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Dear Lord who should be fired?

Dear Lord who should be fired?

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Published by Frank Gallagher
Bless em All
Bless em All

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Published by: Frank Gallagher on Oct 24, 2013
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Dear Lord who should be fired?

Bless em All All’s fair in FEE free enterprise enslavement Free 4 all piggy banks ive us your money and for a hamburger today pay ba!k by doomsday "! #ig "usi!al $hairs #uppets in glomming %hy &ingdom $ome #uppets in overnan!e "edia Elusives

#' "E
%he re(uest for od)s kingdom to !ome is usually interpreted as a referen!e to the belief* !ommon at the time* that a "essiah figure would bring about a &ingdom of od+ %raditionally the !oming of od)s &ingdom is seen as a divine gift to be prayed for*

not a human achievement.
%his idea is fre(uently !hallenged by groups who believe that the &ingdom will !ome by the hands of those faithful to work for a better world+ 't is believed by these individuals that ,esus) !ommands to feed the hungry and !lothe the needy are the &ingdom to whi!h he was referring+

#' "E-.
#uppets in overnan!e "edia Elusives -pposition .eb http/00www+s!ribd+!om0do!01422334540Bar6to6Bar6,usti!e6$auses6E!!entri!6to67addle6 8p6to6the6Bar A##7 #7 All #ay #ri!e 7ystemi!ally #yramid 7!heme #oliti!al 9eligious 'mperialist $apitalist Emperors #9'$E #oliti!al 9eligious 'mpli!it $ompli!it E:pli!it Like other finan!ial empires in history* 7mith !laims the !ontemporary model forms allian!es ne!essary to develop and !ontrol wealth* as peripheral nations remain impoverished providers of !heap resour!es for the imperial6 !enters6of6!apital+;1< Bello! estimated that* during the British En!losures* =perhaps half of the whole population was proletarian=* while roughly the other =half= owned and !ontrolled the means of produ!tion+ >ow* under modern $apitalism* ,+.+ 7mith !laims fewer than 2?? people possess more wealth than half of the earth’s population* as the wealth of 10@ of 16per!ent of the 8nited 7tates population roughly e(ual that of the lower A?6per!ent+ http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?vBkC5&1#$DEE?Ffeature Banked into submission


7piritual Elite E!stati!ism

.here’s the beef? say them for a hamburger today beefing with min!ed meat brains


&ill @ birds with 1 7toned 7ave Eumanity http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h? annotationCidBannotationC125@1AFfeatureBivFsr!CvidBs8254f4bnF"FvB1".1G"(B FDH Depopulate to 1 Billion


http/00www+s!ribd+!om0do!014@?2@5510Dear6Lord6.hi!h6Life6Forms6Belief6is6the6 reater67an!timonious %oro’s -le %itani! -lympi! 9ead -smosis 7ubterfuge -!!upied Learned Epiphany www+Amen15+!om

Eumans fed up to Eere with bull o bullish

Learning bulls are !olor blind* but a falla!y they don’t see red begin to see red Hou are what you eat dont!ha know? ie 9E# to 9'# http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?>9B1FfeatureBends!reenFvBI2LC:J9EE4s E%$ Empire %he $ity Kati!an* London* D$ A"E> 7atani! od #9 #uppet 9oths!hild’s "agi! $arpet 9ide


9ogue Eminen!e #rofiteers 9E# Kati!an #ope

' before E

9'# 9ug 'mminently #ulled

' before E(uality e:perien!es the gravity of '% all ' B4 E After see 7EE


Dear Lord who should be fired? Bless em All


%he Lord works in mysterious waysLLL http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki0-le http/00en+wikipedia+org0w0inde:+php?sear!hBtoreadorMoleFbuttonBFtitleB7pe!ial N5A7ear!h http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki0,+C.ellingtonC.impy ,+ .ellington .impy* generally referred to as .impy*;1< is one of the !hara!ters in the long6running !omi! strip #opeye* !reated by E+ $+ 7egar and originally !alled %himble %heatre* and in the #opeye !artoons based upon the strip+ .impy was one of the dominant !hara!ters in the newspaper strip* but when #opeye was adapted as an animated !artoon series by Fleis!her 7tudios* .impy be!ame a minor !hara!terO Dave Fleis!her said that the !hara!ter in the 7egar strip was

=too intelle!tual=
to be used in film !artoons+ .impy did appear in 9obert Altman)s 1A3? live6a!tion musi!al film #opeye* played by veteran !hara!ter a!tor #aul Dooley+ http/00www+youtube+!om0results? sear!hC(ueryBilluminatiMhollywoodMo!!ultFo(BilluminatiMFgsClByoutube+1+?+52i5AG?l A+5@?1+4@4A+?+1@@14+11+11+?+?+?+?+12A+1?@?+AG@+11+?+++?+?+++1a!+1+11+youtube+6 P-o' f,IBk


#erpetual A!!umulating Debt Debunked Lu!id Elusivity A61 !ompounded 8p the !reek without a #ADDLE Gust forked tongues $ir!ular logisti!s gotta split the tines one on ea!h side in syn! make land before downfall -&? http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?vBm8GBLLQH# g #erpetual Debt/ Bank of $anada and why we should use it http/00www+youtube+!om0results? sear!hC(ueryB$anadianMdebtMslaveryFo(B$anadianMdebtMslaveryFgsClByoutube+1@+++1 52?+1@444+?+131A3+@1+13+?+5+5+?+144+143?+1@GJ+13+?+++?+?+++1a!+1+11+youtube+4EoG'evd% D8 7anity a popular Belief of artifi!ial truths 7ap Boat www+!dfGi15+mobi $an you make bail? 9oman Egalitarianism >eutering -rientation 9E>Ha pays your bu!ks Lots of Lu!k L-L Letter of Law Egalitarianism 7o!ial e(uality* e(uality* !lasslessness* !onsensus



-n 4 -!tober 1A45* Eimmler referred e:pli!itly to the e:termination of the ,ewish people during a se!ret 77 meeting in the !ity of #oQnaR S#osenT+ %he following is a translation of an e:!erpt from a trans!ription of an audio re!ording ;44< that e:ists of the spee!h/ ' also want to refer here very frankly to a very diffi!ult matter+ .e !an now very openly talk about this among ourselves* and yet we will never dis!uss this publi!ly+ ,ust as we did not hesitate on 5? ,une 1A54* to perform our duty as ordered and put !omrades who had failed up against the wall and e:e!ute them* we also never spoke about it* nor will we ever speak about it+

Let us thank God
that we had within us enough self6evident fortitude never to dis!uss it among us* and we never talked about it+ Every one of us was horrified* and yet every one !learly understood that we would do it ne:t time* when the order is given and when it be!omes ne!essary+ ' am now referring to the eva!uation of the ,ews* to the e:termination of the ,ewish #eople+ %his is something that is easily said/ )%he ,ewish #eople will be e:terminated)* says every #arty member* )this is very obvious* it is in our program U elimination of the ,ews* e:termination* a small matter+) And then they turn up* the upstanding 3? million ermans* and ea!h one has his de!ent ,ew+ %hey say the others are all swine* but this parti!ular one is a splendid ,ew+ But none has observed it* endured it+ "ost of you here know what it means when 1?? !orpses lie ne:t to ea!h other* when there are 2?? or when there are 1*???+ %o have endured this and at the same time to have remained a de!ent person U with e:!eptions due to human weaknesses U has made us tough* and is a glorious !hapter that has not and will not be spoken of+ Be!ause we know how diffi!ult it would be for us if we still had ,ews as se!ret saboteurs* agitators and rabble rousers in A

every !ity* what with the bombings* with the burden and with the hardships of the war+ 'f the ,ews were still part of the erman nation* we would most likely arrive now at the state we were at in 1A1J and )14 + + + + UEeinri!h Eimmler* 4 -!tober 1A45



7pirit invisible glad hand 7igh #oliti!al 7!ien!e #7 De ,ure De fa!to

http/00www+s!ribd+!om0do!011533@A4407pirit6'ntent6#re!eden!e6de6,ure6$onstitution6or6 9omans6156 aming6the67ystem6de6Fa!to www+-,task+!om -bstru!t ,usti!e truth and sour!e kill http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki0E!onomi!Cdemo!ra!y

E!onomi! demo!ra!y From .ikipedia* the free en!y!lopedia ,ump to/ navigation* sear!h E!onomi! demo!ra!y is a so!ioe!onomi! philosophy that suggests a shift in de!ision6 making power from a small minority of !orporate shareholders to a larger maGority of publi! stakeholders+ %here is no single definition or approa!h for e!onomi! demo!ra!y* but most theories and real6world e:amples !hallenge the demonstrated tenden!ies of modern property relations to e:ternaliQe !osts* subordinate the general well6being to private profit* and deny

the populace majority a democratic

voice in e!onomi! poli!y de!isions+;1<
$lassi!al liberals argue that the power to dispose of the means of produ!tion belongs to entrepreneurs and capitalists, and !an only be a!(uired by means of the !onsumers) ballot* held daily in the marketpla!e+;@< =%he !apitalisti! so!ial order=* they !laim* therefore* =is an e!onomi! demo!ra!y in the stri!test sense of the word+=;5< $riti!s of this !laim point out that !onsumers only vote on the value of the produ!t when they make a pur!haseO they are not voting on who should own the means of produ!tion* who !an keep its profits or the resulting in!ome 11

redistribution+ #roponents of e!onomi! demo!ra!y generally agree* therefore* that modern !apitalism tends to hinder or prevent so!iety from earning enough in!ome to pur!hase its output produ!tion+ $entraliQed !orporate monopoly of !ommon resour!es typi!ally for!es !onditions of artifi!ial s!ar!ity upon the greater maGority* resulting in so!io6e!onomi! imbalan!es that restri!t workers from a!!ess to e!onomi! opportunity and diminish !onsumer pur!hasing power+;4<;2< As either a !omponent of larger so!ioe!onomi! ideologies or as a stand6alone theory* some theories of e!onomi! demo!ra!y promote universal a!!ess to =!ommon resour!es= that are typi!ally privatiQed by !orporate !apitalism or !entraliQed by state so!ialism+ Assuming full politi!al rights !annot be won without full e!onomi! rights*;1< e!onomi! demo!ra!y suggests alternative models and reform agendas for solving problems of e!onomi! instability and defi!ien!y of effe!tive demand+ As an alternative model* both market and non6market theories of e!onomi! demo!ra!y have been proposed+ As a reform agenda* supporting theories and real6world e:amples range from de!entraliQation and e!onomi! liberaliQation to demo!rati! !ooperatives* fair trade* and the regionaliQation of food produ!tion and !urren!y+ ;edit< Defi!ien!y of effe!tive demand =.orkers spending their wages is one sour!e of effe!tive demand=* !laims geographer* David Earvey+ =But the total wage bill is always less than the total !apital in !ir!ulation Sotherwise there would be no profitT* so the pur!hase of wage goods that sustain daily life Seven with a suburban lifestyleT is never suffi!ient for the profitable sale of the total output+= ;J< A!!ording to many proponents of e!onomi! demo!ra!y* the most fundamental economic problem is that modern so!iety does not earn enough in!ome to pur!hase its output produ!tion+ .hile balan!ed mi:ed e!onomies have e:isted briefly throughout history* some analysts agree that !ommand e!onomies tend to dominate* listing !ontemporary e:pressions of state !apitalism as an e:treme e:ample* not an e:!eption to the rule+ As !ommon resour!es are monopoliQed by imperial !enters of wealth and power* conditions of scarcity are imposed artificially upon the greater maGority* resulting in large6s!ale so!io6e!onomi! imbalan!e+;2< 'n any e!onomi! system* =wealth= in!ludes all material things produ!ed by labor for the satisfa!tion of human desires and having e:!hange value+ Land and labor are generally !onsidered the two most essential fa!tors in produ!ing wealth+ Land in!ludes all natural opportunities and for!es+ Labor in!ludes all human e:ertion+ $apital in!ludes the portion of wealth devoted to produ!ing more wealth+ .hile the in!ome of any individual might in!lude pro!eeds from any !ombination of these three sour!esUland* labor* and !apital are generally !onsidered mutually e:!lusive fa!tors in e!onomi! models of the produ!tion and distribution of wealth+ A!!ording to Eenry eorge* =#eople seek to satisfy their desires with the least e:ertion=+ ;4< Euman beings intera!t with nature to produ!e goods and servi!es Sprodu!tsT that other human beings need or desire+ %he laws and !ustoms that govern the relationships among these entities !onstitute the e!onomi! stru!ture of a given so!iety+ 1@

'n his book* After $apitalism* David 7!hwei!kart suggests* =%he stru!ture of a !apitalist so!iety !onsists of three basi! !omponents/ %he bulk of the means of produ!tion are privately owned* either dire!tly or by !orporations that are themselves owned by private individuals+ #rodu!ts are e:!hanged in a =market=O that is to say* goods and servi!es are bought and sold at pri!es determined for the most part by !ompetition and not by some governmental pri!ing authority+ 'ndividual enterprises !ompete with one another in providing goods and servi!es to !onsumers* ea!h enterprise trying to make a profit+ %his !ompetition is the primary determinant of pri!es+ "ost of the people who work for pay in this so!iety work for other people* who own the means of produ!tion+ "ost working people are =wage labourers+=;4< .hile supply and demand are generally a!!epted as market fun!tions for establishing pri!e* the present finan!ial pri!e system is not self6li(uidating+;3< $orporate firms typi!ally endeavor to 1T minimiQe the !ost of produ!tion and @T in!rease sales* in order to 5T ma:imiQe shareholder value+ But when !onsumers !annot buy all the goods being produ!ed* =investor !onfiden!e= tends to de!line* triggering de!lines in both produ!tion and employment+ A!!ording to many analysts* su!h e!onomi! instability stems from a !entral !ontradi!tion/ .ages are both a !ost of produ!tion and an essential sour!e of effe!tive demand Sneeds or desires ba!ked with pur!hasing powerT+ "oreover* =those who produ!e the goods and servi!es of so!iety are

paid less

than their productive contribution"+;4<
;edit< 7avings* investment* and unemployment 'n his 134A book #rogress and #overty* Eenry eorge argued that a maGority of wealth !reated in a =free market= e!onomy is appropriated by land owners and monopolists through e!onomi! rents* and that !on!entration of su!h unearned wealth is the root !ause of poverty+;4< =Behind the abstra!tion known as )the market) lurks a set of institutions designed to ma:imiQe the wealth and power of the most privileged group of people in the world 66 the !reditor6rentier !lass of the first world and their Gunior partners in the third=+ ;A< A!!ording to some modern analysts* private savings are not only unne!essary for e!onomi! growth* but they are often harmful to the overall e!onomy+;4< 'n an advan!ed industrial so!iety* business !redit is ne!essary for a healthy e!onomy+ A business that wants to e:pand produ!tion needs to !ommand the labor of others* and money is an effe!tive me!hanism for e:er!ising this authority+;4< 't is often !heaper for a business to borrow !apital from a bank than to sto!kpile !ash itself+ %his was the purpose of the state banking system in the 8+7+ prior to the $ivil .ar+ For an industrial firm in an age of !ontinued te!hnologi!al innovation* a !onsiderable amount of earnings must be retained in order to invest in future improvements+;1?< 'f private savings are loaned out to 15

entrepreneurs who use them to buy raw materials and hire workers* then aggregate demand is not redu!ed+;4< Eowever* when private savings are not reinvested* the whole e!onomy suffers re!ession* unemployment* and the eventual disappearan!e of e:!ess savings+;4< By assuming that produ!ers immediately spend the money they re!eive as the pri!e for goods and servi!es* 7ay)s Law overlooks the key fa!t of retained earnings+ Even if the retained earnings are deposited in a bank they will not ne!essarily result in new spending+ For a variety of reasons* most notably the ne!essity of retained earnings and the in!lusion in pri!es of the !osts of borrowing* suffi!ient in!ome is never returned to the produ!ing e!onomy in order for people to pur!hase what !an be manufa!tured+;1?< 'n this view* unemployment is not an aberration of !apitalism* indi!ating any sort of systemi! malfun!tion+ 9ather* unemployment is a ne!essary stru!tural feature of !apitalism* intended to dis!ipline the workfor!e+ 'f unemployment is too low* workers make wage demands that either !uts into profits to an e:tent that GeopardiQe future investment* or are passed on to !onsumers* thus generating inflationary instability+ David 7!hwei!kart suggests* =$apitalism !annot be a full6employment e!onomy* e:!ept in the very short term+ For unemployment is the

