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Postage stamps and postal history of India
This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of India. Indian postal systems for efficient military and governmental communications had developed long before the arrival of Europeans. When the Portuguese, Dutch, French, Danish and British displaced the Mughals, their postal systems existed alongside those of many somewhat independent states. The British East India Company gradually displaced other powers and brought into existence a British administrative system over most of India, with a need to establish and maintain both official and commercial mail systems.
The first stamp of independent India shows the new Indian Flag. It was meant for foreign  correspondence.
Although the Indian Post Office was established in 1837, Asia's first adhesive stamp, the Scinde Dawk, was introduced in 1852 by Sir Bartle Frere, the British East India Company's administrator of the province of Sind. The Indian postal system developed into an extensive, dependable and robust network providing connectivity to almost all parts of India, Burma, the Straits Settlements and other areas controlled by the British East India Company (EIC). Based on the model postal system introduced in England by the reformer, Rowland Hill, efficient postal services were provided at a low cost and enabled the smooth commercial, military and administrative functioning of the EIC and its successor, the British Raj. The Imperial Posts co-existed with the several postal systems maintained by various Indian states, some of which produced The second stamp depicts the stamps for use within their respective dominions, while British Aśokan lions capital, the Indian postage stamps were required for sending mail beyond the National Emblem of India, and was for domestic use. boundaries of these states. Telegraphy and telephony made their appearance as part of the Posts before becoming separate departments. After the Independence of India in 1947, the Indian postal service continues to function on a countrywide basis and provides many valuable, low cost services to the public of India.
Postal history of India
The Post in ancient and medieval India
The history of India's postal system begins long before the introduction of postage stamps. The antecedents have been traced to the systems of the Persian Empire instituted by Cyrus the Great and Darius I for communicating important military and political information. The Atharvaveda records a messenger service. Systems for collecting information and revenue data from the provinces are mentioned in Chanakya's Arthashastra (ca. 3rd century BC). In ancient times the kings, emperors, rulers, zamindars or the feudal lords protected their land through the intelligence services of specially trained police or military agencies and courier services to convey and obtain information through runners, messengers and even through pigeons. The chief of the secret service, known as the postmaster, maintained the lines of communication ... The people used to send
In the South of India. The mails were available to certain officials without charge. This was expanded into the dak chowkis.D. when Cornwallis introduced the Regulation of Thomas Waghorn. linked the Red Sea with the Mediterranean. Lord Clive further expanded the services in 1766 and in 1774 Warren Hastings made the services available to the general public. The postmarks applied on these letters are very rare and are named 'Indian Bishop Marks' after Colonel Henry Bishop. followed in 1778 at Madras and in 1792 at Bombay. for carriage of missives. The fee charged was two annas per 100 miles. pioneered by Thomas Waghorn. Alongside these. 2 Posts and the East India Company The East India Company took constructive steps to improve the existing systems in India when. The runners were paid according to the distance they travelled and the weight of their letters. The first Sultan of Delhi. The swiftness of the horse messengers finds mention in many of the chronicles of that period.Postage stamps and postal history of India letters to [their] distant relatives through their friends or neighbors. carrying the letters on a pole with a sharp point. 1206–1210. vulnerable to attacks by bandits and wild animals. they opened a post office in Bombay followed by similar ones in Calcutta and Madras. The Post Office Act XVII of 1837 provided that the Governor-General of India in Council had the exclusive right of conveying letters by post for hire within the territories of the East India Company. today known as the Grand Trunk Road. gradually evolved over the centuries as highways. Brindisi or Trieste to . Sher Shah Suri (1541–1545) replaced runners with horses for conveyance of messages along the northern high road. On this basis the Indian Post Office was established on 1 October 1837. used by traders and military envoys on foot and horses. The Arab influence of the Caliphate came about with the conquest of Sind by Muhammad bin Qasim in 712 A. by Alauddin Khilji in 1296. The postal history of India primarily began with the overland routes. What began as mere foot-tracks that more than often included fords across the mountainous streams. He also built 1700 'serais' where two horses were always kept for the despatch of the Royal Mail Akbar introduced camels in addition to the horses and runners. 1847 the Permanent Settlement. in 1672 Raja Chuk Deo of Mysore began an efficient postal service which was further improved upon by Haider Ali. This route. the East India Company created its own infrastructure for the expansion and administration of military and commercial power. for purposes of gathering information and wartime news. The Post Office Department of the East India Company was first established on 31 March 1774 at Calcutta. A runner ran from one village or relay post to the next. The urgent European mails were carried overland via Egypt at the isthmus of Suez. which became a controversial privilege as the years passed. His was a dangerous occupation: the relay of postal runners worked throughout the day and night. in 1688. They were subsequently used by merchants for trade purpose. a horse and foot runner service. These mail runners were used chiefly by the rulers. stretching from Persia to India. the Diwan-i-Barid or Department of Posts established official communication across the far-flung empire. private dawk mail systems sprang up for the commercial conveyance of messages using hired runners. but he founded the Mamluk Dynasty and created a messenger post system. the Postmaster General of the United Kingdom who introduced this practice in Britain. Also. the financial responsibility for maintaining the official by Sir George Hayter posts rested with the zamindars. For centuries it was rare for messages to be carried by any means other than a relay of runners on foot. and thence by steamer via Marseilles. ca. the Uttarapatha. Qutb-ud-din Aybak (Persian: )ﻗﻄﺐ ﺍﻟﺪﯾﻦ ﺍﯾﺒﮏwas Sultan for only four years. Thereupon. It was much later that mail runners came to be in use for the carriage of private mail. After 1793. which he constructed between Bengal and Sindh over an ancient trade route at the base of the Himalayas.
