2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 1
INFLUENCE LINES
PRELIMINARIES
Moving loads  Loads applied to a structure with points of application (including their
magnitude) can vary as a function of positions on the structure. Examples of moving loads
include live load on buildings, traffic or vehicle loads on bridges, loads induced by wind and
earthquake, etc. In the analysis, the moving loads can be modeled as varying distributed
loads, a series of concentrated loads, or the combination of distributed loads and
concentrated loads.
Figure 1
A moving unit load  a concentrated load of unit magnitude with its point of application
varies as a function of position on the structure.
Figure 2
Responses due to moving loads  Quantities of interest that indicate the effect of the
moving loads on a structure, e.g. internal forces, support reactions, displacements and
rotations, deformations, etc.
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 2
Responses due to a moving unit load  Quantities of interest at a particular point
within a given structure, e.g. internal forces, support reactions, deformations, displacements
and rotations, due to an applied moving unit load. The quantities are given in terms of
functions of a position of a moving unit load on the structure; these response functions are
termed as the influence functions and their graphical representations are known as the
influence lines.
Application of the influence functions (lines)
Let f
A
be a quantity of interest at a point A within a given structure due to applied distributed
load q and a series of concentrated loads {P
1
, P
2
, …, P
N
} and f
AI
denote the influence
function of the corresponding quantity at point A. By a method of superposition, we obtain the
relation of f
A
and f
AI
as
_
)
=
+ =
N
1 i
i i AI AI A
P x f dx q f f ) (
(1)
where the integral is to be taken over the region on which load q is applied and x
i
indicates
the location on which the load P
i
is applied. For instance, assume that the influence line of
the support reaction at point A (R
AI
) of the beam is given as shown in the Figure 3a. The
support reaction at point A (R
A
) due to applied loads as shown in Figure 3b can then be
obtained using Eqn. (1) as follow:
2P 3L/4 R P L/4 R dx q R R
AI AI
L/2
0
AI A
) ( ) ( + + =
)
( ) ( )( ) 5P/4 3qL/8 2P 1/4 P 3/4 dx x/L  1 q
L/2
0
+ = + +


.

\

=
)
Figure 3a Figure 3b
1
A B
x
L
x
R
AI
1x/L
L
R
AI
0
L/4 L/4 L/4
P
q
L/4
R
A
x
R
AI
L
2P
3/4
1/2
1/4 Area = 3L/8
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 3
In addition, the influence lines can also be used to predict the load pattern that maximizes
responses at a particular point of the structure. For instance, let consider a twospan
continuous beam subjected to both dead load (fixed load) and live load (varying load) as
shown in the figure below.
To determine the maximum positive bending moment at points A, the maximum negative
moment B, and the maximum positive shear at point A due to these applied dead and live
loads, we construct first the influence lines M
AI
, M
BI
, and V
AI
as shown below.
It is evident from the influence lines that the maximum positive bending moment at point A
occurs when the live load is placed only on the first span; the maximum negative moment at
point B occurs when the live load is placed on both spans; and the maximum positive shear
occurs when the live load is placed on the first half of the first span and on the second span.
The maximum value of the responses can then be obtained using Eqn.(1) for each
corresponding loading pattern. It is noted that the dead load is fixed and therefore it is
applied to both spans of the beam for all cases.
1
A B
x
Dead load
Live load
A B
M
AI
x
M
BI
x
V
AI
x
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 4
INFLUENCE LINES FOR DETERMINATE BEAMS
¾ Support reactions (e.g. R
AI
, R
DI
)
¾ Bending moment at a particular section (e.g. M
CI
)
¾ Shear force at a particular section (e.g. V
CI
)
¾ Deflection at a particular point (e.g. o
BI
)
¾ Rotation at a particular point (e.g. u
BI
)
Direct Methods for Constructing Influence Lines
¾ Treat a structure subjected to a moving unit load (as function of positions)
¾ Influence functions are obtained by considering all possible load locations
¾ Support reactions
 Equilibrium equations of the entire structure
¾ Internal forces
 Method of sections
 Equilibrium equations of parts of the structure
¾ Displacement and rotations
 Determining support reactions and internal forces from equilibrium
 Displacement and rotations are obtained from
9 Direct integration method
9 Moment area and conjugate structure methods
9 Energy methods, etc.
1
A
D
x
C
R
AI
R
DI
V
CI
M
CI
B
o
BI
u
BI
Deformed state
Undeformed state
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 5
Example1: Construct influence lines R
AI
, R
BI
, V
CI
, M
CI
, o
CI
, u
CI
of a simply supported beam
Solution Consider the beam subjected to a moving unit load as shown below.
Influence lines for reactions R
AI
, R
BI
  0 M
B
= E + 0 x)  (1)(L )(L) (R
AI
= + ÷
L
x  L
R
AI
=
  0 M
A
= E + 0 (1)(x) )(L) (R
BI
= ÷
L
x
R
BI
=
A C B
L/3 2L/3
A
C
B
L/3 2L/3
1
x
A
B
1
x
R
AI
R
BI
R
AI
x
L 0
R
BI
x
1
1
L 0
EI
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 6
Influence lines for shear and bending moment V
CI
, M
CI
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 V 1 R
CI AI
= ÷ ÷
L
x
1 R V
AI CI
÷ = ÷ =
  0 M
C
= E + 0 M x)  (1)(L/3 )(L/3) (R
CI AI
= + + ÷
3
2x
x
3
1)L (R
M
AI
CI
= +
÷
=
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 V R
CI AI
= ÷
L
x
1 R V
AI CI
÷ = =
  0 M
C
= E + 0 M )(L/3) (R
CI AI
= + ÷

