction. Reducing H to 37 . A ferromagnetic material that has never been previously magnetized or has been thoroughly demagnetized will follow the dashed line as H is increased. the material will again become magnetically saturated but in the opposite direction (point "d").
zero brings the curve to point "e. Notice that the curve did not return to the origin of the graph because some force is required to remove the residual magnetism. The shape of the hysteresis loop tells a great deal about the material being magnetized. a number of primary magnetic properties of a material can be determined. the level of residual magnetism may be lower than the retentivity value when the magnetizing force did not reach the saturation level. There are two general types of magnetic fields that can be established within a component. it is a material's ability to retain a certain amount of residual magnetic field when the magnetizing force is removed after achieving saturation. In other words. Retentivity A measure of the residual flux density corresponding to the saturation induction of a magnetic material.) Residual Magnetism or Residual Flux the magnetic flux density that remains in a material when the magnetizing force is zero. Reluctance Is the opposition that a ferromagnetic material shows to the establishment of a magnetic field. (The value of B at point B on the hysteresis curve. Reluctance is analogous to the resistance in an electrical circuit. The curve will take a different path from point "f" back the saturation point where it with complete the loop. Magnetic Field Orientation and Flaw Detectability To properly inspect a component for cracks or other defects. From the hysteresis loop. The hysteresis curves of two different materials are shown in the graph. 38 . Coercive Force The amount of reverse magnetic field which must be applied to a magnetic material to make the magnetic flux return to zero.) Permeability A property of a material that describes the ease with which a magnetic flux is established in the component. Increasing H back in the positive direction will return B to zero. (The value of H at point C on the hysteresis curve. it is important to understand that orientation between the magnetic lines of force and the flaw is very important." It will have a level of residual magnetism equal to that achieved in the other direction. Note that residual magnetism and retentivity are the same when the material has been magnetized to the saturation point. However.
39 . A circular magnetic field has magnetic lines of force that run circumferentially around the perimeter of a part. if the magnetic field is parallel to the defect. the field will see little disruption and no flux leakage field will be produced. An orientation of 45 to 90 degrees between the magnetic field and the defect is necessary to form an indication.A longitudinal magnetic field has magnetic lines of force that run parallel to the long axis of the part. It can also be accomplished using permanent or electromagnets. To magnetize the part in two directions is important because the best detection of defects occurs when the lines of magnetic force are established at right angles to the longest dimension of the defect. Since defects may occur in various directions. To determine most of the defects. A circular magnetic field is induced in an article by either passing current through the component or by passing current through a conductor surrounded by the component. Longitudinal magnetization of a component can be accomplished using the longitudinal field set up by a coil or solenoid. each part is normally magnetized in two directions at right angles to each other.
Create a condition known as "ark blow" in the welding process. Some equipment is designed to be portable so that inspections can be made in the field and some is designed to be stationary for ease of inspection in the laboratory or manufacturing facility. one of the primary requirements for detection of a defect in a ferromagnetic material is that the magnetic field induced in the part must intercept the defect at a 45 to 90 degrees angle. Arc blow may cause the weld arc to wonder or filler metal to be repelled from the weld. it is important to become familiar with the different types of magnetic fields and the equipment used to generate them.Demagnetization After conducting a magnetic particle inspection. Flaws that are normal (90 degrees) to the magnetic field will produce the strongest indications because they disrupt more of the magnet flux. A variety of equipment exist to establish the magnetic field for MPI. Interfere with electronic equipment such as a compass. Permanent magnets 40 . it is usually necessary to demagnetize the component Remanent magnetic fields can: · · · · Affect machining by causing cuttings to cling to a component. As discussed previously. Magnetizing Equipment for Magnetic Particle Inspection To properly inspect a part for cracks or other defects. Cause abrasive particle to cling to bearing or faying surfaces and increase wear.
An electromagnetic yoke is a very common piece of equipment that is used to establish a magnetic field. therefore. also the magnetic field can be turn on and off. most of the equipment used to create the magnetic field used in MPI is based on electromagnetism. They can be powered with alternating current from a wall socket or by direct current from a battery pack. such as in an explosive environment. Because it is difficult to remove the magnets from the component being inspected. where electromagnets cannot be used. That is. a diver for inspection in an underwater environment or other areas sometimes uses permanent magnets. A switch is included in the electrical circuit so that the current and. their use is not particularly popular. and sometimes difficult and dangerous to place the magnets. Some yokes can lift weights in excess of 40 pounds. 41 . Some permanent magnets require over 50 pounds of force to remove them from the surface. using an electrical current to produce the magnetic field. These industrial magnets are usually very strong and may require significant strength to remove them from a piece of metal. Permanent magnets can also be made small enough to fit into tight areas where electromagnets might not fit Electromagnets Today. However. This type of magnet generates a very strong magnetic field in a local area where the poles of magnet touch the part to be inspected. It is basically made by wrapping an electrical coil around a piece of soft ferromagnetic steel.Permanent magnets are sometimes used for magnetic particle inspection as the source of magnetism. The two primary types of permanent magnets are bar magnets and horseshoe (yoke) magnets.
the prod tips should be inspected frequently to ensure that they are not oxidized.Portable yoke with battery pack Portable magnetic particle kit Prods Prods are handheld electrodes that are pressed against the surface of the component being inspected to make contact for passing electrical current through the metal. electrical arcing can occur and cause damage to the component. covered with scale or other contaminant. The current passing between the prods creates a circular magnetic field around the prods that is can be used in magnetic particle inspection. Sometimes the the two prods are connected by any insulator as shown in the image to facilitate one hand operation. For this reason. 42 . or damaged. To help to prevent arcing. the use of prods are not allowed when inspecting aerospace and other critical components. One of the prods has a trigger switch so that the current can be quickly and easily turned on and off. This is referred to as a dual prod and is commonly used for weld inspections. If proper contact is not maintained between the prods and the component surface. Prods are typically made from copper and have an insulated handle to help protect the operator.
