X RBSE HISTORY & CIVICS Free Notes Chapter 3 Cultural heritage of Rajasthan Introduction

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Rajasthan culture : very tolerant, generous, multidimensional and full of diversity.
The places like kali banga, aahad, gulund, bagaur, tilwara, ganeshwar, bairath, abhaneri etc speak of rajasthani architecture in the sindh and pre – sindh civilizations. Excavations in mewar area are the specimen of architecture of pre – stone and middle stone period.

Aahad culture speaks of copper culture of rajasthan.
Discover (archeologists) of rajasthan culture : amlan and ghose, b. b lal, b.k. thapar, rattan Chandra agarwal etc. The most ancient fossials of the world from jaislmer. Rajasthan known for its religion, philosophy, moral values, sects community, art, development of literature, fairs, festivals etc, faith in folk deities, dances, music, paintings, above all in the principle of sarva panth samadar. Unique cultural heritage of rajasthan festivals and fairs Gangaur festival : popular in jaipur, jodhpur, Bikaner, kota, jhalawar etc. celebrated by ladies for 18 days, worship of ishar (shiva) and gauri (parvati) on the third of shravan month. Shitla mata festivals depicting change in the seasons, intake of cold food on the seventh and eighth of chetra Krishna. Akhateej related to harvesting, on the third of baisakh shukla. The national festivals : rakshabandan, dussehra, deepawali, holi, janamashtmi, navratra, shivaratri, ramnavami, basant panchmi etc. Many festivals as the symbols of sarva panth samadar : vat savitri pooja, kartik snan, karva chauth, ahoi vrat, paryushan of jain samaj, ramzan and id of muslims, lohri of (punjabis), guru nanak jayanti of Sikhs, Christmas of Christians, navrose of parsis etc. Festivals related to folk deities of rajasthan : fairs of tejaji, ramdeoji, gogaji, jambhoji, swami bhoj etc, besides pushkar fair, dussehra kota fair, gangaur and teej fairs of jaipur, akadashi fair. Fooldol fairs : barthari fair, keoladeo fair, shitlamata fair, maru mela, vaineshwar fair, animal fairs of Nagpur and parvatsar. Social, religious and economic significance of these fairs : their social significance – merchants from far off places gather with their animals as horses, goats, cows etc. Economic significance : revenue to the state and income to the traders through trading of animals. Religious ignificance : organization of fairs in different months as pushkar and kolyat fairs in kartik, vaneshvar fair in magh, karnimata and gangaur fairs in the months of chetra.

Places significant for particular animals
Camels (ship of desert) of jaislmer, goats of barmer, oxes of nagaur, horses and mares of malani. Beware, pali, kakri and Bikaner known for ship-wool. Architecture of rajasthan

PIE TUTORIALS 9/2 CHOPASANI HOUSING BOARD, JODHPUR FOR FREE NOTES & TEST PAPERS Visit www.pietutorials.com