.

\

÷ = =
L
x
1
3
L
3
L R
M
AI
CI
1
A
B
x L/3
R
AI
R
BI
C
A
B
1
R
AI
R
BI
C
x L/3
A
1
x L/3
R
AI
C
V
CI
M
CI
A
R
AI
C
V
CI
M
CI
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 7
Influence lines for deflection and rotation o
CI
, u
CI
V
CI
x
L
0
M
CI
x
2/3
L 0
L/3
1/3
2L/9
L/3
A B
x L/3
R
AI
R
BI
C
x
1
L/3x/3
BMD
M
2x/3
xL/3
A B
x L/3
R
AI
R
BI
C
x
1
L/3x/3
2x/3
L/3x
A B
2/3 1/3
C
x
1
2L/9
A B
1/L 1/L
C
x
1/3
1
2/3
Actual System I Actual System II
Virtual System I Virtual System II
BMD
oM
BMD
M
BMD
oM
R
AI
x
L 0
1
2/3
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 8
The deflection o
CI
for x L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
system I and the virtual system I; i.e.
dx
EI
M M
L
0
CI
)
o
= o
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+ 
.

\

÷ 
.

\

÷ +
(
¸
(
¸

.

\


.

\
 ÷
=
9
2L
L
x
3
2
x
3
L
3
L
x
2EI
1
9
2L
3
2
3
L
3
x L
2EI
1
(
¸
(
¸

.

\


.

\

+
9
2L
3
2
3
2L
3
2x
2EI
1
( )
2 2
9x 5L
81EI
x
÷ =
The deflection o
CI
for x L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
system II and the virtual system I; i.e.
dx
EI
M M
L
0
CI
)
o
= o
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ 
.

\

÷ 
.

\

÷ +
(
¸
(
¸

.

\


.

\
 ÷
=
9
2L
2L
x
6
7
3
L
x x
3
L
2EI
1
9
2L
3
2
3
L
3
x L
2EI
1
(
¸
(
¸

.

\


.

\

+
9
2L
3
2
3
2L
3
2x
2EI
1
( )
2 2
9x 18Lx L
162EI
L  x
+ ÷ =
o
CI
x
L 0
4L
3
/243EI
L/3
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 9
The rotation u
CI
for x L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
system I and the virtual system II; i.e.
dx
EI
M M
L
0
CI
)
o
= u
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

+ 
.

\

÷ 
.

\

÷ +
(
¸
(
¸

.

\


.

\
 ÷
=
3
1
L
x
3
2
x
3
L
3
L
x
2EI
1
3
1
3
2
3
L
3
x L
2EI
1
(
¸
(
¸
÷ 
.

