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Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc.
Somdet Phra Nyanasamvara
Dhamma TaIks
on the
Foundations of MindfuIness
(Satipa¡¡hãna Sutta)
H.H. Somdet Phra Nãµasamvãra
(VenerabIe Suvaqqhano Bhikkhu)
Supreme Patriarch of ThaiIand
Wat Bovornives Vihara
Bangkok, ThaiIand
Coµyiiglt inloimution: Tlis is un electionic veision ol
tle book: A Guide to Awuieness.
| Mulumukut Rujuvidyuluyu Piess, Pliu Sumeiu
Roud, Bungkok 10200, Tluilund.
You muy use tlis electionic veision loi µeisonul use
but ull commeiciul iiglts uie ieseived by Mulumukut
Rujuvidyuluyu Piess.
Tiunsluted by Blikklu Aiiyesuko und Blikklu
TabIe of Contents
Tiunslutois' Foiewoid 3
Pieluce 4
Tulk 1 S
Tulk 2 7
Tulk 3 9
Tulk 4 11
Tulk S 13
Tulk 6 1S
Tulk 7 17
Tulk 8 19
Tulk 9 21
Tulk 10 23
Tulk 11 2S
Tulk 12 28
Tulk 13 31
Tulk 14 33
Tulk 1S 36
Tulk 16 38
Tulk 17 40
Tulk 18 42
Tulk 19 4S
Tulk 20 47
Tulk 21 S0
Tulk 22 S2
Endnotes SS
A Biiel Glossuiy S6
TransIators' Foreword
Tlis GoiJc ro Awarcncss is u tiunslution liom tle seiies ol Dlummu
tulks µublisled in tle Tlui lunguuge us Nacw Paribar Nai Sariparrlan
(lit: Tlc Way oj Pracricc in rlc Sariparrlana).
Tle veneiuble uutloi, HH Somdet Pliu Nuµusumvuiu, is tle Su-
µieme Putiiuicl ol Tluilund und leud ol Wut Bovoinives Viluiu, u
luige und lumous monusteiy in tle old city ol Bungkok. It is u centie loi
Buddlist study und is well known umongst westeineis inteiested in
Dlummu; muny ol wlom luve ieceived oidinution tleie witl tle ven-
eiuble uutloi us Pieceµtoi.
HH Somdet Pliu Nuµusumvuiu wus boin in Kunclunubuii Piov-
ince, ubout 130 kilometies noitlwest ol Bungkok, in 24S6 B.E. (1913).
Wlen le wus tliiteen yeuis old, le becume u novice und in 2476 B.E.
le ieceived tle liglei oidinution. On going buck to continue lis stud-
ies in Bungkok le wus given new oidinution us veneiuble Blikklu
Suvuddluno, witl tle Suµieme Putiiuicl Vujiiunyunuvong us Pieceµ-
toi, ut Wut Bovoinives Viluiu tle next yeui. Altei luitleiing und com-
µleting lis Dlummu und Puli studies to tle liglest giude (giude nine),
le succeeded veneiuble Cluo Klun Pliu Biulmumuni us ubbot in 2S03
B.E.(1960). It wus tleieloie in cuiiying on tle tiudition ol tle lute
ubbot wlen in 2S04 B.E. (1961) le guve tlis seiies ol Dlummu tulks.
He wus uwuided tle ecclesiusticul title ol 'Somdet' in 2S1S B.E.
(1972) und lus leld vuiious µositions in tle udministiution ol tle Tlui
Sunglu. (Tlese moie iecently included: membeisliµ in tle Council ol
Eldeis; Heud ol tle munugement bouid loi Mulumukut Buddlist Uni-
veisity; Heud ol tle Nutionul Buddlist Foundution; Heud ol tle Foun-
dution loi Leµeis, just to nume u lew.) He wus mude suµieme µutiiuicl
ol Tluilund in 2S32 B.E. (1989). Yet even in tle midst ol exluusting
duties und iesµonsibilities le continues lis meditution µiuctice.
Tle Dlummu tulks weie µiesented to botl monks und luy µeoµle.
Alteiwuids tle monks would clunt uµµioµiiute veises liom tle Puli
texts und linully tleie wus u µeiiod ol giouµ meditution. Tley weie
tleieloie, not just lectuies but u guide loi tlose listening to uctuully
µut into µiuctise.
A tiunslution sucl us tlis lus muny dilliculties, not tle leust ol
wlicl being tle µiolundity ol tle subject und tle inudequucy ol oui
undeistunding und tiunsluting ubilities. We tleieloie loµe ieudeis will
test und cleck tlese teuclings out in tleii own µiuctice und exµeii-
Tlis tiunslution is iesµectlully dedicuted to tle veneiuble uutloi
wlo guve 'new lile' by oiduining us us blilllos und wlo lus lelµed so
muny ol us liom tle west.
Tlc Trans|arors
TransIators' Note
In un uttemµt to muke tlis tiunslution uccessible to ull, Pa|i teims
luve been tiunsluted. Howevei, scloluis slould note tlut on tleii liist
occuiience tle Pa|i woid is usuully slown in biuckets und tle Englisl
tiunslution is noimully consistent tliouglout tle book. Seveiul woids
weie lelt untiunsluted us un Englisl equivulent wus eitlei dillicult to
lind oi too clumsy comµuied to tle oiiginul conceµt. A glossuiy lus
been included ut tle end ol tle book.
As tle veneiuble uutloi mentions in lis Pieluce, le lud to iecuµ
und summuiize µievious toµics, becuuse µeoµle olten missed some ol
tle sequence ol Dlummu tulks. Howevei, tlis tiunslution omits mucl
ol tlut ieµetition.
Tun Cluo Klun Pliu Biulmumuni (Suvucu Tleiu) oiiginully oi-
gunized u seiies ol Dlummu tulks ut Wut Bovoiunives Viluiu. He would
µiesent u seimon und tlen, ultei tle monks clunted, eveiyone would
sit in meditution.
I wus invited to continue witl tlis und us I consideied it beneliciul
I ucceµted tle tusk. Howevei, I ulso µointed out tlut I wus not u medi-
tution teuclei. I still lud iesµonsibilities conceined witl teucling und
vuiious otlei duties, und so could not lully µiuctise develoµing mysell,
let ulone uttuining to u level uble to tiuin otleis. My Dlummu exµlunu-
tion tleieloie ulwuys lud to deµend on tle sciiµtuies, und il I luµ-
µened to stiuy liom tlem, I ulso lelt us il I lud lost my wuy. I lud to iely
on tle lootµiints ol tlose gone beloie to slow tle wuy, wlicl I could
not munuge on my own.
At liist, tle seimons ol Tun Cluo Klun Biulmumuni weie ieud
out. Tlen, in tle Ruins Retieut ol 2S04 B.E.(1961), I stuited to µiesent
tulks ol my own. Tlese weie tuµe iecoided und lutei tiunsciibed.
Tle Mald Saripa((ldna Sorra, tle Gieut Discouise on tle Foundu-
tions ol Mindlulness, is ieguluily clunted ut Wut Bovoiunives Viluiu. I
cun iecite ull ol it wlicl lelµed wlen I wus µiesenting my Dlummu
exµlunution. Tlis Discouise is u mujoi µillui in tle µiuctice ol botl
culm und insiglt, und so wus closen us tle liist text to µiesent.
Tle Dlummu tulks weie given twice weekly, on tle evening ol
tle quuitei moon duy und tle lollowing niglt. As tlose tlut cume to
listen did not uttend on eveiy occusion, I would usuully summuiize und
iecuµitulute tle euiliei tulks.
Pieviously, I wiote ubout my ieliunce on tle sciiµtuies but in some
µluces my exµlunution muy uctuully dillei liom tle noimul inteiµietu-
tion. I neuily cut sucl µussuges out but in tle end didn't, loi I um suie
tlut even il tlose udditionul tlouglts wlicl µoµµed uµ ol tlemselves
uie incoiiect, tley will ieceive tle loigiveness ol my ieudeis loi not
being intentionully misleuding. I will tleieloie leuve tlem tleie loi
Dlummu students to investigute und considei.
Tlese twenty-two Dlummu tulks slould be ieud und cuielully
consideied, so us not to stiuy liom tle tiue wuy ol µiuctice in tle loun-
dutions ol mindlulness.
Tle teucling µiesented leie lollows tle wuy lound in tle Dis-
couise on tle Foundutions ol Mindlulness, wlicl contuins tle essen-
tiul und giuduuted steµs ol µiuctice. It is u wuy wlicl tlose wlo µiuctise,
iesµect und uµµieciute. Howevei, some µeoµle muy cluige tlut it is
inuµµioµiiute und lucking benelit becuuse it biings u leeling ol weuii-
ness und deµiession. It is iutlei likely tlut tle µeoµle wlo suy tlis uie
uctuully uliuid ol ieulizing tle tiutl. It's similui to being leuilul ol tle
doctois's exuminution ol one's illness oi closing one's eyes to tle tiutl.
Tlis is not u cluiucteiistic ol u clevei µeison.
Il you ieud tlis book, you will discovei tle tiutl ol tle 'knots' und
µioblems tlut exist witlin you. In sloit, tlis cun be desciibed us tle
'knot ol sulleiing.' You muy ulso tlen see tle metlod to uniuvel und
suleguuid uguinst tlis sulleiing. Wlen uctuully tiying out tlis µiuctice,
you will be uble to cuie youi own sulleiing in uccoidunce witl tle
Buddlu's Teucling. You will ulso exµeiience u joy unknown beloie.

Tlis book lus ulieudy been ieµiinted muny times in Tlui. I tleie-
loie iequested Blikklu Aiiyesuko und Blikklu Kuntusilo to tiunslute it
into Englisl so us to muke it moie widely uvuiluble. I would now like to
tlunk tlem botl loi biinging tlis woik to comµletion und I loµe it will
be ol benelit to ull.
TaIk 1
Kamma¡¡hãna: The PIace of Practice
kamma((ldna is u µluce ol woik, und leie it meuns wleie one
woiks on one's mind. In viituully eveiyone tle mind is loievei tlinking
und concocting, leuding to tle uiising ol lust (rdga) und gieed (|obla),
lutied und uveision (Josa) und to tle biitl ol delusion (mola). Tle
mind is tlen enveloµed in tle contiivings ol issues und ulluiis und lu-
bituully smotleied in delilements. Sucl u disquieted und unstill mind
cun lind no µeuce, just us tleie is no iest loi tle wuves ol tle seu.
Tle mind inliltiuted witl sucl delilements is so biussed und un-
bulunced tlut it cun't iecognize tle tiutl, cun't see conditions loi wlut
tley ieully uie. Foi instunce, tle mind bound uµ witl lust oi gieed
must incline towuids tle µleusunt, uttiuctive side ol tlings, cieuting u
µiedilection loi u ceituin tling. Liking it, one becomes biussed und it
will tlen uµµeui 'µeilect,' 'good' oi 'quite nice' ÷deµending on low
mucl one luvouis it. Even il sometling is ieully not ut ull good, one
ussumes it to be so becuuse one is uttiucted to it tliougl tle µiejudice
ol lust und gieed.
Wlen tle mind is wuiµed by lutied, it will tlen tuke tle negutive
side und tuin uwuy liom tlings. Wlutevei is luted tle most will tlen
uµµeui 'totully bud' oi ÷uccoiding to tle level ol one's uveision÷ 'µluinly
bud' oi 'not so good,' etc.
Tle mind imbued witl delusion linds it even luidei to see tle
tiutl. It's us il one is lull-blind, seeing tlings only dimly. Even one's
conjectuies µiobubly do not uccoid witl tle tiutl becuuse tle mind is
ulieudy obscuied witl delusion.
Lust, gieed, lutied und delusion not only unbulunce und ugitute
tle mind but ulso block tle develoµment ol wisdom (pannd) wlicl
would be uble to µenetiute to tle uctuul stute ol tlings. Tle Loid Bud-
dlu tleieloie tuuglt ubout tle two µluces wlicl cun be estublisled loi
woiking on tle mind, tle two lamma((ldna:
Samarla lamma((ldna is tle mind's woiking µluce to develoµ culm
vipassand lamma((ldna is wleie tle mind cun uttuin insiglt
(vipassand) into tle tiutl.
Woiking loi culm is tle liist steµ becuuse tle mind needs ieliel liom
tle delilements wlicl bind und enveloµ it. One cun tlen µiuctise loi
insiglt us tle tiunquil mind is bulunced und liee liom tle bius ol tle
delilements. Wlutevei is tlen investiguted cun be seen cleuily loi wlut
it ieully is, und tlis is wleie insiglt begins to develoµ.
The Refuges (Surupu)
Just us tle euitl ieceives und suµµoits oui lootsteµs, so it is neces-
suiy, iiglt liom tle beginning in develoµing tlese woik µluces, to luve
u sleltei und solid loundution loi tle mind. Tle mind's tiue ieluge is
tle Tiiµle Gem (Ti-Rarana): tle Buddlu, tle Dlummu, und tle Sunglu.
One must liist deteimine tle Buddlu, Dlummu und Sunglu us
one's tiue ieluge, und iecollect und contemµlute tleii sµeciul viitues
und quulities. Tlus, tle Loid Buddlu is tiuly tle Awukened One; tle
Dlummu is tiuly tle Wuy ol µiuctice to tle end ol ull delilements und
sulleiing; und tle Sunglu uie tlose wlo uie tiuly lollowing tle Dlummu
Wuy to its liuition. Tle cultivuting ol u µiolound uµµieciution loi tle
quulities ol tle Tiiµle Gem iequiies u deeµ undeistunding ol wlut tle
Buddlu tuuglt: tlut it indubitubly leuds to tle ending ol ull sulleiing.
Tle moie one cun µeiceive tle µiolundity ol Dlummu tle moie one
cun uµµieciute tle uclievement ol tle Loid Buddlu. One's mind will
tlen go loi ieluge to tle Buddlu, Dlummu und Sunglu witlout lesitu-
tion oi wuveiing.
Estublisling one's mind in tle Reluge ol tle Tiiµle Gem is tle
µieliminuiy steµ in tle develoµment ol tle lamma((ldna woiking µluces.
So will you ull µleuse iesolve to ucceµt tlis ieluge loi youi minds,
secuiing u tiust und luitl in Buddlu, Dlummu und Sunglu ÷und ulso
u tiust und conlidence in youi own ubility to µiuctise. Tlis esµeciully
uµµlies to tle lamma((ldna woik wlicl you luve deteimined to µiuc-
tise. Know tlut it leuds to culmness und tiunquillity, to wisdom und
insiglt. It is tle tiue und ceituin suµµoit loi youi mind.
Precepts and MoraI Virtue (Sî/u)
Now tle giound oi loundution loi tle mind's suµµoit cun be luid.
Tlis is moiul viitue (si|a) wlicl is uctuully tle nutuiul (palari) stute ol
tle mind undistuibed by tle delilements. Tlese delilements will incite
und loice tle mind into intending (ccrand) und setting into motion
wiong uctions tliougl body und mind. Sometimes you muy lind youi-
sell unuble to muintuin tlis nutuiul stute ol mind becuuse ol business oi
woik ulluiis, etc. Howevei, once you entei tle µluce ol Dlummu µiuc-
tice, you must liimly iesolve to ieliuin liom wiong, unskillul beluv-
ioui. In otlei woids, do not bieuk tle live µieceµts
At tlis µiesent time you must be esµeciully cuielul to guuid tle
nutuiul viitue ol tle mind. Do not ullow it to be µulled down into un-
skillul wuys. Wlen you cun sustuin tlis nutuiul stute ol mind, you will
lind tle mind endowed witl moiul viitue. Once tlis viitue is µiesent, it
loims tle loundution on wlicl to iest und buse tle mind. Wlen youi
mind lus sucl u loundution, togetlei witl u ieluge suleguuiding youi
Dlummu µiuctice liom uny ol tle delilements' uttucks, tlen un oµµoi-
tunity oµens uµ: un oµµoitunity to lollow tle wuy ol lamma((ldna und
estublisl u µluce to cultivute youi own mind.
4rl Aogosr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 2
The Foundations of MindfuIness: Sutípujjhdnu
Tle Discouise on tle Foundutions ol Mindlulness (Saripa((ldna
Sorra) diiectly tukes uµ und exµluins tle tiuining ol tle mind. In luct
tle Loid Buddlu even suid tlut it is tle only wuy to tiunscend soiiow,
to see tle Dlummu tlut needs to be seen und to come to tle end ol
sulleiing witl tle ieulizution ol Nibbunu. Tlis, tleieloie, includes tle
µeilection botl ol culm und insiglt. Howevei, one initiully needs to
know ubout tle busis ol µiuctice, tle lamma((ldna. Tlis, us I luve
mentioned µieviously, meuns u µluce ol woik ÷u woik µluce loi tle
mind. It iequiies tle deteiminution to estublisl u loundution loi one's
µiuctice. But wleie cun one lind tlis buse loi one's concentiution?
Endeuvouiing to estublisl tle mind in tle ulluiis ol exteinul ob-
jects ÷u visuul object, u sound, odoui, tuste, tungible oi mentul ob-
÷ cun only leud tle delilements to inliltiute tle mind. Tle mind is
tlen bused in tle delilements iutlei tlun in tle lamma((ldna. Tlus
tle decision ol exuctly wleie to diiect und buse one's µiuctice becomes
Tle Loid Buddlu tuuglt tlut we slould diiect oui uttention buck
inside ouiselves. Tle loundution loi tle mind's develoµment will be
lound iiglt leie inside ouiselves und not ut ull in exteinul tlings. To be
moie sµecilic, insiJc oncsc|j ieleis to tle body (ldya), leeling (vcJand),
mind (cirra) und mentul objects (Jlammd) ÷ull comµlete in eucl one
ol us.
Body (Kdyu)
Tuining one's uttention buck to onesell, looking liom tle outside
in, one liist comes ucioss tlis body. One notices tlut, wletlei uwuke
oi usleeµ, u busic und essentiul lunction is bieutling. Tleie must ulso
be one oi unotlei ol sucl bodily µostuies us wulking, stunding, sitting
oi lying down. Tleie uie tlen tle seconduiy µositions sucl us, wlen
wulking, one bends tle uims und legs oi one tuins und glunces uiound.
Even us you uie sitting leie now tleie is ulwuys u ceituin nutuiul wuy
loi µositioning youi leet loi sitting.
Tlen tleie uie tle otlei µuits to tlis body (ropa-ldya) mude uµ
ol tle exteinul und inteinul oiguns, etc. Exteinully tleie is tle luii on
tle leud, body luii, nuils, teetl und skin, und inteinully sucl tlings us
llesl, tendons, bones, bone muiiow, bile, kidneys, leuit, etc.
Tlese bodily constituents cun ull be ieduced und consideied in
teims ol elements (Jldro). Foi exumµle, tle oiguns wlicl tend to luid-
ness come undei tle euitl element; tlose wlicl uie lluid, undei tle
wutei element; tlose tlut uie 'leuting,' undei tle liie element; und
tlose tlut µioduce motion, undei tle wind element.
As long us ull tlese elements uie µioµeily ussociuted togetlei, tle
wlole body uµµeuis noimul; but slould tley disµeise tlen wlut's lelt
is u JcaJ body. Foi exumµle, il tle wind element luils tlen tle bieutl-
ing ceuses. Tle body tlen becomes blouted und decuys until only bones
iemuin, und eventuully even tlose skeletul bones will disintegiute. Be-
loie its loimution tlis body did not exist, und so in tle linul event it
ietuins to nonexistence. Tlis is tle section on tle body.
FeeIing (vedund)
In u living body wleie tle elements uie in luimony togetlei tleie
is ulso leeling: Pleusunt leeling (solla-vcJand), µuinlul leeling (Jollla-
vcJand) oi neutiul leeling wlicl is neitlei-µuinlul-noi-µleusunt
(aJollla-m-asolla vcJand)
. Foi exumµle, tlis body exµeiiences leel-
ings ol cold und leut, ol soltness und luidness.
Mind (Cíttu)
An intuct body, witl elements smootlly lunctioning togetlei, loims
u suµµoit und iesoit loi tle mind. Tle stute ol eveiyone's mind vuiies.
Sometimes lust is uµµeimost und sometimes it subsides; sometimes
tleie is lutied oi delusion und sometimes tley subside.
MentaI Objects (dhummd)
Exumining tle mind to u deeµei level, one linds tlut it is ulwuys
involved und conceined witl vuiious ulluiis, some ol tlese being good,
some bud, und some in between. Tlese lollow tle µiinciµle ol tle Pd|i
kosa|a Jlammd ull mind objects wlicl uie wlolesome.
Alosa|a Jlammd ull mind objects wlicl uie unwlolesome.
Abyalara Jlammd ull mind objects wlicl uie indeteiminute oi
Tlese uie ull lound in one's mind.
So we cun now suy tlut tlis, tlese, tlis und tlese uie togetlei
wlut mukes uµ myse/f, und iiglt leie is wleie tle Discouise udvises us
to buse oui uttention und mindlulness. In uctuul µiuctice tlougl, we
liist concentiute on just one ol tlese buses.
Concerning the Breath
Tle liist µoint is tlut to use tle in-und-out bieutling us tle buse
loi estublisling mindlulness. A living body must ulwuys luve bieutl
but we nevei µuy uny uttention to it. So oui µiuctice is now to biing
mindlulness to beui on tlis nutuiul bieutling µuttein.
Tle Loid Buddlu exµluins (in tle Discouise) tlut one lolds tle
body eiect
und liimly estublisles mindlulness. Mindlully one bieutles
in, mindlully one bieutles out. Insteud ol sending tle mind oll else-
wleie, one concentiutes it wlolly on tle bieutl. Tlis will leud to u
moie subtle uwuieness. Bieutling in u long bieutl, be uwuie ol it. Bieutl-
ing out u long bieutl, be uwuie ol it. Be uwuie ol u sloit in-bieutl und
u sloit out-bieutl, but do not tense oi loice tle bieutling. Just let go
und bieutle nutuiully ÷but be uwuie.
Tle Discouise tlen continues witl instiuction to note tle wlole
body. Exµeiience und know youi wlole body us tle bieutl goes in und
out. Exµund youi uwuieness to covei tle wlole body including botl
tle mentul giouµ (ndma-ldya) und tle coiµoieul giouµ (ropa-ldya).
Consideiing tle mentul giouµ, be uwuie ol tle stute ol tle mind,
ol tle µiesent condition ol youi mindlulness und concentiution. How
uie tley ut tlis moment? Note tle body tliougl uwuieness ol its µos-
tuie und µosition. How uie you sitting? Fiom tle soles ol youi leet
uµwuids, und liom tle ciown ol youi leud downwuids Be comµletely
uwuie ol youi body.
Altei we lully uccomµlisl tlis uwuieness ol botl giouµs, tle Dis-
couise tlen goes on to teucl ubout culming tle in-und-out bieutling.
Tlis does not involve uny loicing oi lolding ol tle bieutl, but is u
nutuiul culming down. Wlen tle mind becomes ielined, so in tuin
does tle bieutl. Tle Loid Buddlu tuuglt tlut il tle mind is unquiet
tlen tle bieutling will be iougl und gioss. Howevei, slould tle mind
become culm, tlen tle bieutling ulso becomes moie ielined und sub-
tle. Sometimes tle bieutling muy even seem to luve stoµµed, but tleie
is no need to µunic. You luve simµly culmed down wlile tle bieutling
still iemuins.
The Four FundamentaIs of Practice
You must luve energy and determination (drdpa) in youi µiuc-
tice, und tlis includes conscientiousness. Foi exumµle, you deteimine
to µiuctice loi u sµecilied time µeiiod und so must tleieloie lullill tlut
uim witlout uny sluckness oi cutting sloit. Even tlougl you muy leel
liustiuted und wunt to give uµ, you must cuiiy on to uccomµlisl youi
objective. Witl sucl conscientiousness eveiytling develoµs smootlly
und well. Tlus drdpa is tle liist essentiul in tle µiuctice.
Tle second µiinciµle is awareness and cIear-comprehension
(sampajanna) ol onesell ut ull times. Don't be ubsent-minded oi negli-
gent by lulling usleeµ oi losing mindlulness. Peimitting sleeµ und ul-
lowing youi uttention to lude indicutes u luµse ol cleui-comµielension
in youi lamma((ldna µiuctice. Tlis is like stiuying liom tle µutl und
lulling into u clusm oi µit. Tleieloie, uwuieness und cleui-comµielen-
sion must be well guuided und suµµoited. Tley tlus loim tle second
lundumentul in tle µiuctice.
Tle next µiinciµle, mindfuIness (sari), is uwuieness lixed und
liimly estublisled witlout uny diilting liom tle closen object
. Slould
unotlei mentul object suddenly inteiiuµt leuding to iuµtuie (piri) oi
excitement, tlen don't lose youisell in it but quickly ietuin to youi
buse. Foi exumµle, ieject ull distiuctions und tuin youi lull uttention
buck to tle in-und-out bieutling.
Once mindlulness is well estublisled, youi µiuctice cun develoµ
witlout tle luim tlut muy uiise liom ubsent-mindedly diilting uwuy
witl tle tlouglts und moods tlut luve uiisen. Tle luim comes wlen
you too ieudily ubundon mindlulness und become u leedless duy-
dieumei. Tleieloie, steudlustly estublisl youi mindlulness. Don't ul-
low it to diilt uwuy. Tlis is tle tliid µiinciµle.
Tle louitl µiinciµle is to overcome hankering and dejection
concerning the worId
. Tlis is un imµoitunt µoint, loi wlenevei one
encounteis u µleusunt mentul object in one's µiuctice, one must con-
sidei it us u deceit und u lulse µeiceµtion. Likewise, il un unµleusunt
exµeiience uiises ÷sucl us u mentul imuge (nimirra) wlicl µiovokes
leui÷ tlen one must uguin be mindlully uwuie tlut none ol it is ieul.
Being neitlei-glud-noi-dejected witl unytling tlut uiises, one continu-
ully biings mindlulness buck to tle estublisled object und unclois it
tleie. In tlis wuy concentiution (samdJli)
, und eventuully wisdom
(pannd), will uiise und one's µiuctice will µiogiess well.
Tlese loui lundumentuls uie essentiul loi eveiyone wlo µiuctises.
Il tley uie disµensed witl, tle µiuctice is tleieby ubundoned ÷witl
µossibly luimlul iesults. But witl tlese µiinciµles well estublisled, one's
µiuctice cun only be beneliciul und develoµ well.
5rl Aogosr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 3
Expanding and Summarizing
the Section Concerning Breathing
I would now like to exµund tle exµlunution on mindlulness ol
bieutling (dndpdna-sari). Tle Discouise udvises sitting eiect in tle
sumudli-µostuie witl mindlulness uleit und liimly lixed on tle in-und-
out bieutl. Vuiious wuys loi develoµing sucl mindlulness uie tlen given:
1. Bieutling in u long bieutl one knows, 'I um bieutling in u long
bieutl.' Bieutling out u long bieutl one knows, 'I um bieutling out u
long bieutl.'
2. Bieutling in u sloit bieutl one knows, 'I um bieutling in u
sloit bieutl.' Bieutling out u sloit bieutl one knows, 'I um bieutling
out u sloit bieutl.'
3. 'Exµeiiencing tle wlole body, I slull bieutle in,' tlus one tiuins
onesell. 'Exµeiiencing tle wlole body, I slull bieutle out,' tlus one
tiuins onesell.
4. 'Culming tle uctivity ol tle (bieutl-)body, I slull bieutle in,'
tlus one tiuins onesell. 'Culming tle uctivity ol tle (bieutl-)body, I
slull bieutle out,' tlus one tiuins onesell.
In tle liist und second stuges ÷ol bieutling in und bieutling out
u long bieutl, und bieutling in und bieutling out u sloit bieutl÷ one
lus to ieulize exuctly low one is bieutling ut tlut moment. Tlis ieleis
to tle oidinuiy, unloiced bieutling wlicl noimully goes unnoticed.
Witl cuielul uttention one will ieulize tlut tle bieutls uie eitlei long
oi sloit. Wlen lutigued oi tiied, one cun see tlut tle bieutling be-
comes leuvy, µeiluµs witl µunting oi gusµing. Wlen tle mind is uµset
und unquiet, one muy ulso tend to tuke longei bieutls tlun wlen one is
culm. Bieutling exeicises muy ulso involve deeµ bieutling.
Witl tle body iested und µeucelul, tle bieutling becomes quietei
und moie ielined. Wlen tle mind is ulso tiunquil, tle bieutling is
even moie delicute und ielined. At liist youi mindlul uttention on tle
bieutl muy not seem to biing uny liuitlul iesults. Howevei, witl µei-
sistence tle mind will become moie liimly estublisled, ullowing con-
tentment (clanJa), iuµtuie (piri), und gludness (pamojja) to uiise. Tlis
olleis you u liist tuste ol tle liuits ol tle tiunquil mind, tle mind en-
dowed witl sumudli, wlicl will encouiuge you onwuids in youi µiuc-
Tle tliid stuge ÷ol exµeiiencing tle wlole body witl tle bieutl÷
is conceined witl being uwuie ol ull tle coiµoieul giouµ und tle men-
tul giouµ. Be uwuie ol youi µostuie us you sit µiuctising leie, ol tle
µosition ol youi lunds und leet. Tuke note ol tle stute ol youi mind
und tle cluiity ol youi mindlulness und concentiution. Sucl un uwuie-
ness ol tle wlole body indicutes u bioud mindlulness. Tlis must be so
ielined tlut exµeiiencing tle wlole body becomes exµeiiencing tle
wlole brcarl-body witl eucl bieutl.
One notices, in simµle teims, tlut tle in-bieutl enteis ut tle nose,
µusses midwuy ut tle leuit und ends ut tle nuvel, wleieus tle out-
bieutl stuits ut tle nuvel, µusses tle leuit und ends ut tle nose. Tlis is
one guuge loi lelµing to diiect one's uttention. Howevei, lollowing tle
bieutl in und out will uctuully unsettle und unlocus tle mind. Tle Loid
Buddlu tleieloie tuuglt tlut one slould lix tle mind on tlut single
µoint wleie tle in-bieutl stuits und tle out-bieutl ends, i.e. wleie tle
bieutl contucts tle nostiils oi uµµei liµ. Tlis single µoint is tle muik
(nimirra) wleie one stutions tle mind. Witl eucl in-und-out bieutl
one notes tle uii toucling tlut muik (tle nostiils oi uµµei liµ), und
tlis is known us exµeiiencing tle wlole body und bieutl-body.
