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Ariel Chen Qualitative Analysis of Cations Lab Report Known Solution Results Conclusion White ppt Ag+, Pb2+,

forms. Other and/or ions present Hg22+ in solution in present TT2 Unknown Solution (#1) Results Conclusion White ppt forms. Other ions present in solution in TT2 Ag+, Pb2+, and/or Hg22+ present

Step

Procedure Add HCl to known solution in TT1. Centrifuge. Pour colored solution into TT2. Add 2 ml of distilled water to the precipitate and place the test tube in a boiling water bath for three minutes. Stir. Centrifuge for a few seconds. Pour the supernatant liquid into another test tube. Immediately add two drops of K2CrO4 to the liquid. Add one ml of NH3 to the white precipitate from Step 2. Stir. Black residue. Centrifuge, then decant the solution into another test tube and discard the black residue. Add HNO3 to the solution from Step 3 until the solution is acid or a permanent white precipitate is formed. Neutralize the solution from procedure 1 (TT2) by adding NH3 solution until the solution is basic. Check with litmus paper after stirring thoroughly. Add one ml in excess. Add one ml of NH4Cl. Colored ppt. Centrifuge and separate the solution into another test tube. Set the solution aside for Procedure 10. Treat the precipitate by Procedure 6. Dissolve the precipitate from Procedure 5 by adding 6-M HC1 dropwise. Stir aer each addition. Make basic to litmus with 6-M NaOH. Stir. Then add 1-2 ml in excess. Precipitates. Centrifuge and separate the solution into another test tube. Set the solution aside for Procedure 8. Treat the precipitate by Procedure 7. Dissolve the precipitate from Procedure 6 by adding dilute 6-M HC1 dropwise. Stir. Add three drops

Yellow precipitate

Pb2+ present

Yellow precipitate

Pb2+ present

Hg22+ Black residue present

No white ppt from Step 2

Hg22+ and Ag+ both absent

White precipitate

Ag+ present

Colored ppt

Fe3+ and/or Al3+ present

Colored ppt

Fe3+ and/or Al3+ present

Precipitate forms

Precipitate: Fe(OH)3

Precipitate forms

Precipitate: Fe(OH)3

Deep red color: Fe(SCN)2+

Fe3+ present

Deep red color: Fe3+ present 2+ Fe(SCN)

Ariel Chen Qualitative Analysis of Cations Lab Report of 0.1-M KSCN solution. Acidify the solution from Procedure 6 by adding dilute HC1 dropwise. Stir after each addition and check with litmus. Add drops of NH4Cl and make basic by adding NH3 solution. White/gray ppt. Centrifuge and separate the solution. Discard the solution and treat the precipitate by Procedure 9. Dissolve the precipitate from Procedure 8 by adding dilute 6-M HCl dropwise. Stir. Add one ml of the aluminon test reagent. Add 6-M NH3 solution until the solution is just basic. Stir. Check with litmus. Warm the solution in a water bath. Add 10 to l5 drops of dimethylglyoxime to the solution from Procedure 5. Warm in a water bath.

White/gray ppt

Al(OH)3

White/gray ppt

Al(OH)3

Red ppt (lake)

Al3+ present

Red ppt (lake)

Al3+ present

10

Red ppt

Ni+ present

No ppt

Ni+ absent

Unknown Solution #1 Ions present: Al3+, Fe3+, Pb2+ Ions absent: Ag+ , Hg22+ , Ni+ Discussion
1. Cl- is the precipitating reagent for the silver group. A solution of NaCl would also work as well, because it provides the chloride ion in solution. 2. Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) AgCl(aq) + 2NH3(aq) Ag(NH3)2(aq) + Cl-(aq) Ag(NH3)2+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + 2H+(aq) AgCl(s) + 2NH4+(aq) 3. Hg + e Hg Hg Hg + e 4. AgCl(s) Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) AgCl(s) + 2 NH3(aq) Ag(NH3)2+(aq) + Cl-(aq) 5. Fe3+(aq) + 3NH3(aq) + 3H2O --> Fe(OH)3(s) + 3NH4+(aq) Fe3+ (aq) + 6NH3(aq) Fe(NH3)63+(aq) 6. Al(OH)3 (s) + OH- (aq) ---- > Al(OH)4- (aq) Al(OH)3 + 3H2O + 3H+ ---> [Al(H2O)6]3+