with valuations from US$700 to $10. These are quite scarce today. and reduced the time in transit from three months to between 35 and 45 days. 1 anna. The Reforms of 1854 and the First Issues The first stamps valid for postage throughout India were placed on sale in October 1854 with four values: 1/2 anna. The basic rate was 1/2 anna on letters not more than 1/4 tola in weight. All were lithographed except for the 2 annas green. all four values were designed and printed in Calcutta. The shape was circular. carefully studied the postal systems of Europe and America. and 4 annas. 1854. a basic principle of the new system. They were used until October 1854. Waghorn's route reduced the journey from 16. The blue stamp was printed onto the paper by Asia's first adhesive stamp. a beautiful local issue. it now appears that no unused examples have survived. however. as part of a comprehensive reform of the district's postal system.000 miles via the Cape of Good Hope to 6. The new system was recommended by the Governor-General. The time in transit for letters using the Overland Mail route was dramatically reduced. the reformed system was to be maintained "for the benefit of the people of India and not for the purpose of swelling the revenue.Postage stamps and postal history of India European destinations. with "SCINDE DISTRICT DAWK" around the rim and the British East India Company's Merchant's Mark as the central emblem. preceded only by the Basel Dove. 3 The Scinde District Dawk The use of the Scinde Dawk adhesive stamps to signify the prepayment of postage began on 1 July 1852 in the Scinde/Sindh district.000 miles. Featuring a youthful profile  of Queen Victoria aet. improving communications in the Indus river valley to serve the military and commercial needs of the British East India Company. was either white or greyish white. and issued without perforations or gum. The Suez Canal did not open until much later (17 November 1869). . the die during the embossing. while the wax version was embossed on a red sealing wax wafer on paper. It introduced "low and uniform" rates for sending mail efficiently throughout the country within the jurisdiction of the East India Company." The Commissioners voted to abolish the earlier practice of conveying official letters free of postage ("franking").00 by Stanley Gibbons (basis 2006). Lord Dalhousie and adopted by the East India Company's Court of Directors. In the opinion of Geoffrey Clarke. These reforms transformed mail services within India. The paper 1852 red sealing wafer Scinde Dawk. The new stamps were embossed individually onto paper or a wax wafer. which was produced by typography from copper clichés or from electrotyped plates. The 4 annas value (illustrated) was one of the world's first bicolored stamps.000 for postally used examples.000. These stamps were issued following a Commission of Inquiry which had 4 annas. 15 years. 2 annas. like the fundamental changes of the British system advocated by Rowland Hill and the Scinde reforms of Bartle Frere. but all had the same value of 1/2 anna. The stamps were needed to show the postage was prepaid. and then officially suppressed. The unused red stamp was previously valued at £65. A year earlier Sir Bartle Frere had replaced the postal runners with a network of horses and camels.
