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Principles of Wireless Sensor Networks


Lecture 1 Stockholm, January 19, 2012

Carlo Fischione

Royal Institute of Technology - KTH Stockholm, Sweden
e-mail: carlofi@kth.se

Course goal

After finishing the course, the attendants will know the essential control, networking and signal processing tools to cope with Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). They will understand the design issues of WSN and will be able to develop WSNs applications.

Wireless Sensor Networks Computer Networking Wireless Communications P C Systems and Control Wireless Sensor Networks .

Today’s lecture §  Course overview §  Introduction to WSNs .

teaching assistant. yuzhe@kth. teaching assistant.EL2745 Principles of Sensor Nets §  Disposition Ø  7.5 Ø  28 credits lectures.kth. 28 exercises. 3 homework §  Instructors Ø  Carlo Fischione.se Gadimi. hanna.se Ø  Euhanna Ø  Yuzhe Ø  Hanna . carlofi@kth.se Holmqvist.holmqvist@ee. administration.se Xu. euhanna@kth. lecturer.

Course content §  Part 1 Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Lec 1: Introduction Lec 2: Programming Lec 3: Sensor modelling Lec 4: Physical layer Lec 5: Mac layer Lec 6: Routing §  Part 2 Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Lec 7: Estimation Lec 8: Detection Lec 9: Positioning and localization Lec 10: Time synchronization §  Part 3 Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Lec 11: Networked control systems 1 Lec 12: Networked control systems 2 Lec 13: Security Lec 14: Summary .

2005. Willig. Wiley. Pottie and W. Kaiser.J. Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks. 2010 •  H. Feb 3 Software: Matlab and TinyOS . Wiley. available online Homework: 3 exercises to hand in. “Principles of Embedded Networked Systems Design” Cambridge. Poellabauer.J.Course material §  §  Compendium: exercises sold at STEX No book: lectures will be based on various chapters from •  G. First deadline. §  §  §  Lecture notes: handed out at lectures. 2005 •  W. “Fundamentals of Wireless Sensor Networks”. Dargie and C. Karl and A.

zigbee.shtml http://www.ee.eecs.org/Pages/Front.com/ http://www.html http://www.ietf.edu/~mdw/course/cs263/fa04/ http://www.org/15/pub/TG4.sics.se/~mikaelj/wsn_course.berkeley.com/   http://www.stanford.ieee802.edu/~culler/eecs194/ http://bwrc.htm http://wsnl.kth.aspx http://www.edu/6.eecs.xbow.sunysb.org/ http://www.com/ http://www.csail.dustnetworks.harvard.php http://www.net/ http://www.wsnblog.edu/~jgao/CSE595-spring09/ Blogs Industries WSNs Standard University courses .cs.ipso-alliance.org/dyn/wg/charter/roll-charter.org/ http://www.isa.Useful links http://www.com/ http://www.html http://www.berkeley.sentilla.tinyos.885/spring06/readings.org/    http://www.html http://www.se/contiki/ http://www.hartcomm.sensinode.edu/ http://courses.com/Home/wHomePage.mit.edu/Research/energy_efficient_systems.cs.

by appointment. familiarity with linear algebra and analysis.   Prerequisites: The course is self-contained.   Office Times: Whenever you like. floor 6. . Grades: based on homework (admission to exam) and exam. send an e-mail.Practical Information Office: Osquldas väg 10.

Today’s lecture §  Course Overview §  Introduction to WSNs .

Today’s learning outcome §  What are the components of a WSN? §  What are typical applications of a WSN? §  What is a networking protocol? §  How to design applications and protocols? .

WSNs §  Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) make Internet of Things possible §  Computing. wirelessly networked together for communication. transmitting and receiving nodes. control. sensing and actuation purposes §  Characteristics of WSNs Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Typical power consumption of a node Battery-operated nodes Limited wireless communication Mobility of nodes No/limited central manager .

