The contribution of livestock sector to National GDP is estimated at 4.4% (2004-05) and varied between 4.8 to 6.5% during the last two decades. Milk group accounts for 66.7% of livestock GDP while meat and poultry groups account for 17.5 % and 6.8% respectively and wool contributes less than 1% of GDP. The growth in livestock sector would therefore, mainly depend on growth achieved in milk and meat groups. The Planning Commission has suggested a growth rate of 8% in livestock sector during the 11th Five Year Plan period. Achieving such a high growth especially in milk group would not only be difficult but would require huge investment in the processing, value addition and market development including exports. The two growth scenario with an overall 7% and 6% growth rate in livestock sector are presented in the table below:

Growth Potential in Livestock Sector (Annual Growth in Percent)
Sector/Sub-Sector Annual Growth 1981-2000 Situation I (High Growth) Overall for Sector Milk Group Meat Group Buffalo Meat Poultry Meat Goat Meat 6.7 9.6 3.9 10 10 5 10 10 4 4.5 4.7 7 6 Potential Growth Situation II (Moderate Growth) 6 5

Pig Meat
Eggs Wool

6.7 1.5

10 2

10 0

• In the light of above it is recommended that the goals during the 11th Five Year Plan for the livestock sector should be based on the following considerations: • i) To achieve an overall growth between 6.0 to 7.0% per annum for the sector as a whole, with milk group achieving a growth of 5.0 % per annum and meat and poultry achieving a growth of 10% per annum. • ii) The benefit of higher growth should be equitable, benefiting mainly the small and marginal farmers and landless labourers who maintain bulk of the livestock in the country. It should also benefit poorly endowed areas like drought prone, arid and semi-arid areas. • iii) The livestock sector should provide additional employment opportunities to people in the rural areas especially to the female population who manage the livestock in the household, thereby empowering rural women with livestock providing as a source of economic empowerment.

• iv) Livestock production should provide major source of income in the selected areas of the country having potential for mixed crop-livestock farming and it should provide a supplementary source of income in all other areas and also provide sustenance during calamities like famine, floods and failure of the agricultural crops. • v) The growth in the sector should result in the improvement of environment especially in the rural areas by building cleanliness and sanitation in the villages.

Pig Rearing
Swine includes all domestic animals such as pigs and hogs. The term 'hogs' is used synonymously for swine. Domestication of hogs provided man with a more uniform supply of meat. Swine belong to the family Suidae which includes both the domesticated and tile wild hogs. India has about 10 million pigs and swine fanning in India contributes about 6.7% of the total meat production in the country. Among the states, Uttar Pradesh has the highest number of pigs followed by Bihar, Andhra pradesh and Tamil Nadu. At present, there are no Indian breeds of pigs. However, the type of pigs which are found throughout the country may be divided into four types, viz. wild pigs, domesticated or indigenous pigs, exotic breeds of pigs and upgraded stock of pigs such as Large-White Yorkshire, Middle-White Yorkshire, Landreace, etc..

• The indigenous (desi) pig has been the basis of pig production all these years. They are small in size and the small sized animals do not have any defmite characteristics. They grow slowly, produce small litters and the meat type is of inferior quality. • However, improved breeds are now being used for grading up the indigenous population so that the crossbred pigs would, increasingly form the basis for pig production in rural areas. • In India, pig fanning is a subsidiary occupation especially among the socio-economically poor people. Of all the meat producing animals, the pig has an important role because of the short generation interval, efficiency of feed conversion, faster growth rate and higher dressing percentage. Five sows and one boar can produce 80 to 100 young ones in a year that can be sold when they weigh around 65 kg. The dressing percentage in pigs is 65 to 70 which means more meat is produced per animal

Pig Production in Rural Development
In India, pig production has an important role to serve as an effective instrument of social change in weaker sections of rural community. The pigs are probably the most accommodative among animals. They can be managed in many different ways and sold off at different stages of growth. Pigs can be reared economically with minimum expenditure on building and equipments. The quantity of meat available per unit live weight of pig is higher than that with other kinds of livestock. In the rural sector, pig husbandry is merely at subsistence or subsubsistence level. Rural families maintain a few pigs feeding on domestic wastes, swills and whatever the animals pick on free range including farm refuse and night soil. Pig rearing has been continued in this traditional manner for ages and it might be difficult to effect a change in the existing traditional system of rearing. Pig raising fits in very well with mixed farming and can easily be complimentary to intensive crop enterprise. Modem pig breeds can effectively help in improving tile animal protein requirements of large segment of rural

• The entire traditional subsistence pig farming in India has to be changed into commercial pig production. Extensive hybridization of indigenous stock with fast growing exotic breeds without providing clean environment, health and sound management will lead to disastrous results in rural pig rearing under primitive methods. This is because the exotic pigs in spite of possessing favorable genes for rapid growth are unable to express their production potential under poor environmental condition. Further, the upgraded stock also gets susceptible to diseases when they start scavenging like any other indigenous stock. Pork can be commercialized only when there is favorable marketing and feed supply.

