®

L297
STEPPER MOTOR CONTROLLERS

NORMAL/WAVE DRIVE HALF/FULL STEP MODES CLOCKWISE/ANTICLOCKWISE DIRECTION SWITCHMODE LOAD CURRENT REGULATION PROGRAMMABLE LOAD CURRENT FEW EXTERNAL COMPONENTS RESET INPUT & HOME OUTPUT ENABLE INPUT DESCRIPTION The L297 Stepper Motor Controller IC generates four phase drive signals for two phase bipolar and four phase unipolar step motors in microcomputercontrolled applications. The motor can be driven in half step, normal and wawe drive modes and onchip PWM chopper circuits permit switch-mode control of the current in the windings. A feature of ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
Symbol Vs Vi Ptot Tstg, Tj Supply voltage Input signals Total power dissipation (Tamb = 70°C) Storage and junction temperature Parameter

DIP20

SO20

ORDERING NUMBERS : L297/1 (DIP20) L297D (SO20)

this device is that it requires only clock, direction and mode input signals. Since the phase are generated internallythe burdenon the microprocessor, and the programmer, is greatly reduced. Mounted in DIP20 and SO20 packages, the L297 can be used with monolithic bridge drives such as the L298N or L293E, or with discrete transistors and darlingtons.

Value 10 7 1 -40 to + 150

Unit V V W °C

TWO PHASE BIPOLAR STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL CIRCUIT

December 2001

1/11

L297 PIN CONNECTION (Top view) L297/1 L297D BLOCK DIAGRAM (L297/1 .L297D) 2/11 .

An active low pulse on this input advances the motor one increment. A.L297 configurations. B. When low (inactive) INH1. The step occurs on the rising edge of this signal.L297/1 .L297 PIN FUNCTIONS . When a bipolar bridge is used this signal can be used to ensure fast decay of load current when a winding is de-energized. Chip enable input. Input for load current sense voltage from power stages of phases A and B. Step clock. Reference voltage for chopper circuit. Motor phase B drive signal for power stage. Input for load current sense voltage from power stages of phases C and D. C and D are brought low. Ground connection. This terminal is connected to ground on all but one device in synchronized multi . INH2. Same functions as INH1. 5V supply input. The SYNC connections The SYNC connections of all L297s to be synchronized are connected together and the oscillator components are omitted on all but one. 2 3 GND HOME 4 5 A INH1 6 7 8 9 10 11 B C INH2 D ENABLE CONTROL 12 13 14 15 Vs SENS 2 SENS 1 Vref 16 OSC 17 CW/CCW 18 CLOCK 3/11 . Physical direction of motor rotation also depends on connection of windings. Open collector output that indicates when the L297 is in its initial state (ABCD = 0101). C to ground) connected to this terminal determines the chopper rate. Motor phase D drive signal for power stage. The transistor is open when this signal is active. Motor phase C drive signal for power stage. Control input that defines action of chopper. f ≅ 1/0. Synchronized internally therefore direction can be changed at any time. Also used by chopper to regulate load current if CONTROL input is low. when high chopper acts on phase lines ABCD. If an external clock source is used it is injected at this terminal. When low chopper acts on INH1 and INH2.L297D N° 1 NAME SYNC FUNCTION Output of the on-chip chopper oscillator. Active low inhibit control for drive stages of C and D phases. Motor phase A drive signal for power stage. Active low inhibit control for driver stage of A and B phases. An RC network (R to VCC.69 RC Clockwise/counterclockwise direction control input. A voltage applied to this pin determines the peak load current.

An active low pulse on this input restores the translator to the home position (state 1.L297D (continued) N° 19 NAME HALF/FULL FUNCTION Half/full step select input. Two-phase-on full step mode is set by selecting FULL when the translator is at an odd numbered position.L297/1 . Reset input. Ground noise problems in multiple configurations can be avoided by synchronising the chopper oscillators. These signals. It receives step clock. selected by the HALF/FULL input. when low selects full step operation. ABCD = 0101). (The home position is designate state 1). 4/11 .The translator generatesthree different sequences. are intended to speed current decay when a winding is de-energised. quad darlington array or discrete power devices in step motor driving applications. The peak current for both windingsis programmedby a voltage divideron the Vref input.In L297 + L298 configurationsthis technique reduces dissipation in the load current sense resistors. which generates the motor phase sequences. The principal functions are a translator. When the current in a winding reaches the programmed peak value the voltage across the sense resistor (connected to one of the sense inputs SENS1 or SENS2) equals Vref and the corresponding comparator resets its flip flop. interrupting the drive current until the next oscillator pulse arrives. This is done by connecting all the SYNC pins together. mounting the oscillator RC network on one device only and grounding the OSC pin on all other devices.L297 PIN FUNCTIONS . direction and mode signals from the systems controller (usually a microcomputer chip) and generates control signals for the power stage. When the phase lines are chopped the non-active phase line of each pair (AB or CD) is activated (rather than interrupting the line then active). These are normal (two phases energised). When high selects half step operation. Two inhibit signals are also generated by the L297 in half step and wave drive modes.It suppliespulses at the chopper rate which set the two flip-flops FF1 and FF2. and a dual PWM chopper circuit which regulates the current in the motor windings. One-phase-on full step mode is obtained by selecting FULL when the L297’s translator is at an even-numbered state. When the L297 is used to drive a unipolar motor the chopper acts on these lines. which connect directly to the L298’senable inputs. An input called CONTROL determines whether the chopper will act on the phase lines ABCD or the inhibit lines INH1 and INH2. 20 RESET THERMAL DATA Symbol Rth-j-amb Parameter Thermal resistance junction-ambient max DIP20 80 SO20 100 Unit °C/W CIRCUIT OPERATION The L297 is intended for use with a dual bridge driver. A common on-chip oscillator drives the dual chopper. wave drive (one phase energised) and half-step (alternately one phase energised/two phases energised).

