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# Lesson Plan 1 (CCSS) / (NGSSS) with Cognitive Complexity: Standards Number Benchmark Description Compare and contrast findings

presented in a text to those from other sources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradict previous explanations or accounts. Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest, using the same reasoning as in solving equations. Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations. Describe how scientific inferences are drawn from scientific observations and provide examples from the content being studied. Cognitive Complexity Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts

LACC.910.RTS.3.9

MAC.912.ACED.1.4 MACC.912.GMG.1.2

Level 1: Recall Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts Level 2: Basic Application of Skills & Concepts

SC.912.N.1.6

Performance Objectives  LACC.910.RTS.3.9 o SWBAT modify their predictions based on comparison between their recorded data and data presented in a scientific text. o Achievement will be measured through responses in worksheet that call for revisions of the predictions made as well as evidence that supports them. MAC.912.A-CED.1.4 o SWBAT solve for mass given density and volume through the rearrangement of the density formula. o Achievement will be measured in students’ ability to manipulate the formula correctly and calculate appropriately in the worksheet. MACC.912.G-MG.1.2 o SWBAT record data that corresponds to density based on mass and volume calculations in order to solve for the density of the liquid. o Achievement of this objective will be measured in the beginning of the explore and during the explain. SC.912.N.1.6 o SWBAT discuss how their ideas were derived from observations made during their experiments and relate it to real world situations.

o Achievement of this objective will be measured in the worksheet specifically when the students are asked to support their answers with evidence from the observation as well as in the explain. Materials List              30 worksheets 30 scientific calculators Sign style name tags that have name on front and back to ID students when at lab stations Paper towels 1 1L graduated cylinder Food coloring (1 box of 4 colors) 2 bottles Honey 1 large bottle Light Cairo syrup 1 large bottle Dawn dish soap Water (lab stations in class have faucets) 1 large bottle Oil 1 large bottle Rubbing alcohol 1 large bottle Lamp oil       20 100mL graduated cylinders 10 100mL beakers 10 scales (whatever kind the school has) 10 cans Coke 10 cans Diet Coke 20 large beakers (I’m sure this is going to be near impossible to get so maybe we can use the plastic shoebox containers or clear cubbies instead and in that case only need 10 because both cans will fit inside) Liquid Cards already prepared 30 goggles

 

Advance Preparations     Name tags need to be made Liquid cards will have to be made that have the liquid name and actual density matched to a number each group will be assigned Layered liquid engage should be completed in the classroom in advance (perhaps Wednesday right after school) so it has time to sit and the layers can really separate Stations need to be set and groups in islands o Islands will have name tags so the students know initially where to sit o Groups and stations will be numbered so the students know exactly where to go and are responsible for their workspaces. o Each station will have: - 2 100mL graduated cylinders - 1 100 mL beaker containing the liquid assigned to the group - A label identifying what number liquid is in the beaker - 1 scale - 1 can of Coke - 1 can Diet Coke

  Safety

- either 2 large beakers or another container that serves the same purpose Specified groups of 4 provided by mentor teacher Prezi will be displayed on the overhead projector

To promote safety throughout the school year all students will participate in the following safety measures:  All students will wear googles throughout the exploration  LIQUIDS ARE CHEMICALS o If something spills notify someone and wet paper towels to clean it up  Glass lab tools- make sure hands are dry so they don’t slip and break  If something happens to break IMMEDIATELY notify someone so it can be cleaned or custodial staff can be called Lesson Plan ENGAGEMENT What the Teacher Will Do Time: 5 minutes Student Responses and Potential Misconceptions WORDS CAPITALIZED ARE STUDENT RESPONSES

Success comes after the challenge SLIDE 1 of PREZI

Goals SLIDE 2 of PREZI Layered Liquid introduction SLIDE 3 of PREZI Probing questions SLIDE 4 of PREZI

What the Teacher Will Say (include Probing Questions) The only way to truly succeed at something is by conquering the challenge that stands between you and the goal. Today we will complete a few experiments that are going to lead you to achieve these goals… Read the goals Our first challenge of the day is to think about the phenomenon that causes this demonstration to be possible. What role does density play in this phenomenon?

DENSITY

What difference causes the liquids to stack?

DIFFERENTIATES THE LIQUIDS Students might think it has to do with weight or how “heavy” the liquids are CHANGES IN DENSITIES BETWEEN THE LIQUIDS IN CONTACT

Direction of change?