=invisible hand=
66 !arrying a sti!k 66 that keeps the workfor!e in line+=;4< 'n this view* Adam 7mith)s =invisible hand= does not seem reliable to guide e!onomi! for!es on a large s!ale+;1< Assuming business !redit !ould !ome from publi! sour!es rather than from the a!!umulations of private savers* some analysts !onsider interest payments to private savers both undeserved and unne!essary for e!onomi! growth+ "oreover* the personal de!ision to save rather than !onsume de!reases aggregate demand* in!reases the likelihood of unemployment* and e:a!erbates the tenden!y toward e!onomi! stagnation+ 7in!e wealthy people tend to save more than poor people* the propensity of an e!onomy to slump be!ause of e:!ess saving be!omes ever more a!ute as a so!iety be!omes more affluent+;4< %he resear!h of 9i!hard .ilkinson and &ate #i!kett suggests that health and so!ial problems are signifi!antly worse in more une(ual wealthy nations+;11< %hey argue that there are "pernicious effects that ine(uality has on so!ieties/ eroding trust* in!reasing an:iety and illness* SandT en!ouraging e:!essive !onsumption= ;1@< ;edit< "onopoly power versus pur!hasing power %he dis!ipline of e!onomi!s is largely a study of s!ar!ity management+ =Absent s!ar!ity and alternative uses of available resour!es* there is no e!onomi! problem=+;15< 'n this regard* many theories of E!onomi! Demo!ra!y hold that !onditions of s!ar!ity are artifi!ially maintained by !orporate stru!tures that !onfine abundan!e to an e:!lusively entitled minority+ 'n this view* so!io6e!onomi! imbalan!e stems not from a failure to manage limited resour!es in a world of s!ar!ity* but from mismanagement of virtually


unlimited abundan!e and prosperity+;2< 'n his book Labor and -ther $apital S134AT* Ameri!an businessman* Edward &ellogg S14A?V1323T* said that/

"Money power is not only the most governing and influential* but it is also the

most unjust and deceitful of all earthly powers. 't entails
upon millions e:!essive toil* poverty and want* while it keeps them ignorant of the !ause of their sufferingsO for* with their ta!it !onsent* it silently transfers a large share of their earnings into the hands of others* who have never lifted a finger to perform

any productive labor.=;14<
.hile he !onsiders these fun!tions a publi! wrong* &ellogg also asserts it is the responsibility of the publi! to find and implement a remedy+ enerally !onsidered monopoly power* this =publi! wrong= is viewed by many as the most influential fa!tor in artifi!ial s!ar!ity+ 'n this regard* Eenry eorge further suggests/ =%here is in reality no !onfli!t between labor and !apitalO the true !onfli!t is between labor and monopoly+++ Abolish the monopoly that forbids men to employ themselves and !apital !ould not possibly oppress labor+++ ;9<emove the !ause of that inGusti!e whi!h deprives the laborer of the !apital his toil !reates and the sharp distin!tion between !apitalist and laborer would* in fa!t* !ease to e:ist=+;12< .hile some !onsider land to be the primary sour!e of wealth* others propose the labor theory of value Sfirst introdu!ed by ,ohn Lo!ke* developed by Adam 7mith and later &arl "ar:T* arguing that labor is the fundamental sour!e of value+ 'n these terms* =money is first* and foremost* a !ontra!t against another person’s labor+ E:!ept for wealth produ!ed by nature* value is properly a measure of the time and (uality of all produ!tive labor spent produ!ing a produ!t or servi!e+ 'f the differen!e between the payment re!eived for produ!tive labor and the pri!e paid by the !onsumer for a produ!t or servi!e is greater than fair value for e:pediting that trade* either the produ!er was underpaid* the final !onsumer was over!harged* or both+ .hen intermediaries underpay produ!ers or over!harge !onsumers* they are siphoning away the production of the labors of one or the other* or both+=;1<;1J< For e:ample* many analysts !onsider invention a =more or less !ostless store of knowledge* !aptured by monopoly !apital and prote!ted in order to make it se!ret and a )rare and s!ar!e !ommodity)* for sale at monopoly pri!es+ 7o far as invention is !on!erned* a pri!e is put on them not be!ause they are s!ar!e but in order to make them s!ar!e to those who want to use them+=;14<;13<;1A< #atent monopolies !apitaliQe sto!k values far above tangible labor value+ %he differen!e between labor6value and monopoly6 value is transferred to !onsumers in the form of higher prices, and !olle!ted as =profit= by

intermediaries who have contributed nothing to

earn it.;1A<

8nder su!h !onditions* analysts generally agree that so!iety does not !urrently earn enough to buy what the e!onomy produ!es+ %he differen!e between earnings

and prices is typically appropriated by industrial and banking centers of capital through monopoly !ontrol
of finan!e and other market resour!es+ 7u!h e:!lusive entitlement tends to artifi!ially impose !onditions of e!onomi! s!ar!ity upon the maGority of the population+;2< .hile the a!!elerating advan!e of te!hnology* developed and maintained by labor* tends to generate a virtually unlimited abundan!e* this pro!ess also drives wages down as workers are repla!ed by ma!hines* ironi!ally minimiQing the pur!hasing power of workers in the market+;@?< 'n ,une @??J* investment bank* oldman 7a!hs* reported/ =%he most important !ontribution to the higher profit margins over the past five years has been

a decline in Labor's share of national income."

;edit< En!losure of the !ommons %he term =land= typi!ally denotes the =universe of natural opportunities= or =publi! utilities=* generally known as the !ommons+ Artifi!ially restri!ted a!!ess of labor to !ommon resour!es is generally !onsidered monopoly or en!losure of the !ommons+ Due to the e!onomi! imbalan!e inherently imposed* su!h monopoly stru!tures tend to be !entrally di!tated by imperial law* and must be maintained by military for!e* une(ual trade agreements* or both+;4< 'n 1A11* Ameri!an Gournalist Ambrose Bier!e defined =land= as/ =A part of the earth)s surfa!e* !onsidered as property+ %he theory that land is property subGe!t to private ownership and !ontrol is the foundation of modern so!iety++++ $arried to its logi!al !on!lusion* it means that some have the right to prevent others from livingO for the right to own implies the right e:!lusively to o!!upyO and in fa!t laws of trespass are ena!ted wherever property in land is re!ogniQed+ 't follows that if the whole area of terra firma is owned by A* B and $* there will be no pla!e for D* E* F and to be born* or* born as trespassers* to e:ist=+;@1< 'n %he 7ervile 7tate S1A1@T* Eilaire Bello! referred to the En!losures "ovement when he said* "

ngland was already captured by a wealthy oligarchy before the series of great industrial discoveries began"+ 'f you sought the a!!umulated wealth preliminary to
laun!hing new industry* =you had to turn to the !lass whi!h had already monopoliQed the bulk of the means of produ!tion in England+ %he ri!h men alone !ould furnish you with those supplies=+ .hen Adam 7mith wrote %he .ealth of >ations in 144J* the dominant form of business was partnership* in whi!h regional groups of !o6workers ran !o6owned businesses+ From this perspe!tive* many !onsidered the !orporate model V sto!k sold to strangersU inherently prone to fraud. 1J

.hile numerous s!andals histori!ally support this dim view of !orporate poli!y* small

partnerships !ould not possibly compete with the aggregate !apital
generated by !orporate e!onomies of s!ale+ A!!ording to #eter Barnes* author of $apitalism 5+?* the greatest advantage of !orporations over any other business model is their ability to raise !apital from strangers+ 'n this regard* !orporations are aided by laws that limit sto!kholders’ liability to the amounts they have invested+;@@< 'n A #refa!e %o E!onomi! Demo!ra!y* 9obert A+ Dahl suggests that agrarian e!onomy and so!iety in the early 8nited 7tates =underwent a revolutionary transformation into a new system of !ommer!ial and industrial !apitalism that automati!ally generated vast ine(ualities of wealth* in!ome* status* and power+= Dahl !laims that su!h ine(ualities result from the =liberty to a!!umulate unlimited e!onomi! resour!es and to organiQe e!onomi! a!tivity into hierar!hi!ally governed enterprises+= ;@5< ;edit< %he rise of !orporations %he !on!ept of the !orporation rea!hes ba!k to 9oman times+ Eowever* a!!ording to author reg "a!Leod* =the modern business !orporation evolved radi!ally from its an!ient roots into a form with little relation to the purpose as understood by historians of law+= ,ohn Davis* a legal historian* notes that the pre!ursor of the business !orporation was the first monastery established in the si:th !entury* the purpose of whi!h was to serve so!iety+ "ost business !orporations before 1A?? developed in Britain* where they were established by royal !harter* with the e:pe!tation of a !ontribution to so!iety+ 'n!orporation was a privilege granted in return for servi!e to the !rown or the nation+ "a!Leod goes on to say/

=A !orporation is !onsidered by the law to e:ist as a legal person+

http/00www+s!ribd+!om0do!014A@34A140$onstitution6Fa!ade6Fake6Demo!ra!y 'n the "iddle Ages it was !alled a Wpersona fi!taX+ %his is a very useful way of looking at a business !orporation* be!ause it suggests !orre!tly that the !orporate person has a 14

!ertain personality+ 't has duties and responsibilities vested unto it by the legitimate government or so!iety that fostered it+

!he corporate person receives great benefits from society V and* in return* it must e:er!ise great responsibilities+ -ne of the most basi!
responsibilities is Gob !reation* a fundamental need in any so!iety+= ;@4< By the mid6nineteenth !entury* however* !orporations !ould live forever* engage in any legal a!tivity* and merge with or a!(uire other !orporations+ 'n 133J* the 8+7+ 7upreme $ourt legally re!ogniQed !orporations as WpersonsX* entitled under the Fourteenth Amendment to the same prote!tions as living !itiQens+ 8nlike average !itiQens* !orporations also have large flows of money at their disposal+ .ith this money they hire lobbyists* donate !opiously to politi!ians* and sway publi! opinion+ But* despite 7upreme $ourt ruling* the

modern corporation is not a

real person. 9ather* the publi!ly traded sto!k !orporation is what Barnes terms an
=automaton=* e"plicitly designed to ma"imi#e return to an elite minority of sto!k owners+ A !orporation never sleeps or slows down+ 't e:ternaliQes as many !osts as possible* and never rea!hes an upper limit of profitability* be!ause no su!h limit has yet been established+ As a result* !orporations keep getting larger and more powerful+ 'n 1A22* sales of the Fortune 2?? a!!ounted for one6third of 8+7+ gross domesti! produ!t+ By @??4 they !ommanded two6thirds+ 'n other words* these few hundred !orporations enveloped not only the !ommons but also millions of smaller firms organiQed as partnerships or proprietorships+ -verall* !orporations have established a homogeneous global playing field around whi!h they !an freely move raw materials* labor* !apital* finished produ!ts* ta"$paying

obligations, and profits+ %hus* !orporate fran!hise has be!ome a perpetual grant of sovereignty* in!luding immortality* self6government* and limited liability+
By the end of the twentieth !entury* !orporate powerUboth e!onomi! and politi!al V stret!hed worldwide+ 'nternational agreements* promoted by the 8nited 7tates* not only lowered tariffs but e:tended !orporate property rights and redu!ed the ability of sovereign nations to regulate !orporations differently+;@@< David 7!hwei!kart submits that su!h =hypermobility of !apital= generates e!onomi! and politi!al inse!urity around the globe+ ;4< ='f the sear!h for lower wages !omes to dominate the movement of !apital* the result will be not only a lowering of worldwide wage disparities* but also a lowering of total global in!ome+= ;4< At the domesti! level* ine(uities maintained by !orporate imperialism tend to result in the 13

large6s!ale debt* unemployment* and poverty !hara!teristi!s of e!onomi! re!ession and depression+ A!!ording to ,a!k 9asmus* author of %he .ar At Eome and %he %rillion Dollar 'n!ome 7hift* in!ome ine(uality in !ontemporary Ameri!a is an in!reasing relative share of in!ome for !orporations and the wealthiest 16per!ent of households while shares of that in!ome stagnate and decline

for %&$percent of the 'nited

(tates workforce. After rising steadily for three de!ades after .orld .ar ''* the
standard of living for most Ameri!an workers has sharply de!lined between the mid6 1A4?s to the present+ 9asmus likens the widening in!ome gap in !ontemporary Ameri!an so!iety to the de!ade leading up to the reat Depression* estimating =well over Y16trillion in in!ome is transferred annually from the roughly A?6million working !lass families in Ameri!a to !orporations and the wealthiest non6working !lass households+ .hile a hundred new billionaires were !reated sin!e @??1* real weekly earnings for 1?? million workers are less in @??4 than in 1A3? when 9onald 9eagan took offi!e=+ A!!ording to 9asmus and other analysts* this =(uarter !entury pay freeQe=* imposed by rapidly increasing control of wealth by the very rich, has resulted in innumerable negative e:ternalities/;@2< =For the first time sin!e the 8+7+ government began to !olle!t the data in 1A44* wages and salaries no longer !onstitute more than half of total national in!ome+ 'n !ontrast* !orporate profits are at their highest levels sin!e .orld .ar ''* having risen double digits every (uarter in the last three and a half years alone and @1+5N in the most re!ent year* @??2* a!!ording to Dow6,ones )"arket .at!h)+ $orporate profit margins are higher than they have been in more than half a !entury* a!!ording to "errill Lyn!h e!onomist* David 9osenberg+ After ta: profits are now e(ual to 3+2N of the 8+7+ ross Domesti! #rodu!t 66 that)s more than a trillion dollars 66 and the highest sin!e the end of .orld .ar '' in 1A42+=;@2< ;edit< 'mperialism enerally !onsidered the for!eful e:tension of a nation)s authority by territorial gain or by the establishment of e!onomi! and0or politi!al dominan!e over other nations* some view imperialism as an advan!ed stage of !apitalism+ %he merging of banks and industrial !artels give rise to finan!e !apital* whi!h is then e:ported Srather than goodsT in pursuit of greater profits than the home market !an offer+ #oliti!al and finan!ial power is divided amongst international monopolist firms and European states* !oloniQing large parts of the world in support of their businesses+;@J< A!!ording to analyst* "i!hael #arenti* imperialism is "the process whereby the dominant politico$

economic interests of one nation e"propriate for their own enrichment the land, labor, raw materials, and markets of another people." ;@4< #arenti says imperialism is older than !apitalism+ But* given
its e:pansionist nature* !apitalism has little in!lination to stay home+ .hile he !on!edes imperialism is not typi!ally re!ogniQed as a legitimate !on!ept with regard to the 8nited 7tates* #arenti goes on to argue/


=Emperors and !on(uistadors were interested mostly in plunder

and tribute,

gold and glory. $apitalist imperialism differs from these earlier forms in the way it
systematically accumulates capital through the organi#ed e"ploitation of labor and the penetration of overseas markets+ $apitalist imperialism invests in other
!ountries* transforming and dominating their e!onomies* !ultures* and politi!al life* integrating their finan!ial and produ!tive stru!tures into an international system of !apital a!!umulation+= ;@4< -n a global s!ale* wealthy developed nations tend to impede

or prohibit the economic and technological advancement of weaker developing countries through the military force, martial law, and ine)uitable practices of trade that typi!ally !hara!teriQe !olonialism+
9hetori!ally termed by some as a =tragedy of the !ommons=* =survival of the fittest=* or =might makes right=* proponents of E!onomi! Demo!ra!y generally attribute su!h e!onomi! !rises to the imbalan!es imposed by !orporate imperialism+;1< 'n his book* E!onomi! Demo!ra!y/ %he #oliti!al 7truggle for the @1st $entury* ,+.+ 7mith e:amines the e!onomi! basis for the history of imperial !iviliQation+ ,ust as !ities in the "iddle Ages monopoliQed the means of produ!tion by !on(uering and !ontrolling the sour!es of raw materials and !ountryside markets* 7mith !laims that !ontemporary !enters of !apital now !ontrol our present world through private monopoly of publi! resour!es sometimes known as =the !ommons=+ %hrough ine(ualities of trade* developing !ountries are over!harged for import of manufa!tured goods and underpaid for raw material e:ports* as wealth is siphoned from the periphery of empire and hoarded at the imperial6!enters6of6 !apital/ =-ver eight6hundred years ago the powerful of the !ity6states of Europe learned to !ontrol the resour!es and markets of the !ountryside by raiding and destroying

others* primitive industrial capital, thus openly monopoliQing that !apital
and establishing and maintaining e:treme ine(uality of pay+ %his low pay siphoned

the wealth of the countryside to the imperial$centers$of$ capital. !he powerful had learned to plunder$by$trade and
have been refining those skills ever since".
Like other finan!ial empires in history* 7mith !laims the !ontemporary model forms allian!es ne!essary to develop and !ontrol wealth* as peripheral nations remain impoverished providers of !heap resour!es for the imperial6!enters6of6!apital+;1< Bello! estimated that* during the British En!losures* =perhaps half of the whole population was proletarian=* while roughly the other =half= owned and !ontrolled the means of produ!tion+ >ow* under modern $apitalism* ,+.+ 7mith !laims fewer than +&&

people possess more wealth than half of the earth*s population,
as the wealth of 10@ of 16per!ent of the 8nited 7tates population roughly e(ual that of the lower ,&$percent+ @?