The cable used is typically 00 extra flexible or 0000 extra flexible. Coils typically have three or five turns of a copper cable within the molded frame. the component is placed against the inside surface on the coil. The number of wraps is determined by the magnetizing force needed and. Portable coil Conductive Cable 43 . A foot switch is often used to energize the coil. Ampereturns is the amperage shown on the amp meter times the number of turns in the coil.Portable Coils and Conductive Cables Coils and conductive cables are used to establish a longitudinal magnetic field within a component. When using a coil or cable wrapped into a coil. of course. When a preformed coil is used. Normally the wraps are kept as close together as possible. amperage is usually expressed in ampereturns. the length of the cable. Conductive cables are wrapped around the component.
When fluorescent particles are used. Lights for Magnetic Particle Inspection Magnetic particle inspection can be performed using particles that are highly visible under white lighting conditions or particles that are highly visible under ultraviolet lighting conditions. When current is passed through the central conductor. tubes. 44 . This "particle glow" provides high contrast indications on the component anywhere particles collect. and green colors are available. The bar is inserted through the center of the hollow part and the bar is then clamped between the contact pads.central conductor. A light intensity of at least 1000 lux (100 fc) is recommended when a visible particles are used. This type of a setup is used to inspect parts that are hollow such as gears. A central conductor is an electrically conductive bar that is usually made of copper or aluminum. Particles that fluoresce yellowgreen are most common because this color matches the peak sensitivity of the human eye under dark conditions. Particles used in fluorescent magnetic particle inspections are coated with a material that produces light in the visible spectrum when exposed to the nearultraviolet light. particles that fluoresce red. a circular magnetic field flows around the bar and enters into the part or parts being inspected. and other ringshaped objects. no special lighting is required as long as the area of inspection is well lit. Fluorescence is defined as the property of emitting radiation as a result of and during exposure to radiation. but a variety of light sources can be used. special ultraviolet light must be used. blue. When an inspection is being performed using the visible color contrast particles. yellow. However.
however. yellow (6220 A) and orange (6770 A) are also usually produced. UVB will do an effective job of causing substances to fluoresce.000 Angstroms 2. and C. and eye damage can occur. Low retentivity is important because the particles themselves never become strongly magnetized so they do not stick to each other or the surface of the part.800 Angstroms with a peak wavelength at about 3. The filter allows only radiation in the range of 3200 to 4000 angstroms and a little visible dark purple to pass. High magnetic permeability is important because it makes the particles attract easily to small magnetic leakage fields from discontinuities.500 and 3.800) is even more dangerous to living cells and is used to kill bacteria in industrial and medical settings. Particles are available in a dry mix or a wet solution. Wavelengths above 4. It is a very energetic form of light that is invisible to the human eye. which is the safest to work with.Ultraviolet Light Ultraviolet light or "black light" is light in the 1.000 Angstroms The desired wavelength range for use in nondestructive testing is between 3. The shorter the wavelength. greenyellow (5460 A). Dry Magnetic Particles 45 . the particles that are used for magnetic particle inspection are a key ingredient as they form the indications that alert the inspector to defects. such as flaws.650 A. The desired wavelength range for use in NDT is obtained by filtering the ultraviolet light generated by the light bulb. B.340 A are produced in low levels.200–4.000 Angstroms (100 to 400 nm) wavelength range in the electromagnetic spectrum.800–3. it should not be used because harmful effects such as skin burns.800–1. UV is separated according to wavelength into three classes: A.000 Angstroms fall into the visible light spectrum and are seen as the color violet.120 A to 3.200 Angstroms 2. the more energy that is carried in the light and the more dangerous it is to the human cells. UVC (1.000 to 2. Class UVA UVB UVC Wavelength Range 3. This wavelength of radiation is found in the arc created during the welding process. Wavelengths in the visible violet range (4050 A to 4350 A). Magnetic Particles As mentioned previously. This wavelength range is used because it is in the UVA range. A peak wavelength of 3650 A is produced at a very high intensity. The output of a UV bulb spans a wide range of wavelengths. The short wave lengths of 3. Particles start out as tiny milled (a machining process) pieces of iron or iron oxide. A pigment (somewhat like paint) is bonded to their surfaces to give the particles color.000 to 4. The metal used for the particles has high magnetic permeability and low retentivity.
The size of the magnetic particles is also very important. black. which make them more sensitive to the leakage fields from very small discontinuities. The particle shape is also important. The wet magnetic particle testing method is generally more sensitive than the dry because the suspension provides the particles with more mobility and makes it possible for smaller particles to be used since dust and adherence to surface contamination is reduced or 46 . slender particles tend align themselves along the lines of magnetic force. Also. Most dry particle mixes have particle with L/D ratios between one and two. Elongated particles come from the dispenser in clumps and lack the ability to flow freely and form the desired "cloud" of particles floating on the component. Wet Magnetic Particles Magnetic particles are also supplied in a wet suspension such as water or oil. dry testing particles cannot be made exclusively of the fine particles. The mix of globular and elongated particles result in a dry powder that flows well and maintain good sensitivity. windy conditions can reduce the sensitivity of an inspection. However. However. small particles easily adhere to surface contamination. Long. Additionally. Therefore. slender particles. reclaiming the dry particles is not recommended because the small particle are less likely to be recaptured and the "once used" mix will result in less sensitive inspections. Coarser particles are needed to bridge large discontinuities and to reduce the powder's dusty nature. gray. yellow and several other colors so that a high level of contrast between the particles and the part being inspected can be achieved.006 inch). therefore. research has shown that if dry powder consists only of long. the application process would be less than desirable.002 inch) in size are about three times smaller in diameter and more than 20 times lighter than the coarse particles (150 m or 0. and get trapped in surface roughness features producing a high level of background. It should also be recognized that finer particles will be more easily blown away by the wind and. The fine particles are around 50 m (0. globular particles are added that are shorter. such as remanent dirt or moisture.Dry magnetic particles can typically be purchased in red. Dry magnetic particle products are produced to include a range of particle sizes.