Tlis cun be comµuied to suwing u µiece ol wood. Attention is
locussed solely on tle cutting µoint und not on tle comµlete lengtl ol
tle suw us it moves buck und loitl. Seeing tlut one µoint is like seeing
tle wlole suw und, similuily, in uttending to just tlut single muik one
exµeiiences tle wlole bieutl. Tlis is tle tliid stuge.
Culming tle uctivity ol tle bieutl-body is tle louitl stuge ol tiuin-
ing. Tlis does not involve uny suµµiession oi lolding ol bieutl in un
uttemµt to loice it to become moie ielined. Rutlei, it involves u stiengtl-
ening ol tle mind's concentiution und culm. Wlen tle mind is culm
und ielined, so is tle bieutl. Tle oµµosite wuy, ol stimuluting und
exciting tle mind, uclieves only tension und stiess.
Tle µiuctice ol concentiution oi sumudli is loi µeuce und tiun-
quillity in botl body und mind. Wlen tle body und mind uie still, tle
uim ol tlis µuit ol tle µiuctice is ieucled. Howevei, tle essence leie is
iutlei in stuge tliee (ubove), witl tle louitl stuge lollowing on liom
Counting and "Buddho"
In tle beginning ol tle µiuctice, tiying to use only tle Puli (tex-
tuul) instiuctions muy be too dillicult to uccomµlisl. Tleieloie uddi-
tionul devices to enguge und lold tle mind luve been olleied. Foi
instunce, tleie is (mentul-) counting ol tle bieutls. Tlis cun liist be
done in u slow µuttein by counting eucl succeeding in und out bieutl
us lollows:
Inlule (count) onc ... exlule (count) onc Inlule (count) rwo ...
exlule (count) rwo
Inlule (count) rlrcc ... exlule (count) rlrcc
Inlule (count) joor ... exlule (count) joor
Inlule (count) jivc ... exlule (count) jivc
Tlen ietuin uguin to counting onc÷onc; rwo÷rwo.....etc., but tlis
time continuing tle sequence so tlut you end witl six÷six. Reµeut tle
sequence uguin, ietuining to onc÷onc (und so on) but tlis time udding
scvcn÷scvcn; tlen buck to onc÷onc und tlen uµ to ciglr÷ciglr; onc÷
onc tlen uµ to ninc÷ninc, und linully, tle comµleted sequence liom
onc÷onc to rcn÷rcn.
Altei comµleting u lull sequence liom onc to rcn, begin tle cycle
uguin us beloie, i.e. onc÷onc to jivc÷jivc und so on, until ieucling
onc÷onc to rcn÷rcn uguin.
Wlen tle mind is sulliciently steudy, u µuttein ol moie iuµid count-
ing cun be used. Tlis entuils (mentully-) counting onc witl tle inlulu-
tion und rwo witl tle exlulution. Continue tlis sequence until you ieucl
jivc. Tlen, ietuining to onc continue until you ieucl six. Cuiiy on tlese
iounds until you ieucl rcn.
Tlese counting teclniques cun be individuully udjusted to one's
own µiuctice so us to uclieve sutisluctoiy iesults. One µossible uduµtu-
tion, loi exumµle, is to count liom onc stiuiglt tliougl to rcn und,
luving counted rcn, ietuin to onc und stuit tle cycle uguin.
Il µluin counting does not suit you tlen tle woid 'BoJJlo` muy be
used insteud. Inlule (mentully-) ieciting 'BoJ-`, und exlule, (mentully-
) ieciting '-Jlo'. Inlule 'BoJ-`, exlule'-Jlo,` und so on.
Counting oi using u muntiu woid sucl us BoJ-Jlo is u uselul uid in
tle beginning stuges ol tle µiuctice. It cun be comµuied to using lined
µuµei to guide tle lund wlen we weie liist leuining low to wiite.
Wlen u suituble degiee ol comµetence, steudiness ol mind und µiuc-
tice lus been uttuined, tle device ol counting und BoJ-Jlo slould be
discuided, witl u µuie mindlulness cuiiying on ulone. Tlis is tle gen-
eiul metlod ol µiuctice, und eucl µiuctitionei slould decide wlut is
most suituble. Tlis metlod is µuiely loi tle develoµing ol culm, und
will biing µeuce und stubility to tle mind.
I would like to iemind you ol tle loui lundumentuls ol µiuctice:
Conscientious µeiseveiunce (drdpa und sacca), lull und cleui comµie-
lension (sampajanna) und mindlulness (sari). Tlese uie ulwuys essen-
tiul to youi µiuctice.
The Benefits of Samadhi
Tle unquiet, iestless mind wustes time und elloit witl its luck ol
uµµlicution und locus. We muy wisl to study u book but cunnot con-
centiute due to distuibing und µiolileiuting tlouglts. Howevei, u mind
well tiuined (us desciibed ubove) in culm und steudlustness ullows us
to uµµly ouiselves. Foi exumµle, we cun uµµly ouiselves to tlut book
und cun quickly digest und undeistund it, witl u bettei iecull us well.
Tlus tle guins und benelits ol tle tiuined, stubilized mind munilest not
only in u µussive iesting ol tle mind in luµµiness, but ulso in wlutevei
uctivity we muy enguge in.
1sr Aogosr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 4
Review of the Basic Practice
Samarla lamma((ldna is tle µluce ol woik to biing culmness und
stubility to tle mind.
vipassand lamma((ldna is wleie insiglt into tle tiutl uiises in
tle mind.
One begins µiuctice by tuking ieluge in tle Buddlu, Dlummu und
Sunglu becuuse one is lollowing tle Loid Buddlu's Dlummu iutlei
tlun uny otlei wuy. Fuitl (saJJld) und conlidence (pasdJa) in tle
Buddlu ÷He wlo lus oµened uµ tle Wuy loi oui µiuctice to lollow÷
is tle going jor rcjogc.
You slould deteimine to keeµ ut leust tle Five Pieceµts. Even
youi sitting leie now is ulso to estublisl und imµiove youi moiul vii-
tue. Witl youi ieluge, luitl und µieceµts estublisled, you cun now
µiuctise loi culm und insiglt.
Tle µiuctice leuding to u culm und stuble mind is eluciduted in tle
Gieut Discouise on tle Foundutions ol Mindlulness (Mald Saripa((ldna
Sorra) us mindlulness ol bieutling. One estublisles mindlulness on tle
in-und-out bieutl, long oi sloit (etc.), exµeiiencing tle wlole body
und culming tle bieutl-body. Tle (Buddlist) Teucleis luve ulso ol-
leied suµµlementuiy wuys: locussing tle uttention ut one µoint in tle
bieutling cycle (i.e. ut tle nostiils oi uµµei liµ wleie tle bieutl mukes
contuct), loi exumµle, oi using counting to lelµ, oi by ieciting 'BoJ-
Jlo`. Tleie uie otlei vuiiutions, but tley ulwuys boil down to locussing
tle mind in one µluce. Wlen youi mind becomes one-µointed, you cun
be suie eveiytling is going well. But ut uny iute, just keeµ youi mind-
lulness locussed und you will be uble to muke tle mind one.
Characteristics of the Mind
I would like to exµluin u little moie ubout tle nutuie ol tle mind;
low dillicult it is to tume und contiol witl its lubituul jumµing und
iucing ubout. Even witl mindlulness lixed on u single object, it will
continuully buck und µull uwuy. Wleie does tle mind jumµ to? It stiug-
gles uiound umong mentul objects, lollowing ultei desiies, wisles, ut-
tiuctions und tle obstucles (pa|iboJla) wlicl uie woiiies und unxie-
ties. Tlese exteinul involvements uie tlose conceins wlicl we tlink
und conceive ubout. Once tley uie cuuglt uµ in tle mind tley ugitute
us woiiies und unxieties. Il tley uie muny und you uie unuble to tliow
tlem out, tlen tle mind cun't be µucilied. Howevei, eveiyone witl
tiue deteiminution cun exµel tlem und uclieve u culm mind.
The Method of Examining the Mind
Mindlulness is essentiul loi guuiding tle mind iiglt liom tle be-
ginning. Any inuttention, und tle mind will luve duited uwuy in u llusl.
Tle mind must tlen be sµeedily led buck inside il mindlulness is to be
Il one clecks to see wly tle mind lud duited uwuy, one muy lind
tle cuuse in sometling like tle sound ol u cui, ol µeoµle wulking µust,
oi tle noise ol sometling lulling. Tle mind ziµs uwuy to tlut µuiticului
sound und tlen stuits to ioum luitlei ulield. It muy luve wundeied on
tliougl muny vuiied eµisodes beloie one ieulizes tle luct und is uble
to ietuin it to one's deteimined µoint. Howevei, slould unotlei noise
inteivene, tle mind muy tlen be oll uguin ÷continuing on liom one
tling to unotlei in wlut miglt seem like u moment even tlougl it
sµuns muny dilleient eµisodes.
Using mindlulness, ulwuys ietuin tle mind to youi closen µoint
und, cuielully estublisling mindlulness, exumine it tleie. Tle mind
will tlen be µucilied und, wlen clecked in uny µuiticului eµisode, will
usuully not go oll tleie uguin but will iutlei lollow some otlei ulluii
insteud. Tlis metlod must be ieµeuted until tle mind is tumed und
uble to come to culm witl contentment (clanJa), iuµtuie (piri) und
euse (pamojja). Tlis will give u tuste ol tle liist stuges ol culm und
sumudli, luitleiing youi sutisluction in tle µiuctice und lucilituting
tle locussing und settling ol tle mind in sumudli.
Following on liom tle section on bieutling is tle section on µos-
tuie (iriydparla-pabba). Heie tle Loid Buddlu teucles tle use ol cleui-
comµielension. Wlen wulking, one is uwuie ol one's wulking; wlen
stunding, one is uwuie ol one's stunding, und likewise witl sitting oi
lying down. Wlen clunging µosition, be uwuie ol tlut movement. Aim
to keeµ uµ tlis cleui-comµielension und uwuieness.
On close exuminution one linds intention (ccrand) µiesent beloie
uny µosition is tuken uµ, oi even beloie one moves to clunge tlut
µostuie. Foi exumµle, tleie is tle intention to wulk oi to sit. Howevei,
in tle uctuul wulking oi sitting, one's cleui-comµielension is liuble to
be bioken by tle mind's stiuying uwuy in tlinking ol otlei ulluiis. Tleie-
loie, muke suie tlut cleui-comµielension is uwuie und suleguuiding
uny µostuie you uie µiesently in.
CIear Comprehension (Sumpujunnu)
Anotlei section (sampajanna-pabba) ulso deuls witl cleui-com-
µielension, clussilying tle mujoi µostuies in u moie detuiled wuy. Be
uwuie ol wlut you uie doing. At tle moment ol tuking u steµ loiwuid
oi buckwuids, ol looking oi tuining, ol stietcling tle body out oi con-
tiucting it in ÷wlutevei you uie doing÷ be cleuily uwuie. Diessing,
euting, diinking, ielieving youisell: notice low tlese tlings µioceed.
Tlis includes wulking, stunding, sitting, lying down, sµeuking, being
silent, going to sleeµ und wuking. Tlis constunt sell-uwuieness is tle
µiuctising ol cleui-comµielension. It will suleguuid you liom cuieless-
ness und negligence und cun biing only benelit.
On Impurities (Pujíkkü/u)
Tlis section (Pa(illo|a-pabba) deuls witl tle imµuie oi uncleun
usµect ol tle body. One exumines tle body liom tle soles ol tle leet
below, uµwuids to tle ciown ol tle leud. It is suiiounded und encused
in skin und lull ol vuiious loul und ieµulsive imµuiities.
Tlese uie tle bodily µuits:
luii ol tle leud (lcsd), luii ol tle body (|omd), nuils (nalld),
teetl (Janrd), skin (raco), llesl (mamsam), sinews (naldro), bones
(a((li), bone-muiiow (a((liminjam), kidneys (vallam), leuit
(laJayam), livei (yalanam), diuµliugm oi membiunes (li|omalam),
sµleen (pilalam), lungs (pappldsam), luige intestines (anram), smull
intestines (anragopam), undigested lood (oJariyam), exciement
(larisam), bile (pirram), µllegm (scmlam), µus (pobbo), blood
(|oliram), sweut (scJo), lut (mcJo), teuis (asso), skin gieuse (vasd),
sµittle (llcjo), nusul mucous (singldpild), oil ol tle joints (|asild) und
uiine (morram).
Tlese numbei tliity-one but tle Loid Buddlu ulso µointed to tle
biuin-in-tle-skull (marrlalc marrla|ongam), wlicl mukes tliity-two
bodily µuits in ull.
Even tlougl tle Loid Buddlu uctuully intended tlis teucling loi
tle monks (blilllo sangla), it still iemuins veiy mucl tle tiutl con-
ceining tle vuiious µuits ol tlis body, und luy µeoµle miglt tleieloie
uduµt tlis munnei ol exuminution loi tlemselves. He µointed out tlut
tlis body is so comµounded tlut it must become iotten und µutiid, us is
seen wlen it becomes u coiµse. But wlen it cun still be nuituied und
suµµoited tlen one cun ulso munuge to deµend on its suµµoit. Tlis
imµuie usµect is not usuully obseived unless one exumines it to see loi
onesell ÷wlen it's ulwuys ieudy to munilest.
All ol tlis is conceined witl culming und ussuuging tle mind liom
its sutisluction und µussionute uttuclment loi one's own und otlei µeo-
µle's bodies. Il you wisl to ieulize tlis culm tlen use tle metlod ol tlis
section loi exuminution und contemµlution. It is esµeciully imµoitunt
in youi sumudli µiuctice, wlen tle ubuting ol sucl uttuclment loi
botl youi own und otlei µeoµle's bodies becomes vitul. Tlis, tlen, is
one stiutegy to lelµ in tle liim estublisling ol youi mind in culm und
12rl Aogosr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 5
Two Methods of CaIm (Samatha)
I luve ulieudy exµluined two metlods loi muking tle mind culm
und stuble. Tleie is mindlulness ol bieutling, wlicl centies tle mind
in one-µointedness tliougl uwuieness set on tle in-und-out bieutls;
und mindlulness ol tle body (ldyagard-sari) wlicl uses exuminution
ol tle vuiious bodily comµonents to µenetiute to tleii imµuie nutuie.
The EIements (Ðhdtu-kummujjhdnu)
Anotlei metlod is tle exuminution ol tle elements. 'Element'
(Jldro) leie ieleis to laving simi|ar claracrcrisrics iutlei tlun to com-
ing jrom rlc samc roor. Tlus tlose body µuits tlut uie luid uie ieleiied
to us tle euitl element (pa(lavi-Jldro); tlose µuits tlut uie lluid uie
ieleiied to us tle wutei element (dpo-Jldro); tlose tlut uie wuiming
uie tle liie element (rcjo-Jldro); und tlose tlut uie in motion, tle
wind element (vdyo-Jldro).
We µieviously unulysed tle body into tliity-one oi tliity-two in-
teinul und exteinul comµonents, wleieus loi tle elements we unulyse
tlem in tle lollowing munnei:
1. The earth eIement is tle leud luii, body luii, nuils, teetl,
skin, llesl, sinews, bones, bone muiiow, kidneys, leuit, livei, mem-
biunes, sµleen, lungs, luige gut, smull gut, undigested lood und excie-
All ol tlese und uny otlei bodily µuits tlut uie luid uie desig-
nuted us tle euitl element.
2. The water eIement is tle bile, µllegm, µus, blood, sweut, lut,
teuis, skin gieuse, sµittle, mucous, oil ol tle joints und uiine. Any otlei
comµonent µuits tlut uie lluid cun be designuted us tle wutei element.
3. Tle fire eIement is tlut leut wlicl wuims tle body (ycna
sanrappari); tle leut wlicl cuuses tle body to decline und deteiioiute
(ycna jiriyari); tle leut wlicl mukes tle body leveiisl (ycna
pariJaylari); und digestive-leut loi wlutevei we eut, diink, clew oi
tuste (ycna asirapiralldyirasdyiram sammdparipdmam gacclari). Any
tling else in tle body tlut lus u leuting cluiucteiistic is designuted us
tle liie element.
4. Tle wind eIement is tle uµwuid-blowing wind (oJJlangamd
vdrd); tle downwuid-blowing wind (aJlogamd vdrd); tle wind in tle
ubdomen (locclisayd vdrd); tle wind in tle bowels (lo(lasayd vdrd);
tle wind tlut couises tliougl ull tle limbs (angamangdnosdrino vdrd)
und tle in-und-out bieutling (assdsopassdso). Any otlei µuit wlicl
lus u moving oi blowing quulity is designuted tle wind element.
S. Tle space eIement. In otlei discouises tle sµuce element (dldsa
Jldro) is µiesented us tle liltl element, tlis being tle emµty sµuces
und cuvities ol tle body: tle eui cunuls (lappaccliJJam); tle sinuses
(ndsaccliJJam); tle moutl oiilice (mollaJvdram); tle gullet (ycna ca
asirapiralldyirasdyiram ajjlolarari); tle sµuce wleie tle lood iemuins
(i.e. tle stomucl) (yarrla ca... ...sanri((liri); tle oiilice liom wleie tle
lood is exµelled (i.e. tle iectum) (ycna ca ....aJlobldgd nilllamari).
Any otlei emµty sµuce oi cuvity in tlis body uie ulso designuted us tle
sµuce element.
Separating-out One's EIements
It is quite noimul loi eucl one ol us to be uttucled to lis oi lei
body, tlinking ol it us mysc|j. Now we must exumine it in teims ol
elements, seµuiuting ull tle luid µuits out us euitl element, tle lluid
µuits us wutei element, tle wuim µuits us tle liie element, tle uiiy
µuits us tle wind element und tle emµty sµuces us tle sµuce element.
Tlut wlicl we udleied to us mc anJ minc will tlen be seen us ele-
Anulyse youi body und tuke out eucl element, one ut u time. Tuke
out ull tle luid µuits, leuving tle otlei elements togetlei. Now ie-
move tle wutei und tlen tle liie element, und you uie lelt witl tle
wind element. And wlen tlut is tuken out tlen ull tlut iemuins is emµty
Methods of Separating the EIements
One cun exumine tle elements lollowing tle Loid Buddlu's Wuy
(us ubove) oi one miglt use u modein scientilic unulysis ieducing eve-
iytling to molecules und utoms. Altei iemoving eucl ol tle elements,
one linully linds tlut ol ull tlut wlicl one lud been uttucled to und
tlouglt ol us mc anJ minc, tle only tling iemuining is tle sµuce ele-
ment. Just emµty sµuce witl no mc anJ minc oi sc|j.
Tlis unulysis ol elements is one stiutegy to use in cuibing uttucl-
ment to tlis body wlicl munilests us mc anJ minc, und us mysc|j. Tle
situution is just tle sume witl exteinul tlings wleie otlei µeoµle und
otlei tlings luve tle sume nutuie und µioµeities. One cun tlen ie-
leuse one's uttuclment loi µeoµle und tlings und ubundon one's tlink-
ing in teims ol sc|j. Tle mind tlen culms und is liimly settled.
Tlis is one metlod in tle µiuctice ol culm. Howevei, botl mind-
lulness ol tle body (wlicl we luve ulieudy deult witl) und tlis unuly-
sis ol elements is culm mixed witl insiglt. Tlis insiglt will uiise, witlout
uny µietension, out ol tle unulysis wlen tle elements uie cleuily seen
loi wlut tley ieully uie ÷no cieutuie, no µeison, no mysc|j oi rlcir
sc|j. Tle mind µieviously ubsoibed und sulleiing in its mc-ncss anJ
minc-ncss will ullow eveiytling to come to culm. Tlis is tle luctoi leud-
ing to u culm und cool mind.
StiIIness and Peace ~ or Thinking
Tle exuminution ol tle bodily µuits und elements does not biing
one-µointedness ol mind becuuse it iequiies un uctive unulysis und in-
vestigution. In mindlulness ol bieutling lowevei, tle uim is loi one-
µointedness, so one does not use investigution. Use wliclevei metlod
seems most uµµioµiiute to you ut tle time. Sometimes youi mind miglt
be content witl stillness und ut otlei times it will wunt to tlink. Wlen
youi mind tends to stillness, use mindlulness ol bieutling. Howevei, il
it likes to go out, tlinking ol tlis und tlut, tlen insteud ol giving it u
liee iein uiiunge u toui loi it in youi own body. Keeµ it witlin tlese
bounds: Fiom tle soles ol youi leet uµ to tle tiµs ol tle luii on youi
leud, ciicumsciibed witlin tle skin. As it tiuvels tleie, exumine tle
bodily µuits oi tle elements.
This Body as a Work Book
Tle study ol culm und insiglt is in luct tle study ol tlis body. It's
mucl like tle student doctoi witl lis big text book÷ wlicl is just tlis
veiy body. All lis studies uie contuined leie. Tle µiuctice ol culm und
insiglt is similui to tlis, but witl tle objective being u liimly estub-
lisled, culm mind togetlei witl u cleui seeing und tiue insiglt. And u
linul letting-go.
19rl Aogosr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 6
Concentrating on a SingIe Object
I luve ulieudy exµluined ubout stubilizing tle mind by wuy ol
culm using vuiious teclniques: mindlulness ol bieutling, mindlulness
ol tle body und exuminution ol tle elements. Tle cloice iests witl tle
µiuctitionei. Wlen one decides to estublisl tle wundeiing mind in one-
µointedness, mindlulness ol bieutling cun be used. Slould tle mind
wisl to go iouming, let it exµloie tle body oi elements. Howevei, mind-
lulness slould locus und iemuin witl eucl object until it is cleuily dis-
ceined. Foi exumµle, moving one's concentiution tliougl tle body,
one exumines tle luii ol tle leud und body, nuils, teetl, skin, llesl,
sinews oi bones. One miglt tuke boncs us u single object und tliougl
lixing one's mindlulness see tlem us one's own skeleton. Tlis is cen-
tiing tle mind in one µluce.
RefIection on a Corpse
Pieviously, I luve been ieleiiing to tle sciutiny ol tle living body,
but tle lileless body oi coiµse cun ulso be exumined. Comµuie tlis
body witl tle coiµse ubundoned in tle cemeteiy loi one, two oi tliee
duys ÷blouted und lesteiing until only mouldeiing bones iemuin. One's
contemµlution ol tlis will give iise to u weuiiness, u disencluntment
und tlen biing culm to tle mind. Witl µiuctice one tlen becomes uc-
customed to coiµses und unuliuid ol tlem. Tlis is unotlei metlod
wlicl uses iellection oi exuminution.
Two Types of Samadhi
Biielly sµeuking, tleie uie two tyµes ol concentiution: tlieslold
oi neiglbouilood concentiution (opacdra samdJli) und ubsoiµtion
concentiution (appand samdJli). Tle tyµe ol sumudli wleie tle mind
exµloies und exumines biings one only to tle tlieslold becuuse tle
mind is not yet one-µointed, wleieus tle tyµe tlut centies in one-µoint-
edness us ubsoiµtion sumudli is liim und unwuveiing. Concentiuting
on tle in-und-out bieutling, even tle estublisling ol mindlulness on
one sµecilic µuit in tle body, cun ulso leud to ubsoiµtion sumudli.
The Instruments for Practice
Tle instiuments loi one's µiuctice must include uµµlied-tlouglt
(viralla) und sustuined-tlouglt (vicdra). Aµµlied-tlouglt is tle cuµu-
bility ol uµµlying tle mind to tle meditution object ol sumudli, wlile
sustuined-tlouglt is tle sustuining und enguging ol tle mind togetlei
witl tle meditution object.
Wlen concentiuting on tle bieutl, one must diiect und uµµly tle
mind ut tle nostiils oi uµµei liµ, wleie tle uii enteis und leuves. Sus-
tuined-tlouglt is tlen used to keeµ tle mind liimly enguged on tlut
single µoint. Wlenevei one is cuieless in one's µiuctice und mindlul-
ness is lost, tle mind will dusl uwuy. Aµµlied-tlouglt must tlen be
used uguin to cutcl und ietuin tle mind to its loimei stution, enguging
und sustuining it tleie witlout ullowing it to lull uwuy to unotlei ob-
Tle Loid Buddlu comµuied uµµlied-tlouglt witl tle sound ol u
bell wlen liist stiuck, wlile sustuined-tlouglt wus likened to tle ie-
veibeiutions ol tle bell. Botl ol tlese uie ulwuys necessuiy in one's
µiuctice. Aµµlied und sustuined tlouglt uie essentiul becuuse tle mind
is continuully liuble to sliµ uwuy liom tle meditution object, iequiiing
uµµlied-tlouglt to lilt it buck und sustuined-tlouglt to sustuin und
enguge it tleie. Wlen tlis is constuntly µiuctised, tle mind becomes
µucilied und stutionuiy so tlut tle liuits ol sumudli cun stuit to uµµeui:
u µeivuding iuµtuie (piri) und, even moie tlun tlut, wlen euse (solla)
uiises tliouglout one's wlole body und mind. Witl contentment ol
botl body und mind tle mind becomes unwuveiingly centied on one
single object: Tlis is one-µointedness (claggard).
Wlen one lus yet to exµeiience tle iewuids ol iuµtuie und luµµi-
ness, tlen one's µiuctice will tend to leel liustiuting und tiiesome. How-
evei, witl tle continued develoµment ol uµµlied und sustuined tlouglt,
iuµtuie und luµµiness will uiise und tlen tle one-µointedness ol
sumudli will be boin us tle liist liuits ol one's sumudli µiuctice. Tlis
by itsell will give sutisluction in one's µiuctice und enuble it to develoµ
und llouiisl.
Tle µoints to note in my tulk toduy uie us lollows: Aµµlied-tlouglt
lilts und diiects tle mind to tle sumudli object. Sustuined tlouglt
enguges und sustuins tle mind togetlei witl tle meditution object.
Tlen iuµtuie und euse ol body und mind will uiise lollowed by tle one-
µointedness ol mind wlicl is sumudli.
20tl August 2S04 B.E. (1961)
TaIk 7
Summarizing the Body Section
Toduy, I will comµlete my exµlunution conceining tle section on
tle body in tle Discouise on tle Foundutions ol Mindlulness. I would
tleieloie like biielly to summuiize some ol tle muin µoints in ieview.
Even tlougl tle Loid Buddlu uctuully tuuglt tlis Discouise to monks,
tlose luy µeoµle µioµosing to culm tleii minds muy ulso use tlis µiuc-
tice to udvuntuge und ieceive tle iesultunt luµµiness.
Tle Loid Buddlu tuuglt tlut one must liist estublisl mindlulness
inside one's own body. As tleie uie so muny dilleient oiguns und µuits,
tle exuminution tukes uµ one µuit ut u time. On estublisling mindlul-
ness inside tle body one iecognizes tlut bieutling is u nutuiul exµeii-
ence common to eveiyone. He tleieloie tuuglt to bieutle in-und-out
mindlully. One slould be uwuie ol tle bieutl's lengtl, but concentiute
on just one µoint (ut tle nostiils oi uµµei liµ) iutlei tlun lollowing tle
bieutl ulong. Tle mind, tle body und tle bieutl will ull become culmei
und moie ielined; yet even tlougl you muy leel tlut tle bieutling lus
uctuully stoµµed, do not ieleuse youi concentiution liom its estublisled
Tleie uie two wuys ol tuking uµ unotlei µuit ol tle body loi
exuminution. One wuy is to leuve tle bieutling und tuin to concentiute
on some otlei µuit. Anotlei wuy is to ietuin mindlulness ol bieutling
us un uncloi und tlen couµle it witl tle contemµlution ol u µuit ol tle
body. Tlis combined contemµlution cun only be used wlile tle mind
lus yet to ieucl one-µointedness. At tlis stuge one cun use tlinking us
u lelµei in iestiuining tle mind liom going outside. Wlen it wunts to
go out tlen let it go into tlis body.
You slould ulso be uwuie ol otlei uieus. Note youi µostuie und
insµect youi body to see low it is µositioned. Notice tle µiesent µos-
tuie, il you uie sitting loi exumµle, und tlen tle vuiious sub-µositions,
sucl us low tle leet und lunds uie µluced. Being cleuily uwuie ol ull ol
tlis is cleui-comµielension (sampajanna).
Altei being uwuie ol tle body's µostuie, one cun tlen sciutinize
tle body itsell moie closely by exumining its comµonent µuits und oi-
guns. Some µuits uie diiectly disceinible to tle eyes (sucl us tle luii,
nuils, teetl, und skin) und some cunnot be seen (sucl us tle llesl,
sinews, bones und tle vuiious inteinul oiguns.) One cun stuit oll by
exumining tlem ull in geneiul oi go stiuiglt in to µick out und closely
insµect eucl µuit. Tlis deµends on youi own µieleience.
Altei exumining tle body's comµonent µuits, one cun view tlem
to u deeµei level by unulysing tlem in teims ol elements. Extiuct out
tle luid µuits us euitl element, tle lluid µuits us wutei element, tle
wuiming µuits us liie element, und tle blowing µuits us tle wind ele-
ment. Tle iemuining emµty sµuces uie tle sµuce element.
Il tle body und its elements weie uctuully seµuiuted in tlis wuy
tlen rlis asscmb|agc oi body would be no moie und lile would be lost.
Howevei, wlen tle elements ussociute togetlei tlen tlis ussembluge
is µiesent und ulive. It is bieutling, it clunges its µostuie, und its vuii-
ous exteinul und inteinul µuits uie in oidei und woiking togetlei. Tlis,
tlen, is tle body we luve leie now.
One cun luitlei investigute und see tlut wlen tle elements disso-
ciute, tle wind element will exµiie und witl it tle in-und-out bieutl.
Altei tle wind element, tle liie element extinguisles, leuving tle once-
wuim body cold. Tlen tle wutei und euitl element will giuduully dis-
µeise until notling iemuins exceµt tle emµty sµuces ol tle sµuce
element. Beloie eucl one ol us wus boin tlis body did not exist, und
eventuully it must ulso ietuin to notlingness.