\


.

\

+
3
2
3
2
3
2L
3
2x
2EI
1
( )
2 2
3x L
18EIL
x
+ ÷ =
The rotation u
CI
for x L/3 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
system II and the virtual system I; i.e.
dx
EI
M M
L
0
CI
)
o
= u
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ ÷ 
.

\

÷ 
.

\

÷ +
(
¸
(
¸

.

\


.

\
 ÷
=
3
2
2L
x
6
7
3
L
x x
3
L
2EI
1
3
1
3
2
3
L
3
x L
2EI
1
(
¸
(
¸
÷ 
.

\


.

\

+
3
2
3
2
3
2L
3
2x
2EI
1
( )
2 2
3x 6Lx L
18EIL
x  L
+ ÷ =
u
CI
x
L 0
4L
2
/162EI
L/3
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 10
Example2: Construct influence lines R
AI
, M
AI
, V
BI
, M
BI
, o
BI
, u
BI
of a cantilever beam
Solution Consider the beam subjected to a moving unit load as shown below.
Influence lines for reactions R
AI
, M
AI
  0 M
A
= E + 0 (1)(x) M
AI
= ÷ ÷
x M
AI
÷ =
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 1 R
AI
= ÷
1 R
AI
=
1
x
A B
1
x
R
AI
M
AI
M
AI
x
L 0
R
AI
x
L
1
L 0
A B
L/2
EI
L/2
A B
L/2
EI
L/2
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 11
Influence lines for shear and bending moment V
CI
, M
CI
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 V
BI
=
0 V
BI
=
  0 M
B
= E + 0 M
BI
= ÷
0 M
BI
=
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 V R
BI AI
= ÷
1 R V
AI BI
= =
  0 M
B
= E + 0 M M )(L/2) (R
BI AI AI
= + ÷ ÷

.

\

÷ ÷ = + =
2
L
x M
2
L R
M
AI
AI
BI
1
A
x L/2
R
AI
M
AI
B
B
V
BI
M
BI
A
R
AI
B
V
BI M
BI
1
A
x L/2
R
AI
B
M
AI M
AI
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 12
Influence lines for deflection and rotation o
BI
, u
BI
V
BI x
L 0
M
BI
x
1
L 0
L/2
L/2
L/2
A
x L/2
R
AI
B
x
1
BMD
M
x
Actual System I Actual System II
Virtual System I Virtual System II
1
M
AI
A
x L/2
R
AI
B
1
BMD
M
M
AI
A
1
B
x
1
BMD
oM
L/2
L/2
A
0
B
x
1
BMD
oM
1
1
1
L/2+x
L/2
L/2
x
x
L/2x
L/2
M
AI x
L 0
R
AI
x
1 1
L 0
L/2
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 13
The deflection o
BI
for x L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
system I and the virtual system I; i.e.
dx
EI
M M
L
0
BI
)
o
= o
( )
(
¸
(
¸
÷ 
.

\

+
(
¸
(
¸
÷ 
.

\


.

\

=
2
L
2
1
2
L
x 
EI
1
2
L
3
1
2
L
2
L
2EI
1
(
¸
(
¸

.

\

÷ ÷ 
.

\

÷ 
.

\

+ ÷ +
2
L
3L
2x
3
1
x
2
L
x
2
L
2EI
1
( ) 2x 3L
12EI
x
2
÷ =
The deflection o
BI
for x L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
system II and the virtual system I; i.e.
dx
EI
M M
L
0
CI
)
o
= o
( )
(
¸
(
¸
÷ 
.

\

+
(
¸
(
¸
÷ 
.

\


.

\

=
2
L
2
1
2
L
x 
EI
1
2
L
3
1
2
L
2
L
2EI
1
( ) L 6x
48EI
L
2
÷ =
o
BI
x
L 0
L
3
/24EI
L/2
5L
3
/48EI
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 14
The rotation u
BI
for x L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
system I and the virtual system II; i.e.
dx
EI
M M
L
0
CI
)
o
= u
  ( )   1
2
L
x 
EI
1
1
2
L
2
L
2EI
1

.