However. see the penetrant inspection material. (For more information on the color sensitivity of the eye. Particles that fluoresce greenyellow are most common to take advantage of the peak color sensitivity of the eye but other fluorescent colors are also available.1 m (0. Wet method magnetic particles products differ from dry powder products in a number of ways. are generally less expensive. Waterbased carriers form quicker indications. which are either black or brown in color. and are easier to clean from the part. due to their slight residual magnetism. The wet method also makes it easy to apply the particles uniformly to a relatively large area. The carrier solutions can be water or oilbased. give off no petrochemical fumes. the oxide particles are present mostly in clusters that settle out of suspension much faster than the individual particles. Chapter IV 47 . Waterbased solutions are usually formulated with a corrosion inhibitor to offer some corrosion protection.0004 inch) and smaller and the synthetic iron oxides have particle diameters around 0.) The particles used with the wet method are smaller in size than those used in the dry method for the reasons mentioned above. However. The particles are typically 10 m (0.eliminated. This makes it possible to see and measure the concentration of the particles for process control purposes. Most nonfluorescent particles are ferromagnetic iron oxides. One way is that both visible and fluorescent particle are available. present little or no fire hazard.000004 inch). as the particles are almost too fine to settle out of suspension. oilbased carrier solutions offer superior corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement protection to those materials that are prone to attack by these mechanisms. This very small size is a result of the process used to form the particles and is not particularly desirable. Wet particles are also a mix of long slender and globular particles. Fluorescent particles are coated with pigments that fluoresce when exposed to ultraviolet light.
or flaw detector screen 48 . oil and gas and processing industry. dimensional measurements. When there is a discontinuity (such as a crack) in the wave path. material characterization. Oscilloscope. part of the energy will be reflected back from the flaw surface. and more. Ultrasonic inspection can be used for flaw detection/evaluation.Ultrasonic Testing Basic Principles of Ultrasonic Testing Ultrasonic Testing (UT) uses high frequency sound energy to conduct examinations and make measurements. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materials in the form of waves. Initial pulse Probe Crack echo Back surface echo Plate 0 2 4 6 SCREEN Crack 8 10 Ultrasonic Inspection is a very useful and versatile NDT method for detecting both surface and subsurface volumetric defects and is widely used in pipeline. The reflected wave signal is transformed into electrical signal by the transducer and is displayed on a screen.
It has other uses such as thickness measurements. in addition to flaw detection. Only singlesided access is needed when the pulseecho technique is used.Sound Spectrum Audible range Ultrasonic testing range 16Hz 20 kHz 200 kHz 15 MHz 256 Hz 70 kHz 15 MHz Usual steel testing range Advantages of Ultrasonic Inspection Some of the advantages of ultrasonic inspection that are often cited include: · · · · · · · · It is sensitive to both surface and subsurface discontinuities. The depth of penetration for flaw detection or measurement is superior to other NDT methods. ultrasonic inspection also has its limitations. It is high accuracy in determining reflector position and estimating size and shape. Disadvantages of Ultrasonic Inspection As with all NDT methods. which include: 49 . Detailed images can be produced with automated systems. Electronic equipment provides instantaneous results. Minimal part preparation required.
In solids. very small. All material substances are comprised of atoms. It normally requires a coupling medium to promote transfer of sound energy into test specimen. Linear defects oriented parallel to the sound beam may go undetected. sound waves can propagate in four principle modes that are based on the way the particles oscillate. and in thin materials as plate waves. The particle movement responsible for the propagation of longitudinal and shear waves is illustrated below. Since compressional forces are active in these waves. shear waves. and characterization of flaws. Longitudinal and shear waves are the two modes of propagation most widely used in ultrasonic testing. exceptionally thin or not homogeneous are difficult to inspect.· · · · · · · Surface must be accessible to transmit ultrasound. Longitudinal waves: In longitudinal waves the oscillations occur in the longitudinal direction of the direction of wave propagation. Sound can propagate as longitudinal waves. which may be forced into vibrational motion about their equilibrium positions. Compression waves can be 50 . Properties of sound wave Wave Propagation Ultrasonic testing is based on timevarying deformations or vibrations in materials. Materials that are rough. Skill and training is more extensive than with some other methods. Cast iron and other coarse grained materials are difficult to inspect due to low sound transmission and high signal noise. Reference standards are required for both equipment calibration. irregular in shape. which is generally referred to as acoustics. they are also called compressional waves. surface waves.
This relationship is shown by the following equation. as well as solids because the energy travels through the atomic structure by a series of comparison and expansion (rarefaction) movements. and material properties of a component. and they are influenced by a great deal by selected frequency and material thickness. therefore. Velocity: How quickly a sound wave will travel Frequency: How many vibrations per second Wave length: How far a sound wave will advance in completing one cycle The wavelength is directly proportional to the velocity of the wave and inversely proportional to the frequency of the wave. The particle movement has an elliptical orbit. Lamb waves are the most commonly used plate waves in NDT. Plate waves: Plate waves can be propagated only in very thin metals. Transverse or shear wave: In the transverse or shear wave. Lamb waves are a complex vibrational wave that travels through the entire thickness of a material. Propagation of Lamb waves depends on density. the particles oscillate at a right angle or transverse to the direction of propagation. elastic. Shear waves are relatively weak when compared to longitudinal waves Surface or Rayleigh waves : Surface or Rayleigh waves travel on the surface of a relative thick solid material penetrating to a depth of one wavelength. are not effectively propagated in materials such as liquids or gasses. 51 1 Second 1 Second . Raleigh waves are useful because they are very sensitive to surface defects and since they will follow the surface around curves.generated in liquids. Shear waves require an acoustically solid material for effective propagation and. therefore can be used to inspect areas that other waves might have difficulty in reaching.
