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DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996
Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures —
Part 2.2: Actions on structures exposed to fire — (together with United Kingdom National Application Document)
ICS 13.220.50; 91.040
DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996
Committees responsible for this Draft for Development
The preparation of this Draft for Development was entrusted by Technical Committee B/525, Building and civil engineering structures, to Subcommittee B/525/1, Actions (loadings) and basis of design, upon which the following bodies were represented: British Constructional Steelwork Association British Iron and Steel Producers’ Association British Masonry Society Concrete Society Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment) Department of the Environment (Property and Buildings Directorate) Highways Agency Institution of Structural Engineers National House Building Council Royal Institute of British Architects Steel Construction Institute
This Draft for Development, having been prepared under the direction of the Sector Board for Building and Civil Engineering, was published under the authority of the Standards Board and comes into effect on 15 September 1996 © BSI 03-2000 The following BSI reference relates to the work on this Draft for Development: Committee reference B/525/1 ISBN 0 580 25803 3
Amendments issued since publication Amd. No. Date Comments
DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996
Committees responsible National foreword Foreword Text of National Application Document Text of ENV 1991-2-2 Page Inside front cover ii 2 iii 7
© BSI 03-2000
DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996
This Draft for Development has been prepared by Subcommittee B/525/1 and is the English language version of ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 2.2: Actions on structures exposed to fire, as published by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). This Draft for Development also includes the United Kingdom (UK) National Application Document (NAD) to be used with the ENV in the design of buildings to be constructed in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. ENV 1991-2-2:1995 results from a programme of work sponsored by the European Commission to make available a common set of rules for the structural and geotechnical design of building and civil engineering works. This publication is not to be regarded as a British Standard. An ENV is made available for provisional application, but does not have the status of a European Standard. The aim is to use the experience gained to modify the ENV so that it can be adopted as a European Standard. The values for certain parameters in the ENV Eurocodes may be set by individual CEN members so as to meet the requirements of national regulations. These parameters are designated by [ ] in the ENV. During the ENV period reference should be made to the supporting documents listed in the National Application Document (NAD). The purpose of the NAD is to provide essential information, particularly in relation to safety, to enable the ENV to be used for buildings constructed in England, Wales and Northern Ireland. The NAD takes precedence over corresponding provisions in the ENV. The Building Regulations 1991, Approved Document A 1992, draws attention to the potential use of ENV Eurocodes as an alternative approach to Building Regulation compliance. Users of this document are invited to comment on its technical content, ease of use and any ambiguities and anomalies. These comments will be taken into account when preparing the UK national response to CEN on the question of whether the ENV can be converted to an EN. Comments should be sent in writing to the Secretary of Subcommittee B/525/1, BSI, 389 Chiswick High Road, London W4 4AL, quoting the document reference, the relevant clause and, where possible, a proposed revision, within 2 years of the issue of this document.
Summary of pages This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i to xii, the ENV title page, pages 2 to 32 and a back cover. This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had amendments incorporated. This will be indicated in the amendment table on the inside front cover. ii
© BSI 03-2000
DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996 National Application Document for use in the UK with ENV 1991-2-2:1995 © BSI 03-2000 iii .
DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996 Contents of National Application Document Introduction 1 Scope 2 References 3 Partial safety factors and other values to be used in ENV 1991-2-2 4 Reference Standards 5 Additional recommendations Annex A (normative) Description of occupancies Annex B (normative) Thermal properties of typical compartment linings Figure 1 — Definition of building height Table 1 — Values to be used in referenced clauses in place of ENV boxed values Table 2 — Reference in ENV 1991-2-2 to other publications Table 3 — Fire test correlation factor Table 4 — Factors quantifying consequences of failure (*q1) to be used in equation (1) Table 5 — Factors quantifying risk of failure (*q2) to be used in equation (1) Table 6 — Active protection factor Table 7 — Characteristic variable fire load densities Table 8 — Conversion factor List of references Page v v v v v vi ix x vii v vi vi vii viii viii viii viii xi iv © BSI 03-2000 .
c) Trial calculations. It has been developed from the following.45 1. 2768) in England from specific editions of other publications. Editions of these publications current at the time of issue of this standard are listed on page (xi).DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996 Introduction This National Application Document (NAD) has been prepared by Subcommittee B/525/1. The Building points in the text and the publications are listed on Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1990.2 Informative references This NAD refers to other publications that provide information or guidance. The Building This NAD incorporates. provisions Regulations 1991. Table 1 — Values to be used in referenced clauses in place of ENV boxed values 2 References ENV Clause Description “Boxed value” UK value 4.2 (2) 4.8 0.0 0. Full references are provided on Page (x).2.2. Further recommendations on the adoption of the approaches outlined in ENV 1991-2-2 are given in clause 5 of this NAD. 59) in Northern Ireland.2. 4 Reference standards References in the ENV to national regulations refer to: 2.2) to be used for the design of buildings to be constructed in England. b) A calibration against Approved Document B (1992 Edition) of the Building Regulations 1991 (England and Wales).2.6 1.1 (3) 4.0 9.7 25 W/m °C 2 1. but reference should be made to the latest editions.8 0.1 (3) 4. 1 Scope This NAD provides information to enable ENV 1991-2-2:1995 (EC1: Part 2. of.2.2.0 9.0 25 W/m2 °C 50 W/m2 °C 0.1 Normative references a) BUILDING AND BUILDINGS.r) Type of test factor (convection) (¾n.1 P (1) a Configuration factor (Î) Convection factor on unexposed face (µc) Type of test factor (radiation) (¾n. 3 Partial safety factors and other values to be used in ENV 1991-2-2 In the referenced clauses.0 1. the values given in Table 1 shall be used for the design of buildings in place of the “boxed” values given in the ENV.3.75a 1. Wales and Northern Ireland. (SI 1991 No.1 (4) 4.7 25 W/m2 °C 25 W/m2 °C 50 W/m2 °C 0.3 (2) 4. 2. normative references are cited at the appropriate b) BUILDING REGULATIONS.1 (2) 4.0 Guidance on choice of value given in clause 5 of this NAD. These and Wales.1 (2) 4. Its application does not extend to civil engineering works.4 (2) D.0 0. or revisions (SRNI 1990 No. any of these publications apply to this NAD only Reference standards cited in ENV 1991-2-2 are when incorporated in it by updating or revision. page (xi). by reference. listed in Table 2 of this NAD. a) A textual examination of ENV 1991-2-2:1995. Subsequent amendments to.2.0a 1. © BSI 03-2000 v .1 (3) F.0 1.0 0.6 0.c) Emissivity of fire (¼f) Material emissivity (¼m) Standard curve: coefficient of heat transfer-convection (µc) External curve: coefficient of heat transfer-convection (µc) Hydrocarbon curve coefficient of heat transfer-convection (µc) Active fire protection factor Partial safety factor for permanent actions in accidental situation (¾GA) 1.1 (10) 4.
2.0 0.1 (1) The nominal temperature-time curve considered as appropriate for buildings is the standard temperature-time curve as defined in 4.r ¾n.2 ENV 1994-1.DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996 Table 2 — Reference in ENV 1991-2-2 to other publications Document referenced in ENV Title Status UK Document CPD 89/106/EEC ID “Safety in the case of fire” ENV 1991-1 ENV 1992-1.2 ENV 1996-1. General Clause 1.7 should be followed when designing in accordance with ENV 1991-2-2. Accordingly. The factor shall not be used with other numerical models of heat transfer.e.1) and (4.1 to 5. Table 3 — Fire test correlation factor Mode of heat transfer Fire test factor National value Construction material Convection ¾n. The fire test factor is applicable only to the calculation of heat flux for use with the appropriate material thermal models.2 ISO 3898 ISO 1716 a Construction products directive Interpretative document Basis of design Design of concrete structures — Structural fire design Design of steel structures — Structural fire design Design of composite structures — Structural fire design Design of timber Structures — Structural fire design Design of masonry structures — Structural fire design Design of aluminium structures — Structural fire design Bases for design of structures — Notations — general symbols Building materials — Determination of calorific potential EC Directive CPD 89/106/EEC Published in Official Journal of European Communities ref.2) in a simplistic manner.2 (1) P ENV 1991-2-2 is intended for use in conjunction with the fire design parts of ENV 1992 to ENV 1996 and ENV 1999 which give rules for designing structures for fire resistance.2.2) with data from fire resistance tests.2 ENV 1995-1. Fire resistance in this context is confined to load bearing function.1.2. to correlate the results of the approach given in equations (4.45 1. b) Clause 4. a factor is applied to each of the net heat flux components.r 1. 5. the ability of the structure to sustain actions during the relevant fire exposure.2 ENV 1993-1.0 All Steel Concrete vi © BSI 03-2000 .2 of the ENV.1 Section 1. i. as given in Table 3. according to defined criteria.2 ENV 1999-1.1) and (4.2 Section 4.1 (2) The net heat fluxes due to radiation and convection are calculated in equations (4. Thermal actions a) Clause 4. detailed in ENV 1992 to ENV 1996 and ENV 1999.c Radiation Radiation ¾n. 94(c)62/01 ENV ENV ENV ENV ENV ENV In Draft DD ENV 1991-1 ENV 1992-1-2 (BS 8110-2)a ENV 1993-1-2 (BS 5950-8)a ENV 1994-1-2 ENV 1995-1-2 ENV 1996-1-2 (BS 5628-3)a BS 8118-1 ISO Standard ISO 3898 ISO Standard ISO 1716 To be used until DD ENV is published 5 Additional recommendations NOTE 5. 5.