\

+ 
.

\


.

\

=
  1 x
2
L
x
2
L
2EI
1

.

\

÷ 
.

\

+ ÷ +
2EI
x
2
÷ =
The rotation u
BI
for x L/2 can be obtained using the unit load method along with the actual
system II and the virtual system I; i.e.
dx
EI
M M
L
0
CI
)
o
= u
  ( )   1
2
L
x 
EI
1
1
2
L
2
L
2EI
1

.

\

+ 
.

\


.

\

=
( ) 4x L
8EI
L
÷ =
u
BI
x
L 0
L
2
/8EI
L/2
3L
2
/8EI
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 15
Example3: Construct influence lines R
AI
, M
AI
, R
BI
, V
CI
, V
BLI
, M
BLI
, V
BRI
, M
BRI
, V
DI
, and M
DI
of a
beam shown below
Solution Consider the beam subjected to a moving unit load as shown below.
Influence lines for reactions R
AI
, M
AI
, R
BI
and shear force V
CI
From FBD II, we obtain
  0 M
C
= E + 0 )(L) (R
BI
=
0 R
BI
=
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 R V
BI CI
= +
0 R V
BI CI
= ÷ =
A B
L/2 L L
1
x
A B
1
x L
R
AI
M
AI
A B
L L
C
C
R
BI
C
R
BI
B
C
V
CI
FBD I FBD II
D
L/2
L/2 L/2
D
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 16
From FBD I, we obtain
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 1 R R
BI AI
= ÷ +
1 R 1 R
BI AI
= ÷ =
  0 M
A
= E + 0 (1)(x) )(2L) (R M 
BI AI
= ÷ +
x x L 2R M
BI AI
= ÷ =
From FBD IV, we obtain
  0 M
C
= E + 0 L) (1)(x )(L) (R
BI
= ÷ ÷
1
L
x
R
BI
÷ =
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 1 R V
BI CI
= ÷ +
L
x
2 R 1 V
BI CI
÷ = ÷ =
From FBD III, we obtain
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 1 R R
BI AI
= ÷ +
L
x
2 R 1 R
BI AI
÷ = ÷ =
A B
1
x L
R
AI
M
AI
R
BI
C
R
BI
B
C
V
CI
FBD III FBD IV
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 17
  0 M
A
= E + 0 (1)(x) )(2L) (R M 
BI AI
= ÷ +
2L x x  L 2R M
BI AI
÷ = =
M
AI x
0
R
AI x
L
1
1
L 2L
3L
L
0 L
2L 3L
1
R
BI x
2
0 L 2L 3L
1
V
CI
x
1
0 L
2L 3L
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 18
Influence lines for shear and bending moment V
BLI
, M
BLI
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 R V
BI BLI
= +
BI BLI
R V =
  0 M
B
= E + 0 M
BLI
= ÷
0 M
BLI
=
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 1 R V
BI BLI
= ÷ +
BI BLI
R 1 V ÷ =
  0 M
B
= E + 0 2L) (1)(x M
BLI
= ÷ ÷ ÷
x 2L M
BLI
÷ =
A
B
1
x L
R
AI
M
AI
R
BI
C
R
BI
B
V
BLI M
BLI
A
B
1
x 2L
R
AI
M
AI
R
BI
C
R
BI
B
V
BLI M
BLI
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 19
Influence lines for shear and bending moment V
BRI
, M
BRI
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 V
BRI
=
0 V
BRI
=
  0 M
B
= E + 0 M
BRI
= ÷
0 M
BRI
=
R
BI x
2
0 L 2L 3L
1
V
BLI x
1
0 L 2L 3L
1
M
BLI x
L
0 L 2L 3L
A
B
1
x L
R
AI
M
AI
R
BI
C
V
BRI M
BRI
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 20
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 1 V
BRI
= ÷
1 V
BRI
=
  0 M
B
= E + 0 2L) (1)(x M
BRI
= ÷ ÷ ÷
x 2L M
BRI
÷ =
A
B
1
x 2L
R
AI
M
AI
R
BI
C
V
BRI M
BRI
1
V
BRI x
1
0 L 2L 3L
M
BRI x
L
0 L 2L 3L
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 21
Influence lines for shear and bending moment V
DI
, M
DI
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 R V
BI DI
= +
BI DI
R V =
  0 M
B
= E + 0 )(3L/2) (R M
BI DI
= + ÷
/2 3LR M
BI DI
=
  0 F
Y
= E + 0 1 R V
BI DI
= ÷ +
BI BLI
R 1 V ÷ =
A
B
1
x L/2
R
AI
M
AI
R
BI
C
V
DI M
DI
D
B
R
BI
C
D
A
B
1
x L/2
R
AI
M
AI
R
BI
C
V
DI M
DI
D
B
R
BI
C
D
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 22
  0 M
B
= E + 0 )(3L/2) (R L/2) (1)(x M
BI DI
= + ÷ ÷ ÷
x L/2 /2 3LR M
BI DI
÷ + =
Remarks
1. The influences lines of support reactions and internal forces (shear force and
bending moment) for statically determinate beams are piecewise linear; i.e.
they consists of only straight line segments.
2. The influence functions of the internal forces can be obtained in terms of the
influence functions of the support reactions; therefore, the influence lines of
internal forces can be readily obtained from those for support reactions.
