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Submitted to:

Sir Dr. Shah Muhammad

Submitted by:

Muhammad Usman (08-chem-02-B)

Tahir Mehmood (08-chem-16-B)

Saqib Raouf (08-chem-26-B)

Liaquat ali (08-chem-22-B)

Sameullah (08-chem-30-B)

Allah ditta Khizar (08-chem-42-B)

Department of Chemical Engineering

University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore

They ask you about the Hour (Day of Resurrection): "When will be its

appointed time?" say: "the knowledge thereof is with my lord (alone).

None can reveal its time but He. Heavy is its burden through the

heavens and the earth. It shall not come upon you except all of a

sudden." they ask you as if you have a good knowledge of it. say: "the

knowledge thereof is with Allah (alone), but most of mankind know

not."

(Al-Araf, Chapter #7, Verse #187)

Ideal Gas:

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of a set of randomly-moving, non-interacting point

particles.

Examples:

At normal conditions such as standard temperature and pressure, most real gases behave

qualitatively like an ideal gas.

Many gases such as air, nitrogen, oxygen, hydrogen, noble gases, and some heavier gases like

carbon dioxide can be treated like ideal gases within reasonable tolerances.

Criteria for ideal gas model:

Generally, a gas behaves more like an ideal gas at higher temperature and lower pressure as the

work performed by intermolecular forces becomes less significant compared with the particles'

kinetic energy, and the size of the molecules becomes less significant compared to the empty

space between them.

Equation of state

An equation of state is a relation between state variables. It describes the state of matter under a

given set of physical conditions.

Purpose:

1. The most prominent use of an equation of state is to predict the state of gases and liquids.

2. In addition to predicting the behavior of gases and liquids, there are also equations of

state for predicting the volume of solids, including the transition of solids from one

crystalline state to another.

Why Different Equations?

One of the simplest equations of state for this purpose is the ideal gas law, which is roughly

accurate for gases at low pressures and moderate temperatures. However, this equation becomes

increasingly inaccurate at higher pressures and lower temperatures, and fails to predict

condensation from a gas to a liquid. Therefore, a number of much more accurate equations of

state have been developed for gases and liquids. At present, there is no single equation of state

that accurately predicts the properties of all substances under all conditions.

Major equations of state

For a given amount of substance contained in a system, the temperature, volume, and pressure

are not independent quantities; they are connected by a relationship of the general form:

Historical Evolution:

Boyle's law (1662)

Boyle's Law was perhaps the first expression of an equation of state. In mathematical form, this

can be stated as:

Charles's law (1787)

Indicates a linear relationship between volume and temperature

Dalton's law of partial pressures (1801)

Dalton's Law of partial pressure states that the pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum

of the pressures of all of the constituent gases alone.

Mathematically, this can be represented for n species as:

Classical ideal gas law

The classical ideal gas law may be written:

Limitations of Model:

1. The ideal gas model tends to fail at lower temperatures or higher pressures, when

intermolecular forces and molecular size become important. It also fails for most heavy

gases, such as water vapor or many refrigerants.

2. At some point of low temperature and high pressure, real gases undergo a phase

transition, such as to a liquid or a solid. The model of an ideal gas, however, does not

describe or allow phase transitions. These must be modeled by more complex equations

of state.

Cubic Equations of state:

Van der Waals equation of state (1873)

Van der Waals equation of state was one of the first to perform markedly better than the ideal gas

law.

The Van der Waals equation of state may be written:

Where V

m

is molar volume, and a and b are substance-specific constants. They can be calculated

from the critical properties p

c

,T

c

and V

c

Also written as

a is called the attraction parameter and b the repulsion parameter or the effective molecular

volume.

Improvement over ideal gas law; how?

While the equation is definitely superior to the ideal gas law and does predict the formation of a

liquid phase, the agreement with experimental data is limited for conditions where the liquid

forms.

The van der Waals equation may be considered as the ideal gas law, ³improved´ due to two

independent reasons:

1. Molecules are thought as particles with volume, not material points. Thus V cannot be too

little, less than some constant. So we get (V í b) instead of V.

2. While ideal gas molecules do not interact, we consider molecules attracting others within

a distance of several molecules' radii. It makes no effect inside the material, but surface

molecules are attracted into the material from the surface. We see this as diminishing of

pressure on the outer shell (which is used in the ideal gas law), so we write (p +

something) instead of p. To evaluate this µsomething¶, let's examine a additional force

acting on an element of gas surface. While the force acting on each surface molecule is

~ȡ, the force acting on the whole element is ~ȡ

2

~ .

Redlich±Kwong equation of state (1949)

Limitation:

1. Equation works well over a wide range of conditions but departs significantly from

measured values near the critical point.

2. While superior to the van der Waals equation of state, it performs poorly with respect to

the liquid phase and thus cannot be used for accurately calculating vapor-liquid

equilibria.

Soave modification of Redlich-Kwong

Where Ȧ is the acentric factor for the species

for hydrogen:

In 1972 Soave replaced the 1/¥(T) term of the Redlich-Kwong equation with a function Į(T,Ȧ)

involving the temperature and the acentric factor.

Application:

The Į function was devised to fit the vapor pressure data of hydrocarbons and the equation does

fairly well for these materials.

Peng±Robinson equation of state (1976)

In polynomial form:

Why PR Equation?

The Peng±Robinson equation was developed in 1976 in order to satisfy the following goals

1. The parameters should be expressible in terms of the critical properties and the acentric

factor.

2. The model should provide reasonable accuracy near the critical point, particularly for

calculations of the compressibility factor and liquid density.

3. The mixing rules should not employ more than a single binary interaction parameter,

which should be independent of temperature pressure and composition.

4. The equation should be applicable to all calculations of all fluid properties in natural gas

processes.

Application:

For the most part the Peng±Robinson equation exhibits performance similar to the Soave

equation, although it is generally superior in predicting the liquid densities of many materials,

especially nonpolar ones.

Non-cubic equations of state

Virial equations of state

If appropriate assumptions are made about the mathematical form of intermolecular forces,

theoretical expressions can be developed for each of the coefficients. etc. In this case B

corresponds to interactions between pairs of molecules, C to tripld so on. Accuracy can be

increased indefinitely by considering higher order terms.

It can also be used to work out the Boyle Temperature (the temperature at which B = 0 and ideal

gas laws apply) from a and b from the Van der Waals equation of state, if you use the value for B

shown below:

The BWR (Benedict±Webb±Rubin Equation) Equation of state

p ൌ

RT

v

B

RT െA

െ

C

T

ଶ

v

ଶ

bRT െ a

v

ଷ

aȽ

v

C

v

ଷ

T

ଶ

ቀͳ

ɀ

v

ଶ

ቁ Exp

െɀ

v

ଶ

Application:

It has been shown to model both liquid and vapor PVT behavior well even in the critical regions.

However, values of all eight coefficients are needed.

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