• Despite the fact that the cost of good quality pork is far cheaper than that of mutton, the religious restrictions. and rearing of pigs under unhygienic surroundings still stand in the way of consumption of pork. Apart from traditional cultural practices, prevailing in different parts of the country, insufficient capital for implementing innovations in pig husbandry, lack of appropriate technology, poor educational background of the pig farm operators and inadequate means of disseminating worthwhile changes in pig husbandry are the various problems that inhibit efficient pig production. The impetus to increase pig production in India, to a large extent, depends on the acceptance of pork as a decent quality food capable of overcoming deficiency of animal protein in the diet of common man, and on the establishment of economic superiority of pigs in rural farms which practice mixed farming.


The most suitable strategy for successful commercial pig production is to choose areas near population centres or cities from where improved production techniques and better breeding stock can be gradually disseminated to the pig farmers living in remote rural areas. Piggery farms in public sector should arrange to supply weaned piglets (two montils old) to the farmers who must be provided with basic input of feed and health through institutional credits. The pig should be procured from the farmers after attaining the weight between 60 and 70kg by the cooperative or government agencies and arrangement should be made for profitable marketing in population centres or cities, where there is a greater demand for pork. The pig rearers should be paid adequately.

Market potential
The pig population of the country is 12.79 million as per 1992 live stock census and 13.291 million as per 1997 provisional result of census from states and constitutes around 1.30% of total world population. Though there is vast export market for piggery products, India's share is at dismal level. As meat is preferred food in Western countries, there exists a strong export market for pig/pork products, provided, it is from well-bred pigs and product in hygienic conditions.

• The indigenous pig has been the basis used for pig production for a long period of time. It is small in size. Improved breeds are now being used for grading up the form the basis for pig production in the rural areas. • The imported pig breeds reared in India are as follows :

• Most extensively used exotic breed in India


• Body colour is solid white with occasional black – pigmented spots
• Erect ears, snout of medium lengths and dished face

• Excelent breed for the purpose of cross breeding
• Prolific breed • Mature boar 300-400 k. • Mature sow 230-320 kg

• • • • • • • White with black skin spot Long body, large drooping ears and long snout Prolific breeding and efficient in utilizing feed Carcass quality equal to Yorkshire Excellent breed for crossbreeding Mature boars weigh 270-360 kg Mature sow weighs 200-320 kg

• • • • •

Middle white Yorkshire Used in some areas in India Grows rapidly gives good dressing percentage Not so prolific as large white Yorkshire Males 250-340 kg Females 180-270 kg

Breeds for North East India Pig farming is very important component in North East India. Out of total pig population in India, 28% are grown in this region. Following are the commonly grown breeds. Good quality breeds are available at ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani – 793 103, Meghalaya .



Large White Yorkshire




Ghungroo Pig: A potential strain of indigenous pig for the rural farmers

• Ghungroo an indigenous strain of pig first reported from North Bengal is popular among the local people because of high prolificacy and ability to sustain in low input system. This breed/strain produces high quality pork utilizing agricultural byproducts and kitchen wastes. Ghungroo are mostly black coloured with typical Bull dog face appearance, with a litter size of 6-12 piglets, individually weigh about 1.0 kg at birth and 7.0 – 10.0 kg at weaning. Both sexes are very much docile and easy to handle. In the breeding tract they are maintained under scavenging system and mainly act as insurance to the rainfed agriculture.


At National Research Centre on Pig, Rani, Guwahati, Ghungroo pigs are being maintained under intensive system of rearing with standard breeding, feeding and managemental system. Their evaluation for genetic potential for use in future breeding programmes is in progress and this indigenous strain is performing very well in terms of productive and reproductive efficiency. Some of the selected sows have delivered litter size of 17 piglets at birth as compared to the other indigenous strains of pigs maintained at the Institute farm.

Selection of breeding stock
• Important characteristics which need to be considered in developing a good sow herd are • Size of litters • Strength and vigour of litters • Milking ability • Temperament • Gain and feed efficiency, fertility, selection of individual animals from a herd is more important than the selection of a particular breed. Each producer at the time of setting up his herd should purchase his animals from a reliable disease free herd and should obtain as much information of the animals as possible. Once the herd is established the selection of the gilts and boars for replacement in the breeding herd should be based on the types and performance.