5 Annex C Thermal actions for external members (informative) Clause C.1) and (B.1 and 4. the calculation method shall not be used for compartments with lining materials having thermal inertias (i. Accordingly.2 1. so that the resulting emissivity and coefficient of convection (in accordance with 4. institutional. Figure 1 — Definition of building height ¾q as defined in equation (D. residential. Building types are distinguished by the nature of occupancy.e. as described in Figure 1.4 Annex B Parametric time-temperature curves (informative) Annex B (1) The use of parametric temperature-time curves is the subject of current research. the parametric approach detailed in Annex B of ENV 199-2-2 is not yet considered sufficiently proven for adoption in this NAD.DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996 5.6 © BSI 03-2000 vii .1 (1) Calculations of the maximum temperatures reached in a fire compartment shall not be used for compartments whose construction is of a highly insulating nature with respect to fire conditions.4 1. Building Height (see Figure 1) Table 4 — Factors quantifying consequences of failure (¾q1) to be used in equation (1) Occupancy k 20 m k5m k 10 m k 30 m > 30 m > 10 m Depth of lowest basement Flats. offices Assembly. ¾q values vary with building type and height.6 1.1 (3) The safety factor ¾q is considered to be dependent on both the risk of a fully developed fire occurring and the consequences of structural failure. Building height refers to the height of the top storey floor level above ground. Full details of occupancies are given in Annex A to this NAD.2 (2) An approved extinguishing system may be considered in place when the building is fitted throughout with an automatic sprinkler system meeting the relevant recommendations of BS 5306-2. 5. there has not been sufficient validation of the approach given in equations (B.2).8 1. the parameter b in Table E.8 0. Accordingly.e.1) is to be given by: ¾q = ¾q1 · ¾q2 (1) where ¾q1 and ¾q2 are factors quantifying the risk and consequence of failure and are defined in Table 4 and Table 5.6 0.1 0. i.2) may be established.2.1 2. the relevant occupancy rating together with the additional requirements for life safety. correlation needs to be established between material temperature response (as calculated in section 4) and recorded experimental data.1 of Annex E) less than 720 J/m2 S1/2 K. 5. shops Industrial Car parks 0. dwellings. In addition. 5.3 Annex A Parametric fire exposure (informative) Clause A.6 Annex D Fire load densities (informative) a) Clause D.2. Thus. At this stage.
Table 6 — Active protection factor Active Protection Measures National values for ¾n ¾q k 1.6 5. as referenced in clause 6 of this NAD.5 and 3. shall have the values given in Table 6. The active protection factor is dependent on the safety factor ¾q in equation (1).0. car parks Open car parks (as defined in Annex A of this NAD) 1.4 500 750 1 000 Flats. Further details may be found in the appropriate national regulations.2. b) Clause D.7 Annex E Equivalent time of fire exposure (informative) a) Annex E (1) The equivalent time of fire exposure approach should not be used for design of compartments with very low ventilation.DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996 Table 5 — Factors quantifying risk of failure (¾q2) factor to be used in equation (1) Occupancy ¾q2 Table 7 — Characteristic variable fire load densities Variable fire load density (qf. > 2 500 2 500 – 720 < 720 0.09 c) Annex E (5) The ventilation factor. car parks.3 (2) The protected fire load factor.60 (as defined 5. defined by wf in equation (E.3). institutional. assembly & recreation Storage.5 (2) The combustion factor.07 0. given as Ói in equation (D. industrial. assembly & recreation.3 (2) Table 7 gives the fire load densities (related to the floor area of the compartment).0. Table 8 — Conversion factor Thermal inertia (J/m2s1/2K) kb given in ENV 1991-2-2 kb for use in UK Approved sprinkler system 0. industrial The differentiation factor accounting for active protection measures.0 0. the design fire load shall be calculated based on the occupancy with the highest characteristic fire load density.k) MJ/m2 Occupancy Flats. d) Clause D. e. defined by ¾n in equation (D.0.2 0. storage. institutional.2) Other 1. dwellings.09.2) shall have the value 1. has a value greater than 3.75 1. Guidance on the thermal properties of a range of typical construction materials is given in Annex B of this NAD. additional considerations that are beyond the scope of this NAD may demand that an approved sprinkler system is installed. Detailed recommendations are given in the relevant national guidance.2 shall be replaced nationally by the values given in Table 8.8 0. a single compartment multi-storey building. These variable fire loads depend on the nature of the compartment’s occupancy.2. to be used is 0. The values assigned to the conversion factors in ENV 1991-2.1).07 0. b) Annex E (4) Where no detailed assessment of the thermal properties of the enclosure is made. where the ventilation factor wf. given as mi in equation (D.04 0.055 0. defined in equation (E. The approach has only been validated up to a limiting time equivalent duration of 120 min (without any factoring of fire load density) and should not be used beyond this limit. The provision of sprinklers and other fire protection measures is recommended for certain building types and sizes.6 ¾q > 1.0.g.0 For certain building types. c) Clause D.2) shall have the value 1. shall be limited to values between 0. offices Shops. viii © BSI 03-2000 .05 0. dwellings. defined as kb in equation (E. the conversion factor. Where a single fire compartment contains several different occupancies. i.e. offices Shops.2).3). information on which is given in Annex A of this NAD.
altering. rail. cinemas. Place of storage or deposit of goods or materials. public toilets. establishments. law courts. Each storey is to be naturally ventilated by permanent openings having an aggregate vent area not less than 5 % of the total floor area. educational. passenger stations & termini for air. with differing occupancy. clerical work. dance halls. generating power or slaughtering livestock. Car parks designed to admit and accommodate cars. audio or visual recording or performance (not open to public). washing. zoos & menageries. Where a building contains more than one compartment. of which at least 50 % should be on opposing walls. television. Offices Shops Assembly & recreation Industrial Storage Car parks (open) © BSI 03-2000 ix . with due regard in each compartment of the possible increased risk from adjacent compartments. hotel. Offices or premises used for the purposes of administration. and premises to which the public is invited to deliver or collect goods in connection with their hire. hall of residence. Place of assembly. at that level. sports pavilions. recording & film studios open to the public. In all cases. dancing schools. including bingo halls. exhibition & leisure centres. health centres & surgeries. broadcasting. Occupancy Description Flats Dwellings Institutional Flat. The occupancy description should describe the main use of the compartment. due regard shall be given to the relevant guidance contained in National Building Regulations with regard to provision of the fire-resisting (separating) function. entertainment–. nursing home. conference. crematoria. cleaning. casinos. repair or other treatment. radio. where such persons sleep on the premises. clinics. libraries open to the public. with no basement storey. maisonette. Dwellinghouse. swimming pool buildings. school with living accommodation. theatres. repairing. funfairs & amusement arcades. non-residential day centres. home for old or children. sports stadia. churches & other buildings of worship. non-residential clubs. gymnasia. skating rinks. Shops or premises used for a retail trade or business (including sale to members of the public food or drink for immediate consumption on the premises). motor cycles and passenger or light goods vehicles weighing no more than 2 500 kg (gross). Factories and other premises used for manufacturing. breaking-up. museums & art galleries. road and sea travel. place of detention. adapting or processing any article. boarding house. riding schools. handling money. entertainment and recreation. concert halls. residential college. Hospital. each compartment may be treated individually.DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996 Annex A (normative) Description of occupancies Occupancy is a means of describing the use classification of a building or (where the building is sub-divided into compartments) to a compartment. communications.