repository for arms and ammunition. Deeg palaces appreciated for architectural beauty by ferguson. many gates as oratpol. The best and other temples ambrish and narsinghji. high walls. umbrella. johar. hanuman pol. vijaypol. dignity and warfare.com . at the height of 1850 feet. palaces.naulakha darwaza. Fort architecture Features of fort architecture 1. achalgarh etc. got built mainly during the reign of maharana kumbha of marwar and rao maldev of marwar. many buildings in it as temples. lakshmanpol and jodanpol. the temple of neelkanth mahadev of nagar style. palace of queen padmini. on its back is the temple of god shiva . jaleb chowk. shivalyas. royat palace. 3. stable. Fort of ranthambhour The most ancient. pillars of royal palace. Its primitive name – ranastamhpur. spacious and suitable for warfare. nine storeyed kirti stambh by rana kumbha with 157 stairs. ganesh-pol etc. temples. the entry gate. entrance gate. warehouses. monuments of kunwar prithvi raj. marwar. armoury etc. palace of kalika mata etc. Mehrangarh fort PIE TUTORIALS 9/2 CHOPASANI HOUSING BOARD. many gates. Another fort within the fort known as katargarh. equipped with seven gates (four built by maharana kumbha). tripolia gate. verandahs. hanumanpol. Architectural pieces : 50 ft high huge umbrella. JODHPUR FOR FREE NOTES & TEST PAPERS Visit www. gopinath sharma. hammir’s courts etc. rooms. diwan-i-aam. hallapol. jantarmantar. ganeshpol. as pieces of rajasthan architecture. ‘jagat shiromani temple’. for security. ware house etc. surrounded by hills and valleys. bhairva pol. 2. A few examples of important forts Forts of jaislmer and Bikaner – the forts of deserts Bharatpur fort : the strong fort of plains. Got built by maharana kumbha. Forts of jalor.highly appreciated by col tod.X RBSE HISTORY & CIVICS Free Notes Forts. shri harvilas sharda and dr. also Chandra mahal. 5. palaces. peelkhana. 27 jain temples. monuments. 4. forts equipped with water tanks. Haveli of jaimal. jal mahal. Description of important forts of rajasthan. a deity temple. Royal palaces of amer (amber) and other forts and temples Specimen of architecture – the best among the palaces built during the regime of raja mansingh and raja jai singh prominent architectural pieces inside the fort – umbrellas. Inside the fort the temple of tuljamata. bhairvapol. Chittorgarh fort : on a big hillock 2 kms from chittorgarh junction.torandwar. temples. zanani dyodi etc. temple of ganesh of special significance. idols. Forts of jaigarh and nahargarh. rampol. soldiers to protect these forts. the first gate on the plantform outside. siwana. about 60 km from Udaipur near village sadri. having six gates. among other buildings : navlakh bhandar. for security on different rouls. sanvalia. water tanks. monuments etc. Vishnu temple of kumbha swami. namely pandavapol. siuated on a hill surrounded by aravali ranges 13 kms away from swamiadhopur railway station. mewar. fountains. shrinagar chanvri temple. safety of trade. pillars and burjis. palaces of rana kumbha. dilli darwaza. Palaces. Three gates. rampol.pietutorials. three miles long and ½ a mile wide. andheri darwaza and tripolia darwaza. palaces. badal mahal. platforms etc. residential houses. Fort of kumbhalgarh. ganeshpol etc.

jambhoji dev narayanji. gogameri. poem. fateh mahal and also topkhana. pandupol and rajogarh. The folk literature of rajasthan in the form of vani. PIE TUTORIALS 9/2 CHOPASANI HOUSING BOARD. mandawa. govindji temple (jaipur). Shaiv temples : eklingji. mallinath. jalore by parmar rulers. Literature of rajasthan Historical. lalit vigrah raj. samarichechakacha. santvani of various communities. shakti sthalas of mewar – temples of deities of dhanopmata. Temples and sculpture Rich sculpture in the idols of male and female deities. Vimalshah temple of white marble – 98 feet long. geet etc. a library (pustak prakash). phool mahal. mainal. couplets.pietutorials. shri kalyanji temple of diggi etc. bagaur. bundi. prakrit. Amoung the palaces – moti mahal. Known for their ornamental beauty are temples of dilwara. kama. sanvalia chaturbhujnath temple. saint and folk literature in Sanskrit. Saint literature Bhaktmal of nabhadas. karnimata temple at deshnok. forts built by feudal lords as hammirgarh. jagdish. males. 43 feet wide. kiradu osujan. bisau. fire-places (dhune). miles towards south from mandaur. JODHPUR FOR FREE NOTES & TEST PAPERS Visit www. sects and sampradayasNathdwara of vallabh sampradaya Salembad of nimbark sampradaya Ramdwara of ram snehis Rewasa dham and vaineshwar dham of tribal area. situated on a hill top 6. a chief pilgrimage. dadhimata. ramdevji. rajasthani (dingal and pingal) and hindi languages. Temples of abu known for ornamental style of medieval age. meditation places. nagda and ossiyan. yakshas. joganiya mata. dwarikadheesh.X RBSE HISTORY & CIVICS Free Notes Shaped like the tail of peacock (hence known as mordhwaj) built by rao jodha. galtaji sarovar at jaipur. pabuji. chittor. females. and jhantlamata. dhola maru ra duha. shiladevi. Famous temples and sacred monuments : Pushkar. achalgarh. armoury. singar chowki. enrichment of culture. kambhshyam. deogarh etc. siwana. samod. bhajans of mirabai. Other forts Forts of mandalgarh. vansh bhaskar and veer satsai etc. folk deities etc. banera neemrana. Many sacred monuments of shaivism. folkmen. dancing postures etc. anandghanji and murli manohar. A few historical texts – shishupal vadh. at 400ft height. prithvi raj raso. jaisalmer made of yellow marble. shaktism and vaishnavism. Monuments of diverse religious beliefs. kota.com . pipaji. Temples of chamunda devi. Morality dominated couplets : Rajiaji’s and nagji’s couplets. keoladeo etc. sabad sangrah. Bikaner. Saurathe. Contributions of saint tradition 1. samadhis. at dilwara. yakshinis. Entry gates : jaipol and fatehpol. jain temples of dilwara dargah of khwaja muen-i-uddin chisti at ajmer. tejaji. govind guru etc. jeen mata ra geet etc. Other shakti sthalas : jeenmata. poetry and songs related to saints. barracks of soldiers. Inside many palaces. Temples known for their beauty and artistic qualities – at badoli. six gates (pols) etc. on the walls and ceilings artistic paintings. Near it is dilwara jain temple. birds. nagda. shitlamata. Udaipur etc. nathdwaras shrinath temple. animals. oral and composed prose. sabad sakhi.