EXPLORATION What the Teacher Will Do

Introduction SLIDE 5 of PREZI

Directions SLIDE 6 of PREZI

SLIDE 7 of PREZI

Safety

What the Teacher Will Say (include Probing Questions) Challenge two for the day is breaking down what we just observed. Your group will be assigned a liquid to investigate. Grab a worksheet from the center of your table and look at the part labeled “layered liquids.” This is the preliminary section that deals with the liquid your group was assigned. There are calculations and predictions you will have to make that pertain to your specific liquid. Realize that the colors of the liquids you have do not match the color of the same liquid in the demonstration so do not base your predictions off color. You have about 15 minutes to complete this worksheet. If you finish before then you can move on to the back of the worksheet. There is a pair of goggles for each of you. Wear them when working with your

Students are expected to know that there is some kind of change that causes this. Students might think that the lower densities are at the bottom because they are the lowest when in reality the liquids with lower densities are at the top. (This will not be revealed at this point) Time: 30 minutes Student Responses and Misconceptions

Probing questions to check understanding of directions

Probing questions while the students are doing the explore

chemicals! You don’t know what the liquids are and there is a chance they will splash. Also be careful with the lab tools because they are glass and therefore fragile. What part of the worksheet is most important for you to complete? Are the liquids in the demonstration colored the same as your samples? How long should it take you to perform the experiment? How do you find the mass of the liquid?

“LAYERED LIQUIDS”

NO

15 MINUTES Students might just measure the liquid in the graduated cylinder and forget to subtract the mass of the cylinder to just get the mass of the liquid. If this happens it will show when they calculate % error. Students might have different methods of how to be as accurate as possible. Might be surprised at how high or low the values are or their relationship to each other. I don’t think the students will fully understand why some liquids are denser than others. I think they might attribute it to the consistency rather than the actual components that make up the liquid.

How are you trying to get the liquid as close to 10 mL as possible? Are your results what you expected?

What characteristics of the liquid do you think cause what you are observing?

Call after 15 minutes

You should now be moving on to the next part. In order to complete this you will need to read excerpts from scientific texts. The papers have been placed on your desks already so if you return to your desks you

Breathe

will be able to continue the lesson. Like with the first part focus on the first reading and the questions that pertain to it before going on to the second part. Give the students a few minutes to read and start discussing ideas before asking questions Class management if needed… address students doing really well and those that need adjustments Are the readings enhancing your predictions from before?

If the information support their beliefs this will be easy but if it contradicts them the students will have a bit of a harder time initially identifying discrepancies. The evidence presented should give the students evidence of why the experiments work the way they do and how to classify relationships with vocabulary.

Call time SLIDE 8 of PREZI EXPLAINATION What the Teacher Will Do Review main concepts and vocabulary using references to data collection and readings.

Wrap up what you are doing in one minute so we can discuss your findings. Time: 10 minutes Teacher Directions and Student Responses and Probing/Eliciting Questions Misconceptions Based on your reading, how How close the measured do we define precision? values from the data are to one another Comparing that definition (Raise of hands) to your results, which groups found that they had good precision? If applicable: ______, how did you There were large differences determine your results in the numbers recorded in were not precise? the data _______, were your group’s Yes/no

results accurate? What is the definition of accuracy? Does % error indicate accuracy of precision? Whose % error was greater than 5 %? If applicable: Does that mean your results were or were not accurate? If applicable: Why?

How close the value is to the actual value Accuracy (Raise hands)

Were not.

There is a large difference in the measured value versus the actual value

Get the students to reveal their predictions to show levels of density and reorganize them by order demonstrating that lower densities are higher.

If no one had greater than 5% error: That’s great! What can we conclude when percent error is small? Each liquid was assigned to two groups. What groups were assigned liquid one? What did each of you predict was the actual liquid you were assigned from the liquid layers here? Did you (other group) agree? If not, what was your prediction? (Do this for the 4 liquids that were assigned) Does the order of the values make sense?

The data measured is accurate. The students will rationalize their predictions in different ways but it will be interesting to see how the groups that have the same liquid compare to one another.

How can we rearrange these to better demonstrate the densities of these liquids? Looking at the pattern here we can determine what?

Depends on the students predictions…. the three liquids that were not assigned will already be labeled so they should be able to use those to gauge how the liquids should line up Put them in numerical order

Denser liquids are closer to the bottom

Reveal actual liquids so the students can evaluate their predictions. Discuss thought process of groups that were spot on and of ones that were not as correct.

Let’s look at what each liquid actually is. Why did you think your liquid was _______. Answer depends on students’ experience. They all could have rationalized in very different ways. If it was farther up than expected it means that the liquid is less dense than predicted in comparison to the other liquids. If it was lower it is more dense than the others. Time: 5 minutes Student Responses and Misconceptions Add factors that increase or decrease the mass of the volume remains constant.

Why is it farther up/down in the layers than you predicted? What does that mean?

ELABORATION What the Teacher Will Do Review the Coke/ Diet Coke experiment

Teacher Directions and Probing/Eliciting Questions Based on your data and reading about the Coke experiment, what can we manipulate to change the density of a liquid that seems to be the same? What is the difference between Coke and Diet Coke that causes the densities to be different? If we did this with regular water would the effect be the same?

