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Lilly Wang 9/27/13 Listening Journal J. Haydn - Symphony No. 4 in D major Haydns Symphony No.

4 is quintessential of the classical era. It displays the variation within a structure format that is very organized and predictable. It seems like it follows an A-B-A form, having the first movement repeat itself after the 2nd one ends. Within each movement however, there are variations that give it dynamic and depth. For example, within the first few minutes, one can already hear one variation of the main theme. the main theme, whenever it is repeated, is always introduced with a bold violin and a quick series of notes following that all played in the major key. The first variation we hear is played in a minor key. There is tension, but the variation quickly ends in a matter of seconds and the theme is repeated. A second variation can be heard within this movement. It is much faster and includes a sequence of quick and high notes played by the violins. This back and forth between variations within the first movement continues until about a third through the entire piece. This is when we move into the second, more ominous sounding movement. The key is changed into a minor one, the dynamics have significantly decreased, and the strings are played with legato. We also hear more of the oboes backing the main violin part, which gives it more of that deep and darker quality. Something interesting about the second movement is that Haydn utilizes syncopation, in which he has the second violin part playing on the off beat. As the second movement fades out, the third movement is introduced with the same bold violin note that is bowed. However, the sequence of notes that usually went down the scale in the main theme we

heard in the first movement, does up the scale instead. This could be a variation of the theme itself since the third movement is very reminiscent of the first movements theme. By listening to this piece Ive gotten a better understanding for the concept of theme and variation that defined the classical period. It becomes clear how each component contributes to the piece as a whole--theme unifies the piece, while variation adds interest. Finally, this piece gave insight to classical music since it represented its era so well--one can really make out the undeniable organized structure that defined this period of the 16th century.