BECAUSE (ponieważ)
I don’t want to eat anything because I’m not hungry.

OTHERWISE (w przeciwnym razie, w przeciwnym wypaku)
You should take an umbrella with you. Otherwise you might get wet. Take a map. Otherwise you might get lost.

IN CASE (w razie…, na wypadek gdyby…)
*in case + present simple (mówiąc o przyszłości) We will buy some food in case Tom comes. You should insure your bicycle in case it is stolen. *in case +past tense (mówiąc o tym dlaczego ktoś coś zrobił) We bought some food in case Tom came. I drew a map for Sam in case she couldn’t find a house.

SO THAT (po to żeby..)
*so that……….won’t/ wouldn’t/ don’t Leave early so that don’t/won’t miss your train. (mówiąc o przyszłości) I hurried so that I wouldn’t be late. (mówiąc o przeszłości) *so that………..can/ could She is learning English so that she can study in America. We moved to London so that we could see our friends more often. *kiedy jedna osoba robi coś po to aby druga mogła zrobić coś innego She wore glasses so that nobody could recognise her. I gave her my address so that she could contact me.

• • • • rzeczownik: In spite of /Despite the rain they enjoyed themselves. this, that….: She didn’t feel well. In spite of this she went to work. doing sth: In spite of /Despite having all the necessary qualifications, he didn’t get the job. the fact that…: I didn’t get the job in spite of /despite the fact that I had all the necessary qualifications.

Although it rained a lot we enjoyed our holiday. Although the traffic was bad I got to work on time. I didn’t get the job though I had all the necessary qualifications.

EXCEPT +infinitive (bez to)
I could do nothing except agree with her.

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