following the 1857 Rebellion against the East India Company's rule. was inscribed "EAST INDIA POSTAGE". one at a time. but in 1866 India was the first country to adopt the simple expedient of overprinting 'Service' on postage stamps and 'Service Postage' on revenue stamps. Shortages developed. 1866 Bombay to London  by steamer. They continued in use well after the British government took over the administration of India in 1858. then doubling again by 1871. between 1874 and 1876. 3 and 5 rupee denominations. A complete new set of stamps was issued in 1882 for the Empire of India that had been proclaimed five years earlier. These stamps were recess printed by De La Rue in England (who produced all the subsequent issues of British India until 1925). Postal service efficiencies also were introduced. In 1863 new lower rates were set for "steamer" mail to Europe at 6 annas 8 pies for a 1/2 ounce letter. Some of the "Service Postage" overprinted rarities of this year resulted from the sudden changes in postal regulations. 29 days. Another four new designs appeared. Lower rates were introduced for inland mail. 2 annas "bottle green" The Reforms of 1866 and the Provisionals The volume of mail moved by the postal system increased relentlessly. The first of these became available in 1855. The watermark also changed to a star shape. in a variety of frames. An envelope with Half. This innovation became widely adopted by other countries in later years. there was a shortage of stamps to meet the new rates. featuring a detail from Heinrich von Angeli's 1885 portrait of Queen Victoria. A new design for stamps. as well. New designs for the 4 annas and "6 annas 8 pies" stamps were issued in 1866. doubling between 1854 and 1866. . 6 annas provisional. with Queen Victoria in an oval vignette inside a rectangular frame. In 1854 Spain had printed special stamps for official communications. One and Two Anna stamps. The designs consisted of the usual Victoria profile. were introduced in 1895. in 1877. so these stamps also had to be improvised. Other existing designs were reprinted in new colours in 1900. Three stamps. From 1865 the Indian stamps were printed on paper watermarked with an elephant's head. The De La Rue design for the Recess Printed issues: an 1856 color imprimatur. New regulations removed the special postal privileges which had been enjoyed by officials of the East India Company. and the substituted Indian pigment destroyed the printing stones. known as the "9½ arches essay".Postage stamps and postal history of India 4 The East India Company already had attempted a 1/2 anna vermilion stamp in April 1854. in 2. This could not be produced in quantity because it required an expensive vermilion pigment not readily available from England. Provisional six annas stamps were improvised by cutting the tops and bottoms from a current Foreign Bill revenue stamp. These stamps were heavily used and are still quite common today. Nevertheless. and overprinting "POSTAGE". inscribed "INDIA POSTAGE". Stamps for official use were prepared and carefully accounted for to combat the abuse of privileges by officials. The Post Office Act XIV introduced reforms by 1 May 1866 to correct some of the more apparent postal system deficiencies and abuses.
some 652 in all. The Feudatory States maintained their own postal services within their territories and issued stamps with their own designs. much remains to be discovered. Many of the stamps were imperforate and without gum. a feudatory state Convention states • • Chamba Feudatory states (starting – ending years) • Alwar (1877–1899) Bamra (1888–1893) • • Faridkot (1879–1900) Hyderabad (1869–1949) • • Morvi (1931–1935) Nandgaon (1892–1893) Faridkot • (formerly feudatory. The stamp-issuing States were of two kinds: the Convention States and the Feudatory States. as issued. inks and dies are not listed in the standard catalogues. Many rarities are to be found here. The first Convention State was Patiala. The Convention States are those which had postal conventions (or agreements) with the Post Office of India to provide postal services within their territories. convention from 1887) Gwalior • Jind • (formerly feudatory. Many varieties of type. The stamps of the Convention States all became invalid on 1 Jan 1951 when they were replaced with stamps of the Republic of India valid from 1 Jan 1950. in 1884. so letters sent outside that State needed additional British India postage. but most of them did not issue postage stamps. convention from 1885) Nabha Patiala • • • • • • • Barwani (1921–1938) Bhopal (1876–1932) • • Idar (1939–1944) Indore (1886–1941) • • Nowanuggur (1877–1893) Orchha (1913–1939) • • Bhor (1879–1901) Bijawar (1935–1937) Bundi (1894–1941) Bussahir (1895–1900) • • • • Jaipur (1900–1947) Jammu (1866–1877) Jind (1874–1885) Kashmir (1866–1867) • • • • Poonch (1876–1884) Rajasthan (1949–1949) Rajpipla (1880) Sirmur (1879–1899) Soruth (1864–1937) Jammu and Kashmir (1878–1886) • Bahawalpur (1947–1949) • . followed by others in 1885. The postage stamps and postal histories of these States provide great challenges and many rewards to the patient philatelist. Although handbooks are available. paper. Anchal Petty (Post box) of Travancore Below is a list of the Convention states and Feudatory Indian states 1916 red-brown 2 anna of Orchha.Postage stamps and postal history of India 5 Postal history of Indian states British India had hundreds of Princely States. The stamps of each Feudatory State were valid only within that State. The adhesive stamps and postal stationery of British India were overprinted for use within each Convention State.