The Nine Cemetery ContempIations
Cuiiying one's investigution on to unotlei level, one linds tlut
once tle wind und liie elements uie lost, tle body ends uµ being culled
u corpsc. Tlut coiµse isn't unytling otlei tlun tlis body. Wlen tle
elements uie ussembled togetlei, it's u living body, wlen tley luve
disµeised, it's u coiµse.
Altlougl tle Loid Buddlu tuuglt us to exumine tlis body, uctu-
ully to see tle coiµse witlin it is dillicult. He tleieloie exµluined tle
use ol u ieul coiµse so us to be uble to comµuie tle two. Eveiyone lus,
ut one time oi unotlei, lud to come ucioss someone dying oi u coiµse.
Nowuduys, lowevei, tle coiµse goes tliougl so mucl diessing und
muking-uµ tlut its tiue nutuie does not uµµeui. Tleieloie, we luve to
iely on tlese guidelines:
1. Rellect on u coiµse deud loi one, two oi tliee duys: blouted,
tuined un ugly gieen coloui und lesteiing.
2. Next contemµlute on tle coiµse tliown uwuy (in u cluinel
giound) being devouied by muny unimuls: tle ciows, vultuies und
iuvens, dogs und juckuls teuiing ut und euting tle coiµse.
3. Fiom tleie considei tle coiµse stiiµµed ol its llesl by tle uni-
muls but witl tle skeleton still smeuied witl blood und llesl und leld
togetlei by tle tendons.
4. And luitlei considei tle skeletul coiµse devoid ol llesl yet still
sµotted witl blood und leld togetlei by tle tendons.
S. Fiom tleie considei tle skeletul coiµse devoid ol llesl und
blood, yet leld togetlei by tle tendons.
6. Tlen considei tlut skeletul coiµse witl ull its lolding tendons
gone, tle loimei skeleton now scutteied leie und tleie. Tle bones ol
tle leet luve gone one wuy, tle bones ol tle lunds unotlei. Tle tligl
bones, µelvis, sµinul veitebiue, iibs, bieust bone, uim bones, tle sloul-
dei bludes, tle neck veitebiue, tle juw, tle teetl und linully tle skull
luve ull come uµuit in dilleient diiections. Tley uie now just buie
7. ...yet tlose bones uie iecent und tleieloie still wlite...
8. ... und ultei u yeui µusses tley uie ieduced to being just leuµs
ol old bones.
9. Tlen tle bones iot und decuy und become dust; blown und
scutteied by tle wind so tlut tley cunnot even be culled bones unymoie.
Tle exuminution us tuuglt by tle Loid Buddlu tukes tlis body uµ
µuit by µuit. Exumine u living body und loiesee low it too must inevi-
tubly be witlout lile. Tle leui tlut muy sometimes uiise in tlis contem-
µlution usuully comes liom luck ol knowledge. Tlis ignoiunce und
lonesomeness mukes one imugine tlut tleie is luim oi dungei luiking.
But wlen one disceins wlut it is ull ubout ÷und tlut in tiutl tleie's no
dungei involved÷ tlen tlut leui will lull uwuy. Once you luve mus-
teied youi timidity tlen you will be someone eugei und biuve loi tle
tiutl, no longei uliuid ol glosts und tle like.
Inspecting the House
My exµlunution ol tle investigution ol tle body iequiies tle mind
to muke un insµection toui. Tlis is mucl like moving to u new louse
wlicl ulso needs un initiul insµection. One touis tle wlole louse to
cleck out wleie eveiytling is. Howevei, tlis does not meun one must
ulwuys be on tle move, continuully insµecting us il one did not need to
iest. Wlen one ieully needs to iest, to sit oi lie down, tlen one must
stoµ in one µluce. Tle comµlete insµection ol tle louse linisled ullows
one to cloose, uccoiding to one's µieleiences, exuctly wleie to µluce
tle cluii oi bed so one cun iest. Tle Loid Buddlu, tleieloie, olleied
muny dilleient metlods wlicl I luve been exµluining leie. He µointed
out tle wuy to entei into tlis body und insµect it in its entiiety. Wlen
in need ol iest, one cun tlen sit oi lie down wleie one is comloituble.
One cun ieµose on tle bieutl by settling mindlulness on u single µoint
tleie, oi iest in uny one ol tle tliity-two µuits ol tle body. One estub-
lisles u single locus, loi exumµle, in tle bones until tle skeleton muni-
lests. Otleiwise, you cun contemµlute tle coiµse. Wlutevei usµect
uµµeuls to you ÷be it living oi deud÷ tlut is uµ to you.
Il you uie sutislied witl tle bieutl us tle muik, tlen centie youi
mind unwuveiingly on just one single µoint tleie. Il tle mind wunts to
move uiound tlen let it toui tliougl tle otlei µuits ÷but muke suie it
stuys witlin tle body. Otleiwise you cun use botl togetlei, but tlis is
not yet sumudli, loi tlut iequiies u centiing, u gutleiing togetlei ut
one µoint.
26rl Aogosr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 8
The Body: Inside and Outside
Arising and Disappearing
Would you ull now centie mindlulness inside youi own body. Tle
mind muy now tiy to escuµe, going out und involving itsell in vuiious
woiiies. Tlis luµµens becuuse eveiyone tends to luve conceins ubout
lis oi lei woik, lumily, lome oi otlei uieus. Use mindlulness und
cleui-comµielension. Be deteimined to set youi woiiies uside und leud
tle mind to collectedness inside youi own body.
You muy lix youi concentiution ut tle nostiils oi uµµei liµ oi on
uny ol tle otlei objects wlicl I luve exµluined µieviously. Accoiding
to tle Discouise (Saripa((ldna Sorra), being uwuie ol tle bieutl is con-
ceined witl knowing tle inteinul und tle exteinul, und knowing tle
uiising und tle disuµµeuiing.
Obseiving tle exteinul uccoiding to tle conventionul undei-
stunding meuns knowing tle bieutl's contuct µoint ut tle nostiils oi
uµµei liµ. Tlis conventionul liume ol ieleience is one wlicl eveiyone
wlo wutcles tlut µoint will exµeiience und tlis is culled seeing tle
Looking ut tle inteinul witl tle ultimute undeistunding is tle see-
ing tlut tle veiy bieutl is mude uµ ol tle loui elements. Hold youi
lund neui youi nose so tlut tle exlulution stiikes it. You will tlen leel
some larJncss in tle contuct, some b|owing, some moisrncss und some
warmrl. Tle exµeiience ol luidness is tle euitl element; moistness is
tle wutei element; blowing, tle wind element; und wuimtl, tle liie
element. Tlougl tlis is just tle bieutl, liom u moie µiolound view-
µoint it is comµosed ol tle loui elements. Tlis is culled seeing tle
inteinul. Looking ut tle exteinul witl conventionul undeistunding
(sammari) one sees tle bieutl. Looking ut tle inteinul witl ultimute
(paramarrla) undeistunding tleie uie tle loui elements.
Tuking tlis now onto unotlei level wleie tle seeing ol tle bieutl
is tle exteinul, wleieus tle seeing ol tle mind is tle inteinul. Tlis
luttei is tle concentiuting ol tle mind, lixing it so tlut tle muik oi sign
uiises. It is similui to u µlotogiuµl: tle object lilmed being exteinul,
und tle imuge on tle lens oi on tle lilm being inteinul. Focus youi
mind to see tle exteinul und tle inteinul.
Wlen you concentiute in tlis wuy, you will see uiising und disuµ-
µeuiing. Bieutling-in is tle uiising. Bieutling-out is tle disuµµeuiing.
Tle inlulution is ulso uctuully tle biinging in ol tle loui elements und
tle exlulution is tle iemoving ol tlem. Tlis tlen, is un uiising und u
disuµµeuiing eveiy time you bieutle.
Wlile µeoµle uie still bieutling, tley uie uttucled to tle vuiious
tlings, but wlen tlut bieutling ends so does tleii conscious iecogni-
tion ol clinging to unytling. Tle uim ol tle Loid Buddlu's Teucling
ubout seeing tle body in tle body is tleieloie to see und be uwuie ol
tle inteinul und tle exteinul, tle uiising und tle disuµµeuiing. Be uwuie
ol tle existence ol youi body, esµeciully ol tle bieutling, but only to
tle extent necessuiy loi knowledge und to estublisl mindlulness. Let
go und do not giusµ ut unytling. Be uwuie tlut rlis boJy cxisrs und rlis
brcarl cxisrs und ut tle sume time ieleuse eveiytling. Let go. Emµty
youi mind und muke it cleui und ut euse. Fiimly estublisl youi mind-
lulness on tle object you luve lixed uµon.
FeeIing (vedund)
Sitting leie in µiuctice you muy exµeiience some discomloit oi
µuin. You muy ucle oi leel still oi you uie being bitten by mosquitos, oi
else you muy leel iestless und lidgety. Even tlougl you muy luve µlysi-
cul µuin und mentul µuin, just be uwuie ol wlutevei is µuinlul. Bodily
discomloit, mentul discomloit ÷wly is tleie distiess? One cun lind
tle cuuse in tle muteiiul oi cuinul tlings, tle buited looks oi dmisa.
Reulize tlut tlese uie tle tlings wlicl cuuse tle vuiious loims ol sul-
leiing. Il you leel some mentul discomloit ÷µeiluµs u stilled oi oµ-
µiessed leeling÷ und youi mind won't settle down, tlen exumine to
lind its cuuse. You muy lind tlut youi mind is conceined witl numei-
ous unxieties und is unuble to come to collectedness. Oi tle cuuse muy
be in tlut you luve nevei µiuctised tiunquillity meditution beloie und
tle mind still iuns oll leie und tleie. It lus nevei been still beloie und
tleieloie is not sutislied witl sucl u stute. Be uwuie tlut tleie is ul-
wuys u cuuse, u buited-look, µiesent in tle tlings tlut come in und
biing sulleiing. Wlen you uie settled into youi µiuctice und exµeii-
ence bodily und mentul µuin, look to see wleie it oiiginutes. Do not
submit to tle µuin but keeµ uµ tle µiuctice uccoiding to one's oiiginul
intention. Tlut µuin will tlen giuduully lude und tle mind's loundution
will be estublisled moie liimly so tlut sucl stubility biings loitl luµµi-
Wlen you exµeiience u µleusunt leeling ol eitlei body oi mind,
tlen be uwuie ol it us sucl. You muy exµeiience u cooling bieeze wlicl
ieliesles youi body, und no ucle oi stillness is µiesent. Considei wlut
cuused tlis µleusunt bodily leeling. Il it cume liom tle enviionment,
tle weutlei und sucl like, oi youi ucles lelt wlen you clunged youi
µostuie, tlen ieulize tlut tlis is still muteiiul, buited-look µleusuie. It
is ull deµendunt on exteinul tlings.
Be uwuie ol tle cuuse ol uny µleusunt mentul leeling. Sometimes
it muy uiise wlen tle mind dusles out to some µleusuiuble involve-
ment outside und is lost tleiein. You cun tlen see its deµendence on
exteinul tlings: Tlis is buited-look µleusuie. Howevei, wlen tle mind
is steudy und centied in culm witl iuµtuie, witl euse und bodily und
mentul luµµiness µiesent, tlen tlis is u nonmuteiiul luµµiness
(nirdmisa). Tlis is µleusuie indeµendent ol exteinul buited uttiuctions.
Tlut bodily euse slould ulso be seen us uiising liom tle mind's stute ol
culm und not liom exteinul muteiiul tlings.
As tle mind steudily stubilizes, tlut µleusuie will become moie
und moie stilled und ielined until it is exµeiienced us neitlei-µuinlul-
noi-µleusunt. Tle mind is tlen liimly centied. Tlis neitlei-µuinlul-
noi-µleusunt leeling is indeµendent ol exteinul tlings.
Wlen using mindlulness ol bieutling in youi sumudli µiuctice
you must ulso note tle leelings tlut uiise. At liist tley will be µuinlul
und tlen tley will subside und µleusunt leeling will be exµeiienced.
Wlen tlis becomes moie und moie ielined, µleusunt leeling will lude,
und inteimediute, neitlei-µuinlul-noi-µleusunt, leeling will uiise. At
tlis level ol µiuctice tle mind is estublisled und liim, but tleie is still
u need to cleck tlut tle buited, exteinully led, leelings ol eitlei µuin oi
µleusuie do not uiise. One's level ol culm will tlen biing u nonmuteiiul
luµµiness wlicl slould be used to encouiuge one's contentment in
µiuctice. Howevei, do not ulso become uttucled to tlut luµµiness. Just
uim loi one-µointedness ol mind.
27rl Aogosr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 9
The Body and FeeIing: Together in Review
Tle cultivution ol tle mind uims loi u steudy, culm mind und u
µenetiutive insiglt into tle tiutl. I luve exµluined tlis, stuge by stuge,
lollowing tle Loid Buddlu's Wuy set loitl in tle Gieut Discouise on
tle Foundutions ol Mindlulness, tlis being tle only wuy to ieulize one's
uim. Even His otlei Teuclings cun be summuiized into tlis loim. Tleie-
loie, we slull ieconsidei tlis wuy ol µiuctice iiglt liom tle beginning.
Centie tle mind und locus on youi own body und leelings.
Seeing tle wlole body conceins: mindlulness ol bieutling; know-
ing tle wlole body, botl tle mentul giouµ und tle coiµoieul giouµ;
culming tle mind, body und bieutl; being uwuie ol one's µiesent µos-
tuie; exumining tle exteinul und inteinul bodily µuits und oiguns; ie-
ducing tlose to tleii elements; seeing tlut witl tle disµeisul ol tle
elements wlut iemuins is u coiµse in its vuiying stuges ol decomµosi-
tion, until tleie in notling lelt to ussume us body. Tlis exuminution ol
one's body is u wide-iunging, oveiull insµection, wlile tle µiuctice ol
sumudli iequiies tle iesting ol tle mind in uny one µuiticului bodily
µuit. Foi exumµle, il one linds tlut mindlulness ol bieutling suits one
tlen concentiute on tlut one µoint.
In tle initiul stuges ol µiuctice tleie will be µuin in botl body und
mind. Tleie uie tle ucles liom sitting in unuccustomed µositions und
tle mind's discomloit liom being loiced to be still und culm wlen it
lus nevei µiuctised beloie. Reulize tlut tlis is µuinlul leeling uiising in
outside uttiuctions witl tleii buited look. Pust bodily comloit und tlut
leeling ol µleusuie uie tlen used to luie it into µuin. Tle mind lubitu-
ully-tlinking-us-it-likes is distiessed wlen it is loiced to gutlei into
culm. Howevei, witl µutience, µeisistence und unwuveiing deteiminu-
tion, sucl µuin will lude uwuy und luµµiness will uiise. Tle body will
tlen be ut euse und tle mind seiene.
But on no uccount cun mindlulness be ullowed to luµse. Il it is lost
tlen tle mind will iuce out und giub lold ol exteinul objects. Wlen-
evei you cutcl tle mind engiossed in sucl µleusuies tlen lully ieulize
tlut tlis is baircJ-lool p|casorc und bused in exteinul uttiuctions. Be
similuily uwuie ol tlut bodily µleusuie bused on un exteinul luie. Tlese
tlings tlut induce tle mind to dodge outside uie ol ciiticul imµoitunce
becuuse on going out it does not stoµ ut just one excuision. Tle sound
ol someone wulking oi sµeuking, oi ol u cui oi some otlei noise, muy
immediutely leud tle mind uwuy, und tlen it will continue on into
myiiud involvements. Do not ullow tle mind to become engiossed in
tlese exteinul uttiuctions witl tleii buited looks. Slould you cutcl
tle mind in sucl µleusuies, tlen ieulize tleii oiigin und biing it buck
to tle object ol youi sumudli, to one-µointedness.
Sometimes u neitlei-µuinlul-noi-µleusunt leeling muy similuily
uiise liom tle mind's excuision into exteinul involvements. So muke
youisell uwuie ol tlis.
Alwuys be wutcllul und leud tle mind buck to its sumudli object
so tlut it becomes stilled und liee liom sensuulity und ull unwlole-
some stutes. You cun tlen be conlident tlut tle luµµiness wlicl you
exµeiience is comµletely untuinted by exteinul luies und is boin liom
tiunquillity. Tlis luµµiness gives u tuste ol tle initiul stuge ol µiuctice.
Howevei, do not lose youisell in it, but continue to steudy tle mind in
tle sumudli object.
Focussing and Setting the Mind
Altei undeistunding leeling us I luve exµluined, now tuin inwuids
to tle mind itsell. Look und note its condition, its stute und disµosition.
As you locus tleie you will exµeiience tlut tle leeling slilts into tle
mind us well ÷but only il you wutcl cuielully. You will lind tlut uny
bodily distiess iuns into tle mind, wlile uny mentul distiess is ulieudy
diiectly conceined witl tle mind. Tlis gives iise to dislike wlicl is
ulso known us lutied oi uveision (Josa). Howevei, I leel tlut tlis woid
seems u little too stiong so we will use 'dislike'. It lus u bioud meuning
becuuse eveiyone dislikes sulleiing. Sulleiing, once µiesent, leuds to
tle uiising ol dislike und us it intensilies so tle uveision uiises moie
sluiµly. Tleieloie tlis dislike, oi wlut cun be culled uveision, uiises
tliougl µuinlul bodily und mentul leeling (Jollla vcJand). Wlen some-
tling is contucted, tlen bodily und mentul µuin must uiise beloie it
becomes u muttei loi uveision. Puinlul leeling is tleieloie tle luse loi
uveision und dislike. Wlen tlis is tle cuse, be uwuie tlut tle mind is
µossessed witl lutied oi uveision, tlut dislike lus ulieudy uiisen in tle
In tle oµµosite cuse, µleusunt bodily und mentul leeling (solla
vcJand) will leud to liking. One miglt ulso cull tlis lust (rdga) but uguin
it seems iutlei too stiong u woid. 'Liking' muy seem too geneiul u teim
but just undeistund tlut it ieleis to tle beginning ol lust. Lust leie
stuits witl tle subtle loims ol uttuclment und lunkeiing, eveiytling
wlicl involves liking. Eveiy tyµe ol londness, oi one muy cull it lust,
tleieloie liist sµiings liom µleusunt leeling. Tle contuct tlut biings
bodily und mentul comloit und euse immediutely leuds on to lunkei-
ing, uttuclment und lust. Tleieloie be uwuie wlenevei tlese luve uiisen
in youi mind.
Tlut leeling wlicl is inteimediute ÷neitlei-µuinlul-noi-µleusunt
(aJollla-m-asolla vcJand)÷ ieleis to tle exµeiiencing ol wlutevei
is ulieudy lumiliui. At tle exµeiience ol sometling new, u µleusunt
leeling muy uiise, us wlen one ucquiies sometling one lunkeis loi.
Howevei, ultei tle initiul excitement lus luded, one muy begin to leel
quite indilleient towuids it und tlis is neutiul leeling. Tlis leeling tlen
slilts into tle mind wleie it cieutes un uttuclment to tlut tling. Sucl
uttuclment, develoµing liom un initiul excitement into un indilleient
leeling, is ieully u tyµe ol deceµtion becuuse tle object is still not ie-
leused. Tlis giusµing, wlicl is u stinginess und jeulous guuiding mukes
tlut object imµossible to ielinquisl. Even tlougl tle object no longei
tliills und excites, it cun still not be given uµ. It's like ull tlose otlei
tlings we own und luve squiiielled uwuy. Tlis uttuclment is u loim ol
deceµtion. Wlen it uiises in youi mind be uwuie tlut delusion (mola)
is µiesent.
Pleusunt und µuinlul leelings llusl to und lio, inciting tle sµiing-
ing loitl ol liking oi disliking, but tlis inteimediute leeling is discein-
ible only il one cuielully exumines tle undeilying giound. One will
tlen come to uµµieciute its gieut extent. Tle mind is, in luct, deceived
und uttucled to muny ol tlese inteimediute exµeiiences wlicl luck
uny ol tle llusling buck und loitl ol µleusuie-und-londness und µuin-
und-dislike. See tle tiutl ol ull ol tlis in youi own mind.
At tle oµµosite µole ulso be uwuie wlen tle mind is liee und
unstuined by lust, lutied und deceiving uttuclment. Wlen tle mind
cunnot be estublisled in tle sumudli µiuctice ol mindlulness ol bieutl-
ing, tlis is becuuse ol its wundeiing out witl liking, luting, und deceiv-
ing. It's tleieloie ulwuys necessuiy to keeµ u wutcl on youi mind und
to ieulize wlen it lus wundeied uwuy. Tlut uwuieness will ullow tle
mind to ietuin to culmness.
At tlis stuge in youi µiuctice, discouiugement oi iestless und liet-
lul tlouglts muy uiise. Be uwuie ol sucl leelings und steudily lilt tle
mind so tlut it biigltens und tukes leuit. Otleiwise ieulize tlut sucl
dejection uiises only becuuse one lus yet to ieceive tle luµµiness ie-
sulting liom tiunquillity. Do not, tleieloie, give uµ on tle µiuctice. Do
not indulge in tlose iestless wliiling tlouglts, but use mindlulness to
biing eveiytling buck.
On some occusions youi mind muy be exµunsive und bioud. Be
uwuie ol it. Also be uwuie slould tle mind evei become nuiiow und
ciumµed. Tle exµunsive mind lus ligl sµiiits wlicl must be modei-
uted witl mindlulness il tley slould go to excess. Il tle mind becomes
too nuiiow und ciumµed tlen it will muke loi sulleiing so one must
cuielully not let tlis luµµen. A lot ol luµµiness muy muke tle mind
ovei-exµunsive und too ligl sµiiited, wleieus too little muy muke it
nuiiow und ciumµed. Sucl extiemes must tleieloie be uvoided loi tle
suke ol wlut is just iiglt und most suituble.
Sometimes tle mind will leel unsuiµussuble ÷wlen, loi exum-
µle, one wunts to woik und µiuctise us luid us µossible÷ wleieus some-
times tle mind uµµeuis cleuily suiµussuble, even iutlei sluck. Tlis cun
leud to negligence. In tlese cuses one must ulso udjust, witl u give-
und-tuke uttitude, so tlut tley bulunce out just iiglt. Do not tlink tlut
you cun be extiu-suµeiioi, loi you will tleieby ulso become oveilusty.
Similuily, do not ullow too mucl sluckness und negligence. Cuielully
bulunce tlem togetlei und us one's µiuctice µiogiesses tlen tuke it
steudily, stuge by stuge.
Sometimes tle mind will be steudy und estublisled, und ut otlei
times it will luck tlis quulity. Be uwuie ol tlis. Tle well-estublisled
mind is iiglt und good, but you must exumine to see tle ieuson il it
slould wuvei und wundei uwuy. Tleie must be sometling lucking,
some omissions in youi µiuctice wlicl stoµ it liom stubilizing. You
must lind tle cuuses und biing tle mind buck to stubility.
Sometimes tle mind is libeiuted, und ut otlei times it is
unlibeiuted. At tle mundune level tlis ieleis to ieleusing, letting go ol
sometling und uclieving culm in one's µiuctice. Wlen tle mind cun-
not µuss beyond, it meuns one cunnot ielinquisl, und tle mind keeµs
ietuining to outside involvements, been conceined ubout one's woik,
loi exumµle. Il you ullow tle mind to go on in tlis wuy, tlen youi
µiuctice won't be µioductive. Wlen sitting in µiuctice you must tleie-
loie ulwuys succeed in youi elloits to ieleuse youisell liom tlose ex-
teinul entunglements und woiiies, und biing tle mind buck to culm.
Tlis cun tlen be culled tle mind gone beyond. Tlis stute ol mind liee
liom exteinul µieoccuµutions will tlen smootl tle wuy loi youi sitting
µiuctice. You must tleieloie muintuin u constunt vigilunce conceining
tle stute ol youi mind.
Undeistunding tle wuy ol µiuctice exµounded by tle Loid Bud-
dlu meuns being uwuie ol tle body, being uwuie ol leeling und being
uwuie ol tle mind. Estublisl one ol tlem ÷sucl us mindlulness ol
bieutling÷us u busis loi tle µiuctice ol sumudli. But loi tlut µiuctice
to µiogiess, un uwuieness ol leeling und mind will ulso on occusion be
iequiied. You must be uble to locus on leeling und tle mind witl its
involvements in oidei to steudy tle mind und liimly estublisl it in tle
closen object.
8rJ Scprcmbcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 10
The Section on MentaI Objects (dhummd)
The Five Hindrances (Nîvurupu)
Oui cultivution ol tle mind is uimed botl ut liimly estublisling
culm und ut develoµing tle uiising ol tiue wisdom und insiglt. We
deµend on tle µiuctice us luid down by tle Loid Buddlu wlicl I luve
been exµluining in stuges.
We begin by develoµing culm und liimly estublisling tle mind. Il
you uie luµµy witl mindlulness ol bieutling tlen locus on tle in-und-
out bieutl, us I luve ulieudy exµluined. Wlile µiuctising, you must ulso
note leeling und mind becuuse il tle mind lus not yet ieucled one-
µointedness, tle vuiious sense-buses uie still uctive. Tle eui leuis
sounds, tle body ieceives tle toucl ol objects und becuuse tle mind is
still not liimly centied, mentul objects will uiise. Tle leelings wlicl
uiise go immediutely to tle mind wleie tle µuinlul leeling biings dis-
liking, tle µleusunt leeling biings liking; und tle inteimediute leeling
biings delusion und uttuclment. Constunt mindlulness is needed to
wutcl ovei ull ol tlis to muke one's concentiution liim und centied.
Wlen youi elloit to lelµ estublisl und centie tle mind luils oi
else does not µiogiess in develoµing sumudli, tlen you must see wleie
tle obstiuction lies. Tle Loid Buddlu culled tlese obstucles tle lin-
diunces (nivarapa). Tley bui tle mind liom sumudli und you slould
be uwuie ol tleii leutuies. Tleie uie live lindiunces:
1. Sensuul desiie (ldmacclanJa): Sutisluction in exteinul objects
us being woitl desiiing und wisling loi. Wlen sucl desiie is µiesent, it
leuds tle mind out und µievents its concentiuting, tleieby tlwuiting
2. Ill-will (bydpdJa): Dislike loi tle µiuctice oi loi exteinul ob-
jects. Wlen tle mind is duikened by ill-will oi dislike tlen it is u dun-
gei to sumudli.
3. Slotl und toiµoi (rlina-miJJla): Diowsiness und discouiuge-
ment wlicl dull tle mind und muke tle body sluggisl und letluigic.
Wlen tlis lindiunce uiises it is u dungei to sumudli.
4. Restlessness und woiiy (oJJlaccalollocca): Fietlulness und
ugitution conceining exteinul objects oi cuused by iuµtuie uiising liom
tle µiuctice. Tlis unnoyunce mixed witl dislike mukes one leel lietlul
und mukes sumudli imµossible.
S. Sceµticul doubt (viciliccld): Wuveiing und unceituinty concein-
ing one's motivutions loi µiuctising und conceining tle metlod und
liuits ol µiuctice. Foi exumµle, one lus misgivings ubout wletlei one
slould µiuctise ut ull, oi one questions wly one is doing it, loi wlut
udvuntuge. Tle dungei to one's immediute µiuctice is tle vucillution
ubout wlicl ol tle vuiious metlods I luve exµluined; wletlei one
slould udoµt one liom tle section conceining tle body, oi leeling oi
mind. To be unceituin ubout cloosing tle iiglt wuy disµluys u doubt
ubout tle wuy ol µiuctice. Tlis mukes tle mind vucillute und sumudli
becomes imµossible. One muy ulso be unsuie ubout tle benelits ol µiuc-
tice oi ubout wletlei ceituin tlings will uµµeui. Tlese unticiµutions
und exµectutions ubout lutuie iesults, oi ubout seeing vuiious tlings,
uie u dungei to sumudli.
You must tleieloie look ut youi mind: Wlut stute is it in ut tlis
moment? Is tle inclinution (clanJa) towuids exteinul tlings oi is tleie
ulieudy some towuids tle object ol sumudli? Il tle inclinution is still
mostly towuids tle exteinul, tlen tleie won't be uny loi tle inteinul
und sumudli will be dillicult to uclieve. One must tleieloie uiiest
sucl zeul loi exteinuls und endeuvoui insteud towuids tle object ol
sumudli. It does not muttei so mucl tlut zeul towuids tle sumudli-
object lus not yet uiisen, loi tlut will come ol itsell once some ol tle
liuits ol sumudli uie guined.
Exumine youi mind loi tle duikness ol dislike. Is it ull cuuglt uµ
in tlose exteinul objects wlicl cuuse dislike? Is it stuiting to build uµ
dislike towuids tle µiuctice? Il you indeed lind tlut sucl is tle cuse,
tlen endeuvoui to iestiuin tlose distuibing objects und ieject tle dis-
like loi tle µiuctice. Tle µutting down ol sucl dislike uvoids tle subse-
quent µiejudice und bius to tle µoint wleie you cun exµeiience tle
meiits ol sumudli wlen sucl dislike subsides. Tlis is similui to dislik-
ing u µeison oi tling becuuse one lus noticed only tleii luults und bud
µoints. Wlenevei one munuges to see tleii good quulities tlen tlut
dislike will be stilled. Youi ieluctunce und dislike loi tle µiuctice will
tleieloie disuµµeui wlen you luve uctuully exµeiienced sumudli.
Now, wlen tle imµulse und uveision towuids exteinul objects
subside und ieluctunce ubout tle sumudli object diminisles, tle mind
will come to culm. Anotlei untugonist to tlut culm will tlen uµµeui:
diowsiness. Tle stute ol culm und tlis diowsiness uie veiy similui. Tlis
becomes evident wlen one culms tle mind ÷listening to u Dlummu
tulk, loi instunce÷ und one ulso leels diowsy. Tle untiuined mind is
usuully cluiucteiized by iestlessness, oi il it's not iestless, it's diowsy.
Tlus tleie is u need to tuke gieut cuie tlut one doesn't doze-oll, wlicl
would ellectively extinguisl uny mindlulness. Mindlulness, iecollec-
tion und uwuieness uie ulwuys essentiul loi tle develoµment ol sumudli.