33 % ordinary concrete and 17 of plasterboard (13 mm thick) on blockwork 80 % bounding surfaces of sheet steel and 20 % ordinary concrete 20 % bounding surfaces ordinary concrete and 80 % double plasterboard (2 ×13 mm thick) stud partition Wood 1 200 2 000 1 320 450 x © BSI 03-2000 .DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996 Annex B (normative) Thermal properties of typical compartment linings Nature of Compartment Linings Thermal Inertia (J/m2s1/2K) Bounding structures of ordinary concrete Brickwork Bounding structures of lightweight concrete (density = 500 kg/m3) 50 % of bounding structures of ordinary concrete and 50 % lightweight concrete Ordinary plasterboard Vermiculite plaster 2 400 1 500 700 1 500 750 650 Bounded with 33 % lightweight concrete and 67 % plasterboard (2 ×13 mm thick) stud 1 000 partition 50 % bounding structures of lightweight concrete.
Fire Safety. Glossary of terms associated with fire — Structural fire protection. 21st December 1988. General terms and phenomena of fire. Constrado. Approved Document B. published in Fire Safety Journal. ISO publications International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Fire safety of bare external steel. CONSIEL INTERNATIONAL DU BATIMENT (CIB). © BSI 03-2000 xi . Belfast: HMSO. London BS 5306. London BS 4422. 1989. ISSN 03786978. NORTHERN IRELAND. 1986. Council Directive (89/106/EEC). Bases for design of structures — Notations — General symbols.) ISO 3938:1987. LAW M. Design guide — Structural fire safety. Glossary of terms associated with fire. BS 4422-1:1987. Fire extinguishing installations and equipment on premises. ISSN 0379-7112 CONSIEL INTERNATIONAL DU BATIMENT (CIB). Informative references BSI publications BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. A conceptual approach towards a probability based design guide on structural fire safety. Elsevier. SRNI 1990. and O’BRIEN T. Elsevier. Other publications DoE/WELSH OFFICE. regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to construction products. 59.DD ENV 1991-2-2:1996 List of references (see clause 2) Normative references BSI publications BRITISH STANDARDS INSTITUTION. Vol 6. January 1983. 1. London: HMSO. The Building Regulations 1991. Vol 9. BS 4422-2:1990. Report of a CIB W14 Workshop. Vol 32. Specification for sprinkler systems. The Approximation of laws. published in Fire Safety Journal. ISO 1716:1973. (All publications are available from BSI Sales. 1. 1992 Edition. The Building Regulations (Northern Ireland) 1990. pp 77–136.. 1981. Official Journal of the European Communities. 1983. No. BS 5306-2:1990. Structural Fire safety. EUROPEAN COMMISSION. Building materials — Determination of calorific potential. No. No. Geneva.
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After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their comments. B-1050 Brussels © 1995 All rights of reproduction and communication in any form and by any means reserved in all countries to CEN and its members Ref. Finland. Iceland.EUROPEAN PRESTANDARD PRÉNORME EUROPÉENNE EUROPÄISCHE VORNORM ICS 91. The period of validity of this ENV is limited initially to three years. CEN members are required to announce the existence of this ENV in the same way as for an EN and to make the ENV available promptly at national level in an appropriate form. structures. Netherlands. Greece. Switzerland and United Kingdom. Italy. Norway. design. No. France. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the ENV) until the final decision about the possible conversion of the ENV into an EN is reached. particularly on the question whether the ENV can be converted into an European Standard (EN).00 ENV 1991-2-2:1995 February 1995 Descriptors: Buildings. Portugal. Belgium. Germany. Ireland.040. CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria. fire resistance English version Eurocode 1 — Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 2-2: Actions on structures — Actions on structures exposed to fire Eurocode 1 — Bases du calcul et actions sur les structures — Partie 2-2: Actions sur les structures — Actions sur les structures exposées au feu Eurocode 1 — Grundlagen der Tragwerksplanung und Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke — Teil 2-2: Einwirkungen auf Tragwerke — Einwirkungen im Brandfall This European Prestandard (ENV) was approved by CEN on 1993-06-30 as a prospective standard for provisional application. CEN European Committee for Standardization Comité Européen de Normalisation Europäisches Komitee für Normung Central Secretariat: rue de Stassart 36. Denmark. computation. Spain. ENV 1991-2-2:1995 E . Luxembourg. Sweden.
(15) It is intended that this Prestandard is used in conjunction with the NAD valid in the country where the building or civil engineering works is located. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures. The authorities in each member country are expected to review the “boxed values” and may substitute alternative definitive values for these safety elements for use in national application. some of the Structural Eurocodes cover some of these aspects in informative annexes. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. Background to the Eurocode programme (4) The Commission of the European Communities (CEC) initiated the work of establishing a set of harmonized technical rules for the design of building and civil engineering works which would initially serve as an alternative to the different rules in force in the various member states and would ultimately replace them. Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium alloy structures. (14) Some of the supporting European or International Standards may not be available by the time this Prestandard is issued. Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. It is therefore anticipated that a National Application Document (NAD) giving any substitute definitive values for safety elements. the CEC transferred the work of further development.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Foreword Objectives of the Eurocodes (1) The “Structural Eurocodes” comprise a group of standards for the structural and geotechnical design of buildings and Civil engineering works. Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures. Eurocode programme (7) Work is in hand on the following Structural Eurocodes. EN 1999. (9) This Part of Eurocode 1 is being published as a European Prestandard (ENV) with an initial life of three years. and the EFTA Secretariat agreed to support the CEN work. health and other matters covered by the essential requirements of the Construction Products Directive (CPD). after consulting their respective member states. will be issued by each member country or its Standards Organization. EN 1997. EN 1993. National Application Documents (NAD’s) (13) In view of the responsibilities of authorities in member countries for safety. each generally consisting of a number of parts: EN 1991. issue and updating of the Structural Eurocodes to CEN. referencing compatible supporting standards and providing guidance on the national application of this Prestandard. Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures. (8) Separate Sub-Committees have been formed by CEN/TC250 for the various Eurocodes listed above. (6) CEN Technical Committee CEN/TC250 is responsible for all Structural Eurocodes. EN 1995. (11) After approximately two years CEN members will be invited to submit formal comments to be taken into account in determining future actions. EN 1992. and the standard of the workmanship. (10) This Prestandard is intended for experimental application and for the submission of comments. EN 1996. (12) Meanwhile feedback and comments on this Prestandard should be sent to the Secretariat of CEN/TC250/SC1 at the following address: until end May 1995: SNV/SIA Selnaustrasse 16 Postfach CH-8039 ZURICH SWITZERLAND from June 1995: SIS/BST Box 5630 S. EN 1994.114 86 Stockholm SWEDEN or to your National Standards Organization. (5) In 1990. Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design. EN 1998. needed to comply with the assumptions of the design rules. (2) They cover execution and control only to the extent that is necessary to indicate the quality of the construction products. Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. These technical rules became known as the “Structural Eurocodes”. certain safety elements in this ENV have been assigned indicative values which are identified by (“boxed values”). (3) Until the necessary set of harmonised technical specifications for products and for methods of testing their performance are available. 2 © BSI 03-2000 .
in the case of fire. © BSI 03-2000 3 . — the occupants can leave the works or can be rescued by other means. (22) Required functions and levels of performance are generally specified by the national authorities — mostly in terms of standard fire resistance rating.1. requirements by authorities will be less prescriptive and may allow for alternative strategies. (25) Therefore this document mainly covers thermal actions arising from the standard temperature-time curve and other nominal temperature-time curves. which will be prepared after prenormative research is completed. The normative annexes have the same status as the sections to which they relate. — the spread of fire to neighbouring construction works is limited.2. that the acceptance of fire models by national authorities differs throughout Europe and that present national regulations may only allow for a design for standard fire resistance requirements. including national supplements. (17) This Part is complemented by a number of annexes. — the safety of rescue teams is taken into consideration”. (21) The Structural Eurocodes deal with specific aspects of passive fire protection in terms of designing structures and parts thereof for adequate load-bearing capacity and for limiting fire spread as relevant. however. directly exposed property. will be specified by the national authorities.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Matters specific to this Prestandard (16) The scope of Eurocode 1 is defined in clause 1.1. that fire safety engineering calls for more general fire models than included in this document. — the generation and spread of fire and smoke within the works are limited. (23) It is recognized. Where fire safety engineering for assessing passive and active measures is accepted. (24) On the other hand it is also recognized. including passive and active fire protection measures.1 and the scope of this Part of Eurocode 1 is defined in 1. (18) The general objectives of fire protection are to limit risks with respect to the individual and society. they are given in informative annexes. some normative and some informative. Such fire models may be given in future supplements. neighbouring property. (20) According to the Interpretative Document “Safety in Case of Fire” the essential requirement may be observed by following various fire safety strategies. and where required. (19) Construction Products Directive 89/106/EEC gives the following essential requirement for the limitation of fire risks: “The construction works must be designed and built in such a way.3. that in the event of an outbreak of fire — the load-bearing capacity of the construction can be assumed for a specified period of time. Additional Parts of Eurocode 1 which are planned are indicated in clause 1.1. Physically based (parametric) thermal actions are only dealt with where simplified analytical models or direct design data are available. The field of application for the various thermal actions and design procedures. (26) Application of the thermal actions according to this Part and the design of structures according to the fire design Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999 is illustrated in Table 1.
