Form 2 Science

Chapter 5

FORM 2 CHAPTER 5
WATER AND SOLUTION

1. Diagram 1 shows the apparatus used in the electrolysis of water.
Test tube P

Test tube Q

Water + Substance Z
Carbon rod Y

Carbon rod X

Diagram 1

(a) Suggest one example of substance Z.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark]

(b) Which of the two carbon rods function as the negative electrode?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(c) When the circuit is switched on, some gas is collected in each test tube.
(i) What is the gas collected in test tube P?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark]
(ii) Suggest one way to identify the gas collected in test tube P.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]

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Form 2 Science
Chapter 5

(iii)

What is the gas collected in test tube Q?
……………………………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark]

(iv) Suggest a way to identify the gas collected in test tube Q .
………………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(d) State the expected ratio of the volume of the gas collected in test tube Q to the volume
of the gas collected in test tube P.
……………………. ………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark]

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Form 2 Science
Chapter 5

2. Diagram 2 shows an activity conducted to determine the freezing point and the boiling point
of water.

Diagram 2
(a) Why is salt added to the ice cubes in A?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(b) What is the function of the glass tube in B?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(c) State the temperature of water in A when it begins to freeze.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(d) State the temperature of water in B when it begins to boil.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(e) What is the change in the state of matter when water
(i) freezes:

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Form 2 Science
Chapter 5

(ii) boils: ……………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
(f) What happens to the motion of water molecules when water
(i) freezes: …………………………………………………………………………………………
(ii) boils:………….…………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]

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Form 2 Science
Chapter 5

3. Diagram 3 shows an experiment to study the effect of humidity on evaporation.

Diagram 3
(a) State the variables in the experiment.

(i)

Manipulated variable: …………………………………………………………………
……..

(ii) Responding variable: ……………………………………………………………………….
(iii) Constant variable: ……………………………………………………………………………
[3 marks]
(b) What is the function of the anhydrous calcium chloride?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(c) Name another chemical substance that can be used to replace the anhydrous
calcium chloride.
………………………….………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark]
(d) Why is the beaker containing water placed in the bell jar P?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
(e) What would be observed in bell jar P and bell jar Q after one hour? Why?
………………………………………………………………………………………………………

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Form 2 Science
Chapter 5

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]

(f) State two other factors that influence the rate of evaporation.
(i) ………………………………………………………………………………………………....
(ii) …………………………………………………………………………………………………..
[2 marks]

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Form 2 Science
Chapter 5

4. Diagram 4.1 shows pictures of substances P, Q, R and S.
Table 4.2 shows the pH of the substances P, Q, R and S when tested with universal
indicator
Q

P

Milk of magnesia

Orange

R

S

Toothpaste

Vinegar
Diagram 4.1

Substance

P

Q

R

S

pH

9

3

8

2

Table 4.2
(a) Based on your observation on Diagram 4.1 and Table 4.2 state one property of
substances P, Q, R and S .
P: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Q: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..
R: …………………………………………………………………………………………………..
S: …………………………………………………………………………..…………………….
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Form 2 Science
Chapter 5

[4 marks]

(b)

Classify the substances P, Q, R and S into two groups based on their common
properties.
Write the names of the substances belonging to each group
P, Q, R, and S

Common
property

Names of
substances

[4 marks]

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Form 2 Science
Chapter 5

5. Diagram 5.1 shows the reaction between dilute hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide.

Dilute hydrochloric acid

Sodium hydroxide solution +
universal indicator
Diagram 5.1
The results of the activity are recorded in Table 5.2
Change in colour of
universal indicator
pH value

Initial
Purple
9

Final
M
7

Table 5.2
(a)(i) State the colour of M.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark]
(ii) Name the process that causes this change in colour.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark]
(iii) Complete the word equation that shows the reaction.
Hydrochloric acid

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Sodium hydroxide

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Form 2 Science
Chapter 5

[2 marks]

(b) Diagram 5.2 shows several substances with different pH values.

0

1

2

lemon

3

4

5

apple

6

7

8

tomato

10

9

11

toothpaste

12

13

14

soap

Milk of magnesia

Diagram 5.2

(i) Based on Diagram 5.2, complete the table below by giving one example for each
group of substances.
Acidic

Alkaline

[2 marks]
(ii) What is the pH value of distilled water?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark]
(iii) Why do we use toothpaste to brush our teeth?
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
[1 mark]

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