As tle sumudli becomes moie ielined, one's cleui-comµielension und
mindlulness must be cleuiei und moie subtle. Tle gieutei cluiity ol
one's uwuieness µiomotes un equully gieutei steudlustness ol sumudli.
Tle µiuctice ol sumudli does not tleieloie uim to obtuin u soit ol deud-
ened-unconsciousness. Tle wuy to solve tlis µioblem ol diowsiness is
by ieulizing its cuuses. It uiises becuuse one lus let mindlulness und
uwuieness sliµ in tiying to culm tle mind. Wlen going to sleeµ it is
mucl tle sume: One lets go ol uwuieness und, in tuin, one lulls usleeµ.
In µiuctice, tleieloie, mindlulness cunnot be given uµ otleiwise sleeµi-
ness will descend. You must lully deµloy uwuieness und mindlulness,
wlicl will µievent sucl diowsiness liom occuiiing.
As soon us you leel sleeµy, use tlis metlod togetlei witl u lixing
on tle uiising ol biiglt liglt. Tlis meuns tlut it is us biiglt us noon in
tle mind tliougl tle vividness und biilliunce ol uwuieness und mind-
lulness. Tle mind is iudiunt witl lull, cleui comµielension und mind-
lulness. Tleie cun be no dimming ol tlis ÷us il one weie tiimming
down u luntein's llume÷ becuuse tlut cun leud only to sleeµ.
Also, do not ullow uny wild und unsettling tlouglts conceining
tle wuy ol µiuctice becuuse tlis will uboit uny develoµment ol sumudli.
Be suie to locus on tle meditution object. Il you decide on mindlulness
ol bieutling tlen concentiute lully tleie. Howevei, ulso be uwuie ol
tle wuys ol leeling und mind, us I luve ulieudy exµluined. Tlis ullows
you to coiiect unytling tlut miglt sµoil tle sumudli und ulso uvoids
uny oµµiession ol tle mind. In mindlulness ol bieutling tlis will stoµ
uny iiieguluiity wlicl would cuuse iestlessness oi iiiitution. Il you give
liee iein loi tle mind to enjoy tle iuµtuie und luµµiness ol tle euily
liuits ol sumudli, tlen tlut excitement will leud to iestlessness. Sucl
iestless und µiolileiuting tlouglts need to be constuntly guuided uguinst,
us I luve mentioned beloie.
Sceµticul doubt und conjectuie ulso need µutting down. Be cleui
und ceituin in youi µiuctice witlout sµeculuting on uny lutuie ellects,
oi tlinking, ¨Wlut will I see? Wlut will uµµeui? Wlut will it be?` Aim
only to estublisl tle mind liimly in tle object ol sumudli, witl uwuie-
ness und mindlulness lull und cleui. Tle moie ielined tle sumudli
becomes, tle moie soµlisticuted und comµielensive tle mindlulness
und uwuieness must be.
By getting to know tle leutuies und cluiucteiistics ol tlese lin-
diunces wlicl bui tle mind liom sumudli you cun µievent tleii occui-
ience. Il tley luve ulieudy uiisen, you must endeuvoui to wiµe tlem
out. Tle elloit to µievent und eliminute tlese lindiunces is wlut leuds
to µiogiess und success in youi sumudli µiuctice.
4rl Scprcmbcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 11
Summarizing the Stages of Practice
Tlis Dlummu Teucling is u tiuining uid in tle cultivution ol tle
mind. It is diiectly conceined witl you und tleieloie in listening to
wlut tle Loid Buddlu tuuglt, you must uim to biing it into youisell
und locus on it tleie. Wlen you cun see tle tiutl in youisell, tlen you
will ulso be uble to see Dlummu.
Tle µiuctice is uimed botl ut culming tle mind und ut uttuining to
cleui knowledge und tiue insiglt. I luve been exµluining tlis µiuctice
ol culm stuge by stuge, but luve yet to stuit on tle wuy ol insiglt. Tle
lollowing sections will now begin to exµluin tle µiuctice ol insiglt wlicl
leuds to wisdom und tiue knowledge. Fiist, lowevei, I will summuiize
und leud in liom my euiliei teucling.
Centiing tle mind in onesell uims ut culming tle mind tliougl
concentiuting, loi instunce, on tle in-und-out bieutl togetlei witl un
uwuieness ol tle mind. In youi µiuctice luve cleui comµielension ubout
µostuie ÷youi sitting leie now, loi exumµle÷ und exumine tle tliity-
one oi tliity-two µuits ol tle body, linully unulysing tlem us elements.
Wlen tle elements disµeise, tle living body becomes u coiµse und
decomµoses until only tle bones iemuin. Eventuully even tlose bones
will comµletely disintegiute.
Wlile tle body is still ulive, it lus µleusunt, µuinlul und inteimedi-
ute leelings. One must be uwuie tlut some ol tlese leelings uiise de-
µendunt on exteinul uttiuctions (witl tleii buited looks) und some uie
boin liom tle µiuctice itsell. As sucl leelings quickly slilt into tle
mind, one must ulso be lully uwuie ol tle mind. Wlen µleusunt leeling
uiises it biings lunkeiing to tle mind. Puinlul leeling will biing dejec-
tion und inteimediute leeling u stute ol deluded uttuclment.
Tle dungei ol tle linJranccs lies in tlut tley µievent tle mind
liom muking µiogiess oi becoming estublisled in sumudli. Sensuul
desiie, ill-will, slotl und toiµoi, iestlessness und woiiy, und sceµticul
doubt uie tle culµiits leie. Tle ioot ol tlese lindiunces lies in vuiious
exteinul unxieties und conceins wlicl luve not yet been sluken oll, oi
else in leeling itsell. Tle µleusunt leeling witl its buited look in extei-
nul uttiuctions goes into tle mind wleie |iling uiises und tlis swuys
tle mind uwuy into tlose µleusing exteinul objects. Tle sumudli is
tlus iuined. Tle sume is tiue witl µuinlul leeling, wlicl dellects tle
mind uwuy tliougl uveision, und inteimediute leeling, wlicl cun biing
diowsiness, iestlessness und doubt. You must tleieloie be evei wutcl-
lul und uwuie lest uny ol tlese lindiunces stuit to uiise.
In tle beginning one must constuntly be on guuid, exumining und
combutting ull tle vuiious obstucles to sumudli. One's sumudli muy
not yet be liimly estublisled but sucl sell-exuminution is still mucl
bettei tlun giving tle mind liee iein to wundei outside. It's like in-
sµecting und suiveying one's own louse. At tlis level ol µiuctice, con-
centiution on bieutling must be combined witl un exuminution ol
leeling, mind und uny lindiunces tlut miglt uiise. It is tleieloie u
twolold µiuctice. Insµecting tle mind in tle oidinuiy wuy will olten
leud to one's oiiginul uim being oveituken by otlei, µiolileiuting
tlouglts. In tle beginning, tlinking lus to be used ÷but keeµ it inside
(loi instunce, by using counting oi ieciting 'BoJ-Jlo` togetlei witl tle
bieutl). Sucl tlinking is u µieventive insµection to loiestull uny tlieut
to tle develoµing sumudli. Wlen one's concentiution succeeds in ovei-
coming sucl dungeis, one's µiuctice ol mindlulness ol bieutling (loi
exumµle) will stiengtlen und become steudy und suie.
The Method of Practice
for Attainment Concentration (Appund Sumudhí)
At tlis level ol µiuctice one deµends on uµµlied und sustuined
tlouglt oi iellection. Howevei, iellection leie meuns uµµlying tle mind
to tle sumudli object ÷to tle (long oi sloit) in-und-out bieutls loi
instunce. Tlis uµµlied-tlouglt cun be comµuied to tle liist stiiking ol
u bell, wleieus sustuined-tlouglt is tle lollowing ieveibeiution. Tlis
sustuined-tlouglt is tle suµµoiting ol tle mind close to tle object ol
sumudli witlout ullowing it to lull uwuy.
In µiuctice tlougl, tle mind olten tends to sliµ uwuy liom tle
sumudli object, und mindlulness must tlen leud it buck. Aµµlied und
sustuined tlouglt will tleieloie be constuntly needed until tle mind
becomes steudy und estublisled enougl loi iuµtuie to µeivude botl
mind und body. Howevei, you slould not tlen get cuiiied uwuy witl
tlis iuµtuie. Insteud, continue concentiuting steudily on tle sumudli
object, und euse ol body und mind will uiise. Tlis euse is still moie
ielined und tle mind will tlen be liimly centied in u single object. Tlis
is one-µointedness liee ol intiusive conceins und is boin liom detucl-
ment und µeuce.
Tle mind, luving µiogiessed tlis lui, is ut tle liist stuge ol uttuin-
ment concentiution: sumudli wlicl lus become lixed und estublisled.
Pievious to tlis it wus still neiglbouilood concentiution. Tlis liist level
ol uttuinment sumudli iequiies: uµµlied tlouglt lilting tle mind to tle
meditution object; sustuined tlouglt suµµoiting tle mind tleie; iuµ-
tuie µeivuding body und mind; euse ol body und mind; und one-µoint-
edness locussed liimly on u single object. Tlis is tle luµµiness uiising
liom one's sumudli µiuctice.
In tle beginning ol one's µiuctice, wlen one lus yet to exµeii-
ence iuµtuie und euse tle mind cunnot be liimly estublisled in sumudli.
But witl tle uiising ol iuµtuie und euse, tle sumudli becomes steud-
lust und one is suid to exµeiience tle lluvoui ol sumudli. One will tlen
come to see tle benelits und udvuntuges in sumudli µiuctice ol wlicl
one wus ignoiunt beloie.
Even in tle uctivities ol tle woild, u tyµe ol iuµtuie und euse is
needed. Il tley uie lucking tlen one won't be uble to continue sucl
(exteinul) uctivities, us wutcling u lilm oi u µluy. It is similui in Dlummu
µiuctice, wleie tle liuits ol iuµtuie und euse uie necessuiy loi tle
estublisling ol sumudli, und loi luitlei µiogiess. Tlis iuµtuie und euse
ol sumudli is lui moie ielined und iuie tlun otlei kinds, und biings u
mucl gieutei luµµiness und coolness to tle mind.
Tle uclieving ol tlis iuµtuie und euse iest witl u constunt devel-
oµing ol uµµlied und sustuined tlouglt. Wlenevei you iesolve to µiuc-
tise, tiy to keeµ it uµ eveiy duy. Foi instunce, you muy decide to µiuctise
eucl duy just beloie ietiiing to sleeµ oi on uwukening eucl moining.
Sucl u consistency ol µiuctice mukes tle mind eusiei to contiol und
wlen it lus µiogiessed sulliciently, tle liuits ol iuµtuie und euse will
uiise. Tlis is lollowed by tle liist stuge ol sumudli, wlicl is known us
one-µointedness. Tle liimly estublisled one-µointed mind no longei
needs uµµlied und sustuined tlouglt becuuse it is now stuble in itsell.
Aµµlied und sustuined tlouglt cun tleieloie be lelt belind und you
need not tiie youisell witl tlem. All tlut now iemuins is iuµtuie, euse,
und one-µointedness ol mind.
Wlen iuµtuie µeivudes body und mind, tleie is still some exlilu-
iution µiesent. Howevei, us tle mind becomes moie ielined, iuµtuie
ludes und is lelt belind, und only euse und one-µointedness iemuin.
As tle mind continues to become moie und moie ielined, tlut
euse is ulso lelt belind und one tlen exµeiiences one-µointedness und
equunimity (opcllld) wlicl is neutiul, neitlei µuinlul noi µleusunt.
Tle mind is now lully estublisled in tlis ligl level ol sumudli.
Howevei, it is not necessuiy loi you to uttuin tlis ligl stute ol
sumudli. You cun considei uclieving tle level ol uµµlied und sustuined
tlouglt, iuµtuie, euse und one-µointedness, us doing quite well witl
youi sumudli µiuctice. Tle mind will tlen be uble to stuy in tlut stute
loi us long us you wunt. Howevei, us soon us you exit liom tlut sumudli
you will luve to come into contuct und be distuibed by vuiious extei-
nul objects und conceins until you next iest in tlut µeucelul stute. Tle
iole ol sumudli is only to estublisl u comloituble iesting µluce loi tle
mind. Tle Loid Buddlu tlen olleied u tiuining in tle develoµment ol
insiglt wlicl is tle wisdom cleuily to see und to know tle tiutl.
The Beginnings of Insight (vípussund)
In develoµing insiglt it is liist necessuiy to buse tle mind in
sumudli. Otleiwise wisdom will uiise only witl dilliculty. One lollows
tle metlods ol sumudli wlicl tle Loid Buddlu luid down und wlicl
I luve ulieudy exµluined, stuge by stuge. Once tle mind is sulliciently
concentiuted, one tuins to investigute witlin onesell. One exumines
tlis mysc|j: tlis one sitting leie witl sucl und sucl u nume, us is com-
monly ucceµted by tle woild loi eucl µeison. Seuicl out: 'wlut is tlis
tling so designuted by tlut nume?' Reully, it is ull u summing und us-
sembling into µuits und giouµs liom tle soles ol tle leet uµ to tle luii
on tle leud, ull encused by skin. It is iiglt leie, witlin tlis uieu, wleie
wlut we undeistund us l-mysc|j uµµeuis. So seuicl it out ÷Wleie is
tlis l-mysc|j?
The First Section Concerning the Aggregates
Tle Loid Buddlu tuuglt ut tlis stuge to seµuiute out tle coiµoieul
uggiegute. Tlis comµiises tle wlole ol tle body mude uµ liom tle
elements ol euitl, wutei, liie, wind und sµuce togetlei witl tle sen-
soiy uµµuiutus. Tlese cun be µut uside und culled tle µlysicul oi ropa
uggiegute (ropa llanJla).
We cun now go on to insµecting tle uggiegute ol leeling. Tleie
uie µuinlul oi µleusunt oi inteimediute (neitlei-µuinlul-noi-µleusunt)
leelings. Foi exumµle, bodily und mentul leelings ol contentment, bod-
ily und mentul leelings ol distiess, oi inteimediute leelings. Tlese cun
be µut uside und culled tle uggiegute ol leeling (vcJand-llanJla).
Insµect tle µeiceµtion uggiegute, witl its iecognition ol tlis und
tlut, ieculling someone's nume und voice und vuiious otlei subjects.
Tlese cun be µut uside und culled tle uggiegute ol µeiceµtion (sannd-
Insµect tle uggiegute ol mentul loimutions, tlinking ol tlis issue
und tlut concein. Tlese cun be µut uside us tle uggiegute ol mentul
loimutions (sanlldra-llanJla).
Insµect tle uggiegute ol consciousness wlicl is tle knowing und
exµeiiencing tliougl tle visuul uµµuiutus, uuditoiy oigun, olluctoiy
oigun, tuctile oigun und tle mind (mano) wlicl vuiiously knows. Tlis
cun be µut uside und culled tle uggiegute ol consciousness (vinndpa-
Tle ropa uggiegute is one µoition, tle leeling uggiegute is un-
otlei, tlut ol mentul loimutions (wlicl is tlis tlinking) is unotlei,
und tle uggiegute ol consciousness is unotlei µoition. Oi one seµu-
iutes tlem ull into tle ropa, vcJand, sannd, sanlldra, und vinndpa
groops. Wlut is culled mc-mysc|j is mude uµ liom tlese vuiious uggie-
gutes. Tley uie ussembled into giouµs, conglomeiutions und into one
µiece. Yet seµuiuting tlem into dilleient µuits loims tle beginning ol
tle µiuctice ol insiglt. Tlis iequiies u locussed exuminution und ieuli-
zution ol tle cluiucteiistics ol eucl ol tle uggiegutes und you will luve
to come to cleuily know tlem ull.
9rl Scprcmbcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 12
ExpIaining the Five Aggregates
In tlis µiuctice ol culm und insiglt, tle wuy ol insiglt begins witl
un investigution into tle live uggiegutes (panca-llanJla). I will iecu-
µitulute tlese loi you. Pleuse centie youi mind, looking inwuids to see
tlese live uggiegutes in youisell.
Focus so us to know ubout tle iüµu uggiegute oi giouµ, wlicl uie
tle gieut-entities und µiimuiy quulities ol muttei (mald-blora-ropa).
Tle luid µoition being tle euitl element, tle lluid µoition being tle
wutei element, tle leuting µoition being tle liie element, tle moving
und blowing µoition being tle wind element, und tle emµty sµuces
being tle sµuce element. See tlut youi µlysicul body (ropa-ldya) is
solid becuuse ol tle euitl element, is moistened tliougl tle wutei
element, is wuimed by tle liie element; is uiied und lus bieutl be-
cuuse ol tle wind element und lus vuiious cuvities wlicl uie tle sµuce
element. Tle µioµeities und quulities ol tle µlysicul body uie culled
tle gieut entities.
Tlis body ulso lus u sensoiy system. Tleie uie tle visuul oiguns,
tle uuditoiy oiguns, tle olluctoiy oigun, tle gustutoiy oigun und tle
tuctile sense oiguns. Tleie is tle condition ol lemininity oi musculin-
ity. Tleie is soltness und suµµleness, not being still like u coiµse. Tleie
is tle disµluy ol dilleient munneiisms ol body und sµeecl. All tlese
vuiious µioµeities und quulities uie teimed tle Jcrivarivcs (opdJdya-
ropa) oi seconduiy µioµeities deµendent on tle gieut-entities. Tle
µlysicul body mude uµ liom botl tle gieut-entities und tleii deiivu-
tives is togetlei known us tle coiµoieul oi iüµu uggiegute (ropa-
llanJla). It is tlut wlicl we giusµ und lold to us mc-anJ-minc, us sc|j,
und it is tleieloie culled tle grasping aggrcgarc (opdJdna-llanJla).
Oiiginuting us un embiyo in tle motlei's womb, tlis µlysicul body
giows und develoµs witl lood us its nutiiment. Tlis lood is none otlei
tlun tle loui elements (euitl, wutei, liie und wind) wlicl need to be
consumed so tlut tle body cun giow und llouiisl. Tle coiµoieul oi
iüµu uggiegute tleieloie uiises deµendunt on lood (oi tle loui gieut-
entities) und tle body ceuses wlen its lood is ended, oi tliougl vuii-
ous otlei cuuses wlicl come togetlei to destioy it.
Altei exumining tle iüµu uggiegute und undeistunding its µioµei-
ties, its uiising und its disuµµeuiing, we now look into tle leeling ug-
giegute. Tlis consists ol µleusunt, µuinlul und
neitlei-µuinlul-noi-µleusunt leelings. I'll give some exumµles: Slould
u cooling, ieliesling bieeze llow by wlile you uie sitting leie, tlis is
µleusunt leeling. Howevei, il u mosquito bites oi you leel un ucle, tlis
is µuinlul leeling. Wlutevei leeling is lelt ultei disieguiding µuinlul
und µleusunt leeling is wlut is culled inteimediute, neutiul oi neitlei-
µuinlul-noi-µleusunt leeling. Tlis inteimediute leeling is usuully tle
most busic one und us sucl is commonly µiesent but unnoticed il one
does not investigute. Peoµle noimully only slow inteiest wlen u µuin-
lul oi µleusunt leeling intiudes.
Look to see exuctly low leeling munilests. Exumine tliouglout
youi body und you will lind it in most µuits. It uiises becuuse ol contuct
(plassa). Tlut bieeze toucling tle body und tle biting mosquito uie
exumµles ol contuct. Tleie must ulso be consciousness (vinndpa) loi
contuct to be comµlete. Feeling uiises deµendunt on tlis comµleted
contuct wlicl must include botl tle sense imµiession und conscious-
ness. Lucking sucl contuct, tle leeling will disuµµeui und tlis uiising
und disuµµeuiing is, in luct, tle nutuiul couise ol tlings. Set youisell to
see tle µioµeities ol leeling (vedunu); low it uiises und disuµµeuis.
Now move to look ut µeiceµtion (sannd). Tlis is tle µeiceiving
und iecognition ol siglts, sounds, odouis, tustes, tungibles (wlicl toucl
tle body) und ol tle ulluiis wlicl tle mind tlinks ubout. See tlese in
youisell und note low µeiceµtion uiises. It uiises deµendunt on contuct
togetlei witl leeling, und disuµµeuis tliougl luck ol contuct oi uc-
coiding to tle nutuiul couise ol tlings. Look to see tlese µioµeities ol
µeiceµtion, its uiising und its disuµµeuiing.
Now move to look ut tle mentul loimutions (sanlldra). Tlis is
tle tlinking ubout siglts, sounds, odouis, tustes, tungibles und mentul
objects. See into youi own tlinking und ieulize tlut mentul loimutions
uiise deµendunt on contuct togetlei witl µeiceµtion. Tley disuµµeui
uccoiding to tleii nutuiul couise, oi becuuse tleie is no moie contuct.
Now move on to look ut consciousness (vinndpa) wlicl is tle
lnowing ol seeing siglts oi ol leuiing sounds (etc.). Il tle sense oiguns
(wlicl I mentioned beloie) uie wlole und lunctioning, consciousness
is iequiied uctuully to see u loim (loi exumµle) in oidei to know tlut
loim. Tle uuditoiy oigun needs consciousness to know tle leuiing ol
u sound; tle olluctoiy oigun needs consciousness to know tle smelling
ol un odoui; tle gustutoiy oigun needs consciousness to know tle tust-
ing ol u lluvoui; tle mind buse (mano) needs consciousness to know
ubout tle mentul imuges und ideus (Jlammd). Consciousness is tleie-
loie oveiseeing ull tle sense buses (dyarana).
Il consciousness is lucking tlen even tlougl tle visuul und uudi-
toiy senses oiguns be wlole, no loim will be seen oi sound leuid. It's
similui to u coiµse: lowevei newly-deud it muy be, tle visuul und uudi-
toiy senses will still not be uble to see und leui. Consciousness is tleie-
loie wlut knows tliouglout ull tle senses: tle eyes, euis, nose, tongue,
body und tle mind.
Consciousness uiises deµendunt on mind-und-body oi ndma-ropa.
Tlus tle body (ropa-ldya) is comµlete und tle mentul giouµ (ndma-
ldya), wlicl is leeling, µeiceµtion, mentul loimutions, togetlei witl
consciousness, uie µiesent und suµµoiting eucl otlei. Tle body needs
to be living ÷us it is loi us leie now÷ loi consciousness to uiise. Il
tleie is no ndma-ropa oi il it lus ulieudy disµeised, tlen consciousness
ulso cunnot uiise. Be uwuie ol tle µioµeities ol consciousness, its uiis-
ing und disuµµeuiing, iiglt leie in youi own sell.
Feeling, µeiceµtion, mentul loimutions und consciousness uie
known us tle giusµing uggiegutes becuuse we giusµ und lold to eucl
ol tlem us minc, us mc-mysc|j.
Concerning the Sense Bases (Ãyutunu)
Tle noimul stute ol ulluiis is loi tle mind to be suµµoited in tle
iüµu uggiegute, wlile loi tle mentul uggiegutes (ndma-llanJla) to
uiise liistly iequiies consciousness, tlut knowing ol tle sense-exµeii-
ence. Tle condition ol contuct togetlei witl consciousness tlen leuds
to tle uiising ol leeling, µeiceµtion und mentul loimutions (oi tlink-
ing). One tlinks ubout sometling und tle knowing ubout tlut is con-
sciousness. Tlen, in ciicului luslion, leeling (loi exumµle) uiises. Tleie-
loie tle condition loi tle uiising ol tle mentul uggiegutes lies witl
ndma-ropa oi mind-und-body wlicl conditions tle uiising ol conscious-
ness. By ndma-ropa leie I meun tlis coiµoieul oi iüµu giouµ comµlete
witl tle mentul giouµ (us I luve exµluined beloie). Tley uie not de-
lective. Tley luve lile, u neivous system und lunctioning sense buses.
You must tleieloie locus on tlese sense buses becuuse tlis is tle uv-
enue by wlicl tle mentul luctois uiise. Tle sense buses (dyarana) com-
Inteinully tle eye (calllo) oi visuul oigun, und exteinully tle
visible loim (ropa) wlicl is seen, tlis loims one µuii.
Inteinully tle eui (sora) oi uuditoiy oigun, und exteinully tle sound
(saJJa) leuid, tlis loims one µuii.
Inteinully tle nose (gldna) oi olluctoiy oigun, und exteinully tle
odoui (ganJla) smelt, tlis loims one µuii.
Inteinully tle tongue (jivld) oi gustutoiy oigun, und exteinully
tle lluvoui (rasa) tusted, tlis loims one µuii.
Inteinully tle body (ldya) und its tuctile oigun, und exteinully
wlutevei toucles us u tungible object (plo((labba), tlis loims one µuii.
Inteinully tle mind (mano oi mana), und exteinully tle mentul-
object (Jlamma), tlis loims one µuii. Tlese mentul objects consist ol
vuiious µust sensoiy imµiessions (siglts und sounds, loi exumµle) µicked
uµ by tle mind us u subject to tlink uµon.
Tlese uie culled tle sense buses, being tlut wlicl connects und
joins tle inteinul connection to tle exteinul connection. Foi exumµle,
tle eye (us inteinul connection) joins to tle visuul object (us tle extei-
nul connection).
Tlese vuiious sense buses uie uctive in tleii connecting und join-
ing in eveiyone liom tleii uwukening in tle moining until tleii going
buck to sleeµ. Foi exumµle, il you slould oµen youi eyes now,
eyes und visuul loim must come togetlei. Similuily, witl one's euis
und sounds. Some ol tle sounds leie now will come liom tlis Dlummu
tulk und some liom tle cuis outside und vuiious otlei noises. Tle nose
und odouis, tle tongue und tustes, tle body und tuctile sensutions, und
tle mind und tlouglts (us mind objects) uie eucl connecting uµ to-
getlei ull tle time.
At tle sume moment tleie muy be muny dilleient conjunctions ol
tle sense buses. Foi instunce, tle eui muy connect witl muny dilleient
sounds occuiiing ut tle sume time. Tle wind muy toucl tle body ÷
body und tungible object in coiielution÷ oi wult some odoui to tle
nose. Summuiizing, one muy suy tlut tlese six µuiis ol sense buses uie
connecting uµ ull tle time und tley not only join eucl µuii togetlei but
ulso tie tle mind in und involve tlut us well.
Wlen tle eye und u visuul loim come togetlei, tlen tle mind is
tied in us well, bound to tlink und considei conceining tlut loim. Simi-
luily, tle mind is bound into consideiing u sound wlen eui und sound
join, und bound to lollow ultei un odoui wlen nose und smell join. On
exuminution, one linds tlut eveiyone's mind is µulled und bound into
involvements witl visuul loims, sounds, odouis, tustes, tungibles und
mentul-objects ÷sucl us tlouglts ol µust siglts und sounds. Tle mind
is tlus µulled into involvements by six wuys und so cun't lelµ but be
iestless und witlout µeuce.
Even wlile you sit leie tiying to biing tle mind togetlei in
sumudli, tle vuiious sense buses still bind und µull tle mind ustiuy in
myiiud wuys. Tlis is wlut blocks uny sumudli liom develoµing. Tleie-
loie you must locus to see tle cluiucteiistics ol tlese six sense buses
und ieulize tlut wlen tley connect uµ in tleii six wuys, tley bind und
leud tle mind oll on u wild iuce into vuiious involvements.
Wly uie tley uble to tie tle mind down? Becuuse ol leedlessness,
u luµse ol mindlulness, und u deliciency in tiue und µenetiuting knowl-
edge (ndpa). Witl sullicient mindlulness und knowledge, tle mind
cunnot µossibly be oveicome und bound uµ witl tle sense buses. But
tleie must be enougl mindlulness und knowledge. In tle beginning
neitlei mindlulness noi knowledge is quick enougl, but witl µiuctice
und tiuining tley become stiong und quick enougl to guuid uguinst
stiuying into tle wuys ol tle six sense buses. Tlis is tle wuy tlut culm
und sumudli cun be estublisled. Tle mind witl sumudli is tlen cuµu-
ble ol seeing into tle cluiucteiistics ol tlese uctivities, seeing tleii wuy
ol oµeiution. Wlen you youisell cun steudily insµect tlis iucing buck
und loitl between tle sense buses und luve ieulized tleii nutuie, tley
will tlen be unuble to bind tle mind into going witl tlem. And tley
will tlen just continue on µust lollowing tleii own wuy.
10rl Scprcmbcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 13
RecapituIation of the Four Foundations of MindfuIness
InternaIIy and ExternaIIy
Fiistly, will ull ol you centie youi mind inwuids to exumine youi-
sell und see wlut ieully is tiue ut tlis time. Tlis meuns setting tle mind
on youi bieutling und being uwuie ol tle ongoing inlulution und ex-
lulution. It meuns being uwuie ol youi µostuie sitting witl youi lunds
und leet uiiunged in wlutevei wuy. Now biing tle mind into exumin-
ing tle uctuul µuits und oiguns ol youi body: uµ liom tle soles ol tle
leet und down liom tle ciown ol one's leud, ull encused by skin. Focus
und unulyse tlose µuits into elements: tle luid us euitl element, tle
lluid us wutei element, tle leuting us liie, tle moving us wind und tle
cuvities us sµuce element. Contemµlute u coiµse us seen outside und
tlen comµuie it witl youi own body ÷wlicl eventuully must likewise
ieucl sucl u stute und end linully us iotting bones. Focus into youi own
body in tlis wuy, botl exteinully und inteinully, seeing botl tle uiising
und tle disuµµeuiing.
In exumining tle exteinul, one uses mindlulness to see vuiious
cluiucteiistics in tleii conventionul uµµeuiunce. Knowledge (ndpa),
wlicl cun µenetiute tliougl sucl uµµeuiunces, is used to cleuily dis-
cein tle inteinul. Stunding outside, looking ut tle exteiioi sluµe und
cluiucteiistics ol one's louse is similui to tle exteinul exuminution,
wlile tle inteinul exuminution is moie like tle uctuul enteiing inside.
Once inside, knowledge will be uble to see tliougl conventionul uµ-
µeuiunces witlout being leld by tleii suµeiliciulity.