A change in frequency will result in a change in wavelength. In ultrasonic testing, the shorter wavelength resulting from an increase in frequency will help in the detection of smaller discontinuities. Sensitivity: Sensitivity is the ability to locate small discontinuities. Sensitivity generally increases with higher frequency (shorter wavelengths). Resolution: Resolution is the ability of the system to locate discontinuities that are close together within the material or located near the part surface. Resolution also generally increases as the frequency increases. Velocity of sound traveling through materials: Velocity of sound varies with the material in which it is traveling. Material Compression Velocity m\sec Steel Water Air Copper 5960 1490 344 4700 Shear Velocity m\sec 3245 NA NA 2330
Attenuation of Sound Waves When sound travels through a medium, its intensity diminishes with distance. This weakening results from two basic causes, which are scattering and absorption. The combined effect of scattering and absorption is called attenuation.
Refraction and Snell's Law When an ultrasound wave passes through an interface between two materials, it produces both reflected and refracted waves. Refraction takes place at an interface due to the different velocities of the acoustic waves within the two materials. The velocity of sound in each material is determined by the material properties (elastic modules and density) for that material. Snell's Law describes the relationship between the angles and the velocities of the waves. Snell's law equates the ratio of material velocities v1 and v2 to the ratio of the sine's of incident ( ) and refraction ( ) angles, as shown in the following equation.
Where: VL1 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 1. VL2 is the longitudinal wave velocity in material 2.
Ultrasonic Probes The conversion of electrical pulses to mechanical vibrations and the conversion of returned mechanical vibrations back into electrical energy is the basis for
ultrasonic testing. The active element is the Probe. It converts the electrical energy to acoustic energy, and vice versa. Characteristics of Probes The probe is a very important part of the ultrasonic instrumentation system. The probe converts electrical signals into mechanical vibrations (transmit mode) and mechanical vibrations into electrical signals (receive mode). Many factors, including material, mechanical and electrical construction, and the external mechanical and electrical load conditions, influence the behavior a transducer. Mechanical construction includes parameters such as radiation surface area, mechanical damping, housing, connector type
Types of Probes
Ultrasonic transducers are manufactured for a variety of application and can be custom fabricated when necessary. Careful attention must be paid to selecting the proper transducer for the application It is important to choose transducers that have the desired frequency, bandwidth, and focusing to optimize inspection capability. Most often the transducer is chosen either to enhance sensitivity or resolution of the system.
Transducers are classified into groups according to the application.
Contact transducers are used for direct contact inspections, and are generally hand manipulated. They have elements protected in a rugged casing to withstand sliding contact with a variety of materials. These transducers are designed so that they are easy to grip and move along a surface. They also often have replaceable wear plates to lengthen their useful life. Coupling materials of water, grease, oils, or commercial materials are used to remove the air gap between the transducer and the component inspected. Contact probes are classified as.
· · · ·
Single crystal probe Twin crystal probe Normal beam or zero degree probe Angle beam probe
(When singleelement transducers are operating in pulse echo mode. the angle of refraction that is marked on the transducer is only accurate for a particular material.In the fixed angle versions. The angled sound path allows the sound beam to be reflected from the back wall to improve detectability of flaws in and around welded areas. Active elements can be chosen for their sending and receiving capabilities providing a transducer with a cleaner signal. Twin crystal normal probe: contain two independently operating elements in a single housing. such as inspection of course grain material. the element can not start receiving reflected signals until the element has stopped ringing from it transmit function. which is usually steel. and where near surface resolution is not critical. 56 . One of the elements transmits and the other receives. If the surface is curved. They are also used to generate surface waves for use in detecting defects on the surface of a component.Contact transducers are available in a variety of configurations to improve their usefulness for a variety of applications. The two elements are angled towards each other to create a crossedbeam sound path in the test material.) Dual element transducers are very useful when making thickness measurements of thin materials and when inspecting for near surface defects. a shoe that matches the curvature of the part may need to be added to the face of the transducer. Angle beam transducers: Angle beams are typically used to introduce a refracted shear wave into the test material. and transducers for special applications. Dual element transducers are especially well suited for making measurements in applications where reflectors are very near the transducer since this design eliminates the ring down effect that singleelement transducers experience. Single crystal probe normal probe: The flat contact transducer shown above is used normal beam inspections of relatively flat surfaces.
57 . holes . These blocks consists accurately cut and fine polished surfaces.Couplant A couplant is a material (usually liquid) that facilitates the transmission of ultrasonic energy from the transducer into the test specimen.angles etc. Couplant is generally necessary because the acoustic impedance mismatch between air and solids Calibration Blocks Standard blocks are used to calibrate the instrument and to calculate different features of probe and the instrument.
Ultrasonic weld inspections are typically performed using a straight beam probe in conjunction with an angle beam probe A straight beam probe.Inspection of Welded Joints The most commonly occurring defects in welded joints are porosity. and longitudinal or transverse cracks. producing a longitudinal wave at normal incidence into the test piece. undercutting. slag inclusions. lack of interrun fusion. is first used to locate any laminations in or near the heataffected zone. lack of sidewall fusion. 58 . This is important because an angle beam transducer may not be able to provide a return signal from a laminar flaw. lack of root penetration.