A!!ording to many analysts* the 8nited 7tates has maintained some measure of stability by e!onomi!ally dominating of the rest of the world as a means of filling the gap between produ!tion and !onsumption+ Beginning with massive loans to European !ombatants during .orld .ar '* and !ontinuing through the lend6lease program of .orld .ar ''* 8+7+ domination of trade rea!hed its peak through e!onomi! re!overy measures following those wars+ %hough forming the basis for 8+7+ prosperity during the 1A2?s and 1AJ?s* 8+7 trade domination was e:hausted by the mid61A4?s* when the 8nited 7tates implemented a poli!y known as dollar hegemony* intended to stabiliQe the e!onomy+;@?< .ith a !onsistently negative trade balan!e over the de!ades sin!e* some suggest the 8nited 7tates has !ompensated for the gap between pur!hasing power and pri!es with a wide variety of debt in all se!tors of the e!onomy+ 'n this pro!ess* many analysts !laim that dollar hegemony has flooded the world with 8+7+ !urren!y* loans* or debt instruments to support 8+7+ fis!al and trade defi!its* pay for e:traordinary levels of 8+7+ resour!e utiliQation* induce foreign governments

to purchase '.(. armaments, ensure the allegiance of foreign governing elites, and maintain foreign e!onomies in subservien!e through .orld
%rade -rganiQation and 'nternational "onetary Fund trade and lending poli!ies+;2< ;edit< Alternative models .ith regard to !losing the gap between produ!tion and pur!hasing power* Dr+ "artin Luther &ing ,r+ maintains/ =%he problem indi!ates that our emphasis must be two6fold+ .e must !reate full employment or we must !reate in!omes+ #eople must be made !onsumers by one method or the other+ -n!e they are pla!ed in this position* we need to be !on!erned that the potential of the individual is not wasted+ >ew forms of work that enhan!e the so!ial good will have to be devised for those for whom traditional Gobs are not available+=;@3< But many analysts argue that both full employment and guaranteed basi! in!ome are impossible under the restri!tions of the !urrent e!onomi! system for two primary reasons/ First* unemployment is an essential feature of !apitalism* not an indi!ation of systemi! failure+;4< 7e!ond* while !apitalism thrives under polyar!hy* it is not !ompatible with genuine demo!ra!y+;4< 7uggesting that these =demo!rati! defi!its= signifi!antly impa!t the management of both workpla!e and new investment*;4< some proponents of E!onomi! Demo!ra!y favor the creation and implementation of a new

economic model over reform of the e"isting one+
A!!ording to most analysts* a serious !riti(ue of any problem !annot be !ontent to merely note the negative features of the e:isting model+ .e must spe!ify pre!isely not only the defining !hara!teristi!s of the e:isting model* but also the stru!tural features of an alternative+ 7u!h a spe!ifi!ation is ne!essarily !ompli!ated* sin!e a modern e!onomy is a !ompli!ated affair+ =But if we want to do more than simply denoun!e the evils of !apitalism* we must !onfront the !laim that )there is no alternative) 66 by proposing one+=;4< Eungarian historian &arl #olanyi suggests that the drive of market e!onomies should be subordinate to larger so!ietal needs+ Ee states that human6beings* the sour!e of labor* do not reprodu!e for the sole purpose of providing the market with workers+ 'n %he reat @1

%ransformation #olanyi says that* while modern states and market e!onomies tend to grow under !apitalism* both are mutually interdependent for fun!tional development+ 'n order for market e!onomies to be truly prosperous* he !laims so!ial !onstru!ts must play an essential role+ .ith the term =fi!titious !ommodities=* #olanyi !laimed that land* labor* and money are all !ommodified under !apitalism* though the inherent purpose of these items was never intended =for sale=+ Ee says natural resour!es are = od6given=* money is a bookkeeping entry validated by law* and labor is a human prerogative* not a personal obligation to market e!onomies+ Dr+ "artin Luther &ing ,r+ !laims =$ommunism forgets that life is individual+ $apitalism forgets that life is so!ial* and the &ingdom of Brotherhood is found neither in the thesis of $ommunism nor the antithesis of $apitalism but in a higher synthesis+ 't is found in a higher synthesis that !ombines the truths of both=+;@A< %rade unionist and so!ial a!tivist* Allan Engler* argues further that e!onomi! demo!ra!y is the working6!lass alternative to !apitalism+ 'n his book* =E!onomi! Demo!ra!y=* Engler states/ =.hen e!onomi! demo!ra!y 66 a world of human e(uality* demo!ra!y and !ooperation 66 is the alternative* !apitalism will no longer be seen as a lesser evil+ .hen the working !lass* not a revolutionary party* is the agen!y of so!ial transformation* !hange will be based on workpla!e organiQation* !ommunity mobiliQations and demo!rati! politi!al a!tion+ %he goal will be to transform !apitalism into e!onomi! demo!ra!y through gains and reforms that improve living !onditions while methodi!ally repla!ing wealth6holders) entitlement with human entitlement* !apitalist ownership with !ommunity ownership and master6servant relations with workpla!e demo!ra!y+= ;5?< Assuming that =demo!ra!y is not Gust a politi!al value* but one with profound e!onomi! impli!ations=* David 7!hwei!kart suggests =the problem is not to !hoose between plan and market* but to integrate these institutions into a demo!rati! framework=+;51< A!!ording to 7!hwei!kart* e!onomi! demo!ra!y* like !apitalism* !an be defined in terms of three basi! features/ .orker 7elf6"anagement/ Ea!h produ!tive enterprise is !ontrolled demo!rati!ally by its workers+ 7o!ial $ontrol of 'nvestment/ Funds for new investment are generated by a !apital assets ta: and are returned to the e!onomy through a network of publi! investment banks+=;4< %he "arket/ %hese enterprises intera!t with one another and with !onsumers in an environment largely free of governmental pri!e !ontrols+ 9aw materials* instruments of produ!tion and !onsumer goods are all bought and sold at pri!es largely determined by the for!es of supply and demand+ 'n real6world pra!ti!e* 7!hwei!kart !on!edes e!onomi! demo!ra!y will be more !ompli!ated and less =pure= than his abstra!t model+ Eowever* to grasp the nature of the system and to understand its essential dynami!* it is important to have a !lear pi!ture of the basi! stru!ture+ $apitalism is !hara!teriQed by private ownership of produ!tive resour!es* the market* and wage labor+ %he 7oviet e!onomi! model abolished private ownership of produ!tive resour!es Sby !olle!tiviQing all farms and fa!toriesT and the market Sby instituting !entral planningT* but retained wage labor+ #roposed models for e!onomi! demo!ra!y generally begin with abolishing wage labor+ 7!hwei!kart)s model goes further to abolish private ownership of produ!tive resour!es+ @@

;4< -ther proposals re!ommend abolishing the market, as well+ ;edit< .orker self6management 'n his book* =%he Demo!rati! Firm=* veteran E!onomi! Advisor for the .orld Bank* David #+ Ellerman* states/ ='n the world today* the main form of enterprise is based on renting human beings Sprivately or publi!lyT+ -ur task is to !onstru!t the alternative+ 'n the alternative type of firm* employment by the firm is repla!ed with membership in the firm+ E!onomi! demo!ra!y re(uires the abolition of the employment relation* not the abolition of private property+ Demo!ra!y !an be married with private property in the workpla!eO the result of the union is the demo!rati! worker6owned firm+= ;5@< Ellerman maintains that the !ontra!t to buy and sell labor servi!es is inherently invalid be!ause labor* in the sense of responsible human a!tion* is de fa!to non6transferable+ %he rights to the positive and negative fruits of one’s labor are thus inalienable rights+ 'n (uestions of governan!e Sas opposed to produ!tionT* the emphasis is on de!ision6making Sas opposed to responsibilityT+ But the basi! fa!ts are the same+ De!ision6making !apa!ity is de fa!to inalienable+ A person !annot in fa!t alienate his or her de!ision6making !apa!ity Gust as he or she !annot alienate de fa!to responsibility+ )De!iding to do as one is told) is only another way of de!iding what to do+ %hus* Ellerman !on!ludes* it is not private property that needs to be abolished* but the employment !ontra!t+ 'n other words* =a firm !an be so!ialiQed and yet remain )private) in the sense of not being government6owned+= ;5@< 'n the proposals of both Ellerman and 7!hwei!kart* ea!h produ!tive enterprise is !ontrolled by those who work there+ .orkers are responsible for the operation of the fa!ility* in!luding organiQation* dis!ipline* produ!tion te!hni(ues* and the nature* pri!e* and distribution of produ!ts+ De!isions !on!erning pro!eeds distribution are made demo!rati!ally+ #roblems of authority delegation are solved by demo!rati! representation+ "anagement is not appointed by the 7tate nor ele!ted by the !ommunity at large* nor sele!ted by a board of dire!tors ele!ted by sto!kholders+ .hatever internal stru!tures are put in pla!e* ultimate authority rests with the enterprise)s workers* one6 person* one6vote+ 'n David 7!hwei!kart’s model* however* workers !ontrol the workpla!e* but they do not =own= the means of produ!tion+ #rodu!tive resour!es are regarded as the !olle!tive property of the so!iety+ .orkers have the right to run the enterprise* to use its !apital assets as they see fit* and to distribute among themselves the whole of the net profit from produ!tion+ 'n 7!hwei!kart)s model* so!ietal =ownership= of the enterprise manifests itself in two ways/ All firms must pay a ta: on their !apital assets* whi!h goes into so!iety)s investment fund+ 'n effe!t* workers rent their !apital assets from so!iety+ Firms are re(uired to preserve the value of the !apital sto!k entrusted to them+ %his means that a depre!iation fund must be maintained+ "oney must be set aside to repair or repla!e e:isting !apital sto!k+ %his money may be spent on whatever !apital repla!ements or improvements the firm deems fit* but it may not be used to supplement workers) in!omes+ 'f a firm is unable to generate even the nationally6spe!ified minimum per6!apita in!ome* then it must de!lare bankrupt!y+ "ovable !apital will be sold off to pay !reditors+ %he workers must seek employment elsewhere+ 'n su!h e!onomi! diffi!ulty* workers are free to reorganiQe the fa!ility* or to leave and seek work elsewhere+ %hey are not free to sell @5

off their !apital sto!ks and use the pro!eeds as in!ome+ A firm !an sell off !apital sto!ks and use the pro!eeds to buy additional !apital goods+ -r* if the firm wishes to !ontra!t its !apital base so as to redu!e its ta: and depre!iation obligations* it !an sell off some of its assets* but in this !ase pro!eeds from the sale go into the national investment fund* not to the workers* sin!e these assets belong to so!iety as a whole+;4< ;edit< 7o!ial !ontrol of investment 8nder 7!hwei!kart’s model of E!onomi! Demo!ra!y* a flat6rate ta: on the !apital assets of all produ!tive enterprises repla!es all other business ta:es+ %his =!apital assets ta:= is !olle!ted by the !entral government* then invested ba!k into the e!onomy* assisting those firms needing funds for purposes of produ!tive investment+ %hese funds are dispersed throughout so!iety* first to regions and !ommunities on a per !apita basis* then to publi! banks in a!!ordan!e with past performan!e* then to those firms with profitable proGe!t proposals+ #rofitable proGe!ts that promise in!reased employment are favored over those that do not+ At ea!h level* national* regional and lo!al* legislatures de!ide what portion of the investment fund !oming to them is to be set aside for publi! !apital e:penditures* then send down the remainder to the ne:t lower level+ Asso!iated with most banks are entrepreneurial divisions* whi!h promote firm e:pansion and new firm !reation+ For large Sregional or nationalT enterprises that need a!!ess to additional !apital* it would be appropriate for the network of lo!al investment banks to be supplemented by regional and national investment banks+ %hese too would be publi! institutions that re!eive their funds from the national investment fund+ E!onomi! Demo!ra!y does not depend on private savings or private investment for its e!onomi! development+ 'n 7!hwei!kart)s model* banks are publi!* not private* institutions that make grants* not loans* to business enterprises+ A!!ording to 7!hwei!kart* these grants do not represent =free money=* sin!e an investment grant !ounts as an addition to the !apital assets of the enterprise* upon whi!h the !apital6asset ta: must be paid+ %hus the !apital assets ta: fun!tions as an interest rate+ A bank grant is essentially a loan re(uiring interest payments but no repayment of prin!ipal+;4< .hile an e!onomy of worker6self6managed enterprises might tend toward lower unemployment than under !apitalism* 7!hwei!kart says it does not guarantee full employment+ 7o!ial !ontrol of investment* under this model of E!onomi! Demo!ra!y* serves to mitigate this defe!t+ 'f the market se!tor of the e!onomy does not provide suffi!ient employment* the publi! se!tor will provide all but the most severely disabled with the opportunity to engage in produ!tive labor+ %he original formulation of the 8+7+ Eumphrey6Eawkins A!t of 1A43 suggests that full employment !an be assured in a market e!onomy only if the government fun!tions as the employer6of6last6resort+ 'n E!onomi! Demo!ra!y* the government assumes this role* something a !apitalist government !annot do+ %hus* so!ial !ontrol of investment also serves to blo!k patterns of !y!li!al* re!essionary unemployment typi!al of !apitalism+;4< ;edit< %he market A!!ording to David 7!hwei!kart* E!onomi! Demo!ra!y is a market e!onomy* at least insofar as the allo!ation of !onsumer and !apital goods is !on!erned+ Firms buy raw materials and ma!hinery from other firms and sell their produ!ts to other enterprises or !onsumers+ =#ri!es are largely unregulated e:!ept by supply and demand* although in some !ases pri!e !ontrols or pri!e supports might be in order 66 as they are deemed in order in most real6world forms of !apitalism+=;4< .ithout a pri!e me!hanism sensitive to supply and demand* it is e:tremely diffi!ult for a produ!er or planner to know what and how mu!h to produ!e* and whi!h produ!tion and marketing methods are the most effi!ient+ 't is also e:tremely diffi!ult in the absen!e of a @4