Inside tle body, tlis meuns seeing in teims ol its uiising und dis-
uµµeuiing. Foi exumµle, tle in-bieutl is counted us tle uiising, und tle
out-bieutl us tle disuµµeuiing. You must see tlut in eveiy µoition ol
tlis body tleie is u continuul uiising und disuµµeuiing. Look until you
cun uctuully see tlis iiglt leie und now. Eveiyone noimully cun see
only tle uiising und µeisisting witlout being uwuie ol tle disuµµeui-
ing. Foi instunce, we ull exµeiience being ulive, und tlougl we know
tlut tleie must be u µussing uwuy, it cunnot be seen leie und now. Oui
investigution must µioceed witl knowledge, seeing uiising lollowed by
disuµµeuiing in tle µiesent. Being uble to see tlis indicutes we uie
disceining tle body witl knowledge und seeing tle inteinul. In tle
beginning we must use mindlulness to see tle exteinul, und tlen we
tuin to tle inteinul, tle uiising und tle disuµµeuiing.
Wlutevei leeling you uie exµeiiencing ut tlis µiesent moment,
look ut it now. Is it µleusunt, µuinlul oi neitlei-µleusunt-noi-µuinlul?
Does it uiise liom exteinul uttiuctions (witl tleii buited looks)? Il it
does, tlen it is teimed woildly, being looked by cuinul uttiuctions
(dmisa) but il it develoµs liom tle mind in sumudli, tlen it is culled
unwoildly oi sµiiituul (nirdmisa). It is tlen liee liom tlose uttiuctions
witl tleii buited look. Tleieloie see tle µiesent leeling loi wlut it
ieully is. Looking witl mindlulness sees tle exteiioi leeling, wleieus
seeing witl knowledge µenetiutes to tle inteiioi leeling oi tle uiising
und disuµµeuiing.
Look luitlei into tle mind, becuuse leeling itsell ulso stiis tle
mind. Pleusuie stiis uµ lunkeiing, µuin stiis uµ dejection wlile nei-
tlei-µleusuie-noi-µuin stiis uµ und lixes tle mind in uttuclment, wlicl
is u condition ol delusion. Seeing witl mindlulness tle outei mind und
comµielending its µioµeities, one tlen µenetiutes witl knowledge to
tle innei mind to see tle continuul uiising und disuµµeuiing.
Look ut tle ulluiis und conceins ol tle mind oi see wlut condi-
tions ol mind luve develoµed. Tlese uie wlut lold tle mind buck liom
sumudli und stoµ knowledge. Tley uie tle lindiunces wlicl block
sumudli und knowledge liom uiising. Be uwuie ol sensuul desiie il it is
now µiesent in youi mind. Il tleie is ill will, slotl und toiµoi, iestless-
ness und woiiies oi sceµticul doubt ÷be uwuie ol tlut.
Tlose tlings wlicl become objects to diuw tle lindiunces out
into one's mind uie ropa. Wlen tle mind lus inclined out to know
tlem und u lindiunce lus uiisen, tlen tlut is ndma. Il no object comes
to diuw uwuy tle mind oi tle mind does not incline out to know ubout
un object, tlen it is us il iüµu oi numu uie not µiesent, und tle lin-
diunces do not uiise. It is tleieloie necessuiy in exumining tle lin-
diunces to locus on iüµu und numu to see tle object und tle mind
inclining out to ieceive tlut object. Wleie does tle object entei in? It
enteis by wuy ol tle eye, eui, nose, tongue, body und mind (mano) und
tle mind (cirra) goes out to ieceive tlut object tliougl, tlose sume six
sense doois. Wliclevei uvenue tle mind inclines out tliougl it is ul-
wuys in u stute ol brcaling oor. Tlis cluiucteiistic ol tlis oidinuiy oi
commonµluce mind is tleieloie like u liie woik slooting uµ witl stieums
ol sµuiks. Tlese luttei uie tle iestless, µiolileiuting µiocesses. How-
evei, tley cun't be seen unless tle mind is concentiuted. One tleieloie
must know botl ubout tle enteiing ol objects und ubout tle mind's
inclining out to ieceive tlem. Wly slould tle mind be like tlis? Be-
cuuse wlen it goes to ieceive tlem it becomes bound uµ witl tle ob-
ject, loi tlut object is ulso coming in to tie-uµ witl tle mind. Tlis is
wlut we cull tle letteis (samyojana).
Il tle mind does not go und tie-in, tlen tle object will µuss on its
wuy witlout involvement. Tlis cun be comµuied to wutei dioµlets lull-
ing onto u lotus leul. Tley ioll oll witlout sticking oi udleiing. Tle
lindiunces uiise in one's mind becuuse tle incoming object sticks und
uttucles. Wlen it becomes bound into tle mind tlen it is known us u
lettei. You must tleieloie look und see tlese letteis loi wlut tley uie
in youi own mind.
The Factors of EnIightenment (Bojjhungu)
Wlen mindlulness is set, wutcllul und uwuie, it will steudily be-
come stiongei und swilt enougl to cutcl uµ witl tle mind. It noimully
cunnot keeµ uµ, wlicl is wlut gives tle letteis und lindiunces un oµ-
µoitunity to uiise. Tlis swilt mindlulness is instuntly uwuie ol tle siglt's
oi tle sound's entiy tliougl tle eyes oi euis, ol tle mind's involve-
ment und tie-in und ol tle subsequent liking oi desµising. Il mindlul-
ness is µiomµt enougl to know tlis sequence, tlen tleie won't be mucl
ol u µioblem. It will be uwuie liom tle liist contuct witl u siglt oi
sound tlut tley luve come to µiovoke und incite tle uiising ol liking oi
desµising. Howevei, tle siglt oi sound is ieully notling moie tlun
tlut, wleieus tle seed ol liking und desµising is lound iiglt leie in
ouiselves, in tle mind. Tlis mind biings sucl u µiedilection out witl it
to ieceive tle siglt oi sound it likes, und tukes tle desµising out to
meet one it doesn't. It cun be comµuied to wlen u sulety mutcl und its
stiiking suiluce meet und u llume is µioduced. Tle liies ol lust, lutied
und delusion lluie uµ. Howevei, even wlen tle mutcl is µiesent il
tleie is no stiiking suiluce, it won't ignite. Tleieloie tlut wlicl comes
in und tlut wlicl goes out to ieceive it must uccoid witl eucl otlei.
Tle liie (tle letteis und tle lindiunces) will tleieloie not ignite wlen
mindlulness is uµ to tle muik. Tlis mindlulness is tle enligltenment
luctoi ol mindlulness (sari-bojjlanga).
Wlen tle enligltenment luctoi ol mindlulness lus been boin one
cun tlen stuit to investigute tlings (Jlammd) coiiectly by selecting
und silting. Tlis meuns u disciiminution ol wlut is wlolesome und
good, und ol wlut is unwlolesome und bud; wlut is detiimentul und
luimlul, und wlut is luimless; wlut is evil und gioss, und wlut is iuie
und ielined; tle duik side und tle liglt side. Tlis ubility to silt tliougl
und disciiminute conceining tlese tlings is culled tle enligltenment
luctoi ol tle investigution ol µlenomenu (Jlamma-vicdya-bojjlanga).
Tlis is ubout tle tlings inside oui mind: tle wlolesome und un-
wlolesome, tle luimlul und tle luimless, tle good und tle bud, ull
witlin tlis mind. One's disciiminution is not quick enougl wlen one
iecollects und becomes mindlul ol un ulluii only ultei it lus uiisen und
died uwuy und wlen tle uction, wletlei good oi bud, lus ulieudy been
cuiiied tliougl. Tlis indicutes u sluggisl mindlulness tlut is not ubieust
ol events und only knows ultei it is ull ovei wletlei unytling good oi
bud wus suid oi done. But wlen mindlulness is ubieust ol wlutevei is
luµµening, one is uble to discein wlut is skillul oi not, wlut is good oi
not und in wlut wuy. One will tlen lold only to tle good side und
ieliuin liom tle bud.
Tle elloit und eneigy wlicl uiise liom one's investigution und
lolding to tle good und iejecting tle bud is culled tle enligltenment
luctoi ol eneigy (viriya-bojjlanga). Tle lindiunces wlicl tlen uiise
cun be ejected und tle sumudli cun be losteied und suleguuided. Wlen
un object enteis tliougl uny ol tle six sense doois, one just lets it µuss
on tliougl, witlout sticking oi tying in us u lettei. Wlutevei is not
good cun tlen be giuduully ubundoned, und tle good suleguuided.
Wlen tlis is tle cuse, iuµtuie will uiise ÷u sµiiituul (nirdmisa)
iuµtuie witlout buited look, und tleieloie un innei iuµtuie oi tle
enligltenment luctoi ol iuµtuie (piri-bojjlanga).
Witl tle enligltenment luctoi ol iuµtuie, botl body und mind
giow culm. Tlis is tle enligltenment luctoi ol tiunquillity (passaJJli-
bojjlanga), wlicl is imbued witl un innei luµµiness.
Witl sucl innei luµµiness tle mind will become comµosed und
steudy. Tlis is tle enligltenment luctoi ol sumudli (samdJli-bojjlanga).
Wlen one lixes on tlis sumudli to muke it steudlust tlen tlis
becomes tle enligltenment luctoi ol equunimity (opcllld-bojjlanga).
Tlese seven luctois ol enligltenment uiise steµ by steµ. But loi
tlem to be boin ut ull one must iely on one's µiuctice iiglt liom tle
beginning. Il you set youi mindlulness on bieutling in und out, tlen
muke suie it's liimly bused und steudy. Eventuully, it will be uleit to tle
objects tlut come-in und to tle mind's inclinution to go out to tlem.
Wlen mindlulness und uttention uie constunt, tle object will be un-
uble to tie-in und bind tle mind, giving iise to letteis und lindiunces.
All ol tlis meuns tlut ut tlis level ol µiuctice tle mindlulness und in-
vestigutive µoweis must be liglly ielined. Focus on tlis. Come to know
loi youisell tle tiutl ol tlings us tley ieully uie.
17rl Scprcmbcr 2504 B.F.(1961)
TaIk 14
Integrating into the NobIe Truth of Suffering
Will you ull µleuse comµose und locus youi mind witlin. See tle
body, tle leeling und tle mind (cirra). See tle mentul objects, wlicl
meuns exumining tle lindiunces, tle sense buses und tle luctois ol
enligltenment. I luve ulieudy exµluined ull ol tlis, stuge by stuge, so
tlis time I'll just ollei tlese lew leudings. Tleie uie muny und vuiious
subjects but tley cun't yet be coiiectly biouglt togetlei into u single
wuy ol µiuctice ÷esµeciully wlen tle mind is still so ugituted und iest-
less. Tleieloie, I will now µiesent un integiuted und coiiect wuy ol
µiuctice so tlut you won't lose youi wuy tliougl unceituinty.
Fiistly, centie tle mind und set mindlulness on tle single µoint ut
tle nostiils oi uµµei liµ (us tle nimirra) loi mindlulness ol bieutling.
Be uwuie ol tle bieutl's contuct ut tlis single µoint, iiglt leie und
At tlis moment, is tleie bodily und mentul µleusuie, µuin oi un
inteimediute leeling? Set tle mind to see tlis und tlen look in ut tle
mind. Is it ugituted oi culm? Il you uie comloituble in body und mind,
tlen it slould be culm. Otleiwise, it will be unquiet und iestive. Focus
so us to know tle uctuul situution ut tlis moment. Exumine youisell. Il
tleie is still iestlessness, tlen tlut iestlessness itsell will be u lindiunce
wlicl blocks tle mind liom sumudli. See il sucl lindiunces uie µiesent.
Exumine tlis numu-iüµu. Tlis is tle ussembled (µlysicul-) body
(ropa-ldya) sitting leie. Howevei, it is not just un inunimute doll, loi it
is living muttei togetlei witl mind. It lus uvenues by wlicl tle mind
ieceives objects und vuiious conceins und ulluiis sometimes viu tle
eyes, oi euis, oi nose, oi tongue, oi body und sometimes viu tle mind
(mano). Il you weie to oµen youi eyes now, you would immediutely
see sometling oi otlei, wlile youi euis muy leui tle noise ol u cui oi
tle sound ol sµeuking ÷including tlis Dlummu tulk been given leie
now. Meunwlile, tle nose smells, tle tongue tustes, tle body lus sen-
sutions liom tle cool bieeze oi liom tle leut, und tle mind tlinks ol
vuiious tlings.
Il tle mind is not comµosed und concentiuted, it will go oll tlink-
ing ol tlis issue und tlut ulluii. Howevei, once it is centied, it will tlink
only ol one single tling. Tle sound ol tlis tulk contucts youi euis: Il
you deteimine to listen, tlen youi mind will incline out to know und
you leui tlut sound. Tlis 'leuiing' is teimed consciousness. Uµon lis-
tening wlutevei µleusuie, µuin oi neitlei-µleusuie-noi-µuin is µiesent
is teimed leeling. Tle mind inclines out to know, und to note und µei-
ceive; it cun iecollect tle sounds und woids sµoken und is tleieloie
uble to biing tlem togetlei und one cun tlen get tle ideu. Il you leui
und cun't iemembei one woid oi tle next, tlen you cun't µossibly µut
togetlei uny ideu. Tlis 'iemembeiing' cun ulso be teimed µeiceµtion.
Wlen you luve got tle ideu oi µeiceµt togetlei, tlen tle tlouglts tlut
lollow stiuiglt on liom tleie uie tle mentul-loimutions. Tle mind tlen
inclines out to know ubout tlut tlinking und keeµs witl it ull tle wuy;
tlis is consciousness uguin.
Tle µuin, µleusuie oi indilleience tlut uiises wlen consciousness
knows, lollowing tlinking, is leeling. Tle 'iemembeiing' ol wlutevei
we uie tlinking ubout is µeiceµtion, wlile tle tlouglt-lubiicuting on
toµ ol tlut is mentul loimutions. And ull ol tlis becuuse tle mind in-
clines out to know. It's tlis veiy condition wlicl is known us numu.
Eveiy µeison ut eveiy moment wlen uwuke und not sleeµing is tleie-
loie mude uµ ol ropa-anJ-ndma, continuully uiising und intiicutely in-
volved togetlei.
Set youisell, tleieloie, to see iüµu. Wleie is one to look? Tle
eyes, tle euis, tle nose, tle tongue, tle body ÷tlis is wleie to look.
Setting mindlulness tleie, ieulize tlut wlutevei loim tle eye sees to-
getlei witl tle µlysicul eye is culled iüµu. Similuily, wlutevei sound
is leuid und tle euis tlemselves, wlutevei odoui is smelled und tle
nose itsell, wlutevei toucl tle body contucts und tle body itsell und
wlutevei lluvoui is tusted und tle tongue itsell, uie ull culled iüµu.
We uie now tuking tle ulluiis ol siglts und sounds (loi exumµle)
us un object loi tle mind to tlink ubout. Howevei, il tleie weie meie
iüµu witlout u mind inclining-out to know, tlen even tlougl tleie
miglt be eyes tley would be us il blind, tle euis would be us il deul,
tle nose witlout smelling, tle tongue witlout tusting und tle body
insensible und numb. Tle ieuson wly tle eyes see, tle euis leui, tle
nose smells, tle tongue tustes und tle body leels is becuuse tle mind
inclines-out to know ÷und tlis condition is wlut is teimed numu.
Altei you luve locussed on iüµu, set youi uttention on numu. Tlis
meuns seeing into youi mind wlen you exµeiience it constuntly inclin-
ing-out to ieceive vuiious ulluiis viu tle eyes oi euis (loi exumµle).
Tle condition ol consciousness is tlen uµµuient us 'seeing' oi 'leuiing',
und tlut ol leeling us µuin oi µleusuie oi indilleience. Peiceµtion muni-
lests us muiking und iemembeiing und mentul-loimutions us tlinking
und lubiicuting. Tleieloie tle knowing ubout numu is tle looking into
tle mind to see wlen it inclines-out to ucknowledge vuiious tlings.
Fixing one's uttention so us to cleuily see numu-iüµu will biing
loitl tle enligltenment luctoi ol u suie-looted und steudlust mindlul-
ness. An unsteudy mindlulness cun't cutcl uµ witl numu-iüµu und needs
luitlei tiuining. Howevei, once it cun keeµ uµ witl tlem, it will cleuily
discein tle mind, us it inclines out, in teims ol vuiious conditions. It
will tlen see tlut consciousness lus uiisen, leeling, µeiceµtion und
mentul-loimutions luve ull uiisen. Tlis is tle loundution und buse ol
mindlulness (saripa((ldna) und witl even gieutei cluiity it becomes
tle enligltenment luctoi ol mindlulness.
Fiom tlis mindlulness witl its cleui-seeing ol numu-iüµu un in-
vestigution und disciiminution ol µlenomenu will be boin. In tle be-
ginning tlis will be u soiting out iiglt leie witlin, distinguisling tlut
'tlis is iüµu,' 'tlis is leeling,' 'tlis is µeiceµtion,' 'tlese uie mentul loi-
mutions' und 'tlis is consciousness.' Wlile still uninstiucted one con-
sideis tlem ull to be ussembled togetlei us u unit oi entity und
indistinguisluble. Tle mutuie und lully lledged mindlulness, lowevei,
will be uble to disciiminute wlut is wlut. Tlis is un enligltenment-
luctoi und tlus eneigy, iuµtuie, tiunquillity ol mind und body, u com-
µosed und liim sumudli und equunimity will be boin.
Tlis lixing ol tle mind on numu-iüµu, us I luve exµluined, meuns
u locussing on tle concentiuted und estublisled mind. Look ut tle mind
inclining-out to know vuiious tlings und distinguisl wlicl µiocesses
deµend on tle uvenues ol tle eyes oi euis (und wlicl uie tlemselves
iüµu). You will tleie lind tle tiutl ol numu-iüµu.
The NobIe Truth of Suffering
Tle tiutl ol numu-iüµu is, conventionully sµeuking, one ol biitl
us beginning, ugeing us middle und deutl ut tle end. Considei tle oii-
gin ol tle µlysicul body und tle mind joining it us tle mentul giouµ to
loim tlis living body wlicl ull ol us µossess. Tlis µeiiod ol oiiginution
is known us biitl (jdri). Tleie is tlen tle µiocess ol clunge und devel-
oµment: tle body giows und mutuies tliougl tle vuiious uges und
ieucles tle µiesent one, ol old uge (jard). Tlis is u µiocess wlicl will
continue iiglt uµ until tle linul eµisode, wlicl is deutl.
Howevei, sucl tlinking muy give iise to some uµµielension und
uluim. We luve ull µussed tliougl biitl, uie ut µiesent ugeing und in
tle lutuie lies deutl. So wly slould we be only uliuid ol old uge und
deutl? It's becuuse we leel tlut we uie mixed uµ und involved in ull tlis
too; tlut 'l am born,` 'l grow o|J` und 'l Jic.` To exµeiience onesell us
µuiticiµuting in tlis wuy is indeed likely to cuuse uµµielension.
Wlenevei one comes uµ uguinst bodily µuin oi mentul sulleiing
÷one is ill loi exumµle, oi mentully distiessed÷ tlen one detests und
doesn't wunt unytling to do witl it. It is comµletely unwisled loi. Gen-
eiully sµeuking, eveiyone lutes sulleiing und wlen 'giowing old' is
seen us sulleiing one tleieloie lutes old uge. Similuily, one lutes deutl,
sickness und ill leultl us ull being sulleiing. Eveiyone lus lud to exµe-
iience some sucl sulleiing, eitlei mucl oi little. We luve ull lelt bod-
ily µuin, we uie in tle midst ol ugeing und tlougl we luve not yet died
we leui deutl und don't wunt to die. Tleieloie, it cun't be suid tlut we
luven't seen sulleiing, loi eveiyone ol us lus come uµ uguinst it. But
becuuse tlis biings only uµset und unxiety, dislike und loutling, it cun-
not be wlut is culled tle Noble Tiutl ol Sulleiing. Tle Loid Buddlu
wisled loi us to see tle Noble Tiutl ol Sulleiing (Ðollla Ariya Sacca)
wlicl on exµeiiencing does not biing lutied, old uge, sickness oi deutl.
Tle woildly undeistunding ol sulleiing biings only loutling, ugeing,
illness und deutl, wlicl uie ull unwisled loi und unwunted. Tlis cei-
tuinly is not tle Noble Tiutl ol tle Loid Buddlu wlicl on ieulizution
meuns u going beyond ugeing, sickness und deutl.
Now tlen, low slould we go ubout seeing tlis? Accoiding to tle
Loid Buddlu's wuy us exµounded in tle Gieut Discouise on tle Foun-
dutions ol Mindlulness, one must estublisl mindlulness to keeµ uµ witl
tle uiising ol numu-iüµu. Look und see tlese in youi mind until you
know tleii uiising und disuµµeuiing eveiy moment witlout bieuk. Tle
inclining-out ol tle mind (wlicl is numu) us consciousness, loi exum-
µle, ultei uiising und knowing u ceituin ulluii, tlen disuµµeuis. It tlen
uiises uguin witl unotlei ulluii und uguin disuµµeuis. Duiing u single
loui tle mind inclines-out us consciousness (loi exumµle) to ieceive
und know ol countless ulluiis.
Rüµu wlicl is tle connection oi communicuting clunnel loi tle
outwuid inclining ol tle mind is mucl tle sume. One moment it's u
loim loi tle eyes to see, tle next it's u sound loi tle euis to leui ull
coming togetlei in u comµlex uniemitting concutenution. Numu-iüµu
is tleieloie ulwuys uiising und disuµµeuiing. It uiises in biitl, develoµs
und clunges witl uge und linully µusses uwuy in deutl. Tle µeison
wlo is looking ÷numely onesell÷ ut tlis uiising und disuµµeuiing cun't
suy tlut le ulso uiises und disuµµeuis togetlei witl tlem becuuse le is
tleie seeing tlem in tleii constunt uiising und disuµµeuiing. Tlis be-
ing tle cuse, one cun µiuctise seµuiuting wlut is seen liom tlut wlicl
sees. Seµuiute inside youisell. Piuctise tlis seµuiution until you know
tlose tlings wlicl must uiise und ceuse. Tlut wlicl sees tlis knows
uccoiding to tle tiutl ol tleii uiising und ceusing, yet does not itsell
uiise und ceuse. Wlen tlis knowledge uiises tlen one lus ceituinly
µiuctised ieulizing tle Noble Tiutl ol Sulleiing ol tle Loid Buddlu.
Seeing tlis Tiutl, one lus luµµiness und comloit, witlout sulleiing
ulong witl tlose tlings tlut must uiise und disuµµeui. One need not
uge, noi be ill oi die becuuse tlut wlicl is boin, uges und dies is in tle
numu-iüµu, wlicl is seen, wleieus tlut wlicl sees is sometling else.
Tlis mucl ulone will biing u luµµiness witlout uny leeling ol
sulleiing und tleie will be u letting-go und u ieleuse witlin. Tle Noble
Tiutl ol Sulleiing ol tle Loid Buddlu is not tleieloie unytling to be
detested oi leuied us is sometimes tlouglt. It is sometling wlicl wlen
ieulized ÷oi even only exumined us to its condition÷ biings luµµi-
1Srl Scprcmbcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 15
'Ordinary' Suffering and Mind-made Suffering
I will now µiesent some Dlummu wlicl comes liom tle section
on tle Tiutl ol Sulleiing (Ðollla-Sacca). Muy ull ol you locus und
centie youi minds on youi own numu-iüµu. Tlis lutlom-long und sµun-
wide body sitting leie now is tle iüµu oi bodily giouµ (ropa-ldya).
Numu is tle condition ol tle mind us it inclines-out to know siglts und
sounds (loi exumµle), wlicl is culled consciousness; to leel µleusuie,
µuin oi inteimediute leeling; to µeiceive; und to tlink und µiocess,
wlicl is mentul-loimutions. Witl sucl concocting goes un exµeiienc-
ing oi 'knowing' wlicl is buck to consciousness uguin. Set uµ tle see-
ing into tlis numu-iüµu so us to see tleii µioµeities inside you und
esµeciully to discein tle mind's outwuid-inclining to know ubout vuii-
ous ulluiis. Tle sound ol my sµeuking und youi eui muke contuct und
tle mind inclines-out to know leuiing. Tle mind inclines-out to tle
noise outside und tleie is consciousness und tlen leeling, µeiceµtion
und mentul loimutions. Notice und be quick to cutcl ull ol tlis.
'Ordinary' Suffering
Altei cleuily seeing tle numu-iüµu witlin you, tlink buck into tle
µust to its conceµtion in tle veiy beginning, wlicl is culled biitl (jdri).
Tlis is teimed 'knowing tle µust'. Tleie is tlen tle continuing µiocess
ol giowtl und clunge. Tlut develoµment und clunge uµ until now is
culled 'tle µust µuit' wlile tlut wlicl is cuiiently tuking µluce is culled
'tle µiesent µuit'. Futuie clunge will cuiiy on until linully tlis numu-
iüµu bieuks uµ und disµeises. Tlis continuing clunge is ugeing (jard)
wlile tle ultimute bieuking uµ is deutl (marapa). Tlis deutl uleud is
culled 'tle lutuie'. Rellect uµon und see deutl, tle linul end, und know
tle lutuie.
Tlis seeing ol tle µust und lutuie is still only u tlouglt µiocess
und not yet (tiue) knowledge (ndpa). Tlinking in tlis wuy muy ulso
give iise to uveision und uµµielension ubout tlese inevituble events.
One must tleieloie considei biitl, deutl und tle µiesent (old-) ugeing
us 'oidinuiy'
und inevituble. Howevei mucl uveision und leui ol uge-
ing und deutl one lus indicutes tle extent ol one's misuµµielension ol
tlis tiutl. But µioµeily seeing tlis inevituble noim will stoµ sucl negu-
tive leeling.
An uµµieciution ol tle inevituble couise ol tlings ullows tle tiutls
ol biitl, ugeing und deutl to be integiuted into one tiutl. Tlis tiutl
cun be seen in tle µiesent by un inwuid-seeing to tle 'beginning', tle
'middle' und tle 'end' ÷mucl us on oµening one's eyes one views tle
wlole ol u ceituin tling. One sees tlut tling in its entiiety; one views
tle wlole couise ol events liom tle beginning ut biitl, tle middle in
ugeing to tle end in deutl. Tle seeing-in-tle-µiesent ol ull ol tlis is
knowledge wlicl µenetiutes to tle wlole tiutl ol tle inevituble couise
ol tlings.
Tle seeing leie und now ol numu-iüµu in its entiiety will stoµ tle
uiising ol uny uveision oi leui conceining tlese conditions, becuuse
one knows tlem to be noimul und inevituble. Tley uien't unytling
stiunge oi extiuoidinuiy, noi uie tley unytling to be liked oi desµised.
Tlis is one tyµe ol sulleiing, tlut ol tle 'Oidinuiy'.
Suffering Which the Outward-incIining Mind Contrives
To see unotlei tyµe ol sulleiing, locus on youi mind inclining-
out, becoming numu, us I've ulieudy exµluined. Rellect und tlink buck
to tle time just beloie its inclining-out to know u siglt oi sound (loi
exumµle). Seeing tlut loim oi leuiing tlut sound is consciousness,
lollowed by leeling µleusunt, µuinlul oi inteimediute.
Sorrow (Soku)
Sulleiing munilests on some occusions us soiiow (sola). Foi ex-
umµle, seµuiuting liom u loved one, eitlei by going lui uwuy oi tliougl
deutl, oi leuiing ol sucl u seµuiution will, witl consciousness, leud to
µuinlul leeling und uµµeuis us soiiow (sola).
Lamentation (Parideva)
Sometimes one's tlouglt-µiocesses µiolileiute undei tle µowei
ol tlut soiiow und lill tle mind witl lumentution. Il it is stiong tlen it
will uµµeui us ciying und bewuiling one tling oi unotlei. Tlis is culled
lumentution (pariJcva).
Pain (dukkhu): MentaI Suffering (Ðomunussu)
Some sulleiing does not diiectly concein tle mind, loi instunce, wlen
tle body is ill und in µuin. Tlis is culled bodily µuin. Howevei, sucl
bodily µuin cun ulso loice sulleiing onto tle mind. On being ill, one muy
woiiy ubout its seveiity und one's clunces ol iecoveiy. Tleie uie ulso
muny otlei wuys loi tle mind to be ulllicted, including mentul distiess
und iegiet, und tlese cun ull be summuiized us mentul sulleiing.
Despair (Updydsu)
On some occusions one muy encountei dillicult und needy cii-
cumstunces; leeling stilled und oµµiessed wlicl will µieclude uny luµ-
µiness. Wleievei one leels sucl oµµiession one will stiuggle to escuµe.
Tlus we luve tle suying, 'A conjincJ boJy is bcarab|c, bor nor a srij|cJ
All tlese loims ol sulleiing ÷soiiow, lumentution, bodily-µuin,
mentul sulleiing und desµuii÷ uie eucl u condition ol µuinlul leeling
(Jollla vcJand) und uiise wlen tle mind inclines-out to see u loim, oi
leui u sound (loi exumµle). Tlut loim und sound uie tle seed loi tle
subsequent uiising ol leeling und vuiious loims ol sulleiing. Peiceµ-
tion is tlen u µeiceiving oi iemembeiing ol sulleiing, und mentul loi-
mutions uie tle µiocessing und lubiicuting ol sulleiing.
Tlinking buck, one slould be uble to see tlut ull tlis sulleiing
oiiginuted liom tle mind's inclining-out us numu. Soiiow, loi exum-
µle, is ulso u tyµe ol numu loi it is µuinlul leeling. By consideiing one's
µust exµeiience one knows tlut sulleiing uiose deµendunt on numu-
iüµu. Now exumine tle µiesent situution ÷low is tle mind? Is it in-
clining-out to see loims und to leui sounds oi to considei ubout ull
tlose issues stoied uwuy? Is tleie uny sulleiing µiesent? Any soiiow,
lumentution, µuin, distiess oi desµuii?
Il you do lind sulleiing, tlen see und undeistund tlut it ull uiose
liom some issue oi otlei ÷und tlut sucl issues cun only come in tliougl
tle eyes oi euis (etc.) us I luve ulieudy exµluined, und not liom uny-
wleie else. Tle mind's inclining-out to know wlicl is numu, oi con-
sciousness, leeling, µeiceµtion und mentul-loimutions, tlen µuts to-
getlei sulleiing, soiiow, und lumentution (etc.). Slould tle mind not
incline-out to ieceive und µiocess tle siglts und sounds, tlen sulleiing
cunnot uiise. You must set youisell to see und undeistund low sucl
sulleiing ÷tlis second tyµe ol sulleiing÷ cun uiise in youi mind.