The set of six. Another pictorial set. inscribed "ONE AND HALF ANNA". the set of King Edward VII stamps were issued in two values. with King George VI's effigy appearing on the higher values. showing the fortress One rupee (1902) of Purana Qila. with some color changes. The early 20th century In 1902 a new series depicting King Edward VII generally reused the frames of the Victoria stamps. A victory issue in 1946 was followed in November 1947 by a first Dominion issue. whose three stamps were the first to depict the Ashoka Pillar and the new flag of India (the third showed an aeroplane). Jind joined in July 1885. It is reported that George V. constrained by the austerity of World War II. In 1926 the watermark changed to a pattern of multiple stars. However in 1906. The George V Series (1911 to 1933) added two more values. consisted of rather plain designs using minimal amounts of ink and paper. its stamps from the feudatory period became invalid for postage. such usage will lower a collector's estimation of a stamp's value. As Indian Post Offices annually required some billions of stamps for postage. was issued to mark the government's move from Calcutta to New Delhi. The higher values were often used for the payment of telegraph and parcel fees. but in 1921 this changed to "ONE AND A HALF ANNAS". issued their own stamps before they joined the Postal Convention. Faridkot joined on 1 January 1887. half anna and one anna with the caption "INDIA POSTAGE & REVENUE". These dual-purpose issues were an exception and generally the two types were issued separately. personally approved these designs. Delhi and government edifices. a philatelist. and included values up to 25 rupees.Postage stamps and postal history of India • • • • Charkhari (1894–1943) Cochin (1892–1933) Dhar (1897–1898) Duttia (1893–1916) • • • • Jasdan (1942–1942) Jhalawar (1887–1887) Kishangarh (1899–1928) Las Bela (1897–1904) • • • Travancore (1888–1946) Travancore-Cochin (1949–1950) Wadhwan (1888–1889) 6 Both Faridkot and Jind. two annas and four annas to the Postage & Revenue stamps. Postage stamps were generally issued separately from the revenue stamps. The stamps issued in 1937 depicted various forms of mail transports. as a measure of economy the large pictorial stamps were immediately withdrawn and smaller stamps were issued. A new issue in 1941. except those from remote or "used abroad" offices. also showing buildings. as feudatory states. Edward VII . In 1919 a 1½ anna stamp was introduced. The first pictorial stamps appeared in 1931. but they continued to be used for revenue purposes. Generally. commemorated George V's Silver Jubilee in 1935. Even this did not ease the paper situation and it was thought desirable to reduce the size even more. The 1911 stamps of King George V were more florid in their design.
The Security Press continued to use typography for most stamps.000.S. This practice continued after independence. Nasik.. The possibility of printing postage stamps and other security items in India had been enquired into before the First World War but could not be pursued at that time. Lithography was now re-introduced and the first stamps printed with this technique were the first Air Mail series of 1929. The watermark was changed by the Press to multiple stars. then master of the Bombay Mint. typography and lithography being reserved for service labels only.Postage stamps and postal history of India 7 India Security Press From 1 January 1926 all printing and overprinting of India' postage stamps was conducted at India Security Press. the feasibility of this issue was explored in England by Lt Col C. Independent India . having been preceded by the first Gandhi series of 1948. The responsibility rupee stamp shows the Secretariat and Dominion of setting up the Press was entrusted to none other than the London Columns. which were now transferred to India. The one Government to establish a security press at Nashik.H. which were printed by Courvoisier of Geneva using the photogravure technique. The first stamps produced were the definitive series of George V. In 1922. Ascoti. The printing of stamps at Nasik began in 1925. reserving the lithographic process for the most important commemorative issues. Their favourable report. C.C. I. The first definitive series to be issued was the misnamed "Archaeological" series of 16 values. and Mr F. led to the decision of the New Delhi as the seat of government. followed by a successful demonstration of The 1931 series celebrated the inauguration of production techniques in Delhi in 1923.E. The one rupee stamp shows the Secretariat and Dominion Columns. printed using typography from the same plates used earlier in England by De La Rue.. The construction began in 1924 at an original estimate of Rs 27½ lakhs and was completed in 1925 with additional costs of Rs 67 and 1/400.D. photogravure has been used to produce all Indian stamps. Since then. The October 1952 series of six values on the theme of Saints and Poets was the first to be so produced. Willis. However. the top four values were produced by lithography and the remaining values by typography. The new technique of photogravure printing was installed in 1952. the next being the 1931 series commemorating the inauguration of New Delhi as the seat of government in 1931. Controller of Printing. these were not the first photogravure stamps of India. Stationery and Stamps. firm of Thomas De La Rue which already had a six-decade long association with Indian stamps.I.