no – stealing 10. 3. ram dev from 2 nd to 11th of bhadon every year.X RBSE HISTORY & CIVICS Free Notes 2. His priciples : Belief in social equality and hindu-muslim unity. eradication of social and religious superstitions. strengthening of socio-religious superstitions. The brahthari caves and temple. Vairagya shatak about metaphysicism and detachment. niti shatak about morality and policy. father – ajmal tanwar and wife. also known as deity of snakes. belief in own religion. a saviour of masses and cows. 9. Goga rakhi by the farmers before ploughing. A proved saint. 15. 5. baba ramdevji : born is 15th century of vikram samvat in jungal village of pokhran. A fair on his Samadhi sthal. no ill of others. 5. dutiful. among muslims as gogapeer. 3. known as gogameri. His three texts : 1. JODHPUR FOR FREE NOTES & TEST PAPERS Visit www. Welfare of others and compassion for all. Gogaji is offered coconut and kheer churma. Among his 20+9 principles.naital de. mother – manade. 7. strengthening of cultural heritage. cool and satisfied. hari – bhajan every evening. 8. 3. worship places of gogaji under the khejadi tree. be calm. brahthari – a scholar of the end of 6th century. 3. positive and healthy change in public mentality. 14. 2. to parents lohatji panwar and hansa devi in 1485 on the Krishna asthma of kartik.com . speak the truth. 13. a fair in his memory. anger etc. promotion of welfare of human society. 2. Muslims revere him as ramspir. shrinagar shatak about amorous affairs. 12. goga navmi held in Krishna paksh of bhadrapad and navmi of shukla paksh. bathe every day. 4. 4. jambhoji : a shepherd in childhood born in 1451 in pipsar village. and a symbol of power and devotion. art. 20 are : 1. Prominent folk deities and folkmen of rajasthan 1. As a social reformer opposed reiligious malpractices and emphasized hindu – muslim unity. pray both the times. fast on amavasya day. PIE TUTORIALS 9/2 CHOPASANI HOUSING BOARD. baghleda and father.not to cut green trees. in the field of literature. love and devotion 7. 4. brave – warrior. jehver chauhan. social equality and integration of Indian culture. worship of lord Vishnu. gogaji – one of the five male deities. Belief in charity One of the five deities and seers. Gogaji is believed to be married to kalen de and born to mother. control on lust. 6. his special place in nathpanth. 11.pietutorials. milk and water after sieving. he established vishnoi panth. 2. integrative human approach etc. a feeling of compassion. human value and environmental conservation. 6.