Tlis µiesentution ubout sulleiing is in two µuits. Fiistly, tleie is
tle 'oidinuiy und inevituble' tyµe ol sulleiing und tlen tleie is tle
sulleiing uiising deµendunt on tle mind's inclining-out to ieceive und
µiocess. In coming to undeistund tlese two µuits you must initiully
locus on und undeistund tle numu-iüµu witlin youisell, Seeing its
nutuiul und inevituble couise, witl its beginning, middle und end ull
seen togetlei ut one µoint. Look ut numu us tle mind inclines-out to
ieceive und µiocess vuiious issues.
Will you ull now µleuse uµµly youiselves to listen
und investigute
so us to know ubout tlis sulleiing wlicl tle mind ieceives und µioc-
esses, us I luve been exµluining.
24rl Scprcmbcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 16
Suffering because of Association and Separation
Fiistly, will you ull µleuse centie youi mind witlin youisell. Focus
into numu-iüµu: iüµu being tlis living body witl its vuiious lunction-
ing senses, wlile numu is tle condition ol tle mind ÷wlicl ulso de-
µends on iüµu÷ us it inclines out to know siglts und sounds (etc.).
See tle biitl ol tlis numu-iüµu, its end oi deutl und in between
its constunt clunging wlicl is ugeing. See tlis wlole sequence in tle
µiesent moment und tle inevituble condition (Jlammard) ol numu-
iüµu will munilest. Tlis is tle Tiutl ol Sulleiing, tle tiue stute ol 'oidi-
nuiy sulleiing' und is not sometling to be uliuid ol. Any leui und uveision
oi, going to tle oµµosite extieme, uny enjoyment cun only uiise be-
cuuse one lus not yet ieulized its tiue nutuie.
Altei seeing und undeistunding tle 'oidinuiy sulleiing' we tuin to
locus on tle mind's inclining-out to ieceive und µiocess sulleiing. We
cun tlen see tlut tlis veiy mind is wlut contiives tle uiising ol mentul
sulleiing liom bodily µuin, und mentul distiess liom vuiious exteinul
ulluiis. Il tle mind did not ieceive und µiocess, tlen sulleiing could
not uiise in its vuiious munilestutions, us I luve exµluined µieviously.
Tlese vuiious µioµeities ol mind-contiived sulleiing cun be ie-
duced to two: ussociution witl ull tlings und µeoµle wlicl uie disliked
und unwelcome und, secondly, seµuiution liom ull tlose tlings und
µeoµle wlicl uie loved.
Tlis ussociution und seµuiution uie ulso 'noimul und inevituble'
und become sulleiing becuuse ol tle mind. Tle stoiing uwuy ol uµµie-
ciutive wisles und londness in tle mind cun be clussilied us lunkeiing,
wlile uny lolding to disluvoui und disµleusuie is dejection. In sloit,
one cun suy tlut tlis 'disliking-und-liking' is usuully submeiged deeµly
in tle mind. It is not until one encounteis sometling oi someone tlut
tley will disµluy tlemselves. Wlen tlis luµµens und dislike emeiges
÷us wlen one sees u loim, leuis u sound oi even just tlinks ol some
sucl disugieeuble siglt oi sound ÷tlen it is teimed coming into usso-
ciution witl unwelcome tlings. One sees oi leuis sometling ubout
some disugieeuble µeison und sucl ussociution leuds to tle uiising ol
Contiuiiwise, being seµuiuted liom sometling oi someone liked
ulso leuds to sulleiing. Tlis sulleiing is sometimes cluiucteiized by
soiiow oi lumentution, by bodily µuin wlicl ulso distiesses tle mind,
by giiel oi by desµuii. Tleieloie, tlese cun ull be ieduced to just two
cuuses: Associution witl uny µeison oi tling wlicl one dislikes und
seµuiution liom tlut wlicl one likes.
In tiutl tlougl, tlis disliking-oi-liking does not oiiginute liom
unyone oi unytling but liom oui own mind wlicl lus stoied it uwuy. It
is tleieloie tlis mind witl its likes und dislikes tlut contiives tle vuii-
ous loims ol sulleiing. As tlis sulleiing is µuinlul leeling it is µuit ol
numu und tleie is ulso tleieloie µeiceµtion ol sulleiing (Jollla-sannd),
und mentul-loimutions ol sulleiing (Jollla-sanlldra). Just us some-
one liglts u liie und constuntly udds luel to µievent its going out, so oui
own mind stuits uµ sulleiing und contiives to muintuin it tleie in tle
mind. On coming to see tle outwuid-inclining mind us it µiocesses
sulleiing ÷ut tle sume time seeing tle ioots ol liking und uveision
buiied tleie÷ one ieulizes, liom close in, tlese two cuuses. One's dis-
ceinment into tle sulleiing ol tle mind lus tlus come to quite u µio-
lound level.
One muy look ut tle exteinul oi tle inteinul. Heie tle exteinul
meuns being uwuie ol tle ussociution und seµuiution in one's numu-
iüµu. Tlink buck us lui us youi memoiy goes und exumine youi exµe-
iience in teims ol tlis. Tliouglout youi lile, liom tle clild's body
giowing into un udult's und tlen on into tlis µiesent stuge, you cun see
tle continuing ussociution und seµuiution liom tle µlysicul body. Tle
clildlood µeiiod is in ussociution witl one's being u clild. Witl giowtl
und mutuiity, one becomes seµuiuted liom clildlood by ussociution
witl being udult. As lile's stuges µuss, so one seµuiutes liom tle µieced-
ing stuge und ussociutes witl tle next on uµ to tle µiesent. Tlis usso-
ciution muy be ugieeuble ut some stuges ulong tle wuy und disugieeuble
ut otleis. But it cunnot ulwuys be tle wuy we wunt it to be. Disugiee-
uble stuges will luve to be ussociuted witl und ugieeuble stuges seµu-
iuted liom und lelt belind.
Consciousness is mucl tle sume. Tle mind inclines-out to ieceive
un object und initiully consciousness uiises. Il it inclines-out to see u
loim tlen it is eye-consciousness (calllo-vinndpa); to leui u sound is
eui-consciousness (sora-vinndpa). Howevei, loi tle mind to see oi leui,
it must ulwuys deµend on tle visuul und uuditoiy oiguns, even tlougl
tlose eyes und euis uie vuiiuble und mutuble. Tle eyes will dim und
become bluiiy; tle euis will eventuully be luid ol leuiing. Tlen tle
mind's inclining-out won't be uble to see oi leui us distinctly oi ellec-
tively us beloie. Tle otlei sense-doois uie similui. Tle body wlen
uged und decieµit is no longei us seiviceuble oi uduµtuble us beloie. So
uguin one must be seµuiuted liom tlut ugieeuble consciousness witl
its distinct leuiing und cleui vision und ussociute witl less ellective
siglt und leuiing.
Feeling is ulso tle sume. Even tlougl tle inclining-out mind linds
tle µleusunt leeling ugieeuble, it cunnot luve it tlut wuy ull tle time.
Puinlul leeling is lound disugieeuble but it is not ulwuys µiesent. Intei-
mediute leelings muy uµµeui eitlei ugieeuble oi dull und disugieeuble,
yet even so we cunnot luve tlem ulwuys like tlut. Tlus, we must con-
tinuully ussociute witl leelings wlicl we do not like und be seµuiuted
liom tlose we do.
Peiceµtion lollows ultei leeling in tle sume wuy. Sometimes one's
memoiy und µeiceµtion uie biiglt und cleui, und ut otlei times tley
uie not so good. And tlut is not ull, loi wlenevei we iecollect tlings
we like, tlen tlings we do not cuie loi uie iemembeied too. Il we see
oi leui sometling disugieeuble but tlen cunnot iemembei it, tleie's
notling to be tuken uµ und tlouglt und concocted ubout. Howevei,
wlen we cun iemembei it will quickly be tuken uµ und µiocessed in
tlouglt. It's just not µossible not to wunt to iemembei: Sometimes
tlose tlings we dislike intensely will be iemembeied moie cleuily tlun
tle tlings we like. Tleieloie, we must ussociute witl µeiceµts tlut we
lind disugieeuble und be seµuiuted liom tlose we like.
Tle tlinking µiocesses ol mentul-loimutions uie ulso tle sume.
Tle vuiious loims ol sulleiing must ull come tliougl tle stuge ol
tlouglt µiocessing. Otleiwise, tley won't uiise. Sometimes u toucl ol
sudness is µiocessed und, µeiluµs becuuse ol concein oi uµµielension,
becomes blown uµ into mujoi distiess. Tlese mentul-loimutions uie
tleieloie ol vitul imµoitunce und loim u busis loi tle uµiising ol sul-
leiing. Il you do not like sulleiing wly do you concoct und tlink it uµ?
Wlom does tlis tlinking? Youi own mind! No one else cun come und
tlink it uµ loi you. Even tlougl you do not wisl loi sulleiing, you
ulwuys ÷witlout ceusing÷ go on und µiocess tlose tlouglts tlut leud
to sulleiing. You muy not like sulleiing yet you indulge in sucl tlink-
ing! How cun you evei escuµe sulleiing wlen it is like tlis.
Tlese mentul loimutions uie ulso ulwuys coming into ussociution
und seµuiuting uwuy. On occusion one must ussociute witl disugiee-
uble µiolileiuting tlouglts und ut otlei times one is seµuiuted liom
ugieeuble tlouglt µiocesses. But it is ulwuys onesell wlo oiiginutes
tlese tlouglt concoctions leuding to ussociution, seµuiution und sul-
leiing. One will not stoµ tle µiocessing und tleieloie one must con-
tinue to encountei mentul-loimutions wlicl bieed sulleiing. One must
sullei und cunnot lind u wuy out.
Exumine und see tlese conditions ol 'ussociuting witl' und 'seµu-
iuting uwuy' in youi own numu-iüµu. Muke suie you discein tlut tle
ioot cuuse ol it ull lies submeiged us likes-und-dislikes in one's mind.
Penetiute to see und comµielend tlis liking-und-disliking wlicl leuds
und diuws tle mind uwuy into tle µutl ol sulleiing. It tuins conscious-
ness into sulleiing-consciousness (Jollla-vinndpa), leeling into sul-
leiing-leeling, µeiceµtion into sulleiing-µeiceµtion und mentul
loimutions into sulleiing-mentul loimutions. Wlen we µenetiute to tle
tiutl ol tlis, tle liking-und-disliking will subside und be stilled. Tlut
mind µioceeding down tle µutl ol sulleiing will now come to µeuce,
und consciousness will ceuse to be sulleiing-consciousness, leeling will
ceuse to be sulleiing-leeling, µeiceµtion will ceuse to be sulleiing-µei-
ceµtion und mentul loimutions will ceuse to be sulleiing-mentul loi-
mutions. Tlis meuns to suy tlut tle mind lus stoµµed concocting
sulleiing loi itsell und so sulleiing will subside.
Tlis, tlen, is tle stiutegy to lult tle µiocessing ol sulleiing loi
onesell. You must µiuctise to comµielend sulleiing und its wuy ol oµ-
eiuting witlin tlis numu-iüµu. Tlis is tle only wuy to iemedy tle sul-
leiing ol youi mind.
Will you µuy close uttention wlile listening to wlut will be clunted
now, und iellect uµon tlut Tiutl ol Sulleiing contuined in tlese lines
ol tle Loid Buddlu Teucling, tuken liom tle Gieut Discouise on tle
Foundutions ol Mindlulness:
Appíyusumpuyogu ÷ ussociution witl tle disliked.
Píyuvíppuyogu ÷ seµuiution liom tle liked.
25rl Scprcmbcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 17
Suffering Through Non-fuIfiIment
of One's Hopes and Desires
I will now µiesent Dlummu on tle Noble Tiutl ol Sulleiing
(Ðollla Sacca) in tle section; 'tle non-lullilment ol one's wisles is
Fiist ol ull, gutlei youi mind togetlei witlin youisell loi tlis is
wleie tle Loid Buddlu diiected lis teucling. Otlei µeoµle, lollowing
lim, luve similuily exµluined lis teucling us µointing witlin. In listen-
ing to Dlummu you must tleieloie tuin to see inside youisell. You will
need to seuicl out tle live uggiegutes oi tle numu-iüµu. Wlen one
encounteis tlem one must ulso come to tle tiue stute ol being wlicl is
tle Tiutl ol Sulleiing (Ðollla Sacca). Tlis is becuuse tlis Tiutl muni-
lests in tle live uggiegutes oi numu-iüµu, wlicl loim u busis loi it.
Anyone usµiiing to comµielend sulleiing must tleieloie locus investi-
gution on tle µlune ol wisdom und insiglt. Tle wisdom und insiglt ol
tle Loid Buddlu's Teucling munilest in numu-iüµu. Witlout tlut numu-
iüµu, wisdom und insiglt cunnot uiise. It is similui to u µeison wunting
to stund: Il tleie is no giound, tlen tleie is nowleie to stund. Tleie-
loie, will eucl one ol you now incline youi mind inwuid to exumine
youi own numu-iüµu.
Insµect youi lutlom-long, sµun-wide body. Exumine numu us tle
mind is inclining-out to know: Wlut is it knowing ubout? At tle µiesent
time you uie listening to tlis tulk so tle mind slould incline-out to
leui, us consciousness ol sound. Tle µleusuie, µuin oi indilleience uiis-
ing liom tlis leuiing is leeling; tle muiking und iemembeiing ubout
tlis leuiing is µeiceµtion; und tle µiocessing mind lollowing tle issue
is mentul-loimutions. Tlis condition ol tle mind inclining-out is numu
und wlen it inclines-out to know outside sounds tlen it is numu-in-
Eucl µeison tleieloie, exists only togetlei witl numu-iüµu. Il tlis
is tiunscended, tlen 'µeison' does not uµµeui. It is leie in tlis numu-
iüµu tlut tlis 'l, mc-anJ-minc` uµµeuis und is giusµed lold ol. Tlis
giusµing is u concocting µiocess ol tle mind und us sucl is u loim ol
mentul-loimutions wlicl is unotlei condition ol tle mind's inclining-
out. You slould tleieloie exumine tlis leeling ol 'mc-anJ-minc`: How
deeµ und µioloundly does it lie? You will tlen lind tlut it only goes us
lui us tle numu-iüµu. Il mentul-loimutions, µeiceµtion, leeling und
seeing oi leuiing (etc.) uie ull lucking, tlen one lus no exµeiience ol
leeling oi tlinking ut ull. Tle µlysicul body ulone is meiely like u lunk
ol wood totully witlout sensution oi tlouglt, und ull sense ol 'sell-und-
otlei' lus comµletely gone. It's similui to being usleeµ, wlen leelings
ol 'sell-und-otlei' und vuiious cuvoiting tlouglts uie entiiely lost.
Wlutevei u µeison's stutus, le oi sle must lull undei tlese conditions.
Tlis sense ol 'sell-und-otlei' in its vuiying loims tleieloie uµ-
µeuis only in tle numu-iüµu. Wlen sucl 'sell-und-otlei', 'mine-und-
tline' uie µiesent tlen diiect youi vision towuids tle condition ol
desiiing oi wunting sometling. Tleieloie, witl comµlete µenetiution
into numu-iüµu you must ulso detect tlis desiie existing in tle mind.
Tleie uie two loims ol desiie, one being tlut wlicl is ieulizuble,
und tle otlei tlut wlicl is beyond ieucl. Tle desiies und wisles tlut
cun be lullilled uie conceined witl tlose objectives wlicl uie µossible
to uttuin. But tlis does not meun tlut tley cun ull be uttuined just by
wisling, loi tle uµµioµiiute cuuses must liist be µut into ellect. Foi
exumµle, in muking u 'ieulizuble wisl' to uttuin viitue und good, one
must µiuctise in tle uµµioµiiute skillul wuys to µioduce tle iiglt cuuses.
Do not ciiticise oi lind luult witl desiie µei se, becuuse tle wisl
to uttuin viitue und tle µiuctise to uclieve tlut is quite coiiect und
iiglt. Tlis 'desiie loi good' tle Loid Buddlu culled 'iesolve' oi 'detei-
minution' (aJli((ldna). Tle Bodlisuttu iesolved to uttuin Buddlulood
by steudily lollowing tlut Wuy. Tle Followeis (Sdvala) lud ulso µievi-
ously iesolved to steudily uttuin to tleii stute. Il u µeison is woiking
towuids tle comµletion und ieulizution ol lis desiie und tlut usµiiu-
tion is mude uµ witl 'tiue deteiminution' tlen it cun be culled 'tiue
iesolve' (sacca-aJli((ldna). Tle Loid Buddlu counted tlis 'tiue-iesolve'
us one ol tle Peilections (Parami).
Tle tyµe ol desiie wlicl is unuttuinuble goes uguinst tle µiinci-
µles ol nutuie. Biitl, ugeing, illness und deutl uie noimul und inevitu-
ble. Soiiow, leuitucle, bodily µuin, mentul-distiess und deµiession must
ull inevitubly exist uccoiding to tle stute ol tlings. To wisl tlem uwuy,
loibidding tleii uµµeuiunce, goes uguinst tle wuys ol nutuie. Tlis de-
siie cun nevei be ieulized und so it too must udd to tle mind's sulleiing
us tle 'nonlullillment ol one's wisles.'
Now, come und considei tlis body und tle mentul giouµ: tlis
numu-iüµu wlicl I luve ulieudy exµluined. It oiiginuted in biitl; is
develoµing und clunging into old uge; is µuinlul und tioublesome
tliougl sickness; und, linully, it must bieuk uµ witl deutl. Tlis is tle
inevituble nutuie ol numu-iüµu. Exumine now youi mind. Il it still in-
cludes giusµing und lolding, il it still contuins desiies, tlen tleie must
ulso be soiiow und distiess. It cunnot escuµe tlem. Tle only wuy is to
ieleuse und let go.
Wlen one lets go ol sometling tlen one escuµes ull tle soiiow
involved witl tlut tling. Il one lets go ol eveiytling tlen one is lieed
liom ull unguisl. But il you cunnot yet ielinquisl, tlen youi giusµing
must inevitubly biing sulleiing wlen youi desiies iemuin unlullilled.
Tleieloie locus to see tlese unuttuinuble desiies in youi mind und
tlen exumine tle sulleiing tlut uiises wlen tlose wisles luil. See it us
it ieully is.
Penetiuting to tlis tiutl biings loitl un uµ-to-tle-muik wisdom
wlicl is uble to seµuiute und iemove tle sulleiing liom one's mind.
Tle numu-iüµu will tlen lollow its nutuiul couise wlile tle obseivei
wutcles. Tlis obseivution is mindlulness und u combined mindlulness-
und-wisdom (sari-pannd), wlicl does not enguge in concocting desiies
und sulleiing. Numu-iüµu will tlen be seen lollowing its nutuiul couise.
It's us il tleie is u buining louse: Wlile one iemuins inside tleie will
be ugitution und µunic, but on leuving one cun tlen look buck. One cun
now look-on tlut buining louse witlout leeling uny leut in onesell.
One obseives witl knowledge. Tle luµµiness tlut sµiings loitl liom
culmness und tiunquillity will tlen uµµeui.
Eucl µeison must conliont botl lis own sulleiing und tlut ol tle
vuiious µeoµle le is conceined und involved witl. Il one collects ull
tlut sulleiing und louds it uwuy in tle mind, giusµing und lolding on
to it, tlen tlis cun only incieuse one's ugitution und unluµµiness. How-
evei, il one cun steudily dislodge und tliow out sucl sulleiing witlout
udding uny moie, tlen tle mind will be uble to emeige unscutled.
It muy not be µossible loi unyone ulwuys to evude tle sulleiing
stemming liom exteinul souices but tle innei sulleiing cun be uvoided.
We usuully biing tle exteinul sulleiing into oui minds us mentul dis-
tiess. It is tleieloie us il tle sulleiing lus two luyeis oi levels: botl tle
exteinul und tle innei. Tlose wlo µiuctise lollowing tle Loid Bud-
dlu's Teucling know low to liglten und ielieve tle situution by leuv-
ing tle exteinul sulleiing ulone outside witlout buidening tle mind
witl it. Even il one tlen linds onesell in tle midst ol (exteinul) sullei-
ing, one's mind iemuins content. Sucl luµµiness ol mind ullows mind-
lulness-und-wisdom to iemedy wlutevei exteinul sulleiing muy µossibly
be cuied. But il tle mind lully ucceµts und buidens itsell witl tle ex-
teinul sulleiing, tlen tleie is no wuy it cun iemedy tle situution.
In oidei to seµuiute tlese tyµes ol sulleiing you must deµend und
iely on tle Wuy ol µiuctice us luid down by tle Loid Buddlu. Fiistly,
set youisell to see numu-iüµu und know tle stute ol its sulleiing. Rec-
ognize tle mentul sulleiing wlicl uiises liom tle non-lullilment ol
unuttuinuble desiies. Penetiute to tlis so tlut, us tle desiie subsides,
tle mind giows culm und tiunquil. Wlen you luve ieulized tlis tlen
you will luve ieceived lull benelit liom youi study into tle Tiutl ol
Sulleiing ol tle Loid Buddlu und will linully lind luµµiness.
2nJ Ocrobcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 18
Summarizing the Aggregate of Suffering
Will you ull µleuse collect youi mind togetlei und locus witlin
youisell. Listen to tlis teucling und biing und exumine it witlin so us
to see Dlummu tleie. You won't ieulize Dlummu liom just tle outside
sounds, loi tlut would be just memoiizing oi un intellectuul undei-
stunding, wleieus undeistunding tle tiutl in onesell is seeing Dlummu
witl wisdom. Tleieloie, now centie on youisell. Focus to see liom tle
gioss und blutunt to tle subtle und ielined:
Be uwuie ol youi bieutling. Eveiyone ol us must bieutle in und
Be uwuie ol youi µiesent sitting µostuie. How uie youi lunds und
leet µluced? How is youi oveiull µostuie?
Exumine tle wlole ol youi body: uµ liom tle soles ol tle leet,
down liom tle luii on youi leud, ull encused by skin.
Anulyse it into tle elements ol euitl, wutei, liie, wind und sµuce.
Rellect on extiucting eucl element liom tle body until only tle sµuce
element iemuins. Tlen considei low beloie conceµtion tlis body wus
just tle sµuce element, und low linully it ietuins to emµtiness.
Now, iecombine tlose elements togetlei into youi comµlete body
wlicl lus leelings ol µleusuie, µuin und neitlei-µleusuie-noi-µuin; und
wlicl is tle iesoit ol tle mind.
Tlose leelings stimulute tle mind. Foi exumµle, il tleie is u µleus-
unt leeling tlen 'liking' is lubiicuted; il it is u µuinlul leeling tlen 'dis-
liking' is mude uµ; und witl u neutiul leeling tle mind is cuuglt deeµ
in 'uttuclment', wlicl is u condition ol delusion.
Go luitlei in to unotlei level, to tlut condition ol mind wlicl
'likes', 'dislikes' und 'uttucles' to tle myiiud tlings. Be uwuie ol tle
µiesent stute ol youi mind: Now.
By µenetiuting tlis lui you will be uble to distinguisl tle comµo-
sition ol tle mind. Tle mind is one µuit, wlile 'liking', 'detesting' und
'delusion' muke uµ unotlei. Tley uie combined und entwined togetlei
und it is tlese udmixtuies to tle mind tlut uie tle lindiunces wlicl
block uny µiogiess in wlolesomeness und liglei viitue.
Even tlougl you muy luve steudily centied youi mind lollowing
tlese instiuctions, tlose udmixtuies in tle mind will ulwuys be wuiting
to diuw tle mind out uguin. You must tleieloie be ieudy loi tlis by
µlucing mindlulness wleie tle distiucting ugents entei, i.e. by wuy ol
tle eyes, euis, nose, tongue, body und tle mind (mano). It is tle mind
wlicl lolds und ietuins so muny issues und conceins, und so it needs
extiu-sµeciul wutcling. Howevei, do not go in und loicibly suµµiess it,
loi tlut only gives iise to lutigue, ovei-stiuin und iiiitubility. Tleie-
loie, ullow tle mind to lollow its wisles, but cuielully note low it goes
out. Wlut is it tlut comes und ties-in to luul tle mind out uguin? Being
quick enougl to cutcl ull ol tlis gives one tle wlole µictuie: All tlese
issues und ulluiis entei by wuy ol tle eyes, euis, nose, tongue, body oi
else tliougl tle mind itsell. Tle mind's iestless, lietlul tlinking µiolil-
eiutes on eveiy side und so it cunnot be centied in one-µointedness.
Do not use uny loice. Simµly wutcl und note ÷but muke suie you
know in time und cun keeµ uµ witl events. Tle mind will tlen become
µucilied by itsell und culm down. Tlis is becuuse tle mind is tle 'ele-
ment-ol-knowing,' witl intelligence un intiinsic µuit. Wlen tle oµµoi-
tunity loi sell-knowing uiiives, tlen sucl knowledge will be boin
witlout uny µiogiumming being necessuiy, loi tle essence is ulieudy
Tlis uiising ol sell-knowledge is uccomµunied by un even liimei
mindlulness, witl tle mind itsell now lully cuµuble ol investiguting
und distinguisling its own condition. It will know tle comµonents ol
tle mind und tle entiy ol ull tle udmixtuies. Tlis steudy centiing ol
tle mind until it is uble to investigute tle µlenomenu witlin onesell
disµluys tle mind's ubility to distinguisl, tle tiutl inside, und it is tlis
wlicl is tle Fuctoi ol Enligltenment.
Now, considei tle souice teucling ol tle Loid Buddlu wlicl is
tle 'Tiutl ol Sulleiing'. One liistly 'ieuds' witl tle intellect, memoiiz-
ing lollowing tle Loid Buddlu's Teucling. He µiesented loi oui utten-
tion tle Tiutl ol Sulleiing:
¨Biitl is sulleiing. Old uge und deutl uie sulleiing. Sulleiing lus
tlis nutuie und lollows tlese conditions.` He tlen continued,
¨Soiiow is sulleiing, lumentution, bodily illness und its ucceµt-
unce into tle mind uie sulleiing, mentul distiess und desµuii uie sul-
¨Associution witl ull unwelcome, unloved tlings is sulleiing; seµu-
iution liom ull beloved tlings is sulleiing;` und, ¨Nonlullillment ol
one's desiies is sulleiing.`
Altei giving one's intellectuul uttention to tlese Teuclings ol tle
Loid Buddlu, now iellect, 'Husn't eveiyone ol us ulieudy encounteied
tlis sulleiing?'. ¨Birrl is sojjcring, o|J agc is sojjcring¨: One miglt not
know tlut biitl is sulleiing und il one isn't yet old tlen old uge will still
be unknown. But us it steudily uµµioucles und tle body becomes moie
und moie decieµit, tlen one muy undeistund. ¨Ðcarl is sojjcring¨: low-
evei, us you luven't yet died you cun't know it. Even so, you uie still
uliuid und do not wisl to die. As lui us 'sorrow anJ |amcnrarion crc.,' uie
conceined, you will ull luve encounteied tlem to some extent und cun
tleieloie vuiiously uµµieciute tleii unguisl. BoJi|y anJ mcnra| Jis-casc
cun ulso be iecognized us sulleiing. As you luve not encounteied tle
tiutl ol eveiy tyµe ol sulleiing ÷esµeciully tlut ol biitl, old uge und
deutl÷ you will need to iellect und investigute liist so us to undei-
stund exuctly wly tley uie sulleiing.
Tlis stute ol sulleiing lollows tle nutuiul conditions und tle couise
ol tle live uggiegutes uie: coiµoieulity uggiegute (ropa-llanJla) wlicl
is tlis bodily-giouµ (ropa-ldya); leeling uggiegute, wlicl is µleusuie,
µuin und, un inteimediute, neitlei-µuinlul-noi-µleusunt leeling; µei-
ceµtion uggiegute, wlicl vuiiously iecollects und µeiceives; mentul-
loimutions uggiegute being tle tlouglt µiocessing; consciousness
uggiegute wlicl is tle knowing ol seeing u loim oi leuiing u sound
(etc.). Rüµu is iüµu, but leeling, µeiceµtion, mentul-loimutions und
consciousness uie culled 'ndma' wlicl is tle condition ol tle mind in-
clining-out to know. Tlis 'knowing' ol tle seeing u loim oi leuiing u
sound is liistly consciousness, (tlen) tle exµeiience ol µleusuie, µuin
oi neitlei-µleusuie-noi-µuin is leeling, tle iecollecting is µeiceµtion
und tle µiocessing tlouglts uie mentul-loimutions. In sloit, we cun
cull ull ol tlis ropa-ndma oi numu-iüµu.
Tle oiiginution ol tlis numu-iüµu is biitl, its continuing giowtl
und mutubility is old uge und its linul end is wlen it bieuks uµ in deutl.
One cun tleieloie ieduce tlis biitl-old uge-deutl to uiising und extin-
guisling: At liist tleie is uiising und linully tleie is disuµµeuiing. Tlis
is tle nutuiul couise ol tlings.
Since tle nutuiul couise ol tlings is like tlis, tle Loid Buddlu
desciibed it us sulleiing. Tlis cun ulso be undeistood to meun tlut
notling cun µeimunently exist: tlut eveiytling liom its uiising until its
extinguisling must tiunsloim und clunge. Tlis µeiiod ol tiunsloimu-
tion between biitl und tle end is 'ugeing'. Tlis, tlen, is tle ieul tiutl ol
sulleiing, tle tiue stute ol tlings wlicl eveiyone ol us ulive now witl
numu-iüµu must encountei. Tle oidinuiy woildling (porlojjana) giusµs
und lolds to tle numu-iüµu us 'mc-anJ-minc' und 'sc|j' und so tukes
ovei tle inevituble sulleiing ol numu-iüµu into lis own mind. Tlis is
low soiiow und bewuiling iise us sulleiing in one's mind.