Feeding Management
• Points to be considered while formulating feeding ration • Most economical ingredients should be selected • Grains- maize, sorghum, oat, other millets, wheat and rice should form the basic ingredients • Protein supplements - oil cakes and fishmeal and meat meal • No vitamin supplements is necessary if the pigs are allowed to pasture or are fed fresh green legumes. Vitamin B 12 supplement would be necessary if little or no animal protein is fed • Antibiotic supplements at the rate of 11 mg of antibiotic per kilogram of ration • Mineral supplements should be provided

The following table gives specifically the various requirements in the formation of creep, grower and finisher rations for pigs
Nutrients Protein supplement (%) a. Oilcakes b. Animal protein Grains (Maize, sorghum, millets or combination of grains) (%) Wheat bran or rice bran (%) Lucerne meal (%) if available Minearl misture(%) 16-18 8-10 60-65 Creep feed (Up to weaning) Grower ration (20- Finisher ration (4040 kg) 90 kg) 14-16 4 50-55 13-14 2 40-50







The composition of the concentrate feed for various age groups pigs
Ingredients Creep feed Grower Finisher Pregnant (14th to 56th ration (up ration and nursing day to 40 kg) (40-90 k.g) sows 65 50 50 50

Maize or sorghum or broken wheat, broken rice and barley in convenient combinations
Oil cakes (groundnut oil cake, soya bean oil-cake, sesame oil cake, linseed oilcake Molasses Wheat bran or rice bran





5 10

5 1.5

5 25

5 18

Fishmeal or meat meal or cooked offal, skim milk powder dairy wastes
Mineral mixture Salt





1 --

1.5 0.5

1.5 0.5

1.5 0.5

The most convenient way to feed animals on a farm is to prepare the complete ration recommended for different classes and give the pigs the amount they will eat without waste two or three times daily. The following is the approximate amount of dry feed the pigs will consume Weight of pig (kg) 25 50 100 150 200 250

Daily consumption of feed (kg) per pig 2.0
3.2 5.3 6.8 7.5 8.3

All grains in mixed feeds should be ground. Generally feeding in the form of wet mash is not superior than (Slop feeding) dry feeding. Slop feeding requires more time and excessive labor. If a ration is fairly high in fibre, pelleting the feed may increase the rate and efficiency of gain in weight. Pelleting may also decrease the amount of feed that is wasted. It is important not to overfeed sows which have been bred. Over fat sows are apt to produce weak pigs and crush more piglets at farrwoing. Sows should gain about 35 kg and gilts about 55 kg from breeding to furrowing.

Adequate housing and equipment for raising pigs are necessary to provide shelter against inclement weather, prevent diseases, control parasites and save labour.The normal requirement of floor area, water and air space in pens for various classes of pigs is given below
Class of animals Covered floor Open-yard area Water required area per animal per animal (m2) (litres) (m2) 6.25-7.5 7.5-9.0 8.8-12.0 8.8-12 45.5 18-22

Boar Farrowing

Dry sow




Breeding Management
Age to breed gilts Weight ot breed gilts Length of heat period 8 months 100-120 kg 2-3 days

Best time to breed in heat period Gilts – first day Sows- Second day Number of services per sow 2 services at an interval of 12-14 hours Period of oestrous cycle 18-24 days (Average 21 days) Occurrence of heat after weaning 2-10 days
Gestation period 114 days

Prevention and control of swine diseases • All pigs should be vaccinated against swine fever at the age of 2-4 weeks. Breeding pigs should be tested for brucellosis and leptospirosis. • As a routine measure all young pigs at the time of weaning should be inoculated against swine fever. • Animals purchased for the farm should be purchased from disease free herds. Newly purchased animals should be isolated from the other animals in the farm for a period of three to four weeks. No visitor allowed visiting the farm. • Those pig houses cleared of the animals are kept empty for three to four weeks for destruction of microorganisms causing the disease.

 Management Practices to Increase Swine Productivity:  To obtain maximum return from the pig industry, knowledge about scientific management of pigs is very much essential.  Giving a good start to piglets  It is essential for all piglets to take colostrums from the mother. They will take the first feed within 1 hour after birth. If the sow dies after giving birth to piglets and no foster mother is available, the litter can be reared by hand feeding.  The newborn piglets have to be kept in a warm, clean and dry box with clean bedding.

• Feeding bottles and teats (nipples) which are thoroughly cleaned between each feeding can be used to feed the litter. • Regular feeds must be given at intervals of 1 to 2 hours. A good sow milk replacer consists of one egg yolk thoroughly mixed with one liter of warm cow milk. • Piglets will take milk from the mother until they are 7 weeks old. They will gradually take less milk and eat more solid feed until they are weaned. • Piglets of 1 to 2 weeks old age group can be offered a handful of cereal, sugar or powdered milk to in the beginning. The young animals need to be gradually given standard fresh feed to avoid digestive problems.