2: for verifying standard temperature-time curve other nominal temperature-time curves standard temperature-time curve parametric fire exposure standard fire resistance requirements given in ENV 1992–1996.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Table 1 — Design procedures Thermal actions according to national specifications: design by prescriptive rules/tabulated data design by calculation models given in ENV 1991. Part 2. 1999 1999 as relevanta or from fire resistance tests as relevanta other nominal fire resistance requirements mainly from fire resistance tests as relevanta fire resistance as relevanta — for equivalent time of fire exposure fire resistance — for specified period of time or — for entire fire duration not applicable as relevanta as relevanta a depending on the extent to which prescriptive rules and calculation models are given in the respective fire Parts and the relevant scope of application 4 © BSI 03-2000 . given in ENV 1992–1996.
Actions for temperature analysis (thermal actions) 4.4 Hydrocarbon curve 4. Actions for structural analysis (mechanical actions) Annex A (informative) Parametric fire exposure Annex B (informative) Parametric temperature-time curves Annex C (informative) Thermal actions for external members — simplified calculation method Annex D (informative) Fire load densities Annex E (informative) Equivalent time of fire exposure Page 2 2 2 2 2 3 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 10 12 13 13 13 13 Annex F (normative) Basis of design — supplementary clauses to ENV 1991-1 for the structural analysis in fire design situations Figure C. through or forced draught Figure C.1 General rules 4. no through draught Figure C.2.4 Definitions 1.4 — Flame dimensions.1.3 Parametric fire exposure Section 5.3 Distinction between principles and application rules 1.2 Scope of ENV 1991-2-2 Actions on structures exposed to fire 1.3 Further Parts of ENV 1991 1.2 Standard temperature-time curve 4.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Contents Foreword Objectives of the Eurocodes Background to the Eurocode programme Eurocode programme National Application Documents (NAD’s) Matters specific to this Prestandard Section 1.1 General 4.2.3 External fire curve 4.2 Normative references 1.2 — Format for fire load classification of occupancies Table E.1 Scope of ENV 1991 — Eurocode 1 1.2 Nominal temperature-time curves 4.5 Notations Section 2.1 — Deflection of flame by wind Figure C.1. General 1.1.3 — Deflection of flame by balcony Figure C.1 Accidental situations 3. Fire design situations 3.2.5 — Deflection of flame by awning Table 1 — Design procedures Table D.1 — Conversion factor kb depending on the thermal properties of the enclosure Page 30 21 21 23 24 25 4 28 29 30 14 14 14 15 15 15 15 16 17 17 18 26 29 © BSI 03-2000 5 .1 — Net calorific value Hu of combustible materials Table D.2 — Flame dimensions.3 Exposure to fire 3.2 Design fire 3.4 Post-fire situations Section 4. Design procedure and classification of actions Section 3.1 Scope 1.2.
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Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 2. (4)P Application of this Part and the fire design Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999 is only valid. in developing the design of repairs and alterations or. Basis of design for structures — Notations. (3) ENV 1991 also covers structural design during execution and structural design for temporary structures. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 5: Actions induced by cranes and machinery. 1. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 2. © BSI 03-2000 .1 Scope 1. (5) ENV 1991 does not completely cover special design situations which require unusual reliability considerations such as nuclear structures for which specified design procedures should be used.7: Accidental actions. 1. ENV 1991-4. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 2. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 2. These normative references are cited in the appropriate places in the text and publications listed hereafter.1. provisions from other standards.2 (1)P. 7 NOTE The following European Prestandards which are published or in preparation are cited at the appropriate places in the text and publications listed hereafter. at present. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 3: Traffic loads on bridges. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 1: Basis of design.2. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 4: Actions in silos and tanks.3: Snow loads.5: Thermal actions. ISO 3898:1987. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 2. ENV 1991-2-4. Some data and models for physically based thermal actions are given in informative annexes. It relates to all circumstances in which a structure is required to give adequate performance. (3)P This Part provides general principles and actions for the structural design of buildings and civil engineering works and shall be used in conjunction with ENV 1991-1 “Basis of design”. Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures. ENV 1992. ENV 1991-3. are being prepared or are planned are given in 1. (4) ENV 1991 is not directly intended for the structural appraisal of existing construction.2 Normative references This European Prestandard incorporates by dated or undated reference.1.6: Loads and deformations imposed during execution. General symbols. It relates to all circumstances in which a structure is required to give adequate performance in fire exposure. ENV 1991-2-3. Eurocode 1: Basis of design and actions on structures — Part 2. General 1. if the normal temperature design of structures is in accordance with the relevant Structural Eurocodes.1. ENV 1991-2-7.1.2 Scope of ENV 1991-2-2 Actions on structures exposed to fire (1)P This Part is concerned with actions on structures exposed to fire.3 Further Parts of ENV 1991 (1) Further Parts of ENV 1991 which. (5) This Part also covers structural design for temporary structures relating to the subjects mentioned in 1. (2) Thermal actions given in the main text of this document are mainly confined to nominal thermal actions.4: Wind loads. for assessing changes of use. ENV 1991-1. It is intended for use in conjunction with the fire design Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999 which give rules for designing structures for fire resistance. other Parts of ENV 1991 and ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999. ENV 1991-5. 1. ENV 1991-2-5. (2) It may also be used as a basis for the design of structures not covered in ENV 1992-1999 and where other materials or other structural design actions are involved.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Section 1. self-weight and imposed loads.. ENV 1991-2-1.1 Scope of ENV 1991 — Eurocode 1 (1) P ENV 1991 provides general principles and actions for the structural design of buildings and civil engineering works including some geotechnical aspects and shall be used in conjunction with ENV 1992-1999. ENV 1991-2-6.1: Densities.
the value of qd makes allowance for uncertainties and safety requirements 1. ENV 1996. 1. forces. 1.e. Eurocode 8: Earthquake resistant design of structures.1 configuration factor 9 [–] ratio between the solid angle by which. and 2 . ENV 1997. ENV 1995.) 1.4.4. (5) It is permissible to use alternative rules different from the application rules given in this Eurocode. (3) The principles are preceded by the letter P. ENV 1998. stresses. 1. Eurocode 7: Geotechnical design. deformations (as compared to action effects S: Only forces and moments.4 Definitions For the purposes of this Prestandard.3 design fire a specified fire development assumed for design purposes 1. 1. as this clause. ENV 1999.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 ENV 1993. “Basis of design” and the additional definitions given below are specific to this Part.4.2 convective heat transfer coefficient !c [W/m2·K] convective heat flux to the member related to the difference between the bulk temperature of gas bordering the relevant surface of the member and the temperature of that surface 1. Eurocode 5: Design of timber structures. (6) In this Part 2. a basic list of definitions is provided in ENV 1991-1. as well as — requirements and analytical models for which no alternative is permitted unless specifically stated. provided it is shown that the alternative rules accord with the relevant principles and have at least the same reliability. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures.5 effects of actions E moments.2 of ENV 1991 the application rules are identified by a number in brackets.4. from a certain point of the member surface the radiating environment can be seen. (2) The principles comprise: — general statements and definitions for which there is no alternative.3 Distinction between principles and application rules (1) Depending on the character of the individual clauses. (4) The application rules are generally recognized rules which follow the principles and satisfy their requirements.4 design fire load density qd [MJ/m2] the fire load density considered for determining thermal actions in fire design. i. Eurocode 9: Design of aluminium alloy structures.g.4. Eurocode 6: Design of masonry structures. e. distinction is made in this Part 2. which can be exposed to fire from different parts of the facade. ENV 1994. Eurocode 4: Design of composite steel and concrete structures.2 of ENV 1991 between principles and application rules.6 external fire curve a nominal temperature-time curve intended for the outside of separating external walls.4. directly from the inside of the respective fire compartment or from a compartment situated below or adjacent to the respective external wall 8 © BSI 03-2000 .