3. The influence lines of the deflection and rotation at any points of the statically
determinate beam generally consist of curve segments.
R
BI x
2
1
V
DI
x
1
0 L 2L
3L
1
M
DI x
L/2
1
L/2
L/2
0 L 2L
3L
L/2
0 L 2L 3L
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 23
MullerBreslau Principle
Actual Structure. Consider a statically determinate beam subjected to a moving unit load
as shown in the figure below.
Virtual Displacement  The fictitious and arbitrary displacement that is introduced to the
structure. For use further below, the following three types of virtual displacement for the
beam structure are considered:
¾ Virtual displacement due to release of a support constraint.
1. Release a support constraint in the direction of interest
2. The beam becomes statically unstable (partially or completely)
3. Introduce unit virtual displacement (or unit virtual rotation if the
rotational constraint is released) in the direction that the support
constraint is released.
4. The virtual displacement at all other points results from the development
of the mechanism (or rigid body motion) of the entire beam
1
RELEASE displacement constraint
1
1
RELEASE rotational constraint
RELEASE displacement constraint
1
x
Virtual System 1a
Virtual System 1b
Virtual System 1c
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 24
¾ Virtual displacement due to release of shear constraint.
1. Remove the shear constraint by introducing a shear release at point of
interest
2. The beam becomes statically unstable (partially or completely)
3. Introduce unit relative virtual displacement between the two ends of
the shear release with their slope remaining the same (provided that
the moment constraint exists at that point)
4. The virtual displacement at all other points results from the development
of the mechanism (or rigid body motion) of the entire beam.
¾ Virtual displacement due to release of bending moment constraint.
1. Remove the moment constraint by introducing a hinge at point of interest
2. The beam becomes statically unstable (partially or completely)
3. Introduce unit relative virtual rotation at the hinge without separation
(provided that the shear constraint exists at that point).
4. The virtual displacement at all other points results from the development
of the mechanism (or rigid body motion) of the entire beam.
RELEASE shear constraint
1
RELEASE shear constraint
1
RELEASE moment constraint
1
RELEASE moment constraint
1
Virtual System 2a
Virtual System 2b
Virtual System 3a
Virtual System 3b
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 25
Principle of Virtual Work: Consider a system or structure subjected to external applied
loads. The support reactions and internal forces at any locations within the structure are
in equilibrium with the applied loads if and only if the external virtual work (work done by
the external applied loads) is the same as the internal virtual work (work done by the
internal forces) for all admissible virtual displacements, i.e.
I E
įW įW = (2)
It is important to note that the portion of the structure that undergoes virtual rigid body
motion (virtual displacement that produces no deformation) produces zero internal virtual
work.
Influence Line for Support Reactions. To clearly illustrate the strategy, let assume that
the influence line of the support reaction R
AI
is to be determined. By applying the principle
of virtual work to the actual system with a special choice of the virtual displacement as
indicated in the virtual system 1a (the virtual displacement associated with the rigid body
motion of the beam resulting from the release of the displacement constraint at A) , we
obtain
) ( ) ( x įv R x įv 1 1 R įW
AI AI E
÷ = ÷ = ; 0 įW
I
=
I E
įW įW =
¬ ) (x įv R
AI
= (3)