Tle Loid Buddlu tleieloie summuiized ull sulleiing into teims
ol tle live uggiegutes, oi one cun suy tle numu-iüµu. Howevei, il one
cun ieleuse tle giusµing und lolding ol numu-iüµu, tlen one no longei
sulleis ulong witl biitl, old uge, deutl, noi is one involved in numu-
iüµu witl its inevituble µuin. Numu-iüµu tlen just continues on ulone,
uccoiding to its nutuie. Tlis is tle exµeiience ol ull tle Noble Ones
Howevei, tle oidinuiy woildling giusµs tle numu-iüµu to limsell
und tleieby contiives lis own sulleiing und soiiow. We ouiselves uie
tle ones wlo µiocess oui sulleiing becuuse oui minds uie combined
witl giusµing. We contiive oui own soiiow, oui own lumentution und
bemouning und udmit into oui mind tle couise ol bodily µuin. Tle
mind itsell is wlut µiocesses mentul distiess und desµuii.
It is tlis veiy µiocessing und contiiving tlut we cull tle 'mentul-
loimutions' wlicl uiise tliougl tle ussembling ol consciousness, leel-
ing und µeiceµtion. One cun tleieloie see tlut tle mind's inclining-out
us numu is tle instigutoi ol sulleiing und tle sole souice ol mentul
sulleiing loi tle mind. As numu must combine witl iüµu, tle nutuie ol
sulleiing is lound iiglt leie in tle numu-iüµu. Tlis meuns it must be
imµeimunent ÷uiising und linully ceusing. It is botl tle nutuie ol mentul
sulleiing und tle µiocessoi ol sulleiing loi tle mind. Tlis is wly tle
Loid Buddlu summuiized ull sulleiing us numu-iüµu, oi tle live uggie-
Howevei, to uctuully µiocess sulleiing tlis numu-iüµu must ulso
be combined witl u giusµing us 'me-und-mine'. Set youisell to see tle
Tiutl ol Sulleiing lollowing tle Loid Buddlu's Teucling by soiting out
eucl cluµtei und veise und tlen gutlei tlem ull togetlei uguin in tlis
numu-iüµu oi live uggiegutes. Biing tlem togetlei in tlis body und in
tle mind's inclining-out to ieceive und µiocess sulleiing.
By seeing und undeistunding tle tiutl ol tlis, you will guin knowl-
edge ol tle Tiutl ol Sulleiing ol tle Loid Buddlu. Youi µievious intel-
lectuul undeistunding will tlen steudily develoµ into wisdom und you
will ieulize tlut tlis Tiutl is not unytling to leui und lute but some-
tling wlicl needs to be comµielended und wlicl will tlen biing one
luµµiness und tiunquillity. One's undeistunding will tlen be equul to
tle souice ol sulleiing so tlut one will no longei be deceived into ud-
mitting sulleiing into onesell. By not µiocessing Sulleiing will tlen no
longei be contiived und so will subside. Tlis will biing luµµiness und
9rl Ocrobcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 19
The Section on the Origin of Suffering (Sumuduyu)
I will now µiesent u Dlummu teucling conceining tle 'Section on
tle Oiiginution ol Sulleiing' (SamoJaya) exµluining tle cuuse ol sul-
leiing. Will you ull incline youi minds inwuids und locus in tle µiesent.
Wlut is tle stute tleie? In wlut diiection is it tlinking? Fix youi mind-
lulness so tlut it cun keeµ uµ und cutcl wlut tle mind is tuking issue
Tle mind goes out tlinking towuids loims by wuy ol tle eyes,
towuids sounds tliougl tle euis, towuids odouis tliougl tle nose,
towuids tustes tliougl tle tongue, und towuids tungible objects tliougl
tle body. It ulso tlinks ubout µievious involvements witl siglts und
sounds (etc.). Howevei, tle mind doesn't just incline-out to know, but
ulso giusµs und lolds on to tlose objects.
Tlis condition ol inclining oi voyuging-out to seize lold ol siglts
und sounds is ciuving (rapld) und giusµing (opdJdna). Ciuving cun
ulso be undeistood, in u geneiul wuy, us tle stiuggling und excitution
ol desiies in tle mind. But u moie subtle investigution ieveuls tle out-
wuid-voyuging ol tle mind to giusµ und seize-lold.
Ciuving und giusµing uie tleieloie couµled togetlei. Wlen u siglt
oi sound imµinges on tle visuul und uuditoiy oiguns, und llows on
towuids tle mind, tle mind inclines-out to ieceive it. Howevei, il giusµ-
ing is not involved, tleie is just µluin numu und no ciuving. But il it
slould tlen incline-out und giusµ lold ol unotlei object tlen tlis is
ciuving. One cun distinguisl tle excitution und ieucling-out ol tle
mind us 'ciuving', wlile tle uctuul seizing-lold und clinging-to un ob-
ject is 'giusµing'. Wlen only tle single teim 'ciuving' is used tlougl,
one slould undeistund tlis us ulso coveiing giusµing.
Tlis giusµing-lold ol un object, clumµing it into tle mind witlout
ieleusing it to µuss tliougl, cun include u wisl loi tlut object. Il tle
object is ugieeuble und µleusing, tlen one will wunt µossession und
musteiy ol it. But il it is disugieeuble, one will tlen wunt to get iid ol it.
Howevei, us one is still giusµing lold ol it ÷even tlougl one does not
like it÷ one cun't ieleuse und be liee ol it. Tle Loid Buddlu tleieloie
divided tlese µioµeities into tliee: sensuul ciuving (ldma-rapld), ciuv-
ing loi existence (blava-rapld) und tle ciuving loi non-existence
Sensuul ciuving is love und desiie loi un object. A ciuving loi
existence somewleie oi otlei, cun be ieduced to u wunting musteiy oi
µossession ovei tlut object ol sensuul desiie. Tle ciuving loi nonexist-
ence is tle desiie to be iid ol tlis oi tlut stute, ieully meuning wlutevei
stute one does not like.
Tlese tliee tyµes ol ciuving ulso include giusµing wlicl lolds tle
object in tle mind witlout letting go. Likeuble und dislikeuble objects
uie botl seized lold ol und so 'liking' und 'disliking' ieguluily uiise in
tle mind. Botl liking und disliking cuuse iestlessness und ugitution.
Wly is tlis? It is just becuuse you still seize lold ol tle likeuble und
It isn't tlut tle mind only inclines-out towuids u single object, loi
in luct tley uie muny. Wlutevei object uµµeuis by wuy ol tle eye oi eui
(etc.), tle mind iuns-out to seize lold ol it. It's ulwuys like tlis, witl
ciuving continuully in uction in tle mind witlout evei culming down.
Tle Loid Buddlu tleieloie tuuglt tlut it is ulwuys ciuving towuids u
new condition. We muy now ciuve loi u ceituin visuul loim (etc.) but
on seeing u new object, tle desiie loi tlut will muke us discuid tle old
object. Tlis iejection und new giusµing continues on und on witlout
ceusing. Tle new object is ulso seized us 'u µossession ovei wlicl one
lus musteiy' und tlis is constuntly ieµeuted, moving on liom object to
object. Tlis discuiding ol tle old object cun ulso be subsumed undei
'ciuving loi nonexistence' wlicl is tlut stiuggling to get iid ol tle µiesent
condition. Wlen un object lus iun its couise und gone tlen tle mind
stiuggles uguin to tuke in u new one.
Il one could iemuin witl u single object tlen ciuving would stoµ
in tle old witlout moving loiwuid to u new object. But tlis ciuving lus
no end. It continuully cieeµs loiwuid luving to discuid its old object in
tle giusµing ol tle new. Wlen tlis is tle cuse, even tlougl ciuving's
cluiucteiistics uie divided into tliee, tley ull go togetlei us one. Ciuv-
ing nevei ceuses its incling loiwuid tliougl tle myiiud objects. It tleie-
loie lus tle µioµeity ol ulwuys ieucling-out loi tle new und novel.
Continuully. On-und-on, engiossed und uttucled to tle objects und ul-
wuys µieoccuµied witl wunting moie und moie. It is nevei sutiuted.
Exumine youi mind und wutcl out loi ciuving us it µiojects-out to
ieceive objects. You muy be uble to cutcl tlis condition ol mind, but in
tle beginning you won't be quick enougl. Even so, it's still good to tiy
to lollow belind until tle mind is swilt und ugile enougl to cutcl uµ
witl itsell.
To cutcl tle mind us it ieucles-out to giusµ, set youi mindlulness
on tle six sense-clunnel µuiis (tle inteinul und exteinul dyarana): Tle
eye und tle loim it sees uie one µuii; tle eui (sora) und tle sound it
leuis uie u µuii; tle nose und tle odoui it smells uie one µuii; tle
tongue und its tuste uie u µuii; tle body und its tungible object uie u
µuii; und tle mind und tle issue it tlinks uµon uie u µuii. Tlis doesn't
meun tlut you must locus on tlem ull simultuneously, but be ieudy to
lix uµon uny object us it mukes contuct. Il it slould be u visuul loim
tlen set youi mindlulness on tle eye und on tlut loim; il it is u sound
tlen locus on tle sound und tle eui (und so on).
Now tlen, let's tiy tlis: ullow youi mind to go out, being veiy
wutcllul und uwuie us it giuduully exits. You will tlen lind conscious-
ness us tle knowing ol seeing u loim oi tle knowing ol leuiing u sound.
Tlis 'seeing' und 'leuiing' is consciousness und you will lind u similui
situution wlen you locus on uny ol tle otlei sense buse µuiis.
Focus on contuct. Wlut is it you see oi leui? You see u siglt; you
leui u sound. And loi tlut loim to be successlully seen tle loim und
'seeing' must come togetlei us contuct. A sound und leuiing ÷und tle
otlei sense buses likewise÷ must contuct beloie u sound oi smell (etc.)
uie successlully exµeiienced.
Next locus on leeling. Il tle object tlut comes into contuct is ugiee-
uble, tlen µleusunt leeling uiises; il it is disugieeuble tlen µuinlul leel-
ing uiises; und il it is u neutiul oi indilleient object, tlen
neitlei-µuinlul-noi-µleusunt leeling uiises.
Focus on µeiceµtion wlicl iecollects und µeiceives lollowing tle
Focus on volition (sanccrand) oi tle intentionulity ol tle mind
wlicl lollows on liom µeiceµtion. Wlen tleie is µeiceµtion uiising
liom µleusuie, tlen one's mind sets itsell towuids tlut µleusuie. Simi-
luily it intends towuids µuin wlen µeiceµtion is bused in sulleiing, und
towuids neitlei-µuin-noi-µleusuie wlen tle µeiceµtion is like tlut.
At tlis µoint you slould luve come uµon ciuving us tle mind
inclines und ieucles-out to giusµ un object. Wlutevei wuy tle mind
clooses und intends, so it iuns out und giusµs in tlut diiection. Il it sets
oll towuids u µeiceµtion lollowing on liom µleusunt leeling, tlen sen-
suul ciuving will uiise. Il it is towuids existence, tlen ciuving loi exist-
ence will uiise, und il it's towuids u µeiceived µuinlul leeling, tleie will
be ciuving loi nonexistence, wlicl is tle wunting to iid onesell ol tlut
µuinlul stute. Wlen tle mind intends towuids u µeiceived inteimedi-
ute leeling, tlen uny one ol tlese tyµes ol ciuving muy uiise. Tlis is tle
seeing ol tle mind's inclining-out witl ciuving to giusµ un object.
Focus on uµµlied-und-sustuined tlouglt (viralla-vicdra), wlicl
is iellection oi discuisive tlouglt, und you will see tlut tlese luve
lullen undei tle µowei ol ciuving.
By lollowing tlis sequence you will uµµieciute tlut it ull stuits
witl tle eye und loim oi eui und sound (etc.) wlen tle mind giudu-
ully, steµ by steµ, inclines-out to seize und lold. Tlis, tlen, is ciuving,
und uµµlied-und-sustuined tlouglt must lollow undei its µowei.
One cun now suy tlut tlis stute ol ciuving diiectly deµends on
numu-iüµu. Tle eyes und loim, euis und sound (etc.) uie coiµoieulity
wlile tle mind iesiding witl it und inclining-out to ieceive objects is
mentulity. But tlis is not u noimul, µluin numu, loi insteud ol letting go
tle object is seized lold ol. Wletlei tle object is liked oi disliked it is
still giusµed lold ol, und tlis is wlut loims ciuving. Tlis ciuving uiises
deµendunt on iüµu und numu und nowleie else. It cun be ieckoned u
numu-dlummu becuuse it is u concocting ugent like tle mentul-loimu-
Wly does tle mind concoct und contiive in tlis wuy? Becuuse
tleie uie still undeilying delilements known us cunkeis (dsava) in tle
inclining-out mind. Tlis is tle lutent µioclivity (anosaya) ol ciuving
lying iesident in tle mind. Noimully it does not slow its luce und ie-
muins us il not tleie, but slould u µiovoking oi ulluiing object muke
contuct tlen tlut lutent tendency buists out to tuke tle object wlicl
lits in witl it. Set youisell to see tlis.
Wlen you cun locus on tlis witlout u luµse, tlen tle lutent ten-
dencies won't luve uny clunce to bieuk out, und tle ulluiing object
won't be uble to µiovoke oi 'seed'. Tle lutent delilements will tlen be
weukened us tle 'seed' lus not invigoiuted. Witl sucl mindlulness set,
vigilunt und uleit, it will be uble steudily to uµioot und destioy tlut µuit
ol tle mind wlicl is lutent-delilement.
Tlis ciuving, tleieloie, is tle oiigin ol tle mind's sulleiing. Tle
mind inclines-out to seize und cling to un object, und wlen inevitubly,
in uccoid witl its nutuie, tlut object clunges und tiunsloims, so sullei-
ing uiises in tle mind. Howevei, witl constunt vigilunce tle mind will
not be uble to seize lold ol objects. One cun tlen let go ol tlem und
tleieby ieleuse one's sulleiing us well.
Tlis ciuving und tle sulleiing it cuuses botl deµend und ieside in
tle numu-iüµu und youi uttention must tleieloie be locussed tleie
und in tle mind. Mindlulness will tlen steudily quicken und become
swilt und uleit.
10rl Ocrobcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 20
The Section on the Extinction of Suffering
I will now sµeuk ubout tle cessution ol sulleiing (Jollla-niroJla).
Tle Buddlist Teucling is uble to be u ieluge (sarapa) loi tle woild
becuuse it cun exµluin tle extinction ol sulleiing. Tlis is ciuciul be-
cuuse it is wlut we uie uiming loi. Il it could not teucl tlis tlen it
would be witlout essence und busicully tiiviul. Howevei, u metlod ol
µiuctice to biing ubout tlut extinction is ulso needed, tlougl uctuully
lollowing tlut wuy iemuins tle tusk und iesµonsibility ol eucl indi-
viduul µeison.
Even tlougl tle Teucling is genuine und tiue, il tle µeison does
not lollow tle wuy ol µiuctice tlen le won't be uble to uclieve tle
extinction ol sulleiing. Tleieloie, tle tusk is uµ to tle individuul to
lollow tle µiuctice to ellect tle iequiied iesults. Tlis µiuctice is di-
iectly conceined witl tle mind. Toduy, lowevei, I will liist exµluin tle
iesult und liuit ol tlut µiuctice: tle extinction ol sulleiing. Tlis is tle
mujoi und essentiul liuit ol tle µiuctice enubling one to see tle tiutl ol
tle Teucling ol tle Loid Buddlu.
Will you now µleuse centie youi mind und wutcl its inclining-out
towuids knowing vuiious ulluiis. At tlis µiesent moment it is inclining-
out to ieceive tle sound ol tlis Dlummu Teucling. Il you uie guuiding
tle mind, you slould be uble to notice its condition. Is it culm und
cool? A leeling ol culmness und tiunquillity indicutes tlut tle Dlummu
being olleied exteinully und tle innei Dlummu ol youi centied mind
uie 'niyydnila` ÷cuµuble ol leuding tle mind out uwuy liom sulleiing.
And tlis µiesent culmness ol mind is ulieudy u cessution ol sulleiing. It
miglt only be u momentuiy suµµiession wlile tle mind is centied in
Dlummu yet, even so, ieulize tlut wlen it iesides constuntly witl
Dlummu tleie will be u constunt cessution us well.
Now will you locus on tlut 'inclining-out to know' ubout exteinul
ulluiis tle ulluiis ol loims being seen, sounds being leuid (etc.) und
tlose loimei siglts und sounds (etc.) ulieudy known und stoied uwuy
us issues by tle mind (mano). Tlese ulluiis uie eitlei welcomed witl
'lunkeiing,' unwelcomed witl 'dejection,' oi deceµtive und delusoiy.
Tle mind immediutely knows ugitution und leut, und cunnot be culmed
down becuuse ol tlut lunkeiing, dejection, und deluded uttuclment.
Tlis leuted excitution ol tle mind is u subtle loim ol sulleiing, tlougl
you muy not be uwuie ol tlut. Only ultei exµeiiencing u culm mind
witl Dlummu will you uµµieciute sucl ugitution us one loim ol sullei-
ing. Most µeoµle will usuully only know, lowevei mucl oi little, ubout
tle blutunt loims ol sulleiing ÷soiiow, lumentution, µuin, mentul dis-
tiess und desµuii÷ wlicl ull giow out ol tlis subtle tyµe ol sulleiing.
Rellecting moie cuielully on wly tlis slould be tle cuse, one
linds tlut it is becuuse tle l becomes involved in tle myiiud ulluiis.
Wlut uie tlese ulluiis?
Focus on tlis body: It is comµosed ol tle vuiious elements; it is u
lutlom long und u sµun wide, und is sitting leie now. We luve u 'sense'
tlut rlis boJy is mc und lowevei ir exists we ucceµt tlut us low wc
exist. Looking ut oui luce in tle miiioi, we leel tlut tlese uie 'my
leutuies.' Looking ut oui µlotogiuµl, we tlink ol it us slowing 'mc`.
Not only is tleie tlis 'leeling ol sell' we ulso wisl loi tlis 'mysc|j-in-rlis-
boJy` to µioceed in un ugieeuble wuy. Comµliments ubout tlis body uie
welcome, but uny ciiticism is ceituinly not. Even tlougl we know loi
suie tlut some µuiticului µuit is not so good, we uie still glud ol uny
llutteiy tlut suys tle oµµosite ÷und even tlougl we know it is llutteiy
we still like it. Tlis, tlen, is unotlei usµect us to low desiie becomes
mixed in.
Focus buck on tle mind inclining-out. In tiutl tlis exµeiiencing-
enguged-witl-desiie (wlicl I've been tulking ubout) is u condition ol
tlut mind going-out to know. It liist sees tle iüµu loim ÷µeiluµs see-
ing one's body in u miiioi÷ und tlis seeing is consciousness. Il one
likes it tlen tlut is µleusuie, oi even il one doesn't oi is indilleient, it is
still ull leeling. Tleie is µeiceµtion, und tlen mentul-loimutions lusl-
ion tlouglts ubout one's body und so tlut 'sense' und tlose tlouglts ol
my body (us I exµluined ubove) uie ull contuined in numu, us tle mind
inclines-out to know. Tlis numu is mixed und blended witl ciuving
togetlei witl giusµing und clinging. Wlen it is like tlis, tlen ull one's
exµeiience und tlouglts uie mixed und µeimeuted witl tle delile-
Even tlougl one muy leel contentment witl one's body, it ie-
muins, in tiutl, iüµu wlile tlut 'leeling' is still numu. Altei moie cuie-
lul investigution one linds tlut uny leeling ol contentment one lus in
tle body cunnot comµuie to tlut ol tle culm mind witl Dlummu. Once
one lus exµeiienced tle culm uiising liom Dlummu, tlis will become
Now tleie is still unotlei imµoitunt µoint to considei: We must
continuully deceive ouiselves ubout tle nutuie ol tlis iüµu-und-numu.
Tleii tiue nutuie is ieully bound uµ witl imµeimunence (aniccard),
sulleiing (Jolllard) ÷becuuse tley cun't iemuin stuble÷ und not-sell
(anarrard). All iüµu und numu must µioceed liom u beginning in biitl
to un end, witl continued clunge in between. Tlis iüµu wlicl eveiy-
one is so uttucled to must ulso luve tlis tiunsloimution und clunge.
Tlus, we must tlink uµ wuys to lool ouiselves into leeling contentment
und sutisluction witl tlis evei clunging iüµu. Foi instunce, tlougl it is
ugeing, we munuge to see it us not old. Il someone tlen decluies to us
tlut it is old we uie disµleused; wlile il tley suy tle oµµosite, we uie
glud÷even tlougl it's obvious to ull tlut it tiuly is old! We like it wlen
tley deceive us even us we constuntly muke suie to lool ouiselves too.
Putting it oll, tlinking 'not just yet, not just yet, no need to woiiy ubout
tlut until lutei.' Wlen tlis iüµu clunges, leuding towuids its extinc-
tion, we must tlink to lold it buck und so u stiuggle und ugitution
ensues. Huµµiness is imµossible il oui tlinking goes uguinst tle couise
ol nutuie und ieluses to ucceµt its luw.
Tlis ull iesults liom ciuving tlut gives iise to giusµing und cling-
ing. We liist seize lold ol sometling us 'mysc|j' und tlen go on to giusµ
lold ol sometling else. We giusµ und tlut tling's uiising becomes oor
uiising, its clunging becomes oor clunging und its linul extinguisling
becomes oor decline und end. We must tleieloie constuntly sµin witl
tle numu-iüµu us it is continuully uiises, clunges und ceuses. Tlis wliil-
ing-uiound is tle leuit ol sulleiing und is lui liom tlut µeuce und still-
ness wlicl is luµµiness. Tlen, wlen tle numu-iüµu luils to lollow tle
µluns we lud on liist giusµing lold ol tlem ÷und yet we still uttemµt
to lold on to tlem÷ unotlei loud ol sulleiing is udded: Soiiow, lum-
entution und ull tle otlei loims ol sulleiing tlut we luve ulieudy men-
To iemedy tlis situution und end sulleiing tleieloie iequiies u
locussing on tlut 'sell' tlut sµins togetlei witl tle myiiud tlings in
tleii uiising und extinguisling. Tlis sµecilicully meuns tle sµinning
witl tle numu-iüµu, botl inteinully und exteinully. Focus to see tlut
wlen 'sell' sµins witl tlem, tleie must ulwuys be sulleiing too; und tle
less it does so, tle less sulleiing it must enduie.
To uctuully ieduce tlis sµinning, you must locus on tle desiie und
giusµing witlin youisell. See tlut: 'Tlis is ciuving uiising'; 'tlis is giusµ-
ing und clinging uiising.' Reulize tlut, 'u lot ol desiie meuns u lot ol
sulleiing' und 'less desiie und giusµing meuns less sulleiing.' Tle com-
µlete luck ol desiie und giusµing is tle comµlete ubsence ol sulleiing,
und tlis is wlut loims tle extinction ol sulleiing (Jollla-niroJla).
Howevei, in tle beginning stuges ol µiuctice it isn't yet µossible to
give uµ ull desiie und giusµing. Tleieloie muke suie tlut you uie wise
in youi selection ol wlut to desiie. Don't desiie und giusµ unytling
evil; insteud just tuke liim lold ol wlutevei is good und skillul. Tlis
ulone will extinguisl tle sulleiing tlut uiises liom doing evil, und one
will ulso ieceive tle luµµiness tlut comes liom µiogiessing in tle wuys
ol viitue. Wlen you luve µiuctised und tiuined youisell to tle lull limit
ol goodness, tlen tleie is no need to wisl loi good uny moie ÷be-
cuuse one is ulieudy tleie. At tlis µoint tleie is no need to wisl loi
unytling unymoie ÷but tlut is tle linul und ultimute stuge.
At tlis µiesent stuge, you must still wunt to lold onto goodness
wlicl is viitue und moiul µieceµts, onto sumudli und onto wisdom.
Use tle µieceµts to extinguisl tle sulleiing involved in wiong und
unskillul beluvioui. Use sumudli to uvoid tle lindiunces wlen tley
uiise in tle mind, so us to extinguisl tleii sulleiing. Use u tiuined
wisdom us tle tool to extinguisl tle sulleiing uiising liom tle moie
subtle ugitution, desiies und giusµing.
Sµeuking ol using wisdom to investigute: Focus it in tle iüµu-und-
numu und µenetiute to its nutuiul couise ol uiising und µussing uwuy.
Tlen wlutevei object is encounteied will be ieceived by tlis wisdom
tlut cun see tliougl to its uiising und µussing uwuy, und it will be
extinguisled wlen it ieucles tle mind. Howevei mucl lunkeiing oi
dejection one lus, lowevei belooling und delusoiy tle object muy uµ-
µeui, on ieucling tle mind ull ol it will be extinguisled by wisdom's
insiglt into tle uiising und µussing uwuy. Tle object tlen loses its µowei
und tle mind is no longei jolted oi uµset by it.
Noimully lowevei, wlen objects ieucl un oidinuiy µeison's mind
tley comµletely udleie und stick tleie. Wlen u loim is seen oi u sound
leuid, it enteis in und sticks lust in tle mind. Tlese objects luve tle
µowei to ugitute tle mind, but wlen wisdom witl insiglt into uiising
und µussing uwuy is develoµed, it cun cut tlem ull uwuy. Tlis, tlen, is
tle iesolution und conclusion. It is tle end loi sulleiing, wlicl will
nevei uguin come in to µossess tle mind. Tlis is tle wuy ol µiuctice to
extinguisl sulleiing.
Tle meuns und stiutegy loi steudily iemoving sulleiing, steµ by
steµ, is un ussiduous und µeisistent investigution into numu-iüµu to see
its uiising und µussing uwuy. It's u tiuining to cleui tle mind so us to see
tle µiinciµles ol tle nutuiul couise ol tlings. Tle cuiing ol tle innei
sulleiing will enlunce one's mindlulness und wisdom so tlut tley cun
tiy to deul to tle best ol tleii ubility witl tle exteinul sulleiing tlut
one muy conliont.
Wlen one is skilled in tlis Buddlist Wuy ol µiuctice, one will be
uble to contend witl uny loim ol sulleiing. Even il one is suiiounded
by (exteinul) sulleiing, one cun still delivei und sule-keeµ tle mind.
Tle Buddlist Teucling is u ieligion wlicl olleis u ieluge tlut is ieully
ieliuble becuuse it teucles u genuine metlod to extinguisl sulleiing.
But to ieulize tlis, you will luve to study und µiuctise in tle wuy I luve
exµluined leie. Tlen you will ieceive tle iesults in u giuduul extin-
guisling ol sulleiing, uccoiding to tle level ol youi µiuctice.
17rl Ocrobcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 21
The Truth of Extinction United
With the Truth of the Path
Pleuse will you now centie youi mind witlin youisell. Focus on
tle mind witl its mentul-object. Tlis meuns seeing tle mind us it tlinks
ubout its µiesent tlouglt, concein oi µieoccuµution. Is youi mind culm
oi not? Wlilst listening to tlis Dlummu tulk, tlis meuns seeing tle
mind us it is tlinking uµon tlut Dlummu wlicl is being leuid. Tle
object is now tle Dlummu subject tlut is being leuid und tlouglt
Tle Discouise exµluins tlut sulleiing oiiginutes becuuse ol ciuv-
ing, und tlut ciuving botl uiises und ceuses in deligltlul-und-µleusui-
uble-tlings (piyaropa sdraropa). As ciuving ends in tle µluce wleie it
uiises it must extinguisl tleie. Tlis doesn't ielei to exteinul tlings, but
to tlese veiy objects und µieoccuµutions in tle mind.
Tle object us u deligltlul-und-µleusuiuble-tling, wlicl tle mind
is mulling-ovei, is ieully loim. Wlen we see u µeison witl oui eyes tle
mind tukes ovei tlut visuul loim us u mentul imuge. It uµµeuis in tle
mind us u lull und comµlete imuge ol tlut µeison. Il, insteud ol u µei-
son, one sees u tiee, u mountuin oi uny muteiiul tling, tlen tle mind
tukes it ovei und it uµµeuis comµlete in tle mind us u tiee, mountuin oi
wlutevei. Wlen one leuis u sound tliougl tle euis, tle mind will
tuke tlut subject us u comµlete imuge into tle mind. Tle mind tukes in
visuul loims liom tle eyes, sounds liom tle euis (und similuily loi ull
six sense buses) us mentul imuges. Tlus, tlose objects munilest us enti-
ties in tle mind.
Tle mind, lowevei, doesn't tuke eveiytling in us imuges. A siglt
oi sound oi unytling tlut doesn't µossess uny inteiesting leutuie is
ieleused to µuss on by, wlile tlose tlings tlut do uie tuken in us im-
uges. Tlis, tleieloie, is wly tle Loid Buddlu used tle teim 'Jc|iglrjo|
anJ p|casorab|c rling` loi unytling wlicl luscinutes und entliuls tle
mind to tle µoint wleie it is tuken in us un imuge.
Ciuving und giusµing will µeimeute tlut imuge und it cun tlen be
consideied tlut tle oiiginutoi (samoJaya) oi ciuving is boin. Il tleie is
no imuge oi deligltlul-und-µleusuiuble-tling, tlen ciuving lus nowleie
to uiise. Lutei tlougl, wlen tley uie µiesent in tle mind, ciuving cun
indeed uiise. Tlis is wly it is suid tlut wlen it uiises it does so in tle
deligltlul-und-µleusuiuble-tlings ÷wlicl uie exuctly tlese imuges und
Wly does ciuving uiise? Becuuse nor-lnowing oi delusion is wutcl-
ing tlose mentul objects. Wlen ignoiunce oi delusion is wutcling, im-
uges will become evident us eitlei ugieeuble, disugieeuble oi entliulling.
Il one now wutcles witl knowledge insteud ol delusion, one will see
tlut it is ull only u muttei ol mentul-imuges being tuken in und lusl-
ioned by tle mind into entities. Tle loim wlicl tle eye sees is ieully
outside but it uµµeuis to lix itsell in tle mind becuuse un imuge is
lubiicuted ol it. Tlis cun be comµuied witl tuking u µlotogiuµl. Even
tlougl tle ieul tling is outside, it uµµeuis us il it is lixed in tle lilm. In
luct, ol couise, it is just un imuge cuuglt tleie und not tle ieul tling ut
ull. A µeison's mind wlicl lubiicutes u mentul imuge is similui to tlut
lilm wlicl cutcles dilleient loims tliougl u lens uiiungement, wlicl
itsell cun be comµuied to tle visuul oigun.