Sugar versus artificial sweetener. This should not be questioned because it was explained in the reading. The students should be able to transfer the knowledge to another situation and apply it appropriately but it might confuse them.

Name:_____________________________________ Date:______________ Per:______ 1. Layered Liquids Liquid Number:__________ Measure out approximately 10 mL of your liquid and record the data necessary. Trial 1 Mass of cylinder (g) Volume of liquid (mL) Mass of cylinder with liquid (g) Trial 2

Mass of liquid (g)

Density of liquid (g/mL)

Is there a pattern in your data? How closely related are the values?

Predict if these values realistically represent the density of the liquid you measured.

Predict which color liquid from the demonstration is the liquid you were assigned.

2. Measure the mass of coke and diet coke to calculate density Coke Mass (____) Volume (____) Density (____________) Diet Coke

What do you believe causes the difference in mass between regular Coke and Diet Coke?

Predict and explain if your results will impact the cans ability to float in water (density of water is approximately 1.00 g/mL). Coke Diet Coke

3. Test your density predictions from #2. Describe your results in the space below. (2 sentences or pictures with captions)

5. Answer the following questions based on the reading and your group data. a. Precision, Accuracy, and % error Were your results from part one precise? Why or why not? Claim of Precision Evidence to Support Claim

Raise your hand and ask for the data regarding the liquid you were assigned. Record the information in the table and return the card. Liquid Manipulate the formula Mass Density Calculate the Mass

Compared to the actual density of your liquid, were your results accurate? Claim of Precision Evidence to Support Claim

Calculate the % error of the densities in your data from part one.

Trial 1

Trial 2

b. Coke vs Diet Coke Based on your answers to all of the questions above, do you still agree with your prediction from part one? If not, make a new prediction.

Old Prediction

Evidence that Supports or Refutes New Prediction (if applicable) Based on the densities given in the article, calculate the % error of your data from part two.

Coke

Diet Coke

How would artificially sweetening a glass of water impact the density in comparison to using regular sugar?

4. Scientific Reading a. Precision, Accuracy, and % error From GCC CHM 151LL: Density, Accuracy, and Precision

b. Coke vs Diet Coke From Livestrong.com

WHY DOES COKE SINK & DIET COKE FLOAT IN WATER?
Mar 13, 2011 | By Jack Brubaker

Many science teachers perform a demonstration in which they immerse sealed cans of Coke and Diet Coke in a tank of water. The can of Coke immediately sinks, while the can of Diet Coke floats. Some instructors have adapted this demonstration as an experiment to teach students the principles of density and buoyancy. The experiments allow students to conduct measurements so that they can devise a scientific explanation for the observed behavior.

DENSITY
Density represents the relationship between a substance's mass and the amount of space it occupies, i.e., its volume. Scientists normally express density in metric units of grams per milliliter, or g/mL. Pure water exhibits a density of 1.00 g/mL. Most other liquids exhibit densities between 0.8 and 1.3 g/mL.
Photo Credit Jupiterimages/Comstock/Getty Images

COMPOSITION OF COKE
Coca Cola consists mostly of water. But it also contains 39 g of sugars, primarily in the form of high-fructose corn syrup, or HFCS. The HFCS used by Coca-Cola and most other soft drink manufacturers exhibits a relative sweetness of 160 compared to the baseline sweetness of 100 exhibited by sucrose, or table sugar. This relative scale reflects perceived sweetness, which means that HFCS literally tastes 1.6 times sweeter than an equal amount of sucrose. As a result, a drink sweetened with HFCS requires less sweetener to achieve the desired level of sweetness than a drink sweetened with sucrose.

COMPOSITION OF DIET COKE
Diet Coke contains an artificial sweetener: aspartame. Aspartame exhibits a perceived sweetness of 180 times that of sugar. Or, for a more direct comparison, aspartame exhibits a sweetness 113 times greater than high fructose corn syrup. As a consequence, Diet Coke only requires 0.35 grams of aspartame to achieve the same level of sweetness as the 39 g of HFCS in Coke.

MATHEMATICAL EXPLANATION
Both the Diet Coke and Coke cans contain 12 fluid oz., or 355 milliliters, of liquid. Both beverages consist primarily of water. The primary difference lies in the sweetener. HFCS exhibits a density of about 1.3 g/mL. The 39 g of "sugars" in Coke therefore accounts for (39 / 1.3) = 30 mL of HFCS. Coke therefore contains about 325 mL of water, with a density of 1.0 g/mL, and 39 g of sugar. The contents of the can therefore weigh 325 g + 39 g = 364 g. The can of Diet Coke, however, contains only 0.3 g of aspartame. It therefore consists almost entirely of water and the can's contents therefore weigh about 355 g. This difference in weight makes the can of Diet Coke sufficiently buoyant to float. In terms of density, the density of Diet Coke is roughly 1.00 g/mL, the same as water. The Coke, however, exhibits a density of (364 g / 355 mL) = 1.03 g/mL.