Chapter VI RADIORGAPHIC TESTING 59 .
The object will stop some of the radiation. or heard. but xrays and gamma rays cannot been seen. Nature of Penetrating Radiation Xrays and gamma rays are part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thicker and denser area will stop more of the radiation and show on the film lighter than thinner or less dense area. therefore. wavelength. They possess no charge and no mass and. and velocity The Electromagnetic Spectrum 60 . They are waveforms as are light rays. are not influenced by electrical and magnetic fields and will always travel in straight lines. Most weld defects will show on the film darker than the surrounding area. Xrays or gamma rays pass through the object. The object to be inspected is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. and radio wave.Introduction: In this method of Nondestructive testing the penetration property of Xray and Gamma rays to detect the discontinuities. felt. microwaves. They can be characterized by frequency.
Detects internal Flaws 3. w Wavelengths of Electro Magnetic Spectrum Electro Magnetic Radiation Type Wave length in nm Visible Light Ultraviolet light X-Rays Gamma -Rays 700-400 400-100 1 nm =109 Meters Advantage of Radiography 1.Detects volumetric flaws readily 4.Gives a permanent record 2.Can be used on most materials 5.Can check for correct assembly 61 .The International System (SI) unit for activity is the Becquerel (Bq).
They are part of electromagnetic spectrum 6.They may be scattered 10.They have no effect on the human senses 2.They travel at the speed of light 7.They move in straight line 5.They may be refracted.They penetrate matter 4.They obey the inverse square law 8.They ionize gases 9.Real time Image is possible Disadvantages of Radiography 1Radiation Health 2Can be sensitive to defect orientation and could miss planar flaws 3Has limited ability to detect fine cracks 4Access is required to both sides of the object 5Limited thickness of the material can be penetrated 6Skilled radiographic interpretation is required 7Require high capital cost 8Relatively slow process 9Require high capital cost 10Require high running cost Properties of Xrays and gamma rays 1.They have adverse effect on the body tissues and blood 3.They make certain materials fluoresce 11.Gives direct Images 7. diffracted and polarized Xray Tube High Electrical Potential Electrons + Xray Generator or Radioactive Source Creates Radiation 62 Exposure Recording Device Radiation Penetrate the Sample .6.
Amperage control and Voltage control 8. Focal spot size should be big to absorb more heat but to produce good quality radiograph this size should be the smallest 7. Potential difference of around 300 kv is used 2. air or water is also used 4 Target is made up of tungsten 5. Important control points of the xray machine are timer.More voltage generates the shorter wave length or quality of x rays more penetrating power 11. The most useful gammaemitting radioactive isotopes for radiological purposes are found to be cobalt (Co60).Increase in voltage increases the speed of the electrons. Area of the target struck by the electrons is called as focal spot 6. Approximately around 97 99% heat & 13 % of x rays are generated 3.Properties of Xrays 1.iridium (Ir192). More time more radiation more exposure 9. 612 Amp are usually used 10. therefore high kinetic energy and high penetration Gammarays: Gammarays are electromagnetic radiation emitted by the disintegration of a radioactive isotope and have energy from about 100 keV to well over 1 MeV.ytterbium (Yb169). Amperage controls the intensity or quality of Xray. Additional cooling using oil.cesium (Cs137). Anode is made up of cupper to carry out the heat. and thulium (Tm170). 63 .
0 mm diameter and 1 mm thick.Gamma rays are emitted from artificial radio active isotope 2.The radio active isotope disintegrate continuously releasing electromagnetic energy (gamma rays) 5Gamma ray sources are usually disc.6 – 3.0 mm diameter 9Sources are encapsulated in the capsules of 316 \ S12 grade Stainless steel Isotope Decay Rate (Decay of the Gamma Source) Loss of activity of a radioactive nuclease due to Disintegration Half Life of Gamma source: Time taken for a radio active Isotope to reduce its out put by half Source 60Cobalt 192Iridium Ytterbium 169 Halflife 26 Years 74 days 31 days Penetration range steel 75 150 mm 20 – 45 mm 64 115 mm . stacked together 7Cylindrical: Typically upto 4 mm in length 8Spherical: 0.cylindrical or spherical shape 6The discs: 3.Radio active isotope is an unstable state of element which has different number of neutrons to the normal state of the same element 3.The mass number of Radio active Isotope will be different from same element 4.Properties of Gammarays 1.
Gamma equipment is less expensive than xray equipment 7.SFD is shorter.Gamma equipment is usually smaller and lighter and therefore more portable 3.Remote handling is necessary Radiographic Techniques 1) 2) 3) 4) SWSI : ( Film Inside Source Outside ) SWSI : ( Film Outside Source Inside ) DWSI : ( Film Outside Source Outside ) DWDI : (Film Outside Source Outside 65 .Advantages of Gamma rays over Xrays 1.Places inaccessible to xray equipment are accessible to gamma equipment 5.Due to the higher energy.Greater penetrating power than xrays Disadvantages of gamma rays over xrays 1.The equipment is more simple 4.Because of high energy there is less scatter 6.No electrical or water supply are needed 2.Exposure times are longer 3. poorer contrast and definition 2.Sources need replacing at regular intervals 4. resulting in poorer geometric unsharpness 6.The radiation cannot be switched off 5.