Now tlen, locus tlut knowing to investigute tliougl into unotlei
level. Tleie is tle mentul imuge, object oi loim wlicl becomes lixed
und luslioned in tle mind, und tlen tleie is exteinul muttei. Tlis miglt
be exµeiienced us u µeison, tiee, mountuin oi some otlei tling, und it
too is comµounded und conditioned. None ol tlese tlings existed be-
loie tle elements cume togetlei to muke tlem uµ und, once uiisen,
tley tiunsloim, clunge und linully disµeise. Tleieloie tley uie just
elements combined togetlei, tle euitl element muking uµ tle luid
µuits, tle wutei element tle lluid µuits, tle liie element tle wuimtl,
tle wind element tle motion, und tle sµuce element tle emµty sµuces.
Tlis being so, tley ull must be void ÷void ol entity oi sell.
Focus tlut knowing (wlicl is not delusion) to see tle mentul im-
uge disµeised us elements. See it us void und emµty ol entity und sell.
Wlen tlis voidness is evident, tlen tlut mentul imuge÷ wletlei ugiee-
uble, disugieeuble oi deluding÷ will dissolve. Ciuving will tlen luve
notling to seize-on und so must subside und ubute. Tlis is wly, wlen
ciuving extinguisles, it does so in tle deligltlul-und-µleusuiuble tlings.
Tle imµoitunt µoint leie is tlut il tle mind tukes in und wutcles
tlut mentul imuge ol u deligltlul-und-µleusuiuble tling witl delusion,
ciuving will immediutely sµiing uµ. Tlis is tle ioute loi tle oiiginution
ol sulleiing. Il lowevei tle mind cun see it ull witl knowledge us void
ol entity oi sell, tlen ciuving will ut once subside. Tlis is tle ioute loi
tle extinction ol sulleiing. Tle ciuciul tling in extinguisling ciuving
tleieloie lies witl lnowing. Tlis tiuining ol tle mind to develoµ knowl-
edge is culled tle Putl (magga) ÷ tle wuy ol µiuctice to end sulleiing.
Tle lnowing mind is ulso tle ca|m, sri||cJ, mind und so tle tiuin-
ing in tiunquillity is ulso tle Putl to end sulleiing.
Tle sri||cJ mind is in its narora| stute und so tle tiuining to estub-
lisl tlis narora|ncss cun ulso be culled tle Putl to end sulleiing.
Tle imµoitunce tleieloie lies in tle tiuining ol tle mind to lnow,
to be sri|| anJ ca|m und to be narora|.
Tle diiect wuy loi tle mind to know is tliougl knowing ubout
sulleiing, knowing tle cuuse ol sulleiing, knowing tle extinction ol
sulleiing und knowing tle Putl ol µiuctice to uttuin to tle extinction ol
knowing sojjcring meuns knowing tle deligltlul-und-µleusuiuble
mentul imuges und objects us meiely imuges, meiely deligltlul und
µleusuiuble tlings tlut must ull uiise und disuµµeui in tle mind. It
meuns knowing tlut even tle exteinul substunce is ulso ol u nutuie to
uiise und µuss uwuy, being comµosed ol elements und void ol entity oi
sell. Focus to know tle tiutl ubout tlese mentul-imuges und ubout tle
myiiud exteinul tlings wlicl leud to sucl imuges.
Tlis knowing ol sulleiing is tleieloie not just u looking ut uny
distiess tlut lus uiisen in one's body oi mind. Tlut's not ull it is. Peoµle
exµeiience vuiious degiees ol bodily oi mentul distiess becuuse tley
uie unuble uctuully to see sulleiing und tleieloie cunnot liee tle mind
liom sulleiing. Tlose wlo see sulleiing und know tle tiutl ubout de-
ligltlul-und-µleusuiuble mentul imuges und exteinul tlings will not
enguge und mix witl tlose tlings, und so will not sullei.
Knowing tle cuuse ol sulleiing meuns cuielully locussing on ciuv-
ing und giusµing. Tle condition ol liking, disliking oi deluded uttucl-
ment loi u mentul-imuge, signilies tlut ciuving lus sµiung uµ. Leuin to
iecognize und know tlis ciuving, und it will tlen subside.
Focus into tlis subsiding, tlis extinction ol sulleiing wlicl one is
encounteiing. In tiutl, we uie not ull continuously oveiwlelmed by
sulleiing. Sulleiing uiises only wlen ciuving is boin. Even il one does
not µiuctise, on some occusions sulleiing will lessen und subside. Tlis
cun be seen us un occusionul ubuting ol sulleiing. On coming to µiuc-
tise Dlummu, one extinguisles sulleiing by locussing on tlut ubute-
ment wlicl stills und cools tle mind. Tle mind will tlen be
cluiucteiized by nutuiulness, stillness, knowingness, und by cluiity und
biigltness. Tlese uie tle leutuies ol tle extinction ol sulleiing. You
must ieulize tlis.
Knowing tle wuy ol µiuctice to tle extinction ol sulleiing involves
u locussing on tle cuuses tlut leud to tlut extinction: Tle mind must
be knowing, stilled und nutuiul. One does not simµly ullow sulleiing to
uiise und ceuse ol itsell, loi tlut miglt not only tuke u long time but
ulso be liglly dungeious. One µiuctises to develoµ tlut knowing, still-
ness und nutuiulness, loi tlese leud to tle cessution ol sulleiing by
extinguisling ciuving und giusµing.
Ciuving uiises und ceuses in tle sume µluce, tlut µluce being de-
ligltlul-und-µleusuiuble-tlings oi mentul-imuges. But to extinguisl ciuv-
ing iequiies tle develoµment ol tlut knowingness wlicl is wisdom
und not delusion. Wlen tlut knowing is in constunt suµeivision, ob-
jects cun no longei come in und biing ubout tle uiising ol sulleiing,
becuuse ciuving cun no longei be µiovoked ÷loi one is tlen lully uwuie.
1Srl Ocrobcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
TaIk 22
The Truth of the Path (Muggu)
Toduy we luve ieucled tle toµic ol tle Eigltlold Putl (Magga)
und I will tleieloie tuke tle luctois one ut u time so you cun see tlem
in und loi youisell. Tle Putl lus eiglt luctois:
Tle liist luctoi is iiglt view (sammd-Ji((li). Tlis is tle undei-
stunding ol sulleiing, ol tle oiiginution ol sulleiing, ol tle extinction
ol sulleiing und ol tle µutl leuding to tle extinction ol sulleiing.
See tlis sulleiing in youi own sell wlenevei you encountei it.
Undeistund it tlen. Reulize tlut tlese live uggiegutes uiise ut biitl und
tlen must giow old und die. Tlis is tleii inevituble couise. Il you giusµ
und cling to tlese live uggiegutes us mc-anJ-minc, tlen wlen tley be-
come enguged in sulleiing, so do you. Focus on youi going ulong witl
tlis sulleiing ol tle live uggiegutes.
See tle cuuse ol tle uiising ol sulleiing. Tlis is seeing tle mind's
ciuving und desiie, wlicl uie tle cieutois ol ull ol tle dilleient loims
ol sulleiing.
See tle ubuting und subsidence ol sulleiing. Tlis is tle mind biiglt
und cleui ol ciuving becuuse tlut desiie lus wuned. At tlis time, il sucl
ciuving lus subsided, you will luve ieliel liom sulleiing, even il only
temµoiuiily. See tlis temµoiuiy cessution ol sulleiing in tle mind und
notice tle knowledge und undeistunding wlicl is uble to ielieve und
still tlut sulleiing. Seeing tlis undeistunding is seeing tle Putl.
Focus in youisell to see tle µiesent condition ol sulleiing, its cuuse
und oiiginution, its extinction und tle Putl.
Tle second luctoi is iiglt tlouglt (sammd-sanlappa). Tlis is
tlouglt liee liom sensuul desiie, liom ill will und ciuelty.
Focus to see tle tlouglt und iellections going on in youi mind.
Wlut uie tley ubout? Wlen youi tlouglts uie liee liom sensuous de-
siie ÷us wlen you uie iellecting on Dlummu÷ tlen be uwuie ol it.
Tley luve not been µulled uwuy to like, desiie und lind sutisluction in
tle ulluiis ol visuul objects, sounds, odouis, tustes oi tungibles.
Wlen tleie uie tlouglts liee ol ill will und vindictiveness, und
tlouglts liee ol ciuelty, tlen be uwuie ol tlut. See und be uwuie ol
youi tlouglts und iellections.
Tle tliid luctoi is iiglt sµeecl (sammd-vdcd). Tlis is ubstuining
liom lying, tule beuiing, luisl lunguuge und loolisl bubble. See tlis in
youi own mind. Is tleie sucl tlouglt ol ubstinence µiesent oi not?
Wlen it cun be obseived, tlis indicutes tlut tle luctoi ol iiglt sµeecl is
µiesent. You don't need to sµeuk tlougl: Even being silent witl sucl
ubstinence is ulieudy consideied iiglt sµeecl.
Tle louitl luctoi is iiglt (bodily) uction (sammd-lammanra). Tlis
is ubstuining liom killing, steuling und unluwlul sexuul beluvioui (oi
liom bieuking tle iules ol celibucy). See il tlis ubstinence is µiesent in
youi mind. Il it is, tlen you slould undeistund tlut tlis is iiglt uction.
Tleie is no need to Jo unytling tlougl, loi tle ubstinence is ulieudy
consideied iiglt uction.
Tle liltl luctoi is iiglt livelilood (sammd-djiva). Tlis is tle ub-
stuining liom wiong livelilood und insteud lollowing one's livelilood
in u coiiect und µioµei wuy. Focus in tle mind to see youi µiesent
lilestyle. Weie tle necessities ol lile suµµoiting it obtuined by iiglt oi
wiong meuns? Il you note tlut tley weie lound in u iiglt und coiiect
wuy, tlen you cun considei tlis us iiglt livelilood.
Tle sixtl luctoi is iiglt elloit (sammd-vdydma). Tlis is tle elloit
ol uvoiding oi oveicoming evil und unwlolesome tlings, und ol devel-
oµing und muintuining wlolesome tlings.
Focus to see unwlolesomeness oi evil, und wlolesomeness oi vii-
tue in youi own mind ÷loi tlis is wleie tley liist uiise. Insµect to see
ubout youi uctions (lamma) wlicl uiise liom witlin tle mind. Il you
lind tle mind is tlinking ol doing unwlolesome uctions oi evil, tlen
muke un elloit to uvoid tlut uction. Il youi insµection ieveuls tle mind
is ulieudy conceined witl unwlolesomeness oi evil, tlen muke un el-
loit to oveicome und ubundon tlut, so us not to do it uguin. Sucl evil
uctions cun be uvoided. We arc cuµuble ol uvoiding unwlolesomeness.
Now locus to see tle viitue oi wlolesomeness. Tlut viitue wlicl
you luve not yet done but uie cuµuble ol doing ÷muke un elloit to do
it. Tlut viitue wlicl you luve ulieudy done ÷muke un elloit to muin-
tuin, suµµoit und develoµ it luitlei.
Tlis muttei iequiies you to tiuin youi endeuvoui und elloit. 'El-
loit' cun be undeistood us meuning 'being duuntless' in tle ubundoning
ol evil und in tle µuisuit und imµlementution ol goodness und viitue.
Tlis duuntlessness is necessuiy becuuse ol tle obstucles wlicl block
sucl un elloit: tle innei obstucles ol tle delilements (li|csd) in one's
mind und tle exteinul suiiounding ciicumstunces tlut cun ulso uct us u
block. Tlese delilements uie lust, lutied und delusion oi desiie wlicl
µull uwuy to uvoid viitue but µiovoke tle doing ol evil. Tle exteinul
situution comµiises tlose µeoµle, tlings oi uny ol tle vuiious outside
cuuses tlut enguge und µull tle mind into evildoing und uwuy liom
viitue. Wlen tlis is tle cuse il tle mind is weuk und eusily duunted it
will sullei deleut liom tle delilements witlin itsell. It will ulso luil
uguinst tle exteinul ciicumstunces und be misled into doing evil und
being lui liom viitue.
You must tleieloie stiengtlen youi elloit und duuntlessness so
tlut tle mind is intieµid und cun meet und beut tle delilements witlin
it us well us tlose misleuding exteinul ciicumstunces. You cun tlen
uvoid evil und cultivute viitue, us lus ulieudy been exµluined. Insµect
youi mind to see il tleie is µiesent witlin it tlut elloit, tlut duuntless-
ness wlicl cun deleut tle innei delilements und tle exteinul situution.
Il youi mind is duuntless, witlout being weuk, luzy oi sluggisl, you
will be uble to ubundon evil und cultivute viitue. Tlen ull kinds ol evil
cun be uvoided und ull kinds ol viitue uccomµlisled. You cun tlen
considei tlut tle luctoi ol iiglt elloit is µiesent.
Tle seventl luctoi is iiglt mindlulness (sammd-sari). Insµect wlut
you uie iecollecting oi being mindlul ubout ut tlis moment. Il youi
iecollection is conceined witl ulluiis ol lust oi gieed, lutied oi delu-
sion, tlen tlis is not riglr mindlulness. Tlis lust, gieed, lutied und
delusion cun be ieleiied to in sloit us u µuii lanlcring anJ Jcjccrion ÷
und tlis is tle soit ol mindlulness und iecollection wlicl leud tlem to
uiise in tle mind. Tle mind must iecollect oi slilt out to tuke in un
ugieeuble issue loi lunkeiing to uiise, oi u disugieeuble issue wlicl
iesults in dejection. Tlis soit ol mindlulness leuds delilements into uiis-
ing in tle mind. Howevei, tlis is nor iiglt mindlulness (sammd-sari).
Riglt mindlulness is tle iecollection tlut biings in only tlose
mutteis wlicl will ielieve und ulluy tlut lunkeiing-und-dejection und
leud to culmness und µuiity in tle mind. It comµiises tle iecollection
und exuminution ol one's comµlete body. Tlis lus been exµluined µie-
viously, stuge by stuge, in tle section on mindlulness ol tle body
(ldydnopassand); tle exuminution ol µleusunt, µuinlul und inteimedi-
ute leelings us µiesented in tle section on mindlulness ol leeling
(vcJandnopassand); tle exuminution ol tle mind und its µiesent stute
us µiesented in tle section on mindlulness ol tle mind (cirrdnopassand);
tle exuminution ol objects ol mind us µiesented in tle section on mind-
lulness ol mentul objects (Jlammdnopassand).
Tle µieceding exµlunution wus giuduuted steµ by steµ, but in biiel
one cun suy, rcco||ccr anJ scc yoor boJy, jcc|ings, minJ, mcnra| objccrs
anJ issocs. Bc awarc so rlar yoo lnow in yoor minJ rlc conJirion oj boJy,
jcc|ing, minJ, mcnra| objccrs anJ issocs. Adoµt tlese tlings us objects to
munilest cleuily in tle mind. Foi exumµle, wlen you locus on u bodily
µuit, tlen munilest tlut cleuily us un object in youi mind. Muke u leel-
ing, condition ol mind oi mentul issue munilest us u cleui object in tle
mind. Tlis is tle exteinul seeing, being tle munilesting ol objects gutl-
eied togetlei. Hunkeiing und dejection conceining uny object occui
becuuse one does not see its uiising und disuµµeuiing. Wlen one cun
see tle disuµµeuiing us well us tle uiising, tlen lunkeiing und dejec-
tion cunnot be boin oi will occui too lute. Tle object wleie lunkeiing
und dejection souglt to estublisl tlemselves is not viuble unymoie be-
cuuse it is ubout to disuµµeui.
Focus on youi mindlulness. Wlen you see tlut it is estublisled in
tle joonJarions oj minJjo|ncss (body, leelings, mind, oi mentul objects)
und tlut it is centied witlin iutlei tlun sweiving uwuy ultei exteinul
objects, tlis indicutes ÷even il one is only ut tle beginning stuge÷
tlut it is tle stuit ol iiglt mindlulness (sammd-sari). Wlen tlis mind-
lulness is swilt und lully ugile it will immediutely cutcl und ieulize tle
arising anJ Jisappcaring und will tleieloie be uble to µievent lanlcr-
ing anJ Jcjccrion. Tlis is u mindlulness well estublisled, lull und swilt.
Insµect tle mindlulness witlin youisell: Il it lus tlese cluiucteiistics,
you cun be suie it is iiglt mindlulness (sammd-sari).
Tle eigltl luctoi is iiglt concentiution (sammd-samdJli). Tlis is
tle setting und estublisling ol tle mind in sumudli und, wlen it lo-
cuses on un object, lixing on it liimly. Tlis ulso must iely on mindlul-
ness. Mindlulness iecollects in tle body, leelings, mind und mentul
objects wlile sumudli centies und estublisles itsell in tle body, leel-
ing, mind oi mentul object. Il mindlulness is µiesent but sumudli isn't
liimly estublisled, tlen un uwuieness und undeistunding ol vuiious
tlings cunnot uiise. Il mindlulness is not µiesent, tlen sumudli cun't
be estublisled. Tlis meuns tlut tley must go togetlei: mindlulness ol
un object und sumudli estublisled in tlut object. Insµect to see tlis in
youisell. Il youi mind is still unstuble und not liimly estublisled, tlen
sumudli lus not yet uiisen. Lutei, wlen tle mind lus udvunced und is
stuble und liimly estublisled togetlei witl mindlulness, it gives iise to
knowledge (ndpa). Tlis is iiglt concentiution oi iiglt sumudli.
Ol tle eiglt luctois ol tle Putl, iiglt sµeecl, iiglt uction und
iiglt livelilood togetlei loim moiul viitue (si|a). In sloit tlis is tle
nutuiul mind wlicl is oideily und iestiuined witlout uny tlouglt ol
distuibing it in u wiong wuy. Wlen you insµect youi mind und lind tlis
narora|ncss, tlen you cun considei tlut tlis is moiul viitue: iiglt sµeecl,
iiglt uction und iiglt livelilood witlin youisell. Tleie's no need to
look loi muny tlings, just cleck to see il tle mind is narora|. Il it is,
tlen rlar is moiul viitue.
Riglt elloit, iiglt mindlulness und iiglt concentiution uie togetlei
known us samdJli. Tlis is tle mind stilled und liimly estublisled. In-
sµect youi mind to see il it is stilled und liim witlin tle deteimined
object witlout uny wuveiing. Tleie's no need to ieckon uµ samaJli`s
comµonents just cleck to see il youi mind is stuble und culm. Il it is,
tlen tlut is sumudli.
Riglt view und iiglt tlouglt togetlei muke uµ wisdom (pannd)
wlicl is lnowing. Insµect youi mind to see wletlei lnowing tlut is
wise to tle uiising und disuµµeuiing ol tlings, is µiesent oi not. Il it is
tlen it cun immediutely deul witl uny delilements. It will eitlei know
beloie tle delilements uiise oi, il too lute, it will linully ieulize und
uguin quickly cut tlem out. Tlis lnowing is wisdom, und by seeing tlis
single tling you won't need to ieckon uµ ull tle comµosite luctois.
Il we summuiize ull ol tlis we cun suy, jocos on rlc narora| minJ,
rlc ca|m csrab|islcJ minJ anJ rlar lnowing in rlc minJ. We cun tlen
exµund into tle Eigltlold Putl uccoiding to tle conditions I've ulieudy
To summuiize uguin: We cun see tlut tle nutuiul mind, tle culm
estublisled mind und tle knowing mind must ull be one. Tle nutuiul
mind must be u culm estublisled mind, wlicl must in tuin be u know-
ing mind. Tley cun ull be biouglt togetlei us one. Tlis is wlut tle
Loid Buddlu meunt wlen He sµoke ol viitue being sumudli und wis-
dom; ol sumudli being viitue und wisdom, und ol wisdom being viitue
und sumudli. Tlis is tle conveigence ol tle Putl into one.
Tlis Eigltlold Putl cun be summuiized und ieduced to tliee, und
tlen luitlei to one, wlicl is tle Putl's conveigence. Eveiyone lus tlis
wuy ol µiuctice witlin limsell to u gieutei oi lessei extent.
Insµect tlis Putl in youi own mind. Exumine tle detuiled und
comµielensive usµect ol tle eigltlold loim und tle moie integiuted
usµects ol tle tlieelold und tle unilied loims. Witl constunt insµec-
tion you will know tle stute ol tle Putl witlin youisell: wletlei it is
sluck und undeveloµed oi exulted und mutuie. Wlen you cun ulwuys
see und know tle tiue stute ol tle Putl witlin youisell it is culled
'arranno` ÷u knowing ol onesell. Tle Putl will tlen be steudily devel-
oµed und cultivuted.
Will you now µieµuie to listen witl uttention wlile tle monks
clunt conceining tlis Putl. Alteiwuids, deteimine set youi minds on
µiuctising loi culm und tiunquillity.
25rl Ocrobcr 2504 B.F. (1961)
1. Tle Five Pieceµts (Panca Si|a) uie:
1) I undeituke tle tiuining to ubstuin liom tle killing ol uny
living being.
2) I undeituke tle tiuining to ubstuin liom steuling.
3) I undeituke tle tiuining to ubstuin liom wiong sexuul
4) I undeituke tle tiuining to ubstuin liom lying und wiong
S) I undeituke tle tiuining to ubstuin liom tle use ol intoxicunts
(ulcolol und diugs etc.).
2. Tlese six exteinul objects und tleii coiiesµonding sense oiguns uie
ieleiied to tliouglout tlese Dlummu tulks. Sometimes eye-und-
visuul-object und eui-und-sound uie given us geneiul exumµles, but tle
sume uµµlies to eucl sense buse. Also note tlut mind (oi mano) togetlei
witl mentul-object (oi Jlamma) is ieckoned us tle sixtl sense µuii.
Tlis Jlamma und tle Dlummu ol tle Tiiµle Gem luve dilleient
3. Tliouglout tlese Dlummu tulks tlese tliee tyµes ol leeling will be
ieleiied to, sometimes in un ubbieviuted loim.
4. Tlis will usuully meun sitting in u cioss-legged, 'sumudli-µostuie.'
All ol tlose µiesent listening to tle Dlummu tulk would luve tuken uµ
tlis µostuie.
S. 'Object' leie, und noimully tliouglout tlis tiunslution, iendeis tle
Tlui woid arom. Tle oiiginul Puli teim (drammapa) ieleiied only to
sense objects, tlougl in eveiyduy sµeecl it lus now come to meun
sometling moie like 'mood'. Olten, tleieloie, tleie is un emotionul
edge to tlis woid.
6. Tlis is u iendeiing ol tle Tlui 'yin-Jcc, yin-rai' und will iecui
ieµeutedly tliouglout tlis book. It ieleis to tle oµµosite tendencies ol
welcoming, being µleused und lunkeiing ultei sometling, witl tle
disµleusing, unwelcome iejection ol sometling.
7. SamdJli is tle stute wlen tle mind is estublisled; it is tle lixing ol
tle mind on u single object. It cun ulso be tiunsluted us 'concentiution,'
tlougl in tlis book it is olten lelt untiunsluted us it is ulieudy widely
8. In Tluilund ciemutions uie veiy mucl µuit ol tle sociul scene. Tley
loim un imµoitunt iite ol µussuge und, unlike u muiiiuge ceiemony,
diiectly concein Buddlism und tle monks.
9. Eveiyone listening would luve lud lis oi lei eyes closed, sitting in
sumudli µostuie.
10. Tle luctoi ol enligltenment ol Jlamma-vicdya is olten tuken to
stund loi investigution ol tle Buddlist doctiine (Dlummu), tlougl
leie it is tle investigution ol bodily und mentul µlenomenu (ndma-
11. In tle Tlui tlis is 'ramaJar' (Puli: Jlammard). In tlis context it lus
u meuning us sometling being tle nutuiul, inevituble und tleieloie
noimul oi oidinuiy couise ol events.
12. Immediutely ultei tle Dlummu tulk, tle monks µiesent would
clunt some uµµioµiiute µussuges liom tle Suttus.
A Brief GIossary
[Tle biiel delinitions olleied leie uccoid witl tle usuge ol tlis
µiesent woik.|
Abyukutu : Indeteiminute.
Ãkdsu: Sµuce.
Akusu/u: Unwlolesome, unskillul.
Ãmísu: Tle woildly, cuinul tyµe ol luµµiness und µleusuie. It is
comµuied to u buited look, un uttiuctive object wlicl contuins
sulleiing. (Cµ. nirdmisa.)
Ãndpdnu-sutí: Mindlulness ol tle in-und out-bieutling.
Anuttd: 'not-sell.'
Aníccd; (Aníccutd): Imµeimunent; (Imµeimunence.)
Anusuyu: Pioclivities, inclinutions, tendencies.
Ãrummupu: Object.
Aríyu: Noble. (oµµ. porrlojjana.)
Arom (Tlui): Mentul object, µieoccuµution. (cµ. drammapa.)
Ãsuvu: Cunkei.
Avíjjd: Ignoiunce, nescience.
Ãyutunu: Sense buse.
Bhíkkhu: Mendicunt monk.
Bhütu: Being, entity.
Bodhísuttu (Puli); (Skt. BoJlisarva): A being wlo usµiies und woiks
towuids Buddlulood.
Bojjhungu: Fuctois ol Enligltenment.
Buddhu: One wlo becume µeilectly uwukened tliougl sell discov-
eiy ol Dlummu. Noimully tle Loid Buddha ol tlis µiesent uge.
°Bud-dho": A woid tlut is (silently) iecited to uid in concentiution
Cukkhu: Tle eye; us u sense dooi.
Cetund: Intention.
Chundu: Intention, desiie, will oi zeul.
Cíttu: Mind; being tle tliid loundution ol mindlulness.
dhummu: Usuully meuns mentul object; tle loitl loundution ol
Ðhummu: Tle libeiuting luw discoveied und µiocluimed by tle Loid
Ðhdtu: Element.
Ðosu: Hute.
Ðukkhu: Sulleiing oi µuin.
Ekuggutd: One-µointedness ol mind.
Jurd: Ageing, decuy.
Jdtí: Biitl; liom conceµtion to µuituiition.
Kummu (Puli); (Skt. karma): Action.
Kummujjhdnu: 'Woiking-giound' loi tle µiuctice ol meditution; u
teim loi 'subjects ol meditution.'
Kdyu: 'Giouµ,' 'Body'; leie muy ielei to tle coiµoieul giouµ oi
µlysicul body (ropa-ldya); oi to tle mentul giouµ (ndma-ldya).
Kdyugutd-sutí: Mindlulness witl ieguid to tle body.
Khundhu: Aggiegute.
Kusu/u: Wlolesome, skillul.
Lobhu: Gieed oi lust.
Muggu: Putl; Tle Tiutl ol tle Putl.
Muhdbhütu: Tle 'Piimuiy Elements'; ulso dhdtu.
Muno: Mind, esµeciully us u buse (dyarana).
Murupu: Deutl.
Mohu: Delusion.
Ndmu: (lit: 'nume'); 'mind', mentulity.
Ndmu-rüpu: (lit: nume-&-muttei oi nume-&-loim); 'mind und body';
Plenomenu us exµeiienced.
Níbbdnu: Tle extinction ol sulleiing.
Nímíttu: Tle muik oi sign wlicl is tuken uµ in concentiution µiuc-
Nírdmísu: Huµµiness oi µleusuie us un unwoildly, non-cuinul soit;
witlout tle buited-look. (Cµ. dmisa.)
Nírodhu: Ceusing, cessution.
Nîvurupu: Hindiunces.
Ndpu: Knowledge.
Pukutí (oi pukutí-sî/u): Tle noimul, 'witlout ciisis' stute ol ulluiis.
(Tle nutuiul oi genuine moiulity us distinguisled liom µiesciibed
Pd/í: Tle uncient Indiun lunguuge ol tle Sorras.
Puncu-khundhd: Tle live uggiegutes.
Punnd: Wisdom, disceinment.
Purumutthu succu: Tiutl in tle liglest, ultimute, oi ubsolute sense.
(Oµµ. sammari.)
Purumî: Peilections. Ten quulities leuding to Buddlulood.
Pujíkkü/u: Imµuie.
Phussu: Contuct.
Pîtí: Ruµtuie.
Píyurüpu Sdturüpu: Tle deligltlul und µleusuiuble tlings.
Puthujjunu: Woildling. (Oµµ. Ariya.)
Rdgu: Lust.
Rüpu: 1) Muttei, substunce, coiµoieulity (see klanJla); 2) Visuul
Object (see Ayarana). (Cµ. Ndmu.)
Succu: Tiutl.
Suddhd: Fuitl, conlidence, tiust.
Sumddhí: Concentiution. Upacdra und appand samdJli uie 'neigl-
bouilood' und 'uttuinment concentiution.'
Sumuthu: Culm, tiunquillity.
Summutí: Conventionul, (cµ. paramarrla sacca.)
Sumpujunnd: Cleui comµielension, olten µuiied witl sari.
Sumuduyu: Tle oiigin, uiising (ol sulleiing.)
Suncetund: Intention.
Sunghu: Tle Community wlo tiuly µiuctise lollowing tle Loid
Buddlu's Dlummu.
Sunkhdru: Mentul-loimutions. Tle µiocesses tlut concoct und lusl-
Sunnd: Peiceµtion. (In Tlui it lus ulso come to meun iecognition.)
Surupu: Reluge.
Sutí: Mindlulness.
Sutípujjhdnu: Foundutions ol Mindlulness.
Sdvuku: Noble Disciµle.
Sî/u: Moiul viitue.
Sukhu: Pleusuie, luµµiness, euse.
Suttu: Discouise.
Tuphd: Ciuving.
Tí-Rutunu: Tliee Jewels; tle Buddlu, Dlummu und tle Noble
Updddnu: Giusµing, lolding.
Upekkhd: Equunimity, indilleience.
vedund: Feeling.
vícdru: Sustuined tlouglt, iellection.
vínndpu: Consciousness.
vípussund: Insiglt.
víríyu: Eneigy, exeition.
vítukku: Aµµlied tlouglt, iellection.

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