wave drive and half step modes. Clockwise rotation is indicate. In this mode the INH1 and INH2 outputs remain high throughout. where ABCD = 0101. 5/11 . HALF STEP MODE Half step mode is selected by a high level on the HALF/FULL input. The state sequences and output waveforms for these three modes are shown below. for anticlockwise rotation the sequences are simply reversed RESET restores the translator to state 1. 3. NORMAL DRIVE MODE Normal drive mode (also called ”two-phase-on” drive) is selected by a low level on the HALF/FULL input when the translator is at an odd numbered state (1. In all cases the translator advances on the low to high transistion of CLOCK. 5 or 7).L297 MOTOR DRIVING PHASE SEQUENCES The L297’s translator generates phase sequences for normal drive.

ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (Refer to the block diagram Tamb = 25°C. 7 80 0. 20) Input current (pin 11. Vs = 5V unless otherwise specified) Symbol Vs Is Vi Parameter Supply voltage (pin 12) Quiescent supply current (pin 12) Input voltage (pin 11. 9) Inhibit output voltage (pins 5.3 0.9 0.4 2 2 100 Test conditions Min. 18.3 Vs 100 10 0.8 3. 7. 17.9 3.L297 MOTOR DRIVING PHASE SEQUENCES (continued) WAVE DRIVE MODE Wave drive mode (also called ”one-phase-on” drive) is selected by a low level on the HALF/FULL input when the translator is at an even numbered state (2. 8) Io = 10mA Io = 5mA Vinh Io = 10mA Io = 5mA VSYNC Sync Output Voltage Io = 5mA Io = 5mA 6/11 VOL VOH Vinh L Vinh H VSYNC H VSYNC V 3.6 Vs µA 10 1. 4.75 50 Typ Max. 19.4 µA V V µA µA V V V V V Unit V mA V V . 18. 4. 6 or 8). 6. 19. 20) Enable input voltage (pin 10) Outputs floating Low High Ii Vi = L Vi = H Ven Low High Ien Enable input current (pin 10) Ven = L Ven = H Vo Phase output voltage (pins 4. 17.

4 5 10 3 Unit µA V mV µA V µs µs µs µs µs Figure 1. 14. 15) Input reference voltage (pin 15) Clock time Set up time Hold time Reset time Reset to clock delay Test conditions VCE = 7 V I = 5 mA Vref = 1 V -100 0 0. 14. Typ Max.L297 ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS (continued) Symbol Ileak Vsat Voff Io Vref tCLK tS tH tR tRCLK Parameter Leakage current (pin 3) Saturation voltage (pin 3) Comparators offset voltage (pins 13. 15) Comparator bias current (pins 13. 7/11 . 1 0.5 1 4 1 1 Min.

Figure 3 : Synchronising L297s 8/11 . The diodes are fast 2A types. Figure 2.L297 APPLICATION INFORMATION TWO PHASE BIPOLAR STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL CIRCUIT This circuit drives bipolar stepper motors with winding currents up to 2A.

93 0. MIN.335 0.86 7.130 0.065 inch TYP.3 1.018 0. MAX.254 1.100 0.010 1.34 8.65 TYP.54 22.155 1.010 0.39 0.000 0.25 25.4 0.45 0.900 0. MAX. 0. DIM. a1 B b b1 D E e e3 F I L Z 3.1 3.5 2. OUTLINE AND MECHANICAL DATA DIP20 0.L297 mm MIN.053 9/11 .055 0.280 0.

23 12.27 0.4 2.016 MIN.050 OUTLINE AND MECHANICAL DATA 0° (min. A A1 B C D E e H h L K 10 0.010 0.013 0.093 0. MAX.394 0.020 0.1 0.419 0.512 0.)8° (max.75 1.013 0.32 13 7.104 0.050 0.299 0. MIN.L297 DIM. 0.009 0. 2. 0.) SO20 L h x 45° A B e K H D A1 C 20 11 E 1 1 0 SO20MEC 10/11 .4 mm TYP.496 0.25 0.51 0.65 0.012 0.65 0.291 inch TYP.030 0.6 7.35 0.3 0.004 0.6 1.27 10. MAX.33 0.

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