In other words. the more visible features become. Subject contrast is determined by the following variables: Absorption differences in the specimen Wavelength of the primary radiation Scatter or secondary radiation Film contrast is determined by the following: Grain size or type of film Chemistry of film processing chemicals Concentrations of film processing chemicals Time of development Temperature of development Degree of mechanical agitation (physical motion) Exposing the film to produce higher film densities will generally increase contrast. Radiographic contrast has two main contributors: subject contrast and detector or film contrast. The contrast between different parts of the image is what forms the image and the greater the contrast.Radiographic Contrast Radiographic contrast describes the differences in photographic density in a radiograph. darker areas will increase in density faster than lighter areas because in any given period of time more xrays are reaching the darker areas. Reasons for low contrast Radiation wave length too short Over exposure Prolonged development Too cold developer 66 .
increased development of the film will increase the apparent graininess of the radiograph. . The grain size of the film will affect the definition of the radiograph. Movement of the specimen during the exposure will produce distortion on the radiograph.Insufficient fixing Fog on the film Reasons for High contrast Radiation wave length too long Incorrect developer Under exposure Definition Radiographic definition is the abruptness of change in going from one density to another. Source to film distance. For optimal definition. which is the distance between the specimen and the detector. and screen mottling will decrease definition. These geometric factors include: Focal spot size. As the wavelength shortens and penetration increases. Also. Radiographic Density 67 . which is the area of origin of the radiation. Definition increases as the source to film distance increase. There are a number of geometric factors of the Xray equipment and the radiographic setup that have an effect on definition. the specimen and detector should be as close together as possible. Wavelength of the radiation will influence apparent graininess. which is the distance from the source to the part. Film graininess. the apparent graininess of the film will increase. Abrupt changes in specimen thickness may cause distortion on the radiograph. Specimen to detector (film) distance.The focal spot size should be as close to a point source as possible to produce the most definition.
Radiographs with very low density and with very high density are not acceptable.Sensitivity is measured by using Image Quality Indicators ( IQI ). Density required in the area of interest should be between 1. In the United States two IQI styles are prevalent; the placard. IQIs provide a means of visually informing the film interpreter of the contrast sensitivity and definition of the radiograph. The IQI indicates that a specified amount of material thickness change will be detectable in the radiograph. Reasons for low density • Under exposure to radiation • Insufficient development time • Development temperature too low • Incorrect developer Reasons for Excessive density . Without such a reference point. IQIs comes in a variety of material 68 .5.0 is the result of only 1 percent of the transmitted light reaching the sensor. and that the radiograph has a certain level of definition so that the density changes are not lost due to unsharpness. A high density area absorbs more light than the low density area Density is the log of the intensity of light incident on the film to the intensity of light transmitted through the film.Degree of blackening of a radiograph. consistency and quality could not be maintained and defects could go undetected.High density area is a dark area and low density area is a light area.also called as Penetrameters.5 and 2. A density reading of 2. Image quality indicators take many shapes and forms due to the various codes or standards that invoke their use. or holetype and the wire IQI. Density is measured by a densitometer. Controlling Radiographic Quality One of the methods of controlling the quality of a radiograph is through the use of image quality indicators (IQI). Over exposure to Radiation • Excessive development time • Development temperature too high • Incorrect Developer sensitivity The ability of the radiographic technique to detect the smallest possible defect. Sensitivity depends on Radiographic contrast and Density.
Military or Government standards require a similar penetrameter but use lead letters to indicate the material type rather than notching system as shown on the left in the image above. The first term refers to the IQI thickness expressed as a percentage of the region of interest of the part being inspected. Discontinues within the part may contain gradual changes. and are often less visible.types so that one with radiation absorption characteristics similar to the material being radiographed can be used. E1025 designates eight groups of shims based on their radiation absorption characteristics. a 22T callout would mean that the shim thickness should be two percent of material thickness and that a hole that is twice the IQI thickness must be detectable on the radiograph. a defect of the same diameter and material loss may not be visible. Therefore. HoleType IQIs ASTM Standard E1025 gives detailed requirements for the design and material group classification of holetype image quality indicators. It should be noted that even if 22T sensitivity is indicated on a radiograph.375 inch wide depending on the thickness of the shim. The second term in the expression refers to the diameter of the hole that must be revealed and it is expressed as a multiple of the IQI thickness. The penetrameter is used to indicate quality of the radiographic technique and not intended to be used as a measure of size of cavity that can be located on the radiograph. The thickness in thousands of an inch is noted on each pentameter by a lead number 0. and a small thickness change. A notching system is incorporated into the requirements allowing the radiographer to easily determine if the penetrameter is the correct material type for the product. 69 . This presentation of a 22T IQI in the radiograph verifies that the radiographic technique is capable of showing a material loss of 2% in the area of interest.250 to 0. Image quality levels are typically designated using a two part expression such as 22T. The holes in the penetrameter represent sharp boundaries.
The same image quality levels and expressions (i. The number in the lower left corner indicates the material group. C or D) is shown in the lower right corner of the IQI. The set letter (A. which control the wire diameters. 22T) used for holetype IQIs are typically also used for wire IQIs. If this is not possible. B. Secondary (Scatter) Radiation Secondary or scatter radiation must often be taken into consideration when producing a radiograph. Often secondary radiation is thought of as radiation striking the film 70 . The IQI should also be placed slightly away from the edge of the part so that atleast three of its edges are visible in the radiograph. E747 specifies four wire IQIs sets.WireType IQIs ASTM Standard E747 covers the radiographic examination of materials using wire penetrameters (IQIs) to control image quality.79 (constant form factor forwire) Placement of IQIs IQIs should be placed on the source side of the part over a section with a material thickness equivalent to the region of interest.e. When a block is used. The wire sizes that correspond to various hole type quality levels can be found in a table in E747 F = 0. the IQI may be placed on a block of similar material and thickness to the region of interest. the IQI should the same distance from the film as it would be if placed directly on the part in the region of interest. The scattered radiation create a loss of contrast and definition. Wire IQIs consist of a set of six wires arranged in order of increasing diameter and encapsulated between two sheets of clear plastic.
