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UNIT 2: The Chemistry of Life Biology I DAYSHEET 34: Introduction to Enzymes Name _____________________________________ Date: __________ Directions: On the SOL

& Term Assessments, GRAPHS AND TABLES ARE YOUR FRIEND! These questions usually do not require any specific scientific knowledge to answer – you just have to CAREFULLY read the graph or table! Look at the graphs and tables below and write one complete sentence describing what each graph is showing. Then answer the SOL question.
1. This table shows ____________________

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2. This graph shows ___________________

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3. This table shows ____________________

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4. This graph shows ___________________

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Activity 1: Cornell Notes Activity 1: Cornell Notes Biology Objective:

Essential Questions

Notes: • • • • All of the chemical reactions in your body are called ___________________ Enzymes are a type of _____________________________ Enzymes are made of _____________________________ Enzymes are __________________ = things that speed up chemical reaction
     

#1:

STOP-AND-JOT: How do enzymes help metabolism function? ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

#2:
• Enzymes work by lowering ___________________________ energy= the energy needed to get a reaction started • Activation energy works just like ________________________________ , slowing down chemical reactions • • Lowering activation energy ______________________ chemical reactions! Complete the graph below to show how enzymes work:
     

STOP-AND-JOT: What is the difference between a catalyzed and an uncatalyzed reaction? ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ How do enzymes catalyze (speed up) chemical reactions? ________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________

Essential Questions

Notes:

#3:
• • • • _____________________ = the molecule(s) an enzyme attaches to ____________________________ = part of the enzyme that fits the substrate An enzyme fits onto its   substrate like a _____________________________ Label the following in   the above picture: enzyme, substrate, active site
       

SUMMARY:

Directions: Use the graph below and your notes and answer the questions
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1. Which letter on the graph represents the reactants? _______ 2. Which letter on the graph represents the products? _________ 3. Which letter(s) on the graph represent(s) the activation energy? ________ 4. Which line (1 or 2) on the graph represents a reaction with an enzyme? ______ 5. Which line (1 or 2) on the graph represents an uncatalyzed reaction? _______ 6. What do enzymes do? _____________________________________________
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Activity 2: Enzyme Challenge Problems
Enzymes are important biological macromolecules that do work in all living things. Plants, animals and prokaryotes all depend on enzyme to break down large molecules or build new ones. Enzymes are made up of one or more proteins, and proteins are made based on information found in your DNA. Of course, there are even enzymes that make other enzymes!

Step 1 1. Molecule C is a large protein (or several proteins together) that we call an ________________. 2. Molecules A and B are called substrate, and are usually _______________ or building blocks of larger macromolecules. 3. Which of the four major biological macromolecules is C made of? Step 2 4. Molecules A and B are now bound to molecule C’s ______________ ______________. 5. When C is bound to A and B, it is an ____________ _____________ _____________. 6. Is molecule C breaking apart (decomposing) or building (synthesizing) a macromolecule? 7. If a solution is too acidic or basic, molecule C can ________________ or change it shape so that A and B will no longer fit.

Step 3 8. What will happen to molecule C now that the reaction is complete?

9. What are three things that affect how fast molecule C works?

10. Molecule D is made of building blocks represented by A and B. If D represents a polysaccharide, A and B would represent ___________________.

HW 34: Enzymes Name: ______________________________

Biology I Date ___________________

Enzymes  &  Chemical  Reactions:  Use  your  reading  strategies  to  receive  full  credit  for  your   work.   Organisms  must  be  able  to  quickly  turn  reactants  in  a  chemical  reaction  into  product.    This   speed  helps  to  ensure  proper  metabolic  function,  which  maintains  homeostasis.    This  is  a  key   characteristic  of  life!    In  class,  we  discussed  speed  bumps  and  their  role  regulating  the  speed  of   traffic  on  busy  streets.    Remember  that  speed  bumps  are  designed  to  slow  traffic  down.    We   have  a  similar  “bump”  in  biology!    Although  speed  bumps  are  necessary  when  regulating   traffic,  they  can  be  deadly  in  living  things.    The  body  must  be  able  to  lower  these  “bumps”  to   ensure  that  our  chemical  reactions  happen  as  quickly  as  possible.   Enzymes  are  special  proteins  designed  to  lower  these  “bumps.”    In  chemical  reactions,  these   bumps  are  called  ACTIVATION  ENERGY.    The  higher  the  activation  energy,  the  slower  the   chemical  reaction!    Enzymes  increase  the  rate  of  chemical  reactions  by  making  these  chemical   speed  bumps  smaller.    If  a  chemical  reaction  has  an  enzyme  present,  it  is  a  CATALYZED   reaction.    Catalyzed  reactions  will  always  proceed  faster  than  uncatalyzed  reactions.   1. Which  statement  about  enzymes  is  true?     a. Enzymes  are  consumed  during  chemical  reaction.   b. Enzymes  provide  energy  to  activate  a  chemical  reaction.   c. Enzymes  provide  a  site  on  which  reactants  can  combine.   d. Enzymes  increase  the  concentration  of  reactant  particles.     2. How  are  enzymes  able  to  speed  up  biochemical  reactions?     a. They  provide  energy  to  the  reactants.   b. They  absorb  energy  from  the  products.   c. They  lower  the  activation  energy  of  the  reaction.   d. They  increase  the  number  of  available  reactant  particles.  
         

Look  at  the  graph  below  to  answer  questions  3-­‐6.  
                         

3. Which  of  the  chemical  reactions  has  a  lower  activation  energy  in  the  graph  above,  the   catalyzed  or  the  uncatalyzed  reaction?  ______________________________________     4. Which  of  the  chemical  reactions  (catalyzed  of  uncatalyzed)  in  the  graph  above  will   happen  at  a  faster  rate?  _____________________________________   5. Which  of  the  chemical  reactions  above  (catalyzed  or  uncatalyzed)  has  an  enzyme   present?  _________________________________   6. Using  the  graph  above,  which  chemical  reaction  will  have  a  lower  activation  energy   (with  enzyme  or  without  an  enzyme)?  ___________________________________