market to design a set of in!entives that will motivate produ!ers to be both effi!ient and innovative+ "arket !ompetition resolves these problems* to a signifi!ant if in!omplete degree* in a non6authoritarian* non6bureau!rati! fashion+ 'n 7!hweikart)s view* !entraliQed planning is inherently flawed* and s!hemes for de!entraliQed non6market planning are unworkable+ As theory predi!ts and the histori!al re!ord !onfirms* !entral planning is both ineffi!ient and !ondu!ive to an authoritarian !on!entration of power+ %his is one of the great lessons to be drawn from the 7oviet e:perien!e+ 7in!e enterprises in E!onomi! Demo!ra!y buy and sell on the market* they strive to make a profit+ Eowever* the =profit= in a worker6run firm is not the same as !apitalist profit+ 't is !al!ulated differently+ 'n a market e!onomy firms* whether !apitalist or worker6self6 managed* strive to ma:imiQe the differen!e between total sales and total !osts+ But for a !apitalist firm* labor is !ounted as a !ost+ For a worker6run enterprise it is not+ 'n E!onomi! Demo!ra!y labor is not another =fa!tor of produ!tion= te!hni!ally on par with land and !apital+ Labor is the residual !laimant+ .orkers get all that remains* on!e non6 labor !osts* in!luding depre!iation set asides and the !apital assets ta:* have been paid+;4< Be!ause of the way workpla!es and the investment me!hanism are stru!tured* 7!hwei!kart)s model aims to fa!ilitate fair trade* not free trade* between nations+ 8nder E!onomi! Demo!ra!y* there would be virtually no !ross6border !apital flows+ Enterprises themselves will not relo!ate abroad* sin!e they are demo!rati!ally !ontrolled by their own workers+ Finan!e !apital will also stay mostly at home* sin!e funds for investment are publi!ly generated and are mandated by law to be reinvested domesti!ally+ =$apital doesn)t flow into the !ountry* either* sin!e there are no sto!ks nor !orporate bonds nor businesses to buy+ %he !apital assets of the !ountry are !olle!tively owned 66 and hen!e not for sale+=;4< A!!ording to "i!hael Eoward* =in preserving !ommodity e:!hange* a market so!ialism has greater !ontinuity with the so!iety it displa!es than does nonmarket so!ialism* and thus it is more likely to emerge from !apitalism as a result of tenden!ies generated within it+= But Eoward also suggests* =one argument against the market in so!ialist so!iety has been that it blo!ks progress toward full !ommunism or even leads ba!k to !apitalism=+ ;55< %hus* nonmarket versions of e!onomi! demo!ra!y have also been proposed+ ;edit< 'n!lusive demo!ra!y "ain arti!le/ 'n!lusive demo!ra!y E!onomi! demo!ra!y is des!ribed as an integral !omponent of an in!lusive demo!ra!y* in %owards An 'n!lusive Demo!ra!y as a stateless* moneyless and marketless e!onomy that pre!ludes private a!!umulation of wealth and the institutionaliQation of privileges for some se!tions of so!iety* without relying on a mythical post$scarcity state of abundance, or sa!rifi!ing freedom of !hoi!e+ %he proposed system aims to meet the basi! needs of all !itiQens Sma!ro6e!onomi! de!isionsT* and se!ure freedom of !hoi!e Smi!ro6e!onomi! de!isionsT+ %herefore* the system !onsists of two basi! elements/ S1T demo!rati! planning* whi!h involves a feedba!k pro!ess between workpla!e assemblies* demoti! assemblies and the !onfederal assembly* and S@T an artifi!ial market using personal vou!hers* whi!h ensures freedom of !hoi!e but avoids the adverse effe!ts of real markets+ Although some have !alled this system Wa form of money based on the labour theory of valueX*;54< it is not a money model sin!e vou!hers !annot be used as a general medium of e:!hange and store of wealth+


Another distinguishing feature of in!lusive demo!ra!y is its distin!tion between basi! and non6basi! needs+ 9emuneration is a!!ording to need for basi! needs* and a!!ording to effort for non6basi! needs+ 'n!lusive demo!ra!y is based on the prin!iple that meeting basi! needs is a fundamental human right whi!h is guaranteed to all who are in a physi!al !ondition to offer a minimal amount of work+ By !ontrast* parti!ipatory e!onomi!s guarantees that basi! needs are satisfied only to the e:tent they are !hara!teriQed publi! goods or are !overed by !ompassion and by a guaranteed basi! in!ome for the unemployed and those who !annot work+;52< Although many advo!ates of parti!ipatory e!onomi!s and #arti!ipism have !ontested this+ .ithin the in!lusive demo!ra!y proGe!t* e!onomi! demo!ra!y is the authority of demos S!ommunityT in the e!onomi! sphere U whi!h re(uires e(ual distribution of e!onomi! power+ %herefore* all )ma!ro) e!onomi! de!isions* namely* de!isions !on!erning the running of the e!onomy as a whole Soverall level of produ!tion* !onsumption and investment* amounts of work and leisure implied* te!hnologies to be used* et!+T are made by the !itiQen body !olle!tively and without representation+ Eowever* =mi!ro= e!onomi! de!isions at the workpla!e or the household levels are made by the individual produ!tion or !onsumption unit through a proposed system of vou!hers+ As with the !ase of dire!t demo!ra!y* e!onomi! demo!ra!y today is only feasible at the level of the !onfederated demoi+ 't involves the ownership and !ontrol of the means of produ!tion by the demos+ %his is radi!ally different from the two main forms of !on!entration of e!onomi! power / !apitalist and )so!ialist) growth e!onomy+ 't is also different from the various types of !olle!tivist !apitalism* su!h as workers) !ontrol and milder versions suggested by post6&eynesian so!ial demo!rats+ %he demos* therefore* be!omes the authenti! unit of e!onomi! life+ For e!onomi! demo!ra!y to be feasible* proponents of in!lusive demo!ra!y suggest three pre!onditions must be satisfied/ Demoti! self6relian!e* demoti! ownership of the means of produ!tion* and !onfederal allo!ation of resour!es+ Demoti! self6relian!e is meant in terms of radi!al de!entraliQation and self6relian!e* rather than of self6suffi!ien!y+ Demoti! ownership of produ!tive resour!es is a kind of ownership whi!h leads to the politi!iQation of the e!onomy* the real synthesis of e!onomy and polity+ %his is so be!ause e!onomi! de!ision making is !arried out by the entire !ommunity* through the demoti! assemblies* where people make the fundamental ma!ro6e!onomi! de!isions whi!h affe!t the whole !ommunity* as !itiQens* rather than as vo!ationally oriented groups Se+g+ workers* as e+g+ in parti!ipatory e!onomi!s ;5J<T+ At the same time* workers* apart from parti!ipating in the demoti! de!isions about the overall planning targets* would also parti!ipate Sin the above broad sense of vo!ationally oriented groupsT in their respe!tive workpla!e assemblies* in a pro!ess of modifying0implementing the Demo!rati! #lan and in running their own workpla!e+ $onfederal allo!ation of resour!es is re(uired be!ause* although self6relian!e allows many de!isions to be made at the !ommunity level* mu!h remains to be de!ided at the regional0national0supra6national level+ Eowever* it is delegates Srather than representativesT with spe!ifi! mandates from the demoti! assemblies who are involved in a !onfederal demoti! planning pro!ess whi!h* in !ombination with the proposed system of vou!hers* effe!ts the allo!ation of resour!es in a !onfederal in!lusive demo!ra!y+ ;edit< 9eform agendas Assuming the most basi! re(uirement for so!ietal prosperity is a healthy* edu!ated* and enterprising population*;54< E!onomi! Demo!ra!y seeks to !lose the growing gap between pur!hasing power and produ!tive output+ .hile reform agendas tend to !riti(ue @J

the e:isting system and re!ommend !orre!tive measures* they do not ne!essarily suggest alternative models to repla!e the fundamental stru!tures of !apitalismO private ownership of produ!tive resour!es* the market* and wage labor+ ;edit< 7o!ial $redit "ain arti!le/ 7o!ial $redit 9ather than an e!onomi! shortfall* many analysts !onsider the gap between produ!tion and pur!hasing power a so!ial dividend+ 'n this view* !redit is a publi! utility rather than debt to finan!ial !enters+ -n!e reinvested in human produ!tive potential* the surplus of so!ietal output !ould a!tually in!rease ross Domesti! #rodu!t rather than throttling it* resulting in a more effi!ient e!onomy* overall+;2< 7o!ial $redit is an e!onomi! reform movement that originates from theories developed by 7!ottish engineer "aGor $+ E+ Douglas+ Eis aim to make so!ietal improvement the goal of monetary systems is refle!ted in the term =7o!ial $redit=* and published in his book* entitled E!onomi! Demo!ra!y+ 'n this view* the term =e!onomi! demo!ra!y= does not mean worker !ontrol of industry+;53< .hile te!hnologi!al advan!ement tends to in!rease unemployment along with produ!tivity* Douglas suggests that our perspe!tive will determine whether this problem is a =!atastrophe= or a =magnifi!ent a!hievement=/ =%he so6!alled unemployment problem is really a problem of leisure+ %he problem really is a problem* first of the distribution of pur!hasing power to those who are not re(uired* and will de!reasingly be re(uired* in the industrial system* and se!ondly* of ensuring that the total pur!hasing distributed shall always be enough to pay for the goods and servi!es for sale+=;5A< A national dividend and a !ompensated pri!e me!hanism are the two most essential !omponents of the 7o!ial $redit program proposed by $+E+ Douglas to stabiliQe pur!hasing power for a demo!ra!y of !onsumers on a national and global s!ale+ .hile these measure have never been implemented in their purest form* they have provided a foundation for 7o!ial $redit poli!ital parties in many !ountries and for reform agendas that retain the title* =e!onomi! demo!ra!y=+ ;edit< $redit as a publi! utility 8tiliQing the ideas of "aGor $+E+ Douglas and a monetary reform program based on dire!t government spending set forth by groups like the Ameri!an "onetary 'nstitute* veteran #roGe!t "anager for the 8+7+ %reasury Department* 9i!hard $+ $ook proposes two general measures* whi!h together he terms* =e!onomi! demo!ra!y=/;4?< $redit as a publi! utility/ =.e should spend suffi!ient !redit into e:isten!e to supply the basi! operating e:penses of government at all levels without re!ourse to either ta:es or borrowing+ At least ninety per!ent of all ta:es !ould be eliminated+ %he only ta:es that should be retained would be those in the form of user fees for infrastru!ture operations and maintenan!e and those levied only for dire emergen!ies+ $apital e:penses for infrastru!ture !onstru!tion at the federal* state* and lo!al levels should be finan!ed through a self6!apitaliQed national infrastru!ture bank lending at Qero6interest+ -perating on a national s!ale* su!h a bank !ould begin to rebuild our Gob base starting at the state and lo!al levels+ A publi! program of dire!t government e:penditures as des!ribed herein would be as effe!tive* as timely* far less inflationary* and mu!h !heaper than !reating new publi! debt by borrowing !redit created 'out of thin air' by the

banking system." ;41<


A# $hart from .e Eold %hese %ruths+ A national dividend/ =%he endemi! gap between pri!es and pur!hasing power in an advan!ed e!onomi! system in reality is the Wleisure dividendX that we never re!eived from our amaQing produ!ing e!onomy+ %hat gap should now be filled by a non6ta:able national dividend of two types+ -ne would be a !ash stipend paid to all !itiQens whi!h would also serve the purpose of eliminating poverty by providing everyone with a basi! in!ome guarantee+ %he remainder of the national dividend would !onsist of an overall pri!ing subsidy* whereby a designated proportion of all pur!hases* in!luding home building e:penses* would be rebated to !onsumers+ %he average national dividend per person would probably e:!eed Y1@*??? per year under today’s e!onomi! !onditions+ 't would be a !al!ulated value !harged against a government ledger but would be off6 budget* with no need to finan!e it with ta:ation or borrowing+= ;41< .hile some analysts suggest an e!onomi! !risis might be ne!essary to drive a movement toward large6s!ale e!onomi! demo!ra!y+*;1<;@@< 9i!hard $+ $ook argues that =most e!onomi! reform programs address symptoms* not !auses=/;2< ="onetary reform embra!es the enormous produ!tivity of modern industrial methods with approval and hope+ But it identifies fa!tors in the nature of industrial produ!tion at the level of the !orporation as !reating a !hroni! state of instability=+;2< =%he top priority of the reform program would be to use publi! !redit to rebuild the produ!ing e!onomy whi!h has been wre!ked by the phony ideology of 'market' economics and the inept and self$serving manipulation of the money supply by the Federal 9eserve and the


$ook)s !riti(ue of finan!e !apitalism avoids any proposal of !olle!tivist solutions as a diagnosis of underlying finan!ial issues+ 9ather* he affirms the value of =demo!rati! !apitalism*= !ombined with a shift to more publi! !ontrol of !redit* and suggests a new approa!h to a!hieving worldwide prosperity* starting with e!onomi! re!overy in the 8nited 7tates+ $ook)s argument stems from prior su!!ess in the 8nited 7tates with !redit as a publi! utility* in!luding !olonial paper !urren!ies whi!h allowed an emerging Ameri!an so!iety to monetiQe the value of its own goods and servi!es* the reenba!ks issued by #resident Lin!oln during the Ameri!an !ivil war* and the 9e!onstru!tion Finan!e $orporation S9F$T whi!h moved to re!apitaliQe failing non6Federal 9eserve @3

state banks in rural areas and small towns during the reat Depression+ .hile Eerbert Eoover)s efforts are not remembered as the most popular in 8+7+ history* $ook !redits 9F$ programs with providing low interest loans to the railroad industry* farmers* e:porters* state and lo!al governments* and wartime industries over a period of at least @?6years+;45< ;edit< >ational dividend 9i!hard $+ $ook)s proposed national dividend* sometimes known as a Basi! 'n!ome uarantee or =B' =* has previously been advo!ated in the 8nited 7tates by e!onomists* politi!ians and reformers* in!luding %homas #aine* "ilton Friedman* Dr+ "artin Luther &ing ,r+* and ,ohn &enneth albraith+ Friedman originally proposed a negative in!ome ta: to support this system* but then opposed the bill be!ause its revised implementation would have merely supplemented e:isting ta:6stru!tures rather than repla!ing them+ $ook further suggests that ra!ism might have been at the root of B' )s demise in the late 1AJ?s* as =many benefi!iaries of the program would have been Afri!an6Ameri!an=+;44< But in @??J* the basi! in!ome guarantee was again proposed on the national level by 7tate 9epresentative Bob Filner SD6$AT as E+9+ 2@24* supported by author "atthew 9oths!hild+;42< A!!ording to the 8+7+ Basi! 'n!ome uarantee >etwork/ =%he basi! in!ome guarantee SB' T is a government insured guarantee that no !itiQen)s in!ome will fall below some minimal level for any reason+ All !itiQens would re!eive a B' without means test or work re(uirement+ B' is an effi!ient and effe!tive solution to poverty that preserves individual autonomy and work in!entives while simplifying government so!ial poli!y+ 7ome resear!hers estimate that a small B' * suffi!ient to !ut the poverty rate in half !ould be finan!ed without an in!rease in ta:es by redire!ting funds from spending programs and ta: dedu!tions aimed at maintaining in!omes+=;4J< "oreover* 9i!hard $+ $ook suggests e:isting surplus in 8nited 7tates ross Domesti! #rodu!t S D#T !ould support su!h a system* as D# of Y1@+A36trillion minus YA+@16 trillion in pur!hasing power S=wages=T e(uals a differen!e of Y5+446trillion+ Distributed e(ually amongst 8nited 7tates !itiQens* $ook estimates a =>ational Dividend= of appro:imately Y1@*J?? !ould be provided annually to every 8+7+ !itiQen+ A primary fun!tion of monetary reform is to =provide suffi!ient individual in!ome= 66 not merely =!reate Gobs= 66 for Ameri!an workers displa!ed by te!hnologi!al advan!ement* outsour!ing* and other e!onomi! influen!es beyond their !ontrol+ Funding of the >ational Dividend would be drawn from a national !redit a!!ount* whi!h would in!lude all fa!tors that generate produ!tion !osts and !reate new !apital assets+ %he national !redit a!!ount !ould also be used for pri!e subsidies to dis!ourage manufa!turers from !utting !osts by shipping Gobs overseas+ 9ather than Federal 9eserve >otes* !ir!ulated only through debt payable to a bank with interest* the >ational Dividend would be =real money=* based on the produ!tive !apa!ity of the e!onomy e:pressed as D#+ $ook says* =it)s important to realiQe that 7o!ial $redit is not a so!ialist system+ 9ather it is )demo!rati! !apitalism*) in !ontrast to the )finan!e !apitalism) that has be!ome so damaging=+;44< 9ooted in the ideals of 7o!ial $redit* proposed by $+E+ Douglas in the 1A@?s* $ook e:plains/ =%he differen!e between a >ational Dividend and a basi! in!ome guarantee is that the dividend is tied to produ!tion and !onsumption data and may vary from year to year+ During years that the dividend falls below a designated threshold* the balan!e of a basi! in!ome guarantee !ould be provided from ta: revenues+ But in a highly6automated e!onomy su!h as that of the 8+7+* the >ational Dividend would normally be suffi!ient=+ ;@?< @A