each circle headed by a Chief Postmaster General. there is a special Base Circle to provide the postal services for the Armed Forces of India.000 and the United States 38. Buddhist. and a series with a broad variety of images in 1965. This proliferation of offices results from India's history of having many disparate postal systems. At the time of independence. Indian stamps reflect the country's old and rich cultural heritage. called Divisions. there were 23.23 sq.Postage stamps and postal history of India 8 The First Stamp of Independent India was issued on 21 November 1947. mostly neighbours. It has 25. and Ethiopia. which were primarily in urban areas. Nepal. . though three stamps issued between December 1962/January 1963 carried the earlier inscription. on the top right hand corner. depicting India's broad cultural heritage. It was valued at three and one-half annas. headed by a Postmaster General. the network has registered a sevenfold growth since Independence. As of 31 March 2011. Countries which have had stamps printed in India include Burma (before independence). Sikh and Jain temples. monuments and fortresses.402 ED BPOs. Jain temple complex near Palitana. operating as India Post. is a government-operated postal system. Gandhi. denominated in naye paisa (decimal currency). of which 139. On an average. a series all showing the map of India in 1957. With its far-flung reach and its presence in remote areas.866 post offices. Besides the 22 circles. It depicts the Indian Flag with the patriots' slogan. Postal Stores Depots and Mail Motor Service exist in various Circles and Regions. Muslim. India has been divided into 22 postal circles. Exactly one year later a definitive series appeared. 15 August 1949. A subsequent issue commemorated the inauguration of the Republic of India on 26 January 1950.040 (89.km and a population of 7.000 offices). A memorial to Mahatma Gandhi was issued 15 August 1948 on the first anniversary of Independence. with almost half a century seeing the Gandhi definitives of denominations most frequently used in the era concerned. the Indian Postal Service has 154. mostly Hindu. India is believed to have the most widely distributed system in the world (China has 57. Army Postal Service holding the rank of a Major General. released 15 August 1948 The Indian Postal Service today The Department of Posts.78%) are in rural areas and 15.826 (10.000. eventually unified in the Indian Union after Independence. The old inscription of "INDIA POSTAGE" was replaced in 1962 with "भारत INDIA". New themes are now finding their place on Indian postage stamps. becoming synonymous with a postage stamp to the Indian people of that respective time period. India has printed stamps and postal stationery for other countries. Bangladesh.114 people. Each Circle is further divided into Regions comprising field units. the Indian postal service provides many services such as small savings banking and financial services. with some stamps issued Satrunjaya. a post office serves an area of 21. Jai Hind (Long Live India).22%) are in urban areas. Thus. Portugal. Other functional units like Circle Stamp Depots. and further divided into units headed by SSPOs & SPOs and Sub Divisions headed by ASPs and IPS. The Base Circle is headed by an Additional Director General. sculptures.464 departmental POs and 129. simply referred to within India as "the post office". Definitives included a technology and development theme in 1955. Russia 41. The Rs 10 stamp showing Mahatma Gandhi.344 post offices. Nehru and other historic personalities continued to appear on the postal issues coming from the country since Independence. with the expansion primarily in rural areas. Bhutan.