2002 Tmote-sky mote. 201? . 1960 Mica2 mote. 2003 Smart Dust.History of WSNs DARPA DSN node.

Application of WSNs Industrial control Environmental monitoring Transportation Marine monitoring Health care Economist .

air and humidity. www.instablogsimages. light intensity.Smart Buildings WSNs to Control of temperature.com Source: Ed Arens .

tidal and seismic activity § Deployed on Golden Gate Bridge .Applications: Building Monitoring § Sensors used to measure response to traffic.

com/ §  Smart grids: “Smart Grids: It's All About Wireless Sensor Networks” (http:// stanford.com) .Smart grids source: http://deviceace.wellsphere.

WSNs in Industrial Automation Process Controller §  Added flexibility Ø  Ø  Sensor and actuator nodes can be placed more appropriately Less restrictive maneuvers and control actions Ø  More powerful control through distributed computations §  Reduced installation and maintenance costs Ø  Less cabling Ø  More efficient monitoring and diagnosis .

Distributed Camera Calibration • WSN allows one to perform distributed camera calibration • Application: massive graphic effects in film production .

Participants in a WSN §  Sources of data: Measure data. … §  Actuators: Control some device based on data. report them “somewhere” Ø  Typically equip with different kinds of actual sensors §  Sinks of data: Interested in receiving data from WSN Ø  May be part of the WSN or external entity. PDA. usually also a sink . gateway.

  4.  5.  Controller Communication device(s) Sensors/actuators Memory Power supply .  3.WSN node components Memory Communication device Sensor(s)/ actuator(s) Controller Power supply 1.  2.

Transceiver states §  Transceivers can be put into different operational states. reducing energy consumption a little Ø  Sleep – significant parts of the transceiver are switched off •  Not able to immediately receive something •  Recovery time and startup energy to leave sleep state can be significant . but not doing so •  Some functions in hardware can be switched off. typically: Ø  Transmit Ø  Receive Ø  Idle – ready to receive.

Memory Communication device Sensor(s)/ actuator(s) Controller Power supply Let’s now focus on the protocols followed at the communication device and the controller .

or set of rules with which the node operate.WSN Protocols §  The behavior of a node is specified by a set of protocols. §  Optimization and Parallel and Distributed Computation Theories are the essential mathematical tools to design WSNs Protocol stack Application Presentation Session Cross-layer interaction Transport Routing MAC Phy .

Application The radio power control problem §  Let Presentation Session Transport Routing MAC Phy be a vector of radio powers Ø  Each element of the vector is the radio power used for transmission by a node §  Let be the interference that the radio power has to overcome so that the receiver can receiver successfully the transmitted information §  Interference Function §  The radio powers of every sensor must be minimized subject to quality of communication constraints: Tx Rx nodes .

idly waiting to receive packets wastes huge amounts of energy §  MAC is influenced by the transmit radio power .Application Medium Access Control (MAC) Presentation Session Transport Routing MAC Phy §  MAC: mechanism for controlling when to send a packet and when to listen for a packet Ø  MAC is one of the major component for energy expenditure. Ø  Especially.

Application Routing: how to choose paths §  Maximum total available Presentation Session Transport Routing MAC battery capacity Ø  Path metric: Sum of battery levels Ø  Example: A-C-F-H §  Minimum battery cost routing Ø  Path metric: Sum of reciprocal battery levels Ø  Example: A-D-H §  Conditional max-min battery capacity routing Ø  Only take battery level into account when below a given level §  Minimum total transmission power 4 3 A 1 2 3 D B 1 2 3 E 1 4 H 2 2 G 2 1 C 2 2 Phy 4 2 F .

Application Control over WSNs Process Controller Presentation Session Transport Routing MAC Phy §  The state of a process is sensed by wireless nodes §  State information reaches the controller via multi-hop routing §  How the protocols and the controller interact? .

se/student/program-kurser/kurshemsidor/kurshemsidor/ control/EL2745 . –  You have to make some installations on your computer before the lecture –  See instructions on www. Monday 23: Olaf Landsiedel. and network architecture §  Next Lecture.Summary §  We have seen the key aspects of WSNs Ø  Applications Ø  Difference Ø  Nodes. from other networks protocols. “Introduction to WSN Programming”.kth.

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