14 hydrocarbon fire curve a nominal temperature-time curve for representing hydrocarbon type fire loads 1.4. in case of fire and failure of the structure on one side of the wall.4.7 external member structural members located outside the building enclosure which may be exposed to fire through openings in the building enclosure 1.16 load bearing function the ability of a structure or a member to sustain specified actions during the relevant fire.17 net heat flux hnet [W/m2] energy per unit time and surface area absorbed by members 1. thermal deformations or thermal gradients causing forces and moments 1. including resistance to horizontal loading such that.12 fire wall a wall separating two spaces (generally two buildings) which is designed for fire resistance and structural stability.8 fire compartment a space within a building extending over one or several floors which is enclosed by separating members such that fire spread beyond the compartment is prevented during the relevant fire exposure 1.10 fire load density q [MJ/m2] the fire load per unit area.15 indirect fire actions thermal expansions.4.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 1. for a specified fire exposure and for a specified period of time 1.4. according to a defined criteria 184.108.40.206.13 fully developed fire the state of full involvement of all combustible surfaces in a fire within a specified space 1.9 fire load Q [MJ] the sum of calorific energies which are released by combustion of all combustible materials in a space (building contents and construction elements) 220.127.116.11.11 fire resistance the ability of a structure or part of a structure or a member to fulfill required functions (load bearing function.1 of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999 for the fundamental combination (see Part 1 “Basis of design” of ENV 1991) © BSI 03-2000 9 .18 normal temperature design ultimate limit state design for ambient temperatures according to Part 1.4.4. related to the floor area: qf related to the surface area of the total enclosure. and/or separating function). including openings: qt 1. fire spread beyond the wall is avoided 1.
4.4.21 separating members structural and non-structural members (walls or floors) forming the enclosure of a fire compartment 1.25 temperature analysis the procedure of determining the temperature development in members on the basis of the thermal actions (net heat flux).4.20 separating function the ability of a separating member to prevent fire spread by passage of flames or hot gases (integrity) or ignition beyond the exposed surface (thermal insulation) during the relevant fire exposure 1.22 standard fire resistance the ability of a structure or part of it (usually only members) to fulfill required functions (loadbearing function. NOTE The notations used are based on ISO 3898:1987. the standard temperature-time curve. 1.24 structural members the load-bearing members of a structure.4. including bracings 1. (2) A basic list of notations is provided in ENV 1991-1 “Basis of design” and the additional notations below are specific to this Part.4.23 standard temperature-time curve a nominal curve for representing mainly cellulosic type fire loads 1.g. in terms of conventional curves.19 resultant emissivity ¼ [–] the ratio between the actual radiative heat flux to the member and the net heat flux that would occur if the member and its radiative environment are considered as black bodies 1. adopted for classification and verification of fire resistance. where relevant 1. — parametric.5 Notations (1) For the purpose of this Prestandard.4.4. and/or separating function). the following symbols apply. standard fire resistance requirements are expressed in terms of periods of time such as 30. determined on the basis of fire models and the specific physical parameters defining the conditions in the fire compartment. 60 or more minutes 1.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 1.26 temperature-time curves gas temperatures in the environment of member surfaces as a function of time. They may be — nominal. Latin upper case letters A Aind E G Q action from fire exposure indirect fire action effect of actions permanent action variable action © BSI 03-2000 10 .4. Normally. e. the thermal material properties of the members and of protective surfaces. for the standard fire exposure — for a stated period of time.27 thermal actions actions on the structure described by the net heat flux to the members 1.4.
relevant for steel Gr radiation temperature of the environment of the member [°C] Gg gas temperature in fire exposure [°C] Gm surface temperature of the member [°C] Go initial gas temperature [°C] Greek lower case letters µ coefficient of heat transfer [W/m2°K] ¼res ? ¾ Indices c cr fi d k r t resultant emissivity [–] load combination coefficients [–] partial safety factor [–] convective component of heat transfer critical value identifies values relevant for fire design design value characteristic value radiative component of heat transfer duration of fire exposure © BSI 03-2000 11 . G [°C] = T [K] – 273 Gcr critical temperature [°C].requ required standard fire resistance time (nominal value) [min.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Rfi load bearing resistance.] tfi. relevant in fire exposure Latin lower case letters h heat flux to unit surface area [W/m2] tfi standard fire resistance (property of the member or structure) [min.] Greek upper case letters 9 configuration factor [–] G temperature [°C].
t or in the temperature domain: Gd k Gcr. including tabulated data. (3) Verification may be in the time domain: tfi. or by using calculation models. Design procedure and classification of actions (1)P Structural fire design involves applying actions for temperature analysis and actions for structural analysis according to this Part and other Parts of ENV 1991.t Gd Gcr.d.d U tfi.2) (2.d. to structures which are designed using the rules given in the fire design Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999.1) (4)P Actions on structures from fire exposure are classified as accidental actions.3) (2. 12 © BSI 03-2000 . — parametric temperature-time curves. (2) Depending on the representation of the thermal actions in design.d Rfi. the following procedures are distinguished: — nominal temperature-time curves which are applied for a specified period of time.requ or in the strength domain: Rfi. and for which structures are designed by observing prescriptive rules.d.requ required standard fire resistance time (2.t U Efi.d.d design value of the standard fire resistance design value of the load bearing resistance for the fire situation design value of the relevant effects of actions for the fire situation design value of material temperature design value of the critical material temperature tfi.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Section 2. see ENV 1991-1.d where: tfi.t Efi. which are calculated on the basis of physical parameters and for which structures are designed by using calculation models.
fire exposure only from one side at a time needs to be applied. (4) For structures where particular risks of fire arise in the wake of other accidental actions. (4) For separating external walls fire exposure from inside (from the respective fire compartment) and alternatively from outside (from other fire compartments) should be considered.3 Exposure to fire (1)P When determining the fire exposure of a member. 3.4 Post-fire situations (1) Post-fire situations after the structure has cooled down need not be considered in design. 3. (3) Simultaneous occurrence with other independent accidental actions need not be considered. (3) For external members. where the national authorities comprehensively specify structural fire safety requirements. severe enough to cause structural damage. it may be assumed in the design that the relevant fire design situations are accounted for by the requirements.1 Accidental situations (1)P The occurrence of fires. the performance of the structure beyond this period need not be considered.and load-dependent structural behaviour prior to the accidental situation need not be considered. the position of the design fire in relation to the member shall be taken into account. © BSI 03-2000 13 . 3. shall be considered as an accidental situation.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Section 3. (2) For verifying the separating function. (2) The relevant design situations and the associated accidental actions of fire should be determined on the basis of a fire risk assessment. (2) When designing for a required fire resistance period.2 Design fire (1)P Fire compartments shall be designed to prevent fire spread to other fire compartments during the relevant fire exposure. 3. unless (4) applies. (3) The design fire should represent a fully developed fire within a specified space. (2)P The design fire shall be applied only to one fire compartment of the building at a time. fire exposure through facades or roofs should be considered. Fire design situations NOTE For structures. (5) Time. this risk should be considered when determining the overall safety concept.
heat flow due to radiation may be neglected and for convection !c =  [W/m2°K] may be adopted. (7) The surface temperature Gm results from the temperature analysis of the member according to the fire design Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and 1999.1 General rules · (1)P Thermal actions are given by the net heat flux hnet [W/m2] to the surface of the member. — specified in terms of physical parameters.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Section 4. (4. as relevant. see 4.67·10–8 · [(Gr + 273)4 – (Gm + 273)4] [W/m2] where: 9 Gr configuration factor [–] radiation temperature of the environment of the member [°C] ¼res resultant emissivity [–] Gm surface temperature of the member [°C] 5. (10) On the unexposed side of separating members.2. see 4.2 to 4. Actions for temperature analysis (thermal actions) 4. (6) The radiation temperature Gr may be represented by the gas temperature Gg.1) ¾n.0].0] is equal to [1.67 · 10– 8 Stefan Boltzmann constant [W/m2°K4] (4) Where the fire design Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999 give no specific data.2.c + ¾n.2) hnet.1 General (1) The nominal temperature-time curves given in 4.2. the configuration factor should be taken as 9 = [1. (3) The radiative heat flux component per unit surface area is determined by: · (4.3) hnet.1 (11).3.c is given by equ.2. (8) The convective heat flux component per unit surface area should be determined by: · [W/m2] (4.r is given by equ.2 Nominal temperature-time curves 4.d = ¾n. see 4. (11) Gas temperatures Gg may be: — adopted as nominal temperature-time curves.4 should be used in accordance with the relevant national field of application. (4.c ¾n.r [W/m2] where: · hnet.r 14 factor to account for different national types of test and equals [1.1) hnet.2) · hnet.r · hnet.c © BSI 03-2000 . see 4.2.0] as ¾n.2. (2) For design to nominal temperature-time curves the net heat flux due to convection and radiation is: · · · (4. (2)P The net heat flux hnet shall be determined by considering thermal radiation and convection from and to the fire environment. (5) For the resultant emissivity ¼res relevant for nominal temperature-time curves.c = µc·(Gg – Gm) where: !c Gg coefficient of heat transfer by convection [W/m2°K] gas temperature of the environment of the member in fire exposure [°C] Gm surface temperature of the member [°C] (9) For the coefficient of heat transfer by convection !c relevant for nominal temperature-time curves.r = 9·¼res·5. see 4.c · hnet. 4.