010 backing the film. Control of back scatter radiation is achieved by backing the film in the cassette with sheets of lead typically 0. Side scatter originates from walls. Control of side scatter can be achieved by moving objects in the room away from the film. Parts with holes. It is often called backscatter when it comes from objects behind the film. Above this point they will emit electrons to provide more exposure of the film to ionizing radiation thus increasing the density of the radiograph. 000 volts.reflected from an object in the immediate area. Lead screens in the thickness range of 0. such as a wall.010 inch thick. Industry codes and standards often require that a lead letter "B" be placed on the back of the cassette to verify the control of back scatter. Undercut Another condition that must often be controlled when producing a radiograph is called undercut.005 lead screen in front and 0. or abrupt thickness changes are 71 . or from the table or floor where the part is resting. or placing a collimator at the exit port thus reducing the diverging radiation surrounding the central beam.015 inch typically reduce scatter radiation at energy levels below 150. If the letter "B" shows as a "ghost" image on the film the letter has absorbed the back scatter radiation indicating a significant amount of radiation reaching the film. hollow areas. It is a common practice in industry to place 0. or objects on the source side of the film.004 to 0. moving the xray tube to the center of the vault.
Scattering from within the walls of the part also contributed some to undercut but research has shown that scattering within the film is the primary cause. Masks are used to control undercut. Radiographic Film 72 . the more undercut that is likely to occur. Undercut occurs due to scattering within the film. Undercut appears as lightening of the radiograph in the area of the thickness transition. Filters in Radiography At xray energies. filters consist of material placed in the useful beam to absorb. The use of filters produce a cleaner image by absorbing the lower energy xray photons that tend to scatter more. preferentially. Filtration is required to absorb the lowerenergy xray photons emitted by the tube before they reach the target. The high level of radiation intensity reaching the film results in a high level of scattering within the film. At the edges of a part or areas where the part transitions from thick to thin. the intensity of the radiation reaching the film is much greater than in the thicker areas of the part. It should also be noted that the faster the film speed. radiations based on energy level or to modify the spatial distribution of the beam. Sheets of lead cut to fill holes or surround the part and metallic shot and liquid absorbers are often used as masks.likely to suffer from undercut if controls are not put in place. This results in a loss of resolution or blurring at the transition area.
bluetinted base. Film Processing Processing film is a strict science governed by rigid rules of chemical concentration. fixing. the type of radiation used.0005 inch thick. Usually. the emulsion is coated on both sides of the base in layers about 0. temperature. and drying can be accomplished in a reasonable time.Xray films for general radiography consist of an emulsiongelatin containing a radiation sensitive silver halide and a flexible. and physical movement. 73 . 3. whether xrays from an xray generator or gamma rays from a radioactive source. and size of the part being examined and. 4. Putting emulsion on both sides of the base doubles the amount of radiationsensitive silver halide. Listed below are some of the factors that must be considered when selected a film and developing a radiographic technique. 1. the composition. in some cases. transparent. its weight and location. Film Selection The selection of a film when radiographing any particular component depends on a number of different factors. the relative importance of high radiographic detail or quick and economical results. Whether processing is done by hand or automatically by machine. excellent radiographs require the highest possible degree of consistency and quality control. shape. The emulsion layers are thin enough so developing. the kilovoltages available with the xray equipment or the intensity of the gamma radiation. time. 2. and thus increases the film speed.
It should also be verified that the proper image quality indicator was used and that the required sensitivity level was met. wash out residual processing chemicals. Room illumination must be arranged so that there are no reflections from the surface of the film under examination. With such low levels of light passing through the radiograph the delivery of a good light source is important. Next.01 percent of the incident light to pass. and that it contains the correct identification information. and to provide adequate shelf life of the radiograph. the wet side. It should be verified that the radiograph was produced to the correct density on the required film type.Film viewers should provide a source of defused.0 will allow only 1. rather than total darkness. Film viewers should be clean and in good working condition. An area dry and free of dust and dirt should be used to load and unload the film. The area should be clean and free of distracting materials. the 74 . The brightness of the surroundings should be about the same as the area of interest in the radiograph. as required by the procedure. masking aids. Ambient light levels should be low.A radiograph may be retrieved after 5 or even 20 years in storage.0 will allow only 0. Ambient light levels of less than 2 fc are often recommended. Magnifying aids. will be used to process the film. and relativity cool light as heat from viewers can cause distortion of the radiograph. adjustable. Each of step in film processing must be excited properly to develop the image. A film having a measured density of 2. the viewing equipment and area should be considered. Thin cotton gloves should be available and worn to prevent fingerprints on the radiograph. but subdued lighting.Manual Processing & Darkrooms Manual processing begins with the darkroom.0 percent of the incident light to pass. is preferable in the viewing room. While another area. Before beginning the evaluation of a radiograph. A film containing a density of 4. Proper viewing conditions are very important when interpreting a radiograph. and film markers should be close at hand. Thus protecting the film from any water or chemicals that may be located on the surface of the wet side. should first be determined. Viewing Radiographs Radiographs (developed film exposed to xray or gamma radiation) are generally viewed on a lightbox. The viewing conditions can enhance or degrade the subtle details of radiographs. Radiographic film quality and acceptability.