1
RELEASE displacement constraint
1
Virtual System 1a
Actual system
x
ov(x)
R
AI
R
BI
M
AI
A B
R
AI x
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 26
MullerBreslau Principle: “The influence line of a particular support reaction has an
identical shape to the virtual displacement obtained from releasing the support constraint
in the direction of the support reaction (under consideration) and introducing a rigid body
motion with unit displacement/unit rotation in the direction of the released constraint.”
Influence Line for Shear Force. Let assume that the influence line of the shear force at
point C, V
CI
, is to be determined. By applying the principle of virtual work to the actual
system with a special choice of the virtual displacement as indicated in the virtual system
2a (the virtual displacement associated with the rigid body motion of the beam resulting
from the release of the shear constraint at C) , we obtain
) ( ) ( x įv x įv 1 įW
E
÷ = ÷ = ;
CI CI I
V 1 V įW ÷ = ÷ =
I E
įW įW =
¬ ) (x įv V
CI
= (4)
MullerBreslau Principle: “The influence line of the shear force at a particular point has an
identical shape to the virtual displacement obtained from releasing the shear constraint at
that point and introducing a rigid body motion with unit relative virtual displacement
between the two ends of the shear release with their slope remaining the same.”
1
Virtual System 2a
Actual system
x
ov(x)
R
AI
R
BI
M
AI
A B
C
V
CI
M
CI
RELEASE shear constraint
1
V
CI x
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 27
Influence Line for Bending Moment. Let assume that the influence line of the bending
at point C, M
CI
, is to be determined. By applying the principle of virtual work to the actual
system with a special choice of the virtual displacement as indicated in the virtual system
3a (the virtual displacement associated with the rigid body motion of the beam resulting
from the release of the bending moment constraint at C) , we obtain
) ( ) ( x įv x įv 1 įW
E
÷ = ÷ = ;
CI CI I
M 1 M įW ÷ = ÷ =
I E
įW įW =
¬ ) (x įv M
CI
= (5)
MullerBreslau Principle: “The influence line of the shear force at a particular point has an
identical shape to the virtual displacement obtained from releasing the shear constraint at
that point and introducing a rigid body motion with unit relative virtual displacement
between the two ends of the shear release with their slope remaining the same.”
1
Virtual System 3a
Actual system
x
ov(x)
R
AI
R
BI
M
AI
A B
C
V
CI
M
CI
RELEASE moment constraint
1
M
CI x
1
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 28
Example4: Use MullerBreslau principle to construct influence lines R
AI
, R
DI
, R
FI
, V
BI
, V
CLI
,
V
CRI
, V
DLI
, V
DRI
,V
EI
, M
BI
, M
DI
, and M
EI
of a statically determinate beam shown below
Solution The influence line of the support reaction R
DI
is obtained as follow: 1) release the
displacement constraint at point D, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose unit
displacement at point D, and 4) the resulting virtual displacement is the influence line of R
DI
.
The value of the influence line at other points can be readily determined from the geometry,
for instance,
3/2 L 3L/2 1 h
2
= = ) /( ) )( (
1/2 L L/2 1 h
3
= = ) /( ) )( (
3/4 L/2 L/4 3/2 h
1
= = ) /( ) )( (
A D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E F
L/2
A
D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E F
L/2
RELEASE displacement
constraint
1
R
DI x
1
h
1
=3/4
h
2
=3/2
h
3
=1/2
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 29
The influence line of the shear force V
EI
is obtained as follow: 1) release the shear constraint
at point E, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose unit relative displacement at point E
and 4) the resulting virtual displacement is the influence line of V