5t) + 20 where: Gg t gas temperature in the fire compartment time [°C] [min] (4.3 External fire curve (1) The external fire curve is given by: Gg = 660 (1-0.8t) + 20 where: Gg t gas temperature in the environment of the member time [°C] [min] [°C] (4. ¼m should be used as [0.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 (3) The resultant emissivity should be introduced as: ¼res = ¼f · ¼m where: ¼f ¼m emissivity related to fire compartment. 325 e–0.3 Parametric fire exposure (1) Parametric fire exposures and related data are given in informative annexes to this document for use in accordance with the national field of application.2.32t – 0.7) (2) The coefficient of heat transfer by convection is: !c =  W/m2°K 4. usually taken as [0.675 e–2.4) 4.5) (2) The coefficient of heat transfer by convection is: !c =  W/m2°K 4.313 e–3.4 Hydrocarbon curve (1) The hydrocarbon temperature-time curve is given by: Gg = 1 080 (1-0.167t – 0.687 e–0.2.7] [–] (4.6) (2) The coefficient of heat transfer by convection is: !c =  W/m2°K 4.8) [°C] (4.2 Standard temperature-time curve (1) The standard temperature-time curve is given by: Gg = 20 + 345 log 10(8t + 1) where: Gg t gas temperature in the fire compartment time [°C] [min] [°C] (4. © BSI 03-2000 15 . where the fire design Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999 give no specific data.8] emissivity related to surface material.2.
— differing thermal expansion within statically indeterminate members. Actions for structural analysis (mechanical actions) (1) For direct actions.ind should be determined on the basis of the design values of the thermal and mechanical material properties given in the fire design Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999 and the relevant fire exposure. e. e. continuous floor slabs. (5) Indirect actions from adjacent members need not be considered when fire safety requirements refer to members.g. — thermal expansion of adjacent members. the simultaneity of actions and the combination rules see Annex F. e. — thermal gradients within cross-sections giving internal stresses. — are accounted for by conservative support and boundary conditions and/or conservatively specified fire safety requirements. displacement of column head due to the expanding floor slab.g. (2)P Imposed and constrained expansions and deformations caused by temperature changes due to fire exposure result in forces and moments. — thermal expansion of members affecting members outside the fire compartment.g. (3) For an assessment of indirect actions the following should be considered: — constrained thermal expansion of the members themselves. (4) Design values for indirect actions Ad. 16 © BSI 03-2000 . or expansion of suspended cables. columns in multi-storey frame structures with stiff walls.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Section 5. which shall be considered apart from those cases where they: — may be recognized a priori to be either negligible or favourable.
7t* – 0.1) [°C] [h] [h] [–] [J/m2s1/2K] [m1/2] [m2] [m] height of vertical openings total area of enclosure (walls. gas temperatures may be calculated in accordance with Annex B. (2) If fire load densities are specified without specific consideration to the combustion behaviour (see Annex D).20 area of vertical openings ( @ c 2 ) should observe the limits: 1 000 k b k 2 000 (B.324 e–0. ceiling and floor.2t* – 0. — ventilation conditions.02 k O k 0.2 Fire models (1) Calculations should be based on the assumption that the relevant fire load is burnt out — except where national specifications allow for limited periods of fire resistance in parametric exposure. (4) For internal members of fire compartments.1 General (1) Gas temperatures for calculating the net heat flux should be determined on the basis of physical parameters considering at least: — the fire load density. Annex C may be used. (3) With reference to 4. then this approach should be limited to fire compartments with mainly cellulosic type fire loads. Annex B (informative) Parametric temperature-time curves (1) The following temperature-time curves may be used in accordance with the national field of application. They are valid for fire compartments up to 100 m2 of floor area. (5) For external members exposed to fire from openings in the facade. (2) For fire compartments with approved extinguishing systems — for which structural fire design is nevertheless required — the design fire load density may be adapted according to Annex D. (6) Where internal members are designed according to prescriptive rules or tabulated data for the standard temperature-time curve.04/1160)2 where b = opening factor: Av h /At with the following limits: 0. — For internal members only the contribution of the fire compartment to the radiative heat flux needs to be considered.204 e–1. see Annex E. the radiative heat flux component should be calculated as the sum of the contributions of the fire compartment and of the flames emerging from the openings.1 of the main text the following applies: — For external members. including openings) [m2] density of boundary of enclosure [kg/m3] specific heat of boundary of enclosure thermal conductivity of boundary of enclosure [J/kgK] [W/mK] © BSI 03-2000 17 .1. without openings in the roof and for a maximum compartment height of 4 m.472 e–19t*) where: Gg t* t + O Av h At @ c 2 temperature in the fire compartment = t·+ with time = [O/b]2/(0.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Annex A (informative) Parametric fire exposure A. A. (3) The temperature-time curves in the heating phase are given by: Gg = 1 325 (1 – 0. an equivalent time of fire exposure may be used. D.
5) (B. — the size and temperatures of flame from openings.d k 1 000 [MJ/m2] design value of the fire load density related to the surface area Af of the floor [MJ/m2] for 0.4) (B.d = qf.1 and 4.2. ceiling and wall. Annex C (informative) Thermal actions for external members — simplified calculation method C.d qf.13 · 10–3 qt.d · +)/O [h] design value of the fire load density related to the surface area At of the enclosure whereby qt.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 (4) To account for enclosures with different layers of material b = ( @ c 2 ) should be introduced as: (B.2. minus total area of the window sum of window area on all walls (Aw = C Awi) i [m2] [m2] [m2] [m2] [m] Awi area of window “i” geometrical characteristic of an external structural element (diameter or side) 18 © BSI 03-2000 .5 < td* < 2 (7) The resultant emissivity ¼res and the coefficient of heat transfer by convection !c should be in accordance with 4.2 Symbols and units AF AT Aw d floor area of the fire compartment total area of floor.6) (B.5 td* U 2 (B.d·Af/At [MJ/m2] the following limits should be observed: 50 k qt.1 Scope (1) This method allows the determination of: — the maximum temperatures of a compartment fire.3) (6) The temperature-time curves in the cooling phase are given by: Gg = Gmax – 625 (t* – td*) Gg = Gmax – 250 (3 – td*)(t* – td*) Gg = Gmax – 250 (t* – td*) where: Gmax td* qt.d maximum temperature in the heating phase [°C] for t* = td* = (0. ceiling and floor b = ( @ c 2 ) should be introduced as: b = CbjAtj/CAtj where: Atj area of enclosure including openings with the thermal property bj for for td* k 0.2) where: si ci 2i bi thickness of layer i specific heat of layer i thermal conductivity of layer i = ( @i ci 2 i ) (5) To account for different materials in walls.2 of the main text. C. (2) This method considers steady-state conditions for the various parameters. — radiation and convection parameters.
the average height.AT)1/2 free burning fire duration (assumed to be 1 200) C.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 D g depth of the fire compartment acceleration due to gravity [m] [m/s2] [m] [m] [m] [m] [kg of wood] [kg of wood/m2] [kg of wood/s] [K] [K] [K] [K] [m/s] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m] [m1/2] [kW/m2K] [kg/m3] [m] [m–1/2] [kg/m2] [s] h ha hi l L Q R Ta Tf To Tz u w wi wz W x X z ! ¼ @ 2 ) ? EF weighted average of window heights on all walls horizontal projection of an awning height of window “i” axis length from window to the point where the calculation is made fire load (= AF. and the width are given in the relevant fire compartment as follows: — The weighted average of window heights on all walls: (C.Q) fire load density per floor area rate of burning initial temperature (= 293) fire temperature flame temperature at the window flame temperature along the axis wind speed sum of window widths on all walls (w = Cwi) width of window “i” width of the flame width of wall containing window(s) horizontal project of flame (from the facade) flame length along axis flame height (from the upper part of the window) opening factor of the fire compartment convective heat transfer coefficient emissivity of flame gas density (assumed to be 0.1) © BSI 03-2000 19 .45) flame thickness AT/Aw h 1/2 Aw h1/2/AT L/(Aw. the window area.3 Conditions of use (1) When there is more than one window.