Pratibha Printing Press. Indian Posts. org/ ficc/ details/ scinde_1. 2 (March 1965) pp. The museum was extensively renovated in 2009. I gathered together all the children in my locality and asked them to volunteer two or three hours' labour of a morning when they had no school. 1. 67. The Presentation Pack was released by Pratibha Patil.D.  R. shtml) . References and sources References         India Postage Stamps 1947–1988. Vol. India Post. The portal provides electronic money orders. uk/ PostalHistory/ overland. (http:/ / www. Sidebottom. Army Postal Service Historic & Philatelic Society. "Thomas Fletcher Waghorn (1800–1850)" Egypt Study Circle. the handspun cotton material that Gandhi Ji held out as the symbol of self-determination and self-reliance. org/ ficc/ details/ india_1.. Mahatma Gandhi. a philatelic bureau and other postal objects such as beautiful Victorian post boxes. Datta et al. The Post Office of India and its Story. 44 no. the World Philatelic Exhibition held in New Delhi.  In 1840 England had abandoned its first stamp designed for official use. (1920)  Saksena.  H. firstissues.M. 79–85. archive. An international philatelic exhibition was held from 12—18 February 2011. No. it has a large collection of Indian states. proofs and colour trials. it resembled the Penny Black. Philatelic Classics Society Chronicle. On 9 March 2011 India Post launched an online e-post office. html)  John K. 48. Souvenir sheet of the Independence series of stamps. 9 National Philatelic Museum But I hit upon a much simpler plan. firstissues. For the occasion of INDIPEX 2011 India Post brought out a special stamp on Gandhi Ji to commemorate the event. 134. India". 1948 Mohini Lal Mazumdar.S. printed and issued. Calcutta (1995). p. On line. shtml)  http:/ / web. Haverbeck. htm  Geoffrey Clarke.  The National Philatelic Museum of India was inaugurated on 6 July 1968 in New Delhi. I promised to bless them and give them. used postage stamps which I had collected. Encyclopedia of British Empire Postage Stamps.(1989) Philately branch. the local flora and fauna and even the special annual issues wishing season's greetings. 169 and 170 (February and May 1996). Oehme.  "India (East India Company)". Phila Publications. Ltd." The Collectors Club Philatelist v. renewable energy sources. p. London: G. 72. 28 Nov 1871. "The Sind District Dawk. Pg 29. Robson Lowe. on the centenary of India's first official air mail. It had its beginning at a meeting of the Philatelic Advisory Committee on 18 September 1962. U. Calcutta. Whole Nos. Besides the large collection of India Postage stamps designed. First Issues Collectors Club (http:/ / www.Postage stamps and postal history of India jointly with postal agencies of other countries. The Imperial Post Offices of British India. RDDHI-India.3. PIN code search and registration of feedback and complaints online. both confederate and feudatory. India. postal stationery and thematic collections.S. early essays. (2009). p.S. Mohini Lal Majumdar. instant money orders. the capital of India. (1951). a collection of Indian stamps "used abroad" and as well as early Indian postcards. Allen and Unwin (1948) ISBN 1-135-39399-0  "Scinde. except for the letters V R in the upper corners. It is printed on "khadi". v. egyptstudycircle. as a reward. . Retrieved 25 September. org. the President of India on Saturday 12 February 2011 at INDIPEX 2011. org/ web/ 20120419154035/ http:/ / imagesoftheworld. Rangoon was wrecked upon leaving Galle Harbor 1 November 1871. ISBN 81-85292-07-8 E. III London. The Overland Mail: A Postal Historical Study of the Mail Route to India. Vishnu S. India Study Circle. Department of Posts. postal information. stamps for collectors. It now includes more exhibits. p. First Issues Collectors Club (Retrieved 25 September 2006) (http:/ / www. Nos. This they willingly agreed to do. Rajkot 1896. Rare stamps of the World. "The Design Evolution of the United States Official Stamps". New Delhi (1989). 86  Alan C. Campbell. org/ stamps/ wyon. (1990) p. Robson Lowe. Notes for the Indian Stamp Collector. Tasmania. The Mercury. Hobart. Early History and Growth of Postal System in India. G. 1 and 2. tracking of express and international shipments.
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indiapicks.html) • Welcome to the World of Indian Philately (http://www. blogspot.net) • Stampsathi.com/sikh-stamps/) .shtml) • Early India Cancellations.stampsathi. princelystates. "Survey of Post Independence Indian Postal History" (http://modernindianphilately.htm) • Gallery of Indian Postage Stamps (http://indianpostagestamps.in Complete listing of India stamps (http://www.indianphilately.in) • Gallery of Indian Stamps (http://www. 1873–1884 : Jal Cooper Types 32 – 35 (http://www.com/2011_11_01_archive.surinder-singh.Postage stamps and postal history of India 11 External links • Ashok K.com) • Modern Indian States postage stamp forgeries: an illustrated checklist by David Heppell.com/CurrentIssue/ff-04-01a.com/stamps/Gallery/H/G1947.php) • Sikh Thematic Philately : Indian & Worldwide Stamps on Sikhs (http://www.com/ cancellations-philately.singhsahib. Bayanwala. (http://www.
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