'n his book* $apitalism 5+?* #eter Barnes likens a =>ational Dividend= to the game of "onopoly* where all players start with a fair distribution of finan!ial opportunity to su!!eed* and try to privatiQe as mu!h as they !an as they move around =the !ommons=+ Distinguishing the board game of "onopoly from !ontemporary real6world business* Barnes !laims that =the top 2 per!ent of the population owns more property than the remaining A2 per!ent=* providing the smaller minority with an unfair advantage of appro:imately =Y26trillion= annually* at the beginning of the game+ $ontrasting =redistribution= of in!ome Sor propertyT with =predistribution=* Barnes argues for =propertiQing= Swithout !orporately privatiQingT =the !ommons= to spread ownership universally* without taking wealth from some and giving it to others+ Eis suggested me!hanism to this end is the establishment of a =$ommons 7e!tor=* ensuring payment from the $orporate 7e!tor for =the !ommons= they utiliQe* and e(uitably distributing the pro!eeds for the benefit of !ontemporary and future generations of so!iety+ -ne real6world e:ample of su!h reform is in the 8+7+ 7tate of Alaska* where ea!h !itiQen re!eives an annual share of the state)s oil revenues !alled* =Alaska #ermanent Fund Dividend=+ Barnes suggests this model !ould e:tend to other states and nations be!ause =we Gointly own many valuable assets=+ As !orporate pollution of !ommon assets in!rease* the permits for su!h pollution would be!ome more s!ar!e* driving pri!es for those permits up+ =Less pollution would e(ual more revenue=* and over time* =trillions of dollars !ould flow into an Ameri!an #ermanent Fund=+;@@< Eowever* none of these proposals aspire to the mandates re!ommended by Dr+ "artin Luther &ing ,r+/ %wo !onditions are indispensable if we are to ensure that the guaranteed in!ome operates as a !onsistently progressive measure+ First* it must be pegged to the median in!ome of so!iety* not the lowest levels of in!ome+ %o guarantee an in!ome at the floor would simply perpetuate welfare standards and freeQe into the so!iety poverty !onditions+ 7e!ond* the guaranteed in!ome must be dynami!O it must automati!ally in!rease as the total so!ial in!ome grows+ .ere it permitted to remain stati! under growth !onditions* the re!ipients would suffer a relative de!line+ 'f periodi! reviews dis!lose that the whole national in!ome has risen* then the guaranteed in!ome would have to be adGusted upward by the same per!entage+ .ithout these safeguards a !reeping retrogression would o!!ur* nullifying the gains of se!urity and stability+;@3< "oreover* proponents of E!onomi! Demo!ra!y generally deem any su!h reform unlikely under the dominan!e of !ontemporary !ommand e!onomies+ .hile %homas #aine originally re!ommended a >ational Dividend to compensate for the brutality

of -ritish nclosures, no su!h large6s!ale disbursement has materialiQed in over
@??6years sin!e+;@@< ;edit< "onopoly power versus publi! utility "ain arti!le/ ,+ .+ 7mith 9ather than superfi!ially !ompensating for legaliQed ine(uities* many analysts re!ommend the =en!losures= themselvesUproperty rights lawsUshould be either abolished or redefined with parti!ular respe!t for =the !ommons=+;1< A!!ording to ,+.+ 7mith* e:!lusive title to natural resour!es and te!hnologies should be !onverted to in!lusive !onditional titles V6 the !ondition being that so!iety should !olle!t rental values on all natural resour!es+;43< 7mith suggests the basi! prin!iples of monopoliQation under feudalism were never abandoned* and residues of e:!lusive feudal property rights restri!t the potential effi!ien!y of !apitalism in .estern !ultures+;43< Estimating roughly J?6 per!ent of Ameri!an !apital is little more than !apitaliQed values of unearned wealth* 5?

7mith suggests elimination of these monopoly values would double e!onomi! effi!ien!y* maintain (uality of life* and redu!e working hours by half+;43< .asteful monetary flows !an be stopped only by eliminating all methods of monopoliQation typi!al in .estern e!onomies+;43<;4A< ,+.+ 7mith divides =primary SfeudalT monopoly= into four general !ategoriesO banking* land* te!hnology* and !ommuni!ations+ Ee lists three general !ategories of =se!ondary SmodernT monopoly=O insuran!e* law* health !are+;43< 7mith further !laims that !onverting these e:!lusive entitlements to in!lusive human rights would minimiQe battles for market share* thereby eliminating most offi!es and staff needed to maintain monopoly stru!tures* and stop the wars generated to prote!t them+ Dissolving roughly half the e!onomi! a!tivity of a monopoly system would redu!e the !osts of !ommon resour!es by roughly half* and signifi!antly minimiQe the most influential fa!tors of poverty+;43<;4A< 'n 7mith)s view* most ta:es should be eliminated*;43< and produ!tive enterprise should be privately owned and managed+;43< 'nventors should be paid well and all te!hnology pla!ed in the publi! domain+;43< $ru!ial servi!es !urrently monopoliQed through li!ensing should be legislated as human rights+;43<;4A< 7mith envisions a balan!ed e!onomy under a so!ially6owned banking !ommons within an in!lusive so!iety with full and e(ual rights for all+;43< Federated regions !olle!t resour!e rents on land and te!hnology to a so!ial fund to operate governments and !are for so!ial needs+;43< 7o!ially6owned banks provide finan!e !apital by !reating debt6free money for so!ial infrastru!ture and industry+;43< 9ental values return to so!iety through e:penditure on publi! infrastru!tures+ Lo!al labor is trained and employed to build and maintain water systems* sewers* roads* !ommuni!ation systems* railroads* ports* airports* post offi!es* and edu!ation systems+;43< #ur!hasing power !ir!ulates regionally* as labor spends wages in !onsumption and governments spend resour!e rent and banking profits to maintain essential servi!es+;43<;4A< A!!ording to 7mith* all monetary systems* in!luding money markets* should fun!tion within fra!tional6reserve banking+;43< Finan!ial !apital should be the total savings of all !itiQens* balan!ed by primary6!reated money to fill any shortfall* or its destru!tion through in!reased reserve re(uirements to eliminate any surplus+;43< AdGustments of re(uired reserves should fa!ilitate the balan!e between building with so!ially6!reated money or savings+ Any shortage of savings within a so!ially6owned banking system should be alleviated by simply printing it+;43<;4A< ;edit< Demo!rati! !ooperatives "ain arti!le/ $ooperative 7ometimes referred to as a =$o6-p business= or =$o6-p=* a !ooperative is a limited liability entity* organiQed either for6profit or not6for6profit* that differs from a !orporation in that its produ!ing members* rather than non6produ!ing shareholders* !omprise de!ision6making authority+ $lassified as either !onsumer !ooperatives or worker !ooperatives* the !ooperative business model is fundamental to the interests of e!onomi! demo!ra!y+ A!!ording to the 'nternational $ooperative Allian!e)s 7tatement on the $ooperative 'dentity* =!ooperatives are demo!rati! organiQations !ontrolled by their members* who a!tively parti!ipate in setting their poli!ies and making de!isions+ "en and women serving as ele!ted representatives are a!!ountable to the membership+ 'n primary !ooperatives members have e(ual voting rights Sone member* one voteT and !ooperatives at other levels are also organiQed in a demo!rati! manner+=;2?< $ooperatives play an essential role in all models of E!onomi! Demo!ra!y* providing for the needs of workers* !onsumers* and !ommunities+ As an alternative to globaliQed e!onomy* domination by 51

large !orporations* and neoliberal e!onomi! poli!ies* E!onomi! Demo!ra!y emphasiQes large6s!ale e!onomi! withdrawal from !orporate imperialism to more regionally organiQed produ!er and !onsumer !ooperatives* thus restoring so!io6e!onomi! stability on a broader s!ale+ ;edit< .orker !ooperatives "ain arti!le/ .orker !ooperative A!!ording to the 8nited 7tates Federation of .orker $ooperatives* =a worker !ooperative is a business entity that is owned and !ontrolled by the people who work in it=+ .orkers own the business together* usually investing with a buy6in amount of money when they begin working+ At the end of ea!h year* worker6owners are paid a portion of the money the business makes after e:penses+;21< 'n !ases where the !ompany is also owned by employees* there are no outside or !onsumer owners+ -nly employees own shares of the business* whi!h represent fra!tions of the market value of the !ooperative+ -nly one membership share may be issued to ea!h member* and one membership share provides its owner with one vote in !ompany de!ision6making+ .hile membership is not a re(uirement of employment* only employees !an be!ome members+;2@<;25< .orker !ooperatives generally employ an industrial model !alled .orkpla!e demo!ra!y* whi!h reGe!ts the =master6servant relationship= impli!it in the traditional employment !ontra!t+ %his term is often used synonymously with industrial demo!ra!y+ $ompanies like 7em!o* DaKita* oogle* Freys Eotels and Linden Labs ma:imiQe employee parti!ipation and engagement in this regard* as the >ew 8nionism movement views workpla!e demo!ra!y as a ne!essary link between produ!tion and e!onomi! demo!ra!y+ 7ome analysts suggest self6governing enterprises should not be !onfused with other systems they might vaguely or !losely resemble+ A!!ording to 9obert A+ Dahl/ =7elf6governing enterprises only remotely resemble psuedodemo!rati! ;si!?< s!hemes of employee !onsultation by managementO s!hemes of limited employee parti!ipation that leave all !riti!al de!isions with a management ele!ted by sto!kholdersO or Employee 7to!k -wnership #lans SE7-#sT that are !reated only or primarily to provide !orporations with low6interest loans* lower !orporate in!ome ta:es* greater !ash flow* employee pension plans* or a market for their sto!k* without* however* any signifi!ant !hanges in !ontrol+=;@5< De!isions in a worker !ooperative are made demo!rati!ally by the people who do the work* rather than by one person or group of people that holds all the power+ %his pro!ess usually adheres to the prin!iple of =one worker* one vote=+ .orker6!ontrol !an take many forms depending on the siQe and type of the business+ 7ome ways to make de!isions demo!rati!ally in!lude/ an ele!ted board of dire!tors* ele!ted managers* management Gob roles* no management at all* de!isions made by !onsensus* de!isions made by maGority vote* or any !ombination of the above+ Ea!h worker6owned business !reates the stru!ture best suited to its needs+;21< E(ual parti!ipation in de!ision6making be!omes the responsibility and privilege of ea!h member* providing a demo!rati! alternative to the !entraliQation of power typi!al in !orporate hierar!hies+;24< "any businesses* !ontrolled by workers and0or sharing profits among them* are not formally !onsidered worker !ooperatives+ 'n general* these are !alled demo!rati! workpla!es+ A!ross the 8nited 7tates* demo!rati! workpla!es o!!upy many different se!tors and industries* with greatest !on!entrations in the >ortheast* the .est $oast and the 8pper "idwest+ .hile a few worker !ooperatives in the 8nited 7tates are notable larger enterprises* most are small businesses+ %here are an estimated 5?? demo!rati! workpla!es in the 8nited 7tates* employing over 5*2?? people and generating over Y4?? million in annual revenues+ rowing steadily over the past @? years* the number of 5@

worker !ooperatives in!ludes both well6established businesses and new ones* with the fields of te!hnology and health !are showing most of the re!ent in!rease+ 'n many ways* the operations of worker !ooperatives are (uite similar to !onventional businesses+ %hey develop produ!ts or servi!es* and offer them for sale to the publi!* with the goal of generating enough in!ome to support the business and its owners+ %hey in!orporate with the state* get business li!enses* pay state and federal ta:es* have payroll and benefits* and so on+ But there are also some fundamental differen!es between worker !ooperatives and traditional businesses+ 'n !onventional businesses* net in!ome is !alled profit* whi!h tends to be distributed primarily amongst non6produ!ing shareholders+ 'n worker !ooperatives* this in!ome is !alled surplus* whi!h is distributed amongst worker6owners based on hours worked* seniority* or other !riteria+ 'n a worker !ooperative* workers own their Gobs* and therefore have a dire!t stake in the lo!al environment and the power to !ondu!t business in ways that benefit the !ommunity rather than destroying it+ 7ome worker !ooperatives maintain what is known as a Wmultiple bottom lineX* evaluating su!!ess not merely in terms of net in!ome* but also by fa!tors like their sustainability as a business* their !ontribution to the !ommunity* and the happiness and longevity of their workers+;21< A!!ording to %im $alvert* a founding member of the worker6owned #ortland* -regon !ooperative* $ity Bikes* =the marks of a worker !o6op are an emphasis on !ooperative working for !olle!tive su!!ess* a demo!rati! stru!ture for de!ision making with ea!h member having an e(ual vote* a !olle!tive determination of how net in!ome or net losses are allo!ated* an e(ual !ontribution to and benefit from the !o6op)s !ash and an e(ual sharing of the risks and benefits of working at and owning a business=+;22< But sin!e there is no inade(uate legislation regarding worker !ooperatives in the 8nited 7tates* most worker !ooperatives tend to utiliQe !onsumer !ooperative law for their purposes+ ;2J< .hile $alvert believes a genuine worker !ooperative should be spe!ially in!orporated as owned solely and e(ually by employees* he also observes that $ityBikes is one of the few that stri!tly adheres to the prin!iples of a properly in!orporated worker6 owned !ooperative+ 'nstead* many worker6!ooperatives !hoose to in!orporate as Limited Liability $orporations* be!ause 1T there is less paperwork involved* and @T prote!tion from personal lawsuit is a paramount !on!ern+;24< ;edit< $onsumer !ooperatives "ain arti!le/ $onsumer !ooperative A !onsumers) !ooperative is a !ooperative business owned by its !ustomers for their mutual benefit+ -riented toward servi!e rather than pe!uniary profit* !onsumers of goods and servi!es are often also the individuals who have provided !apital to laun!h or pur!hase su!h free enterprise+ $onsumers) !ooperatives differ from other forms of business in their dire!tive to provide (uality goods and servi!es to !onsumer0owners at the lowest !ost rather than to sell goods and servi!es at the highest pri!e above !ost that the !onsumer is willing to pay+ 'n pra!ti!e !onsumers) !ooperatives pri!e goods and servi!es at !ompetitive market rates+ %he differen!e is that where a for6profit enterprise will treat the differen!e between !ost Sin!luding labor* et!+T and selling pri!e as finan!ial gain* the !onsumer owned enterprise returns this sum to the !onsumer0owner as an over6 payment+ Large !onsumers) !o6ops run mu!h like any other business* re(uiring workers* managers* !lerks* produ!ts* and !ustomers to keep the business running+ 'n smaller !ooperatives* !onsumer0owners are often workers as well+ $onsumers) !ooperatives !an differ greatly in start up and also in how the !o6op is run* but to be true to the !onsumers) !ooperative 55