(3) When there is a core in the fire compartment. the location and geometry of the open surfaces have to be chosen to lead to the worst case.2) — The sum of window widths on all walls: w = C wi i (C. — firstly the total area and secondly 50 % of the area of the relevant external wall of the compartment if. 20 © BSI 03-2000 .5) (4) In an external wall. the ratio D/W has to be obtained as follows: (C. Aw1 sum of window areas on wall 1. the calculation must be done with forced draught conditions.4. These two situations have to be considered for calculation. Otherwise. When using 50 % of the area of the external wall. according to (4).1 Mode of ventilation (1) If there are windows on opposite sides of the fire compartment or if additional air is being fed to the fire from another source (other than windows). assumed to contain the greatest window area. W2 width of the wall of the fire compartment. the area is more than 50 %.3) (2) When there are windows on more than one wall. C. — W1 and W2 are the length and width of the fire compartment: (C. the ratio D/W has to be obtained as follows: — Definition given in C.3 (6) applies. (5) The total area of the window in an external wall is: — the total area. — C1 and C2 are the length and width of the core.4 Effects of wind C. perpendicular to wall 1. if it is less than 50 % of the area of the relevant external wall of the compartment. (7) The flame temperature has to be taken as uniform across the width and the thickness of the flame. (6) The size of the fire compartment should not exceed 70 m in length. the window is all the part of this wall not having the fire resistance (REI) required for the stability of the building.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 — The sum of window areas on all walls: Aw = C Awi i (C. the calculation is done with no forced draught conditions. according to (4).4) where W1 width of the wall 1. 18 m in width and 5 m in height.
— with a deflection.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 C.1 No forced draught Figure C.2 — Flame dimensions. C.5.2 Flame deflection by wind Figure C.5 Characteristics of fire and flame C.1): — perpendicular to the facade. of + 45° and – 45° with the facade. no through draught © BSI 03-2000 21 . due to the wind effect.4.1 — Deflection of flame by wind (1) Flame from an opening has to be assumed to be leaving the compartment fire (Figure C.
25 w: X = z + h/2 — No wall above or h > 1.17) where: I axis length from window to the point where the calculation is made [K] (C.12) (C.6 h (z/h)1/3 (7) Flame length along axis: — Wall above h k 1.9) — If no wall above the window: x = 0.16) (C.454 h (h/2w)0.13) w for h > 1.2) (5) Flame depth is 2/3 of the window height: 2/3 h (Figure C.14) (C.11) (C.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 (1) Rate of burning: (C.0 (10) Flame temperature along the axis: Tz = (To – Ta) (1 – 0.2): (C.45 kg/m3 and g = 9.027 (I · w/R)) + Ta [K] (C.2) (6) Horizontal projection of flame: — If wall above the window: w for h k 1.25 w and distance to any other window > 4 w: (C.8 --–h w (4) Flame width is the window width (Figure C.8) Comment: With Ô = 0.027 (X·w/R)) + Ta (9) Emissivity at the window: 1.25 w: x = h/3 x = 0.15) 22 © BSI 03-2000 .25 w: X = (z2 + (x – h/3)2)1/2 + h/2 (8) Flame temperature at the window: To = 520/(1 – 0.10) (C.81 m/s2.7) (3) Flame height (Figure C.54 w other cases: x = 0.54 (C.6) (2) Temperature of the compartment fire: (C. this equation may be simplified to give: R 2/3 z = 12.3 h (h/w)0.
— the horizontal projection of the flame x. © BSI 03-2000 23 . for the wall above the window and h k 1.4 (R/Aw)0.25 w. Figure C.19) (C. obtained in (6) with the above mentioned value of z is increased by ha.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 (11) Emissivity of flame: ¼ = 1 – e–0.18) (13) If an awning or balcony (with horizontal projection: ha) is located at the level of the top of the window on its whole width.3 — Deflection of flame by balcony (14) With the same conditions for awning or balcony as mentioned in (13). — the horizontal projection of the flame x given in (6). in the case of no wall above the window or h > 1. the height and horizontal projection of the flame should be modified as follows: — the flame height z given in (3) is decreased by h a 2 . the height and horizontal projection of the flame should be modified as follows: — the flame height z given in (3) is decreased by ha.25 w.6 (C.32 (12) Convective heat transfer coefficient: ! = 0. is increased by ha.026 (1/d)0.
605 (u2/h)0.22 24 © BSI 03-2000 .20) Comment: With u = 6 m/s.22) (C. through or forced draught (1) Rate of burning: R = L/EF (2) Temperature of the compartment fire: Tf = 1 200 (L – e–0.4 — Flame dimensions.33 (z + h)/h0.21) (C.4 x (C.22 (z + h) Comment: with u = 6 m/s.04?) + Ta (3) Flame height: (C. (5) Flame width: wz = w + 0.2 Forced draught Figure C. z = 11 R/Aw1/2 – h (C.23) (4) Horizontal projection of flame: x = 0.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 C.24) x = 1.5.
displaced outwards by the depth of the balcony.6)0. the flame trajectory is the same as before.29) (C.5 — Deflection of flame by awning (12) Effect of balcony or awning: After being deflected horizontally by a balcony or awning.75)0.4 (R/Aw + u/1.27) [K] (C. but the value of X is unchanged.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 (6) Flame length along axis: X = (z2 + x2)1/2 (7) Flame temperature at the window: To = 520/(1 – 0.019 X(Aw)1/2/R) + Ta (8) Emissivity at the window: 1 (9) Flame temperature along the axis: [K] Where: l axis length from the window to the point where the calculation is made (10) Emissivity of flame: ¼ = 1 – e–0.4 (R/Aw + 3.0098 (1/d)0.26) (C.6 (C.0098 (1/d)0. © BSI 03-2000 25 .28) (C.6 Comment: With u = 6 m/s.25) Figure C.32 (11) Convective heat transfer coefficient: ! = 0. ! = 0.
5) optional factor for assessing protected fire loads.2 Determination of fire load densities D. according to (3) and (4) net calorific value [MJ/kg].i Hui [mi] [?i] amount of combustible material [kg]. given by the classification. see (D.6] may be used.1 Values for calculation (1) The fire load density used in calculations should be a design value. fire loads are distinguished as — fire loads from the occupancy.i · Hui · mi · ?i = CQfi.2) (2) The characteristic fire load density qk per unit area is defined as: qk = Qfi.2 apply for the determination of fire load densities — from a fire load classification of occupancies (see D. (2) The following clauses of D. for approved fire extinguishing systems *n = [0.k [MJ/m2] (D. (3) Where fire load densities are determined from a fire load classification of occupancies.2.k = C Mk. or inner surface area (Af) of the fire compartment.1) *q *n D.k/A where A floor area (Af) of the fire compartment or reference space.2. as relevant.2. — fire loads from the building (construction elements.2. based on fire resistance requirements of regulations.4) optional factor describing the combustion behaviour. — specific for an individual project by performing a fire load survey. (3) The design fire load density is defined as: qd = *q · *n · qk where: qk fire load density determined — from a fire load classification of occupancies and/or — for a specific project. differentiation factor accounting for active fire protection measures (if not considered in the fire model) — according to national specifications. see (D.3) 26 © BSI 03-2000 .1 General (1) All combustible building contents and construction elements.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Annex D (informative) Fire load densities D. linings and finishings) which are generally not included in the classification and are then determined according to the following clauses.2 Definitions (1) The characteristic fire load is defined as: Qfi.2. including linings and finishings should be accounted for. safety factor depending on the consequences of failure and frequency of fires. (D. based on measurements or in special cases a nominal value.4). D. according to national specifications.i where: Mk. (2) The design value may be determined: — from a national fire load classification of occupancies and/or.3) [MJ] (D. see (D. giving qf.3) and/or — specific for an individual project (see D.k.k or qt.