JODHPUR FOR FREE NOTES & TEST PAPERS Visit www. marriages etc. heed.1913. led independence movement in the dense forests. his followers vishnois – among whom cutting of khejiri and other green trees and poaching of animals – totally prohibited. Dhola maru painting the most attractive among all the paintings of folkmen. about 90 rags and raginis mira bai’s couplets. on the occasion of holi paintings of chang. 1858. Paintings making ‘fad’ paintings known as chitare. Mural paintings of elephants. not to wear blue clothes. shaivism. Shaktism and vaishnavism. many regional forms of ‘mand’ as mand of jaipur. Ragmala paintings of nature. jaipur. yellow and green. beautiful couplets of these mands – a special feature. revered as a ‘lokpurash’ in rajasthan for strengthening bhils against social injustice. love. religion and musical elements. jaisalmer. Fine arts of rajasthan Paintings : famous since pre-historic times.com . rulers etc in rajasthan Colours used mainly red. based on texts related to Jainism. Many paintings regarding kalpsatra. kota. jodhpur. imprints of feet. Various local styles of paintings as mewar. protection of wild life. Mandna an important folk art of paintings. tonk etc. 363 women including amrita devi were beheaded in 1730 for environmental conservation. Fairs in his memory at mukam twice a year. Founder of the vishnoi panth. by women on the threshold. Music – the art of rajasthan Music has been developing in rajasthan since ancient times due to patronage given by rulers and feudal lords of rajasthan to the musicians. govind guru : Born in banjara family of basiyan village in dungarpur on December 20. founded sampsabha. no meat.g. development of many ragas as ‘mand’ in the classical music.1500 bhils were massacred in the firing by the bristish military. walls etc. 5. folk tales are narrated through it. imprisoned for 10 years. flower etc. alwar. marwar. immense contributions by the rulers of jaipur. bundi school. eki-sangthan was established by him. doors. PIE TUTORIALS 9/2 CHOPASANI HOUSING BOARD. sparkling. 20. Style of paintings in the havelis of shekhawati region of international fame figures. Bikaner. pichwai of nathwara and kishangarh style. shiv – puran etc. stick. related to vaishnava tradition of nimbark community and kishangarh school of vallabh community. worked for the bhil tribe. left drinking and nonvegetarian diet.X RBSE HISTORY & CIVICS Free Notes 16. The folk music – full of spirit of valour. e. beauty and devotion. no liquar. horses and others on the occasions of festivals.pietutorials. also depicting women beauty. Ramayana. specially impressed by swami dayanand sarswati. happiness. 17. Paintings on cloth in the form of picture texts and in the handwritten texts well known paintings ‘fad’ in shlipura-(bhilwara) and pichwai in nathdwara. Udaipur etc. dhol etc. 17. Famous painter nihal chand portraited pictures related to radha-krishna and banithani during the period of maharaja savant singh nagaridas. saints. devotion to god etc. in the meeting organized under him by the bhils on mangarh hills on nov. 19. bhagwad. also related to day to day life. no opium. on the occasians like deepawali. 18. chariot of luxmi. and also development of music y feudal lords. khanda. Jaipur charana of music by the mixture of vocal and instrumental music.