form of business the enterprise should follow the 9o!hdale #rin!iples+ $onsumers) !ooperatives may* in turn* form $o6operative Federations+ %hese may take the form of !o6operative wholesale so!ieties* through whi!h $onsumers) $o6operatives !olle!tively pur!hase goods at wholesale pri!es and* in some !ases* own fa!tories+ Alternatively* they may be members of $o6operative unions+ $onsumer !ooperatives are very different from privately owned =dis!ount !lubs*= whi!h !harge annual fees in e:!hange for a dis!ount on pur!hases+ %he =!lub= is not owned or governed by the =members= and the profits of the business go to the investors* not to members+ 'n a !ooperative* the members own the business and the profits belong to the !ommunity of members+;23< ;edit< Food !ooperatives "ost food !o6ops are !onsumer !ooperatives* whi!h means that all our retail !o6ops are owned by the people who shop at the stores+ "embers e:er!ise their ownership by patroniQing the store and voting in ele!tions+ %he members ele!t a board of dire!tors to hire* guide and evaluate the general manager who runs day to day operations+;23< Food !ooperatives were originally established to provide fresh* organi! produ!e as a viable alternative to pa!kaged imports+ But this pro!ess !an present a struggle* as !ommunities tend to import the same !rops that lo!al farmers !ultivate+ %he ideas of lo!al and slow food produ!tion !an help lo!al farmers prosper* in addition to providing !onsumers with fresher produ!ts+ But the growing ubi(uity of organi! food produ!ts in !orporate stores testifies to broadening !onsumer awareness* and to the dynami!s of global marketing+ Asso!iated with national and international !ooperative !ommunities* #ortland -regon !ooperatives manage to survive market !ompetition with !orporate fran!hise+ As Lee Lan!aster* finan!ial manager for Food Front* states* =!ooperatives are potentially one demo!rati! e!onomi! model that !ould help guide business de!isions toward meeting human needs while honoring the needs of so!iety and nature=+ Ee admits* however* it is diffi!ult to maintain !ollaboration among !ooperatives while also avoiding integration that typi!ally results in !entraliQed authority+ %im $alvert believes that dollars are the most important vote to make* and others tend to agree+ $iting members of #eople’s $o6op and Alberta $ooperative ro!ery* 9omona De>ies of %he #ortland Allian!e states* =$o6ops are the antidote to the !entraliQation of power+ #eople forget they have power as !onsumers to make !hoi!es+ .e !an’t be !ompletely disentangled from the !orporate world* but we !an try to provide a lo!al model of living further from it+ >o one is getting ri!h off your money at a !o6op+ But that’s the e!onomi! value of shopping here+ 'n return* you support a viable alternative to the vi!ious !y!le of bottom lines and end profits=+;24< As .orld %rade -rganiQation representatives negotiate issues of !ompetition* agri!ultural subsidies* and e!onomi! prote!tionism among developed nations* the pending fate of the Ameri!an farmer depends upon the ability of third6world farmers to =!ompete= with subsidiQed agri!ultural giants like "onsanto $ompany+ Lee Lan!aster says* W8nderneath our uni(ue aspe!ts* we have the same stru!ture and prin!iples+ .elfare of our respe!tive neighborhoods is of vital !on!ern to us+ Food !o6ops were started to provide lo!al* organi! produ!e+ >ow with those things more mainstream* the demand is going up* and our share of that market is de!lining+ .e have to reevaluate+= Further* Lan!aster !laims the traditional independen!e and de!entraliQation of 8+7+ !ooperatives have restri!ted their impa!t on the food industry through e!onomies of s!ale* lamenting they should have been better organiQed/ =.hat if we !ould work with other !o6ops to nurture and establish other !ooperatives?= he asks* ='n essen!e* this is an e:tension of neighborhood organiQing+ .e’re all driven by !ompetition from national 54

!hains* but in looking at national issues and realiQing there’s a lot to address* what’s needed is a bigger movement* not a big !orporation+=;24< ;edit< 9egional trading !urren!ies A!!ording to %homas E+ re!o* ,r+* author of >ew "oney for Eealthy $ommunities* =%he pinna!le of power in today)s world is the power to issue money+ 'f that power !an be demo!ratiQed and fo!used in a dire!tion whi!h gives so!ial and e!ologi!al !on!erns top priority* then there may yet be hope for saving the world"+ 'n this regard* many proponents of E!onomi! Demo!ra!y re!ommend the regionaliQation of !urren!ies+ 7ome e:perts suggest that* =under the Bretton .oods system* the Federal 9eserve a!ted as the world)s !entral bank+ %his gave .merica enormous leverage over economic policies of its prin!ipal trading partners=+;2A< -ther analysts add that developing nations are sus!eptible to e:ploitation mainly be!ause they have no independent monetary system* using the 8+7+ dollar instead+ %his feeds the fra!tional reserve banking system* operated by the 8+7+* $anada* Europe* and ,apan Simperial6 !enters6of6!apitalT+ Developing nations pay heavily for this servi!e through market interest rates and be!ause banking profits and property ownership emigrate to finan!ial !enters elsewhere+;J?< A!!ording to ,+.+ 7mith* =$urren!y is only the representation of wealth produ!ed by !ombining land Sresour!esT* labor* and industrial !apital=+ Ee !laims that no !ountry is free when another !ountry has su!h leverage over its entire e!onomy+ But by !ombining their resour!es* 7mith says developing nations have all three of these foundations of wealth/ By peripheral nations using the !urren!y of an imperial !enter as its trading !urren!y* the imperial !enter !an a!tually print money to own industry within those periphery !ountries+ By forming regional trading blo!s and printing their own trading !urren!y* the developing world has all four re(uirements for produ!tion* resour!es* labor* industrial !apital* and finan!e !apital+ %he wealth produ!ed provides the value to ba!k the !reated and !ir!ulating money+ 7mith further e:plains that developed !ountries need resour!es from the developing world as mu!h as developing !ountries need finan!e !apital and te!hnology from the developed world+ Aside from superior military power of the imperial !enters* the undeveloped world actually has superior bargaining leverage. .ith their own trading !urren!ies* developing !ountries !an barter their resour!es to the developed world in trade for the latest industrial te!hnologies+ Barter avoids =hard money monopoliQation= and the une(ual trades between weak and strong nations that result+ 7mith suggests that barter was how ermany resolved many finan!ial diffi!ulties =put in pla!e to strangle her=* and that =.orld .ars ' and '' settled that trade dispute=+ Ee !laims that their intentions of e:!lusive entitlement are !learly e:posed when the imperial centers must resort

to military force to prevent such barters and maintain monopoly control of others' resources.;1<
7phin: ,in:


Duffy’s !riti!iQing of tea!hing $riti!al thinking found his way to Earper’s heart Anti anti6war a!tivist too eh? $lear !ase of #9'$& #oliti!al 9eligious 'nsidious $harlatan &lepto!ra!y self e:posure http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki0"ikeCDuffy -n De!ember @@* @??3* Duffy was named a #rin!e Edward 'sland representative to the 7enate of $anada on the advi!e of #rime "inister 7tephen Earper* sitting as a $onservative+;3<;A< Ee subse(uently retired as a %K Gournalist at the end of @??3+ 'n "ar!h @?1?* Duffy !riti!iQed the 8niversity of &ing)s $ollege and other Gournalism s!hools in $anada for tea!hing >oam $homsky and !riti!al thinking+ Ee went on to say that Gournalism s!hools in $anada were !hurning out leftists who thought private enterprise was bad+ %he head of &ing)s 7!hool of ,ournalism rea!ted with surprise to Duffy)s !riti!ism* saying that "anufa!turing $onsent was not part of the !urri!ulum+ 7he also said she would not apologiQe for tea!hing !riti!al thinking to Gournalism students+ ;1?< A number of editorial !omments were written in response to Duffy)s !riti!ism+;11< ;1@<;15<

#9'$& mi F'B'B
#oliti!al 9eligious 'nsidious $harlatan &lepto!ra!y media in!iting Fi!kle 'nherent Bias 'gnorant Bliss

#oliti!al 9eligious 'mpli!it $ompli!it E:pli!it #9'$E #oliti!al 9eligious 'mperialist $apitalist Emperors Like other finan!ial empires in history* 7mith !laims the !ontemporary model forms allian!es ne!essary to develop and !ontrol wealth* as peripheral nations remain impoverished providers of !heap resour!es for the imperial6 5J

!enters6of6!apital+;1< Bello! estimated that* during the British En!losures* =perhaps half of the whole population was proletarian=* while roughly the other =half= owned and !ontrolled the means of produ!tion+ >ow* under modern $apitalism* ,+.+ 7mith !laims fewer than 2?? people possess more wealth than half of the earth’s population* as the wealth of 10@ of 16per!ent of the 8nited 7tates population roughly e(ual that of the lower A?6per!ent+ .hen Duffy e:perien!es an ad ho! heart atta!k .ill my following be falsified? http/00www+s!ribd+!om0do!014A343@540%hey6of6the6"aterial6.orld6$annot6%ou!h6the6 7pirit6of6the6Law6as6't6's .. ''' .orldly .ise 'nvisible 'nvin!ible 'nalienable #redi!table is #reventable "ay ' suggest not the 9$"# nor the Pueen’s own 9ifles akinLLL #oor Duffy not aware 9$"# will !all for all eviden!e And then #oof

>o trial what eviden!e in(uiry will find he different than "ulroney ,udi!iary would say @4+ S@T anyway @4+ S1T Anyone whose rights or freedoms* as guaranteed by this $harter* have been infringed or denied may apply to a !ourt of !ompetent Gurisdi!tion to obtain su!h remedy as the !ourt !onsiders appropriate and Gust in the !ir!umstan!es+ S@T .here* in pro!eedings under subse!tion S1T* a !ourt !on!ludes that eviden!e was obtained in a manner that infringed or denied any rights or freedoms guaranteed by this $harter* the eviden!e shall be e:!luded if it is established that* having regard to all the !ir!umstan!es* the admission of it in the pro!eedings would bring the administration of Gusti!e into disrepute+ Eow !an we have the runs if our Gusti!e in found in disrepute ' don’t even know where disrepute is* perhaps when an independent rather than 9$"# 54

that investigates self inno!ent takes us their to disrepute Gusti!e will be done A !obra bared stared and glared from a distan!e 8ntil sos @B snared indi!ates !on!ern 4 own welfare as welfare there 4 the needed and hypnoti!ally if not aware will own you An able well reared welfare spe!ialist will keep you busy while attempting to tend to own+ 7atani! so!ial workers need needy to feel needy needed by the greedy seedy weedy 4 the ne:t while rush to bring bias interest segregated separatist on side Assuredly helpful Z good sports Z and ' think not Assuredly don’t believe it’s over until booked till then a !rook over pawn 7um thin to do with "! 7narl "onopoly !hess 7nake nuan!es and rungless ladders Eow do you separate the !orn from the shaft Enslavers puppets need Gobs for the popula!e lest the #ope kiss them off %he #ope frowns on gays as they don’t produ!e slaves dont!ha know? Eow !an you tell a believer? ' don’t know but ' !an tell a believer and who ain’t?

Does this mean Hes maam Attorney eneral got the runs but no legs re!ipro!ity at its best And tell Kirginia thar ain’t no 7atani! $lause 53

.e of nu!lear and se!ret stuff superiority support all who respe!t and live in pea!e 98>7 9esponsibly 8na!!ountable >uan!es 7!hemati!s .ttorney General, guardian of the public interest /0. S1T %he Attorney eneral for -ntario shall serve as the guardian of the publi! interest in all matters within the s!ope of this A!t or having to do in any way with the pra!ti!e of law in -ntario or the provision of legal servi!es in -ntario* and for this purpose he or she may at any time re(uire the produ!tion of any do!ument or thing pertaining to the affairs of the 7o!iety+ 9+7+-+ 1AA?* !+ L+3* s+ 15 S1TO 1AA3* !+ @1* s+ 4 S1TO @??J* !+ @1* 7!hed+ $* s+ 15+ .dmissions S@T >o admission of any person in any do!ument or thing produ!ed under subse!tion S1T is admissible in eviden!e against that person in any pro!eedings other than pro!eedings under this A!t+ 9+7+-+ 1AA?* !+ L+3* s+ 15 S@TO 1AA3* !+ @1* s+ 4 S@T+ 1rotection of Minister S5T >o person who is or has been the Attorney eneral for -ntario is subGe!t to any pro!eedings of the 7o!iety or to any penalty imposed under this A!t for anything done by him or her while e:er!ising the fun!tions of su!h offi!e+ 9+7+-+ 1AA?* !+ L+3* s+ 15 S5TO 1AA3* !+ @1* s+ 4 S5T+ >ow more than ever invest in wet your pants and [@ new fangled undergarments


iven the Eoly !onundrum what!ha gonna do 77 7e!ret 7o!iety silent maGority a!t up 7ay what? .hen re(uired to play dumb no problem eh? $an you believe for the longest time believed we !ouldn’t see them on their owned media? A!!ess to information priva!y a!t?