If this fire load plus the unprotected fire loads are not sufficient to heat the remaining protected fire loads beyond ignition temperature. but at least 10 % of the protected fire loads are associated with ?i = 1. which are expected not to be exceeded during 80 % of time.2.2.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 (3) Permanent fire loads. then the remaining protected fire loads may be associated with ?i = 0. should be introduced by their expected values resulting from the survey.01 u) – 0.025 u where: u moisture content in % by weight Huo net calorific value of dry materials (3) Net calorific values of some solids.1. (2) The humidity of materials may be taken into account as follows: Hu = Huo (1 – 0. Otherwise. which may vary during the service life of a structure. liquids and gases are given in Table D. ?i-values need to be assessed individually. D. which are not expected to vary during the service life of a structure.3 Protected fire loads (1) Fire loads in containments which are designed to survive fire exposure need not be considered. may be considered as follows: The largest fire load. (2) Fire loads in non-combustible containments with no specific fire design.0. but which remain intact during fire exposure.0. D. (4) Variable fire loads.4 Net calorific values (1) Net calorific values should be determined according to ISO 1716.4) © BSI 03-2000 27 . [MJ/kg] (D. should be represented by values.
coke cork cotton grain grease kitchen refuse leather linoleum paper. cardboard paraffin wax foam rubber rubber isoprene rubber tire silk straw wood wool particle board plastics 34 41 42 17 35 19 31 29 18 17 41 18 19 20 17 47 37 45 32 19 16 19 23 18 [MJ/kg] gasoline diesel oil linseed oil methanol paraffin oil spirits tar benzene benzyl alcohol ethyl alcohol isopropyl alcohol 44 41 39 20 41 29 38 40 33 27 31 gases [MJ/kg] ABS acrylic celluloid epoxy melamin resin phenolformaldehyde polyester polyester.1 — Net calorific value Hu of combustible materials solids [MJ/kg] liquids [MJ/kg] anthracite asphalt bitumen celullose charcoal clothes coal. fibre reinforced polyethylene polystyrene petroleum polyisocyanurate foam polycorbonate polypropylene polyurethane polyurethane foam polyvenylchloride ureaformaldehyde ureaformaldehyde foam 36 28 19 34 18 29 31 21 44 40 41 24 29 43 23 26 17 15 14 acetylen butane carbon monoxide hydrogen propane methane ethanol 48 46 10 120 46 50 27 28 © BSI 03-2000 .ENV 1991-2-2:1995 Table D.
2) © BSI 03-2000 29 . related to the standard fire exposure.2 depending on the occupancy of the fire compartment. D. (3) The equivalent time of fire exposure is defined by: te.4 Individual assessment of fire load densities (1) In cases where national occupancy classes do not apply.2. Table D. furnishing and installations.d kb·wt where: qd kb w design fire load density according to Annex D conversion factor according to (4) ventilation factor according to (5). (2) Fire loads from the building should be determined according to D. whereby wt = wf At/Af [min] (E.0. a survey should be performed in a comparable existing project. The fire load densities only cover fire loads from the occupancy and are related to the floor area. (3) Where available. In contrast to Annex B this approach is intended for use where the design of members is by tabulated data or other simplified rules. fire load densities may be determined specific for an individual project by performing a survey of fire loads from the occupancy. then this approach should be limited to fire compartments with mainly cellulosic type fire loads.d = qf.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 D.5 Combustion behaviour (1) The combustion behaviour should be considered in accordance with national rules. (2) If fire load densities are specified without specific consideration of the combustion behaviour (see Annex D). (2) The fire loads and their local arrangement should be estimated in consultation with the client.1) (4) Where no detailed assessment of the thermal properties of the enclosure is pursued kb may be adopted as: kb = 0.d kb·wf = qt. the combustion factor may be assumed conservatively as mi = 1.07 [min · m2/MJ] when qd is given in [MJ/m2] (E. Annex E (informative) Equivalent time of fire exposure (1) The following approach may be used in accordance with the national field of application. variations with time.3 Fire load classification of occupancies (1) Subject to approval and supplement by the national authorities fire load densities should be assumed according to Table D. unfavourable trends and possible modifications of occupancy.2 — Format for fire load classification of occupancies class qf. considering the intended use. (2) For mainly cellulosic materials. such that only possible differences between the intended and existing project need to be specified by the client.k [MJ/m2] I II III IV V 250 500 1 000 1 500 2 000 D.2 to give the total fire load density.
assessed according to the fire Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999 (E.07 [–] (E. floor.d < tfi.04 0.2 Simultaneity of actions F. the factor wf may also be calculated as: wf = O–1/2 – Af/At where: O opening factor according to Annex B (6) It shall be verified that: te.4) Annex F (normative) Basis of design — supplementary clauses to ENV 1991-1 for the structural analysis in fire design situations F. ceiling. (3) Decrease of imposed loads due to combustion may not be taken into account. For determining b for multiple layers of material or different materials in walls.5 where: !v = Av/Af area of vertical openings Av in the facade related to the floor area of the compartment where the limit 0.055 0. (2) Representative values of variable actions. (2) This annex provides supplementary guidance applicable to structures exposed to fire regarding the simultaneity of actions and the combination rules.5) (E.d design value of the standard fire resistance of the members. should be introduced in accordance with F.d where: tfi.2.1 — Conversion factor kb depending on the thermal properties of the enclosure b = (@c2) [J/m2s1/2K] kb [min · m2/MJ] b > 2 500 720 k b k 2 500 b < 720 0. see Annex B (4) and (5). Table E.3.25 should be observed !h = Ah/Af H area of horizontal openings Ah in the roof related to the floor area of the compartment height of the fire compartment [m] bv = 12.62 + 90(0. 30 © BSI 03-2000 .0/H)0.025 k !v k 0.0 For small fire compartments [Af < 100 m2] without openings in the roof. Q (1) P Actions shall be considered as for normal temperature design. F.3 [0.3) (5) The ventilation factor wf may be calculated as: wf = (6.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 otherwise kb may be related to the thermal property b = ( @ c 2 ) of the enclosure according to Table E.1.1 Actions from normal temperature design G. if they are likely to act in the fire situation.4 – !v)4/(1 + bv !h)] U 0.5 (1 + 10 !v – !v2) U 10. accounting for the accidental situation of fire exposure.1 General (1) In principle the general format given in ENV 1991-1 for design procedures is applicable.
horizontal forces from a braking crane.2.3.1/Gk.2) Efi.1 Qk.2 (1) applies.i + C Ad(t) where: Gk Qk.1 to be considered in design. (3) As a further simplification to F.ENV 1991-2-2:1995 (4) Cases where snow loads need not be considered. additional actions may need to be applied during fire exposure.1 + C ?2.1·Qk.i·Qk.3 Combination rules for actions F. for example. due to the melting of snow. the mechanical actions shall be combined in accordance with ENV 1991-1 “Basis of design”. F. to effects of actions at boundaries and supports.2 Simplified rules (1) Where indirect fire actions need not be explicitly considered. where an analysis of parts of the structure is performed in accordance with the fire design Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999.2 (1).3. © BSI 03-2000 31 . e.1 General rule (1)P For obtaining the relevant effects of actions Efi.1·K)/(*G + *Q·K) is a reduction factor. (2) F. F.1 for t = 0 only. NOTE Design values Ad are specified by the authority or in consultation with the client.d. effects of actions may be determined by analysing the structure for actions combined according to F. (5) Loads resulting from industrial operations are generally not taken into account. Ad = 3 000 Nm.1) Ad (t) design values of actions from fire exposure according to sections 4 and 5.g.t during fire exposure. e.d.1. They should sustain horizontal impact with a design energy. effects of actions may be deduced from those determined in normal temperature design: Efi.d.g.t = )fi · Ed where: Ed the design value of the relevant effects of actions from the fundamental combination according to ENV 1991-1 (including partial factors *F) = (*GA + ?1. which is the global ratio between the main variable and permanent actions applied to the structure (F.t the corresponding design value for the fire situation )fi (4) Relevant values for )fi are given in the fire design Parts of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999. (2) For fire walls a horizontal impact may need to be considered.3. depending on K = Qk. using the following accidental combination (given in symbolic form): C *GA·Gk + ?1. F.2 Additional actions (1) Depending on the accidental situations according to 3.3.i combination coefficients for buildings according to ENV 1991-1.0] partial safety factor for permanent actions in the accidental situation (F. impact due to collapse of structural elements or heavy machinery. as relevant ?1. should be assessed individually.3. ?2.i *GA characteristic values of permanent actions characteristic value of one (the main) variable action characteristic values of the other variable actions = [1. These effects of actions may be applied as constant throughout fire exposure.
ENV 1991-2-2:1995 F.t = )fi.3 Load level (1) Where tabulated data are specified for a reference load level.t Rd where: Rd the loadbearing resistance of the member.t the load level for fire design. this load level corresponds to: Efi.d. determined according to the Parts 1.3) )fi. 32 © BSI 03-2000 .1 of ENV 1992 to 1996 and ENV 1999 (F.3.
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