Spurious Indications on the films or ( Artefacts ) Spurious Indications are caused by incorrect processing or careless handling of the film The common artefacts are 1 Radiation Fogging: This occurs when the film is stored too close to a source of radiation or when the film is accidentally left in the exposure area during the exposure of another film 2 Light Fog: Due to the storage of the film in a faulty storage storage box where white light is leaks into the film OR due to the wrong type of safe light in the dark room 75 . visual acuity with knowledge of materials. Radiographic film interpretation is an acquired skill combining. an understanding of applied loads and history of the component is helpful. Viewing the actual component being inspected is very often helpful in developing an understanding of the details seen in a radiograph. When viewing a particular region of interest. By using the proper equipment and developing consistent evaluation processes. Magnifying tools should also be used when appropriate to help identify and evaluate indications. One part of the interpretation process.. manufacturing processes. techniques such as using a small light source and moving the radiograph over the small light source. The mind as well as the eyes needs to occasionally rest when interpreting radiographs. Once a radiograph passes these initial checks it is ready for interpretation. or changing the intensity of the light source will help the radiographer identify relevant indications. sometimes overlooked.radiograph should be checked to ensure that it does not contain processing and handling artifacts that could mask discontinuities or other details of interest. A process for viewing radiographs. If the component is inspected while in service. is rest. and their associated discontinues. is helpful and will prevent overlooking an area on the radiograph. Interpretation of radiographs is an acquired skill that is perfected over time. left to right top to bottom etc. the interpreter will increase his or her probability of detecting defects.
often occur due to rapid drying the film in the high temperature cabinet. Chapter VII Eddy Current Testing Introduction 76 . due to insufficient agitation 13 Patches or Streaks: Due to insufficient agitation during developer or in the rinse bath 14 Reticulation:This is the appearance of leather grain and due to rupture of the emulsion caused by great differences between succesive processing solutions 15 Drying Marks: Due to drops of water remaining on the surface of the film.3 Pressure Markings: Due to careless handling of the film during loading and unloading of the film 4 Static Marks:This has the appearance of the dark branched and jagged fine lines. It is due to rapid removal of the film from the wrapper 5 Scratch Marks: Usually caused by a finger nail or abrasive material on the screens or during handling 6 High or Low Density Marks: Caused when handling the films with greasy or chemically – stained fingers 7 Low density Patches or smears : Due to splashes of water or fixing solution on the film 8 High density Patches or smears : Due to splashes of Developer on the film 9 Film Mottle: Due to the use of old films 10 Light Spots: Caused by dust particles between the film and the intensifying Screen 11 Screen Marks: Due to contamination of the intensifying screens with chemicals OR due to the defects on the screen such as cracking or buckling 12Air bells: These are shown discs of lower density caused by air traped on the surface of the emulsion.
This change is accurately monitored. It is this impedance change that is to be detected with a high degree of accuracy by the measuring equipment. Eddy currents always flow parallel to the plane of the winding of the test coil producing them . resulting in a change of impedance. An induced eddy current in a conductor produces a magnetic field that opposes the magnetic field produced by the coil. Cracks and other surface conditions modify the eddy currents generated in the conductor and give rise to a local brief change in the impedance.A varying electric current flowing in a coil gives rise to a varying magnetic field. A nearby conductor resists this magnetic field and this produces an eddy current flowing in the surface layer of the conductor and flowing in the direction opposite to the current in the coil.A discontinuity parallel to the eddy current can be missed by this method Basic Principle Coil's Coil magnetic field Eddy current's magnetic field Eddy currents Conductive Material Eddy current testing method can be successfully used to detects surface breaking and near surface discontinuities such as · Cracks 77 .
· · · · Inclusions Dents Holes Scratches Eddy current testing method can also identify the material properties such as · Alloy composition · Heat treatment · Hardness · Grain size · Magnetic Permeability Eddy current testing method can also be used to monitor the surface condition such as · Surface coating · Corrosion · Specimen Temperature Eddy Current Testing Depends on · Electrical conductivity of the material 78 .
· · · · · · · Nature of discontinuities in the material Magnetic permeability of the material Dimensions and shape of the specimen Current frequency Coil size Number of turns in the coil Metal condition Advantages of Eddy Current Testing Method · · · · · · · Instantaneous results Sensitive to a range of physical properties Firm contact between inspection coil and specimen not required Equipment is small and selfcontained Can detect very small discontinuities Defects in tubes and other circular parts can be detected using special probes Internal surface of cylinders can be using special probes Disadvantages of Eddy Current Testing Method · · · · · This method can be used on electrical conductors only Depth of penetration is restricted Interpretation needs skill Defects parallel to coil surface can be missed Ends of the parts can not be tested 79 .
MPI.RT VT. PT PT is most sensitive RT.RT RT if weld face is not visible VT.UT.RT RT if other side is not visible VT. RT & MPI (i) Lack of sidewall fusion ( ii ) Lack of inter run fusion Laminations Surface Porosity Internal Porosity Undercut Mismatch Inadequate weld reinforcement BurnThrough Whiskers Underfill.RT RT for root undercut.RT RT gives clear image VT.RT RT if weld root is not visible UT. MPI. PT.UT RT is most sensitive VT. Underflush Root concavity Convexity UT & RT for deep defects MPI for near surface defects RT. DPI & RT&PT for all metals ET MPI for Ferrous Metals ET for conductive materials UT if the rear side of the weld is not visible RT & UT RT is sensitive for vertical or inclined defects UT is sensitive for horizontal or inclined defects UT UT is very sensitive VT.Chapter VIII Selection of NDT Methods Defect to be detected Surface Cracks ( i ) Grinding cracks ( ii ) Heat treat cracks ( iii ) Solidification Cracks ( iv ) Crater Cracks ( v ) Cold Cracks Inclusions Lack of penetration Lack of root fusion Concavity Most Suitable Method PT. MPI & Eddy Current Comments PT for all metals MPI for Ferrous Metals ET for conductive materials UT.RT VT VT & RT are better RT if weld root is not visible Welder Gauge is used to measure 80 . MPI. if not visible VT.UT.
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