.ho’s .ho? 7an!tity of 7pirit %he world but a stage puppets in and out a!(uies!e the final !urtain Banker’s BAAL 7pelt Bawl or Ball as you will .as "r .right .rong? 7end a message to "i!hael message re!eived -'%'> -n!e in there is no etting -ut 7o!ial !ontra!t with vets broken infers Bankers now on the run 't’s a !ompli!it de Fa!to ya had to be there Duffy got the Daffy message a mere e:!hange u for a eh? #erhaps %a!it with benefit of dubious doubt B7 B7 Bull 7hitting Ba!k 7tabbers !riti! $riti!al thinking boomerang
If ya don’t kill em all impossible to experience the go around spin come back http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Human_rights Human rights are "commonly understood as inalienable fundamental rights to which a person is inherently


entitled simply because

she or he is a human being."[1]
Human rights are thus conceived as universal applicable everywhere! and egalitarian the same for everyone!" #hese rights may exist as natural rights or as legal rights$ in local$ regional$ national$ and international law"[%] #he doctrine of human rights in international practice$ within international law$ global and regional institutions$ in the policies of states and in the activities of non&governmental organi'ations$ has been a cornerstone of public policy around the world" The idea of human rights[(]states$

"if the public discourse of peacetime global society
can be said to have a common moral language$ it is that of human rights"" )ar Illegal *atch %% *atch

Fa!ts must have root @ take root od !oheren!y =$at!h @@= must have semblan!e @ !at!h do !hase tail %'ED %a!it/ 8nspoken* impli!it* inferred* implied* understood* unstated 'nalienable/ un!hallengeable* absolute* immutable* not able to be forfeited* unassailable* in!ontrovertible* indisputable* undeniable Essential/ >e!essary* vital* indispensable* important* !ru!ial* !riti!al Demonstrably/ -bviously* palpably* patently* evidently* noti!eably* per!eptibly* dis!ernibly* apparently "any of the basi! ideas that animated the human rights movement developed in the aftermath of the +econd )orld )ar and the atro!ities of #he Holocaust* !ulminating in the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in #aris by the ,nited -ations .eneral /ssembly in 1A43+ %he an!ient world did not possess the !on!ept of universal human rights+[0] %he true forerunner of human rights dis!ourse was the !on!ept of natural rights whi!h appeared as part of the medieval -atural law tradition that be!ame prominent during the 1nlightenment with su!h philosophers as 2ohn 3ocke* 4rancis Hutcheson* and 2ean&2ac5ues 6urlama5ui* and featured prominently in the politi!al dis!ourse of the /merican 7evolution and the 4rench 7evolution+ From this foundation* the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the twentieth !entury+[8] .hereas re!ognition of the inherent dignity and of the e(ual and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom* Gusti!e and pea!e in the world+++ U1st senten!e of the #reamble to the 8niversal De!laration of Euman 9ights All human beings are born free and e(ual in dignity and rights+ UArti!le 1 of the ,nited -ations ,niversal 9eclaration of Human 7ights S8DE9T[:] 41

7ane/ 9ational* sensible* reasonable* sound* normal* wise* !ommonsensi!al SAntonymnT "ad 9espite this$ the strong claims made by the doctrine of human rights continue to provoke considerable skepticism and debates about the content$ nature and ;ustifications of human rights to this day" Indeed, the 5uestion of what is meant by a "right" is itself controversial and the sub;ect of continued philosophical debate"
.hat)s it all about Alfie?

#resuming you already asked Ali!e &eep in mind you must still pie!e together B4 you !an pie!e it all together 7till .%F? Don’t get !aught offside .%F? .e needn’t believe as long as they appear to see it our way so long as in perpetuity eh?


7kill shortage threatens to put B7 B7 Ba!k 7tabbers out of business od works in mysterious ways .hen B7 B7 Bull 7hitting Ba!k 7tabbers happens to B7 B7 %oreador 9ed flag affront !onfronts as bulls are !olor blind %oga #arty @?15 Duffy speaks does he now wish hadn’t help suppress !riti!al think Hesterday’s od today’s do


%he really big su!!essful fight 4 freedom will not begin until realiQation one and all know how enslaved !iviliQation is .hen you know this and see them on $#A$ akin what do ya see -& then when ya look in a mirror what do ya see? -& then what do ya think yar gonna see when >.- is in order? -& then what kind of malfun!tioning od given user friendly brain have ya programmed? %his

9emember 9eality is the %ruth impervious to per!eption yet pre!isely due to per!eption
%ruth is that whi!h would be observed by od whether or not Ee e:ists or whether or not one believes Ee e:ists 'DEAL 9eality 7anely Dealt with

.%F is %ruth? Aid raising wages of impoverished !ountries or be!ome more impoverished 'f ' had a dollar for the sense of a !olle!tive maGority '’d be poor as son a bit!h Fau: pas Z Freudian slip Z ' r one


Do you take E:!edrin for a heada!he finding they are in!reasing? 'n a stew with no help forth!oming why not Gust 7top itLLL Finally get up to speed on your treadmill then find self tiring? Don’t know whether to laugh or !ry? ,ust let go in your new fangled wet your pants and [@ laughter undergarment for !rying out loud abu 9etard o ahead ba!k up 9eform entren!hed tradition antithesis renaissan!e delivery 77 7table 7tuff 'magine if the silent maGority weren’t And began to speak up and 1 : 1 they weren’t thus fi:ing the #9'$E For we are all honorable Et %u Brute Et %u "e .hen a young lad glad grew sad until finally !alm B4 the storm @ kinds of mad 7ui!ide illegal in a !onundrum then staking with thin i!e !ame to me for a pri!e but learned from %ut !an’t take it with you Z alas ' know Zwhat? %he only good people representative is dead the rest are well read E!!entri! see red en!apsulated with bleeding hearts .hatever saying paying with ta: money what the mean mean %he humongous maGority goes to the #9'$E demo!rati!ally


#9'$& mi F'B'B #oliti!al 9eligious 'nsidious $harlatan &lepto!ra!y media in!iting Fi!kle 'nherent Bias 'gnorant Bliss #oliti!al 9eligious 'mpli!it $ompli!it E:pli!it #9'$E #oliti!al 9eligious 'mperialist $apitalist Emperors Like other finan!ial empires in history* 7mith !laims the !ontemporary model forms allian!es ne!essary to develop and !ontrol wealth* as peripheral nations remain impoverished providers of !heap resour!es for the imperial6 !enters6of6!apital+;1< Bello! estimated that* during the British En!losures* =perhaps half of the whole population was proletarian=* while roughly the other =half= owned and !ontrolled the means of produ!tion+ >ow* under modern $apitalism* ,+.+ 7mith !laims fewer than 2?? people possess more wealth than half of the earth’s population* as the wealth of 10@ of 16per!ent of the 8nited 7tates population roughly e(ual that of the lower A?6per!ent+

If people knew it’s up up and away but who’s gonna say Imagine if we had a secret society with moral media that spoke up at once Imagining silent moral ma;ority going noisy @ AB imagine your .od let us pray It’s only illegal if the people know It’s not fraud if the people’s representative frauds know about it .overnments 6abble on about peanuts C BI#1 Bnowable Invisible #itanic 1lephant http<==www"youtube"com=watch>v?,b/**.f85&c Ah *anadaDDD
-h "E -h "H -h "other Earth oh "e Hou -ne or >one


http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?vBEhL@g:GemLg Bank $artels Federal 9eserve http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?vBlu>g#-6v(BwFfeatureBrelated Eitlers 9oth!hilds http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?vBtmg,E3hrL1H 9oths!hild @ .orld .ars http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?vB>QL'Q@4 (.s 9oths!hild Federal 9eserve http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?vBD:?vr9@BFp3 "oney out of thin air http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?vBon.bCripD5! Eow 9oths!hild !ontrolled the modern world oldsmith’s first bankers started !heating as in utenberg %ime to bring $rooks before a legal !ourt $entral Banks #luto!ra!y "oney $hangers http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?vBro95s7un(po .here have the 9oths!hilds gone? 9oths!hild Dionist 77 7e!ret 7o!iety not about ,ewish people http/00www+youtube+!om0wat!h?vBht(u7"6hHpo "eltdown/ %he men who !rashed our world reenspan maGor !riminal .here’s the "oney? .e all #ay the #ri!e #oliti!al 9eligious 'mpli!it $ompli!it E:pli!it #9'$E #oliti!al 9eligious 'mperialist $apitalist Emperors Like other finan!ial empires in history* 7mith !laims the !ontemporary model forms allian!es ne!essary to develop and !ontrol wealth* as peripheral nations remain impoverished providers of !heap resour!es for the imperial6 !enters6of6!apital+;1< Bello! estimated that* during the British En!losures* =perhaps half of the whole population was proletarian=* while roughly the other =half= owned and !ontrolled the means of produ!tion+ >ow* under modern $apitalism* ,+.+ 7mith !laims fewer than 2?? people possess more wealth than half of the earth’s population* as the wealth of 10@ of 16per!ent of the 8nited 7tates population roughly e(ual that of the lower A?6per!ent+


9uffy’s critici'ing of teaching *ritical thinking found his way to Harper’s heart /nti anti&war activist too eh> *lear case of E7I*B Eolitical 7eligious Insidious *harlatan Bleptocracy self exposure http<==en"wikipedia"org=wiki=FikeG9uffy An 9ecember %%$ %HHI$ 9uffy was named a Erince 1dward Island representative to the +enate of *anada on the advice of Erime Finister +tephen Harper$ sitting as a *onservative"[I][J] He subse5uently retired as a #K ;ournalist at the end of %HHI" In Farch %H1H$ 9uffy critici'ed the ,niversity of BingLs *ollege and other ;ournalism schools in *anada for teaching -oam *homsky and critical thinking" He went on to say that ;ournalism schools in *anada were churning out leftists who thought private enterprise was bad" #he head of BingLs +chool of 2ournalism reacted with surprise to 9uffyLs criticism$ saying that Manufacturing Consent was not part of the curriculum" +he also said she would not apologi'e for teaching critical thinking to ;ournalism students"[1H] / number of editorial comments were written in response to 9uffyLs criticism"[11][1%][1(] Critical thinking is a way of deciding whether a claim is true$ partially true$ or false" *ritical thinking is a process that leads to skills that can be learned$ mastered and used" *ritical thinking is a tool by which one can come about reasoned conclusions based on a reasoned process" #his process incorporates passion and creativity$ but guides it with discipline$ practicality and common sense" It can be traced in the )est to ancient .reece with its +ocratic method and in the 1ast to ancient India with the 6uddhist kalama sutta and abhidharma literature" *ritical thinking is an important component of many fields such as education$ politics$ business$ and science"
.hen tried and found @B a pro rogue !an the pro rogue’s $anadian representative pro rogue grant the $anadian #rime "inister pro rogue’s re(uest for a prorogue or !an the pro rogue’s $anadian representative Gust assume the $anadian monar!h’s royal prerogative to grant the $anadian #rime "inister pro rogue a prorogue or would the pro rogue’s $anadian representative pro rogue be re(uired to grant the $anadian #rime pro rogue a prorogue with a night hood? 43

Eow mu!h wood would the people’s representatives brains be re(uired for a wood!hu!k to !hu!k the wood as far as !ould if provided permission by someone with authority that had a mind to or is that a !at!h @@? http/00www+s!ribd+!om0do!0143J32?@A0.hen6the6Pueen6is6%ried6and6Found6to6Be6 $riminal6.hat6Are6Eer69epresentatives

http<==en"wikipedia"org=wiki=ErorogationGinG*anada Prorogation is the end of a parliamentary session in the Earliament of *anada and the parliaments of its provinces and territories" It differs from a recess or ad;ournment$ which do not end a session$ and from a complete dissolution of parliament$ which ends both the session and the entire parliament$ re5uiring an election for the House of *ommons in the bicameral federal parliament and the singular legislative chamber of the unicameral provincial parliaments" In the *anadian parliamentary system$ the legislature is typically prorogued upon the completion of the agenda set forth in the +peech from the #hrone and remains in recess until the monarch or governor general$ in the federal sphere$ or lieutenant governor$ in a province$ summons parliamentarians" 4rom %HHI to present$ prorogation has been the sub;ect of discussion among academics$ the *anadian public$ and their political representatives" It is$ according to the constitution of *anada$ the *anadian monarchLs royal prerogative to prorogue the legislatures$ though this is usually done for the federal parliament by the sovereignLs federal representative$ the .overnor .eneral of *anada$ and always for the provincial parliaments by the monarchLs provincial representatives$ the lieutenant governors" 3ike all such actions of the sovereign and governors$ this is almost exclusively done on the advice of the relevant prime minister who holds the confidence of the elected chamber of parliament" / parliamentary session lasts until a prorogation$ after which$ without ceremony$ one or both chambers of the legislature cease all legislative business until the governor general or lieutenant governor issues a proclamation calling for a new session to begin" 4or the federal parliament$ except for the election of a speaker for the House of *ommons and his or


her claiming of that houseLs privileges$ the same procedures for the opening of parliament are again followed" Erorogation is a necessary action$ including in "situations where governments need to stop and refocus"" /t the same time$ arbitrary use of the power of prorogation can "[unbalance] the very fragile balance of power that exists between the different parts of government"" )hat is paramount is that the legislature be recalled so the opposition can hold the cabinet to account for its actions$[1] a task central to the functioning of responsible government"[%]

.here’s the silent maGority perhaps laugh leaders sane 9outine #ro!eedings #etition Hear of the Brain fingering minority 7ilent minority ha ha

8p the down es!alator to %hy &ingdom $ome sin!e anti(uity bankers run %hey know the way eviden!ed in pro!lamations De Gure antithesis De fa!to administed gives them up as 7E%7 7elf Eviden!ing %erroristi! 7pirits
Fa!ts must have root @ take root od !oheren!y =$at!h @@= must have semblan!e @ !at!h do !hase tail

iven the presumed integrity intelle!tual prowess of leaders with proven applied thought %E$E #>%9 9$9 %rial Error $ause Effe!t #rogressive >ature %hought 9eason 9etrospe!t $onstant 9e!alibration EA9#


Eeight Ad6ho! 9idi!ulously #resumptuous

$-EAB'%7 $reatures of Eabit A!(uies!ed Bullshit 'nherently %erroriQe 7elf WFine words and an insinuating appearan!e are seldom asso!iated with true virtueX Attorney eneral wears many hats suggesting perhaps an!estors were hatters and mill workers .e are also looking at the possible probable were from the planet "er!ury http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki0#lanetC"er!ury An observer on "er!ury would therefore see only one day every two years+ http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki0"adCEatter Eatta* the Eatter is a fi!tional !hara!ter in Lewis $arroll)s Ali!e)s Adventures in .onderland and the story)s se(uel* %hrough the Looking6 lass+ Ee is often referred to as the "ad Eatter* though this term was never used by $arroll+ %he phrase =mad as a hatter= pre6dates $arroll)s works and the !hara!ters the Eatter and the "ar!h Eare are initially referred to as =both mad= by the $heshire $at* with both first appearing in Ali!e)s Adventures in .onderland* in the seventh !hapter titled =A "ad %ea6#arty=+ %he Eatter e:plains to Ali!e that he and the "ar!h Eare are always having tea be!ause* when he tried to sing for the Pueen of Eearts at her !elebration* she senten!ed him to death for =murdering the time*= but he es!apes de!apitation+ 'n retaliation* %ime Sreferred to as a =Eim=T halts himself in respe!t to the Eatter* keeping him and the "ar!h Eare stu!k at J/?? forever+ As su!h* he e:!laims =%ea %imeL= at random o!!asions+ %he tea party* when Ali!e arrives* is !hara!teriQed by swit!hing pla!es on the table at any given time* making short* personal remarks* asking unanswerable riddles and re!iting nonsensi!al poetry* all of whi!h eventually drive Ali!e away+ Ee appears again as a witness at the &nave of Eearts) trial* where the Pueen appears to re!ogniQe him as the singer she senten!ed to death* and the &ing also !autions him not to be nervous =or ')ll have you e:e!uted on the spot+= .hen the !hara!ter makes his appearan!e as =Eatta= in %hrough the Looking6 lass* he is in trouble with the law on!e again+ %his time* however* he is not ne!essarily guilty/ the .hite Pueen e:plains that (uite often subGe!ts are punished before they !ommit a !rime* rather than after* and sometimes they do not even !ommit it at all+ Ee is also mentioned as being one of the .hite &ing)s messengers* and the "ar!h Eare appears as well as =Eaigha=* sin!e the &ing e:plains that he needs two messengers/ =one to !ome* and one to go+= 7ir ,ohn %enniel)s illustration also depi!ts him as sipping from a tea!up as he did in the original novel* adding weight to $arroll)s hint that the two !hara!ters are very mu!h the same+ 21