• Production depends largely upon reproduction. Pigs usually attain puberty around 6-11 months of age. It is best to leave one or two initial estrus periods and breed the gilt in third estrus. The estrus period usually lasts for 3-4 days. The major factor behind the successful pig reproduction is proper detection of estrus. • Estrus detection needs to be carried out slowly and methodically each and every day. The general signs of estrus are vocal, frequent urination, elevation of tail, swollen vulva, pink vaginal mucous membrane, sticky mucus at vulva, bar biting, climbing, restlessness, pricked ears, loss of appetite, arched back, tail upright and flicking up and down.

Reproductive Management

• Not all the above mentioned signs will be exhibited by a single female. Different sow exhibit estrus in different way. The best way to identify heat is to press with palms of both the hands over the loin region and see the response of female (Backpressure test). If the sow stands motionless with cocked ear like a sawhorse, it indicates that the sow is in proper heat. • The best time to mate the sow is 12-36 h after onset of heat and if she is still in heat next day also, rebreeding on second day is advocated to get higher conception rate and litter size. • The average gestation period of sow is usually 114 days. It is better to keep the pregnant sows separately. During pregnancy sow will need plenty of feed with high nutrient (grain and green stuffs) and water.

• The pen should be kept clean and the sows should be shifted to farrowing pen 3 weeks before the expected date of farrowing. The sow should be provided with plenty of clean bedding materials when farrowing is close. It is better to avoid feeding sow with in 12 h of farrowing. • The sow becomes restless and starts to make a nest within 24 hours of giving birth. The teat will produce milk when gently squeezed. Blood stained fluid may be passed from the vagina 1 to 2 hours before birth begins and if small greenish pellets appear, the first piglets will appear within an hour. The sow should be closely watched during farrowing. In case of any difficulty in parturition, the veterinarian should be contacted immediately.

• The piglets should be removed as they are farrowed and they should be cleaned off all mucus to ensure that the breathing passages are clear. Weak piglets should be guided to suck the mother’s teat. After weaning the piglets, the sow exhibits estrus with in a week. Hence, early weaning of piglets at about 3-4 weeks may help in reducing the inter farrowing interval

The following points must be taken care to get the maximum benefits out of pig rearing • Proper Feeding • Proper Housing • Proper Estrus Detection and Mating • Proper Care of Pregnant Sow • Hygienic Farrowing pen • Proper care of new born piglets • Early weaning • Early post partum mating • Proper health coverage

•Pigs grow faster than any other animals. They have higher feed conversion efficiency. That means, they have a great feed to meat converting ratio. They can convert all types of inedible feeds, forages, certain grains byproduct obtained from mills, damaged feeds, meat byproducts, garbage etc. into valuable, nutritious and delicious meat. •Pigs can eat and consume almost all types of feed including grains, damaged food, forage, fruits, vegetables, garbage, sugarcane etc. Sometimes they even eat grasses and other green plants or roots. •Pigs become mature earlier than other animals. A sow can be bred for first time at their age of 8-9 months. They can farrow twice a year. And in each farrowing they give birth of 8-12 piglets.

Advantages of Pig Farming in India:

• Setting up pig farming business is easy and it requires little capital/investment for building houses and buying equipment. • The ratio of total consumable meat and total body weight is higher in pigs. We can get around 60 to 80 percent consumable meat from a live pig. • Pig meat is also one of the most nutritious and tasty meat. It is higer in fat and energy and lower in water. • Pig manure is a great and widely used fertilizer. You can use this manure for both crop production and in pond for fish farming purpose. • Pig fat also has a huge demand in poultry feed, paints, soap and chemical industries and this demand is continuously


• Pigs grow faster and has a good ROI (returns of investment) ratio. They reach slaughter age earlier compared to other animal. A pig become suitable for slaughtering purpose at their age of 7-9 months. Within this period they reach marketable weight of 70-100 kg. • Pig meat has a good domestic demand. We can also earn good income by exporting pig products like bacon, ham, lard, pork, sausages etc. to the foreign countries. • Pig farming business can be a great income opportunities for the small and landless farmers, unemployed educated or uneducated young people and for the rural women. • In a word, commercial pig farming can be a great business idea and income source for the people and it can contribute the national income of our country highly


Conclusion Swine farming in India contributes about 6 to 7% of the total meat
production in the country. The importance of pigs for raising the low nutritional standard of our country cannot be over-emphasized. In many tropical countries, there are still a large number of domesticated native pigs which are scavengers or are raised in the backyard to depend on kitchen left over and farm wastes. Nevertheless, inspite of the low level of management, pigs have continued to provide a significant amount of animal protein and thus, improving the diet of local people. The first basic decision to be made by the farmer is to select the correct breed and choose the right type from the wide range of pigs available in the country. The selection of the breed should not be merely a matter of individual preferences and requirements. It should also take into account the various factors like the environment, breeding and feeding conditions, market facilities, local demand and prejudices. The introduction of better stock and efficient husbandry practices with an efficiently organized marketing system would make piggery a

• Pubished by : The Director, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Barapani, Meghalaya • • •


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