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tuga 2 perpan.pdf

# tuga 2 perpan.pdf

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05/10/2015

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# HEAT CONDUCTION EQUATION Introduction 2–16 In a nuclear reactor, heat is generated uniformly in the 5-cm-diameter cylindrical uranium rods

at a rate of 7 x 10 7 W/m3. If the length of the rods is 1 m, determine the rate of heat generation in each rod. The rate of heat generation per unit volume in the uranium rods is given. The total rate of heat generation in each rod is to be determined. Assumptions Heat is generated uniformly in the uranium rods. Analysis The total rate of heat generation in the rod is determined by multiplying the rate of heat generation per unit volume by the volume of the rod 2–18 Consider a large 3-cm-thick stainless steel plate in which heat is generated uniformly at a rate of 5 x 10 6W/m3.Assuming the plate is losing heat from both sides, determine the heat flux on the surface of the plate during steady operation. The rate of heat generation per unit volume in a stainless steel plate is given. The heat flux on the surface of the plate is to be determined. Assumptions Heat is generated uniformly in steel plate. Analysis We consider a unit surface area of 1 m2. The total rate of heat generation in this section of the plate is Noting that this heat will be dissipated from both sides of the plate, the heat flux on either surface of the plate becomes Heat Conduction Equation 2–20 Write down the one-dimensional transient heat conduction equation for a long cylinder with constant thermal conductivity and heat generation, and indicate what each variable represents. The one-dimensional transient heat conduction equation for a plane wall with constant thermal conductivity and heat generation is Here T is the temperature, r is the space variable, g is the heat generation per unit volume, k is the thermal conductivity, αis the thermal diffusivity, and t is the time. 2–22 Starting with an energy balance on a cylindrical shell volume element, derive the steady one-dimensional heat conduction equation for a long cylinder with constant thermal conductivity in which heat is generated at a rate of g We consider a thin cylindrical shell element of thickness Δrin a long cylinder (see Fig. 2-15 in the text). The density of the cylinder is ρ, the specific heat is C, and the length is L. The area of the cylinder normal to the direction of heat transfer at any location is ArL =2π where r is the value of the radius at that location. Note that the heat transfer area A depends on r in this case, and thus it varies with location. An energy balanceon this thin cylindrical shell element of thickness Δrduring a small time interval Δt can be expressed as Where Substituting, where ArL =2π . Dividing the equation above by A δr gives Taking the limit as Δr→0 and Δt →0 yields since, from the definition of the derivative and Fourier’s law of heat conduction, Noting that the heat transfer area in this case is ArL =2π and the thermal conductivity is constant, the onedimensional transient heat conduction equation in a cylinder becomes where α ρ =kC/ is the thermal diffusivity of the material.

an energy balanceon this element during a small time interval Δt can be expressed as Rate of heat conduction at the surfaces x and y Rate of heat conduction at the surfaces at Rate of change of the energy content of the element Noting that the volume of the element is. and the area of the cylinder normal to the direction of heat transfer is AD=π24/ . (c) there is no heat generation. An energy balanceon this thin element of thickness Δz during a small time interval Δt can be expressed as Rate of heat conduction at the surface at z Rate of heat conduction at the surface at Rate of heat generation inside the element . y. Dividing by gives Taking the thermal conductivity k to be constant and noting that the heat transfer surface areas of the element for heat conduction in the x andy directions are Ay Ax xy= × = × Δ Δ 11 and . or three-dimensional? (c) Is there heat generation in the medium? (d) Is the thermal conductivity of the medium constant or variable? For a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its simplest by (a) Heat transfer is transient. 2-21). derive the two-dimensional transient heat conduction equation in rectangular coordinates for T(x. The density of the cylinder is ρ. and taking the limit as Δ Δ Δ xy t . or three-dimensional? (c) Is there heat generation in the medium? (d) Is the thermal conductivity of the medium constant or variable? For a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given by (a) Heat transfer is transient. (b) it is one-dimensional. 2–26 Consider a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its simplest form as (a) Is heat transfer steady or transient? (b) Is heat transfer one-. two-. derive the one-dimensional transient heat conduction equation for T(z. and (d) the thermal conductivity is constant.2–24 Consider a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its simplest form as (a) Is heat transfer steady or transient? (b) Is heat transfer one-. .respectively. (c) there is no heat generation. (b) it is one-dimensional. 2–28 Starting with an energy balance on a volume element. Consider a thin disk element of thickness Δzand diameter D in a long cylinder (Fig. t) in a cylinder of diameter D with an insulated side surface for the case of constant thermal conductivity with heat generation. the change in the energy content of the element can be expressed as Substituting. which is constant. Noting that heat conduction is twodimensional and assuming no heat generation. and (d) the thermal conductivity is constant. width Δy. t) for the case of constant thermal conductivity and no heat generation. and →0 yields since. Here the property α ρ =kC/ is the thermal diffusivity of the material. The density of the body is ρand the specific heat is C. and height Δz = 1 (similar to the one in Fig. 2–30 Starting with an energy balance on a disk volume element. the specific heat is C. P2-30). from the definition of the derivative and Fourier’s law ofheat conduction. We consider a small rectangular element of length Δx. two-.