Although the name ="ad Eatter= was !learly done and inspired by the phrase =as mad as a hatter=* there is some un!ertainty as to the origins of this phrase+ "er!ury was used in the pro!ess of !uring felt used in some hats* making it impossible for hatters to avoid inhaling the mer!ury fumes given off during the hat making pro!essO hatters and mill workers thus often suffered mer!ury poisoning* !ausing neurologi!al damage* in!luding !onfused spee!h and distorted vision+ Eat making was the main trade in 7to!kport* near where $arroll grew up* and it was not unusual then for hatters to appear disturbed or !onfusedO many died early as a result of mer!ury poisoning+ Eowever* the Eatter does not e:hibit the symptoms of mer!ury poisoning* whi!h in!lude =e:!essive timidity* diffiden!e* in!reasing shyness* loss of self6!onfiden!e* an:iety* and a desire to remain unobserved and unobtrusive+=;1< %he Eatter and the "ar!h Eare are initially referred to as =both mad= by the $heshire $at* and both first appear in the seventh !hapter of Ali!e)s Adventures in .onderland* whi!h is titled =A "ad !ea$1arty"+;@< www+'yffy'+!om 'n your fa!e for your 'nformation 'n any !ase 7,7 7traight ,a!ket 7yndrome http/00www+s!ribd+!om0do!011533@A4407pirit6'ntent6#re!eden!e6de6,ure6$onstitution6or6 9omans6156 aming6the67ystem6de6Fa!to 8nited &ingdom $ommonwealth #7 #oliti!al 7!ien!e http/00www+s!ribd+!om0do!041?4?A4J0E!onomi!6Demo!ra!y6the67atani!6.ay .e all pay the #oliti!al 9eligious !ompli!it E:pli!it '$E #oliti!al 9eligious 'nsidious $apitalist Emperors
Like other finan!ial empires in history* 7mith !laims the !ontemporary model forms allian!es ne!essary to develop and !ontrol wealth* as peripheral nations remain impoverished providers of !heap resour!es for the imperial6!enters6 of6!apital+;1< Bello! estimated that* during the British En!losures* =perhaps half of the whole population was proletarian=* while roughly the other =half= owned and !ontrolled the means of produ!tion+ >ow* under modern $apitalism* ,+.+ 7mith !laims fewer than 2?? people possess more wealth than half of the earth’s population* as the wealth of 10@ of 16per!ent of the 8nited 7tates population roughly e(ual that of the lower A?6per!ent+


www+Amen15+!om http/00www+s!ribd+!om0do!014A343@540%hey6of6the6"aterial6.orld6$annot6%ou!h6the6 7pirit6of6the6Law6as6't6's .. ''' .orld .ise 'nvisible 'nvin!ible 'nalienable %its 8p %hat is to say 8niform punishment 7-$9A%E7 7pirit of $harter 9ights Authenti!ity %a!it E:pli!itly 7upersedes $L87%E9 $ommon Law 8ns!rupulous 7tatutes %raditional E:ploitation 9ituals 8ntil the popula!e see truths benefit in foresight ' suppose ' will su!!umb knowing ' will never see a poem as lovely as a tree nor a brighter life form #rudent to note 7atani! will not pass this on Eaving sold self to 7atan for what lay beyond the bottom of the rainbow Eeight of ridi!ulous %antamount to #7- passing self on

.ish ' had been aware of this before attempting my trek to Gusti!e as ' do believe ' riled a BooGum so beware take !are of self

http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki0%heCEuntingCofCtheC7nark %he poem borrows o!!asionally from $arroll)s short poem =,abberwo!ky= in %hrough the Looking6 lass Sespe!ially the poem)s !reatures and portmanteau wordsT* but it is a stand6 alone work* first published in 134J by "a!millan+ %he illustrations were by Eenry Eoliday+ 'n !ommon with other $arroll works* the meaning of his poems has been (ueried and analysed in depth+ -ne of the most !omprehensive ;5<gatherings of information about the poem and its meaning is %he Annotated 7nark by "artin ardner+


%he !rew !onsists of ten members* whose des!riptions all begin with the letter B/ a Bellman Sthe leaderT* a Boots* a Bonnet6maker* a Barrister* a Broker* a Billiard6marker* a Banker* aBut!her* a Baker* and a Beaver+ %he Boots is the only !hara!ter who is not shown in any illustration in the original* a fa!t that has led to mu!h spe!ulation Ssee belowT+ Bellman Bonnet "aker Barrister Broker Billiard6"arker Banker But!her Baker Beaver After !rossing the sea guided by the Bellman)s map of the -!eanUa blank sheet of paper Uthe hunting party arrive in a strange land+ %he Baker re!alls that his un!le on!e warned him that* though !at!hing 7narks is all well and good* you must be !arefulO for* if your 7nark is a -oojum* then you will softly and suddenly vanish away* and never be met with again+ .ith this in mind* they split up to hunt+ Along the way* the But!her and Beaver 6previously mutually wary for the But!her)s spe!ialty in preparing beavers6 be!ome fast friends* the Barrister falls asleep and dreams of a !ourt trial defended by the 7nark* and the Banker loses his sanity after being atta!ked by a frumious Bandersnat!h+ At the end* the Baker !alls out that he has found a 7narkO but when the others arrive he has mysteriously disappeared*;4< )For the 7nark was a BooGum* you see)+ Even more than in most nonsense poetry* inade(ua!y of language* meaning* and symbol is a re!urring theme in 7nark+ E:amples in!lude the blank map* the Bellman)s !ontradi!tory navigational orders* the Baker)s name6loss and failure to settle on one repla!ement6name* his failing to mention his luggage* his attempt to !ommuni!ate in the wrong languages* the Banker)s absurd offer to prote!t the Beaver from being but!hered by insuring it against fire and hail* the But!her)s self6nullifying arithmeti!al manipulations* the $ourt offi!ers) unwillingness to fulfil their lawful obligations* the Banker)s ridi!ulous attempt to bribe a predatory beast with money* and his subse(uent aphasia+;2< 't is disputed whether $arroll had a young audien!e in mind when he wrote the 7nark+ %he ballad* like almost all of the poems in the Ali!e books* has no young protagonists* is rather dark* and does not end happily+ 'n addition to the disappearan!e of the Baker* the Banker)s loss of sanity is des!ribed in detail+ 7imilarly* Eenry Eoliday)s illustrations for the original edition are !ari!atures with disproportionate heads and unpleasant features* very different from %enniel)s illustrations of Ali!e+ %was night B4 Imas not an identifiable !reature stirring for ' was 1 Ha gotta !li!k on everything to eradi!ate "D "aranatha Demo!ra!y !li!h\s
Fa!ts must have root @ take root od !oheren!y =$at!h @@= must have semblan!e @ !at!h do !hase tail


9eality test ive this a %ry ya gotta Believe it’s do or die for the dye is !ast ' damn near fried www+'yffy'+!om

Fi!kle Fate Finger FFF Forthright Forthwith Forth!oming =%hy kingdom !ome= "! #ig "usi!al $hairs #uppets in glomming #uppets in overnan!e "edia Elusives

#' "E
%he re(uest for od)s kingdom to !ome is usually interpreted as a referen!e to the belief* !ommon at the time* that a "essiah figure would bring about a &ingdom of od+ %raditionally the !oming of od)s &ingdom is seen as a divine gift to be prayed for*

not a human achievement.
%his idea is fre(uently !hallenged by groups who believe that the &ingdom will !ome by the hands of those faithful to work for a better world+ 't is believed by these individuals that ,esus) !ommands to feed the hungry and !lothe the needy are the &ingdom to whi!h he was referring+

#' "E-.
#uppets in overnan!e "edia Elusives -pposition .eb -n failure we all paid the pri!e to 7EE 7ane E(uilibrium E:termination 7eiQe the !orre!tion $ease and desist the DAH Dark Abyss Hoke www+Eome9a!e15+!om %-%E %ime of the Essen!e K-%E Kalidate -ne %errestrial E:isten!e 't is as meaningless to tote a magnifi!ent od given user friendly brain as a !hainsaw if ya ain’t gotta mind to fire6up the meaningful rendition of 22

9ule of Law http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki09uleCofClaw %he 9ule of law in its most basi! form is no one is above the law+ #erhaps the most important appli!ation of the rule of law is the prin!iple that governmental authority is legitimately e:er!ised only in a!!ordan!e with* publicly disclosed laws, adopted and enfor!ed in a!!ordan!e with established pro!edural steps that are referred to as due pro!ess+ %he rule of law is hostile to di!tatorship and to anar!hy+ A!!ording to modern Anglo6Ameri!an thinking* hallmarks of adheren!e to the rule of law !ommonly in!lude a !lear separation of powers*

legal certainty,
the prin!iple of legitimate e:pe!tation and e(uality of all before the law+ %he !on!ept is not without !ontroversy* and it has been said that =the phrase the rule of law has be!ome meaningless thanks to ideologi!al abuse and general over6 use= - #-E eneral -ver6use #ro!lamations -nly Elusivity publicly disclosed laws 2@+ S1T %he $onstitution of $anada is the supreme law of $anada* and any law that is in!onsistent with the provisions of the $onstitution is* to the e:tent of the in!onsisten!y*

of no for!e or effe!t+


B7 7 B7 Bull 7hit 7elf Ba!k 7tabbers "er!ury Do!toring "er!ury Do!toring "er!ury Do!toring "D "D "D "aranatha Demo!ra!y "aranatha Demo!ra!y "aranatha Demo!ra!y Don’t forget to !li!k your heelsLL http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki0&ingdomCofC od %he $ate!hism of the $atholi! $hur!h S$$$T tea!hes that the !oming 9eign of od will be a kingdom of love* pea!e* and Gusti!e+;@5< ,usti!e is defined as a virtue whereby one respe!ts the rights of all persons* living in harmony and e(uity with all+;@4< %he &ingdom of od began with $hrist)s death and 9esurre!tion and must be further e:tended by $hristians until it has been brought into perfe!tion by $hrist at the end of time+ ;@2< %he $hristian does this by living the way $hrist lived* by thinking the way $hrist thought*;@5< and by promoting pea!e and Gusti!e+;@J< %his !an be a!!omplished by dis!erning how the Eoly 7pirit S odT is !alling one to a!t in the !on!rete !ir!umstan!es of one)s life+;@J< $hristians must also pray* asking od for what is ne!essary to !ooperate with the !oming of od)s &ingdom+ ;@4< ,esus gathered dis!iples to be the seed and the beginning of od)s 9eign on earth* and ,esus sent the Eoly 7pirit to guide them+;@3< ,esus !ontinues to !all all people to 24

!ome together around him;@A< and to spread the &ingdom of od a!ross the entire world+ ;5?< Eowever* the ultimate triumph of $hrist)s &ingdom will not !ome about until $hrist)s return to earth at the end of time+;51< During $hrist)s se!ond !oming* he will Gudge the living and the dead+ -nly those who are Gudged to be righteous and Gust will reign with $hrist forever+;5@< $hrist)s se!ond !oming will also mark the absolute defeat of all evil powers* in!luding 7atan+;55< 8ntil then* the !oming of the &ingdom will !ontinue to be atta!ked by evil powers as $hristians wait with hope for the se!ond !oming of their 7avior+;54< %his is why $hristians pray to hasten $hrist)s return by saying to him ="aranathaL= whi!h means =$ome* Lord ,esusL=+;52< http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki0EndCtime .hile some who believe in the literal interpretation of the Bible insist that the predi!tion of dates or times is futile* some other writers believe that ,esus foretold of signs whi!h would indi!ate that the =end of days= was near+ 7ome of these signs in!lude earth(uakes* natural disasters* !ivil problems* =wars and rumors of wars*= and other !atastrophes+ -f the pre!ise time* however* it will !ome like a =thief in the night= S1 %hess+ 2/@T+ http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki09esurre!tion[E:ternalClinks Dombies be!ame a popular devi!e in modern horror fi!tion* largely be!ause of the su!!ess of eorge A+ 9omero)s 1AJ3 film >ight of the Living Dead;14< and they have appeared as plot devi!es in various books* films and in television shows+ Dombie fi!tion is now a siQeable sub6genre of horror* usually des!ribing a breakdown of !iviliQation o!!urring when most of the population be!ome flesh6eating Qombies V a Qombie apo!alypse+ %he monsters are usually hungry for human flesh* often spe!ifi!ally brains+ 7ometimes they are vi!tims of a fi!tional pandemi! illness !ausing the dead to reanimate or the living to behave this way* but often no !ause is given in the story+ eno!ide is the deliberate and systemati! destru!tion* in whole or in part* of an ethni!* ra!ial* religious* or national group+;1< .hile a pre!ise definition varies among geno!ide s!holars* a legal definition is found in the 1A43 8nited >ations $onvention on the #revention and #unishment of the $rime of eno!ide S$##$ T+ Arti!le @ of this !onvention defines geno!ide as =any of the following a!ts !ommitted with intent to destroy* in whole or in part* a national* ethni!al* ra!ial or religious group* as su!h/ killing members of the groupO !ausing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the groupO deliberately infli!ting on the group !onditions of life* !al!ulated to bring about its physi!al destru!tion in whole or in partO imposing measures intended to prevent births within the groupO ;and< for!ibly transferring !hildren of the group to another group+=;@< Be!ause of the influen!e of ,oseph 7talin*

this definition of genocide under international law


does not include political groups.

Another !riti!ism of the $##$ is that when its provisions have been invoked by the 8nited >ations 7e!urity $oun!il* they have only been invoked to punish those who have already !ommitted geno!ide and

been foolish enough to leave a paper trail.
't was this !riti!ism that led to the adoption of 8> 7e!urity $oun!il 9esolution 1J44 by the 8nited >ations 7e!urity $oun!il on @3 April @??J !ommits the $oun!il to a!tion to prote!t !ivilians in armed !onfli!t and to prote!t populations from geno!ide* war !rimes* ethni! !leansing and !rimes against humanity+ eno!ide s!holars su!h as regory 7tanton have postulated that !onditions and a!ts that often o!!ur before* during* and after geno!ideU su!h as dehumaniQation of vi!tim groups* strong organiQation of geno!idal groups* and denial of geno!ide by its perpetratorsU !an be identified and

actions taken to stop genocides before they happen.
$riti!s of this approa!h su!h as Dirk "oses assert that this is unrealisti! and that* for e:ample*

"2arfur will end when it suits the great powers that have a stake in the region".


Ha !an wat!h them on $#A$ in 7"89F7 7kipping "aterial 8ndeniable 9ighteous Fa!ts 7ystemi!ally http/00en+wikipedia+org0wiki07murfs %he 7murfs SFren!h/ Les 7!htroumpfsT is a Belgian !omi! and television fran!hise !entred on a group of 7murfs/ small blue fi!tional !reatures that live in mushrooms+ %he 7murfs were first !reated and introdu!ed as a series of !omi! !hara!ters by the Belgian !omi!s artist #eyo Spen name of #ierre $ullifordT in 1A23+ %he word W7murfX is the original Dut!h translation of the Fren!h =7!htroumpf=* whi!h* a!!ording to #eyo* is a word invented during a meal with fellow !artoonist Andr\ Fran(uin* when he !ould not remember the word salt+;5< %here are more than one hundred 7murfs* whose names are based on adGe!tives that emphasiQe their !hara!teristi!s* e+g+ =,okey 7murf=* who likes to play pra!ti!al Gokes on his fellow smurfs* =$lumsy 7murf=* who has a habit of !reating havo! unintentionally* and =7murfette=Uthe first female 7murf to be introdu!ed in the series+ %he 7murfs wear #hrygian !aps* whi!h represented freedom in 9oman times+ ;!itation needed<

'n retrospe!t best presume something in the mushrooms in!luded in the "er!ury stew %hey say in the senator !onundrum the 9$"# that investigated "ulroney this way and that are on the !ase J?

"ulroney stole the 9$"# de!laring the $ommissioner a D#6Deputy "inister www+Damage$ontrol15+!om %was the night before Imas not an identifiable !reature @B seen stirring 4 ' was 1 #eople with fair wages in hand takes em off welfare and waging warfare being good for 7ABBA%E 7taying Alive Benevolen!e Business A!!ording to Eumanity



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