EI
.
The value of the influence line at other points can be readily determined from the geometry,
for instance,
4 3 4 3
h h 2 L h 2 L h ÷ = ¬ = ÷ ) / /( ) / /(
1/2 h 1 2h h h 1 h h
4 4 4 4 3 4
= ¬ = = ÷ ÷ ¬ = ÷ ) (
1/2 h h
4 3
÷ = ÷ =
1/2 L/2 L/2 h h
3 2
= ÷ = ) /( ) )( (
1/4 L/2 L/4 h h
2 1
= = ) /( ) )( (
A D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E
F
L/2
RELEASE shear
constraint
V
EI x
1
h
1
=1/4
h
2
=1/2 h
4
=1/2
1
h
3
=1/2
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 30
The influence line of the bending moment M
EI
is obtained as follow: 1) release the bending
moment constraint at point E, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose unit relative rotation
at point E without separation and 4) the resulting virtual displacement is the influence line of
M
EI
.
The value of the influence line at other points can be readily determined from the geometry,
for instance,
L/4 h 1 2 L h 2 L h
3 3 3
= ¬ = + ) / /( ) / /(
L/4 L/2 L/2 h h
3 2
÷ = ÷ = ) /( ) )( (
L/8 L/2 L/4 h h
2 1
÷ = = ) /( ) )( (
The rest of the influence lines can be determined in the same manner and results are given
below.
A D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E
F
L/2
RELEASE moment
constraint
M
EI x
h
1
=L/8
h
2
=L/4
h
3
=L/4
1
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 31
A D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E F
L/2
R
AI x
1
R
FI x
1/2
1
1/2
1/2
1/4
V
BI x
1/2
1/2
V
CLI x
1
1/2
V
CRI x
1
1/2
V
DLI x
1
1/2
1
V
DRI x
1/2
1/4
1
M
BI x
L/8
M
DI
x
L/4
L/8
1
x
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 32
Example5: Use MullerBreslau principle to construct influence lines R
AI
, M
AI
, R
DI
, V
BI
, V
CI
,
V
DI
,V
ELI
,V
ERI
, M
BI
, M
DI
, and M
EI
of a statically determinate beam shown below.
Solution By MullerBreslau principle, we obtain the influence lines as follow: 1) release the
constraint associated with the quantity of interest, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose
unit virtual displacement/rotation in the direction of released constraint, and 4) the resulting
virtual displacement is the influence line to be determined. It is noted that values at points on
the influence line can be readily determined from the geometry.
A D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E F
L/2
A D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E F
L/2
1
x
R
AI x
1 1
1/2
1/2
M
AI x
L/2
L/4
L/4
L/4
1
x R
EI
1
1/2
3/2
1
1/2
1/2
1
V
BI x
V
CI x
1
1/2
1/2
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 33
A D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E F
L/2
1
x
1/2
V
DI
x
1/2
1/2
x
1/2
1
1/2
V
ELI
x
1
V
ERI
1
x
L/4
L/8
L/8
M
BI
x
M
DI
L/4
L/4
x
L/2
M
EI
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 34
Example6: Use MullerBreslau principle to construct influence lines R
AI
, M
AI
, R
DI
, R
FI
, V
BI
,
V
CI
, V
DLI
, V
DRI
,V
EI
, M
BI
, and M
DI
of a statically determinate beam shown below.
Solution By MullerBreslau principle, we obtain the influence lines as follow: 1) release the
constraint associated with the quantity of interest, 2) introduce a rigid body motion, 3) impose
unit virtual displacement/rotation in the direction of released constraint, and 4) the resulting
virtual displacement is the influence line to be determined. It is noted that values at points on
the influence line can be readily determined from the geometry.
A D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E
F
L/2
A D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E
F
L/2
1
x
R
AI x
1 1
1
M
AI x
L/2
L/2
L/4
1
x
R
EI
1
2
x
R
EI
1
2101301 Structural Analysis I Influence Line
Dr. Jaroon Rungamornrat 35
A D
L/4 L/2 L/2
C
B
L/4
E
F
L/2
1
x
V
BI x
1
1
V
CI x
1
1
1
V
DLI x
1
1
V
DRI x
1 1
V
EI x
1
M
BI
x
L/4
L/4
M
BI
L/2