(b) it is two-dimensional. A spherical container of inner radius r1. or three-dimensional? (c) Is there heat generation in the medium? (d) Is the thermal conductivity of the medium constant or variable? For a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given by (a) Heat transfer is steady. and is expressed at a point x0 as 2–38C It is claimed that the temperature profile in a medium must be perpendicular to an insulated surface. Noting that the area A and the thermal conductivity k are constant. line. The boundary condition on the inner surface of the container for steady one-dimensional conduction is to be expressed for the following cases: (a) Specified temperature of (b) Specified heat flux of 30 W/m2 towards the center: (c) Convection to a medium at T∞ with a heat transfer coefficient of h: . from the definition of the derivative and Fourier’s law ofheat conduction.Express the boundary condition on the inner surface of the container for steady onedimensional conduction for the following cases: (a) specified temperature of 50°C. and thermal conductivity k is given. or point is said to have thermal symmetry about that plane. It is equivalent to insulation or zero heat flux boundary condition. Formulation of Heat Conduction Problems 2–34C What is a boundary condition? How many boundary conditions do we need to specify for a two-dimensional heat transfer problem? The mathematical expressions of the thermal conditions at the boundaries are called the boundary conditions. line. two-. the temperature profile in a medium must beperpendicular to an insulated surface since the slope ∂ ∂ Tx/ =0 at that surface. (b) specified heat flux of 30 W/m2 toward the center. we need to specify four boundary conditions for two-dimensional problems. and (d) the thermal conductivity is variable. To describe a heat transfer problem completely. outer radius r2. The thermal symmetry boundary condition is a mathematical expression of this thermal symmetry.Rate of change of the energy content of the element But the change in the energy content of the element and the rate of heat generation within the element can be expressed as since. outer radius r2. the one-dimensional transient heat conduction equation in the axial direction in a long cylinder becomes where the property α ρ =kC/ is the thermal diffusivity of the material. Boundary and Initial Conditions. Is this a valid claim? Explain. or point. Therefore. 2–40 Consider a spherical container of inner radius r 1. two boundary conditionsmust be given for each directionof the coordinate system along which heat transfer is significant. Yes. (c) there is heat generation. 2–32 Consider a medium in which the heat conduction equation is given in its simplest form as (a) Is heat transfer steady or transient? (b) Is heat transfer one-. and thermal conductivity k. (c) convection to a medium at T with a heat transfer coefficient of h. 2–36C What is a thermal symmetry boundary condition? How is it expressed mathematically? A heat transfer problem that is symmetric about a plane.

outer radius r2. Assuming transient one-dimensional conduction in the radialdirection. A long pipe of inner radius r1. the convection boundary condition on the outer surface of the pipe can be expressed as 2–44 A container consists of two spherical layers. Assuming steady one-dimensional conduction in the radial direction. Express the convection boundary condition on the outer surface of the pipe.but the direction of heat transfer is not known. that are in perfect contact. A and B. express the boundary conditions at the interface. A spherical container consists of two spherical layers A and B that are at perfect contact. The outer surface of the pipe is subjected to convection to a medium at T∞ with a heat transfer coefficient of h. The radius of the interface is ro.2–42 Consider a long pipe of inner radius r1. and thermal conductivity k is considered.The outer surface of the pipe is subjected to convection to a medium at T with a heat transfer coefficient of h. and thermal conductivity k. the boundary conditions at the interfacecan be expressed as . outer radius r2. If the radius of the interface is r0.

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