tandoora. galalo. rasdhari. Art of dancing in rajasthan Rajasthan – the rangsthali of dance various types of folk dances as bhvai. In the gatbhav dances the monopresentation of the stories of bhagvat gita. bhavai. Bikaner.X RBSE HISTORY & CIVICS Free Notes Contributions by pt. dialogue. kamaicha. mashak. Folk arts – kartab of nats. shahnai. Classical dances mainly the kathak dance of jaipur gharana developed in the form of prayer of god. Instruments of folk dances in rajasthan Main instruments – sarangi of langas. Also the development of mewati gharana of khyal gayaki. fans of sandal.pietutorials. gauri. Gunjan khana of jaipur – a centre of music and dance. nat adana. tandav dance of shiva and lasya and tal and speedy movement of legs. teentara etc. poetry and painting. Marriage time dances. choli and odni. Many ragas as vibhas. Patronage to the kathak dancers by the rulers of jaipur. Vishnu narayan bhatkhande in the field of khyal. teentara. ragmala. Displayed by – instrumental music. nahar dance etc. by the intergration of music. jhoomer. Many texts on the theoretical aspect of music as shrinagar. been. chanwar. mewar. Also dances by tribals. Another dance by the males-rannaritya. Bhil’s instruments used on different occasions -ravanahatha or gujri. also the festival dances. tomtom and tal by men. miraculous rhythm. Ragmala (granth) a special text of music. jaiter. jogi dance. ghoomar. discussion and discourse. kalbalia. patronage to the musician and scholars by the rulers of ranthambour. historical and cultural. two clap and five clap and 13 clap dance popular in marwar. maniram. radha govindsar etc. He developed ‘manrang gharana’. sarangi. Dress of the dancers – silken. The group dances of rajasthan – gair. puranic. natnis and mimcry etc. jodhpur etc. pt. tase. Bikaner and mewar accompanied by harp. Handicrafts of rajasthan Bharatpur : Ivory works. Folk instruments of different classes – bhapang. peasants and artisans and the fire dance of jasnathi panth. bandi. ghoomar. pitamber. dev gandhar etc. chari. jogiya. Many ragas and raginis in the couplets of mira bai. nagaras. tarahtali. local raginis given place in the saint literature – a special feature in inclusion of lyricism of saurath. pungi. JODHPUR FOR FREE NOTES & TEST PAPERS Visit www. lahanga.jasraj etc. fire dance etc. mridung and flute. the Ramayana. sabgeetraj. tandura and manjira besides the traditional instruments like veena. Loknatya kala (folk dances) Context of folk dances – religious.one clap. dadu and ashtechap. the main singers of this gharana-pt. used by maharaja sanvant singh nagri das of kishangarh. Dhamal singing is also popular. a collection of many music related texts in Sanskrit pustkalaya of Bikaner. In the vaishnava temples dances were based on the couplets of surdas and tulsidas. PIE TUTORIALS 9/2 CHOPASANI HOUSING BOARD. kachi ghora dance.com . dhol and nagada. manjira. ragmanjri. also based on bhajans and dhruva couplets. ravanahatha of bhopas. ang-bhang dance. khyals. the mahabharta etc – through brij or Sanskrit couplets. also the art of playing music with dance in the night jagrans. woolen blankets and carpets jaisalmer and Bikaner – kuppas of camel skin. sarangi. bags of camel hair etc. gindad of shekhawati. dhoti. Its main features-valour. Main dances – kathputli. amer.

state archives of jodhpur. saraswati. Jodhpur : chundri and safe of tie and dye. Main centres of research. research centre of Arabic and Persian at tonk.pietutorials. museum. Tonk – weaving of clothes and making of musical instruments like sarangi tabla and sitar. Udaipur. Personal collections also important sources as : Agarchand nahta collection (bikaner) Shastri collections of bahsdthali vidhyapeeth. anoop Sanskrit putakalya of jodhpur. studed jewellery.com . JODHPUR FOR FREE NOTES & TEST PAPERS Visit www. meenakari. Books of historians and scholars kavi raja shyamal das. and arrow. gupti. Jaipur : imprinting of sanganer and bagru. brass toys. varda bisau parampara. feudals and saints bhakli literature. Bikaner. lok-kala mandal and tribal research centre of Udaipur etc. traditions. gauri Shankar ooja etc and the most prominent from rajasthan through the ages.X RBSE HISTORY & CIVICS Free Notes Kishangarh – printed cloth (clint) Swaimadhopur – fans of khaskhas. Masuria. museum of amer. Udaipur. Mewar : swords. history etc. of rajasthan. Part III published from rajasthan arechives. jodhpur. PIE TUTORIALS 9/2 CHOPASANI HOUSING BOARD. jammer tod. katar. rajasthan state archives of Bikaner. kota. society. Marwar : tie and dye. collection of thikanas like – mandawa. jaipur etc. personal collection of rulers. Sirohi : swords. archives and libraries of rajasthan : archaeological evidences and literary compositions proof to culture. bow. embroidery of mirrors and imprinting clothes. research centre of chopasine. Mehta lazza ram. Nathdwara – minakari and pichwai painting. embroidered sleepers etc. silver utensils and ivory works. marble sculpture etc. Museums and archives of rajasthan : Museum of the archaeological department of rajasthan. arya mritand shodh patrika. Research and literary magazines : Chand from Marwari. masuda and baners. Kota-doria. Research centres of rajasthan : Sardul shodh sansthan of Bikaner. albert museum and city palace of jaipur. pisangam. sujas from jaipur. Barmer : wooden furniture.

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