BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka

MELIORA HIC SEQUAMUR KE ARAH KECEMERLANGAN PENDIDIKAN

BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA

CHEMISTRY
( ACIDS AND BASES ) By Hj Abdul Rasid bin Bakar Pn. Faridah bt Shukor PANITIA SAINS (KIMIA) SMK TINGGI MELAKA

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.…………………………………………………………………………… [ 2 marks ] (c) (i)What is the meaning of base.……………………………………………………………………………………… [ 1 mark ] (ii) What is the relationship between pH and concentration of hydrogen ion …………….. …….………..…………………………………………………………………………………………… [ 1 mark ] (b) (i) What is the meaning of pH. [ 1 mark ] 2 .SABTU 1 The table below is the value of pH of a few aqueous solution with the concentration of 1 mol dm -3 Solution pH R 1 S 3 T 6 V 7 X 11 Y 14 Use the above symbols and the table to answer the question..……………………………………………………………………………………………… [ 1 mark ] (ii) From the table.BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA . ………………………………………………………………………………………………….……………………………………………………………………………………………… [ 1 mark ] (iii)From the table. [ 2 marks ] (iii) State one property of acid. choose one example of strong alkali. …. ………….. choose one example of weak acid and one strong acid …………………………………………………………………………………………………. (a) (i) What is the meaning of acid.…………………………………………………………………………… ……………………. ……………………….…………………………………………………………………………… [ 1 mark ] (ii) What is the difference between base and alkali ….

[ Relative atomic mass: K.. the beaker must be rinsed several times with distilled water. 39. O. (a) What is meant by the standard solution ? …………….……………………………………………………………………………………… [ 1 mark ] (d) Why is the distilled water is added drop by drop? ………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………………………………………………………………………………… [ 1 mark ] (b) Calculate the mass of potassium hydroxide. After each rinse.1 mol dm-3 . H. Give one reason for doing this? …………. [ 1 mark ] 3 . 0. all the water is tranferred into the volumetric flask.BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka 2 Diagram below shows the preparation of standard solution of potassium hydroxide.1 mol dm -3..16. KOH needed to make 250 cm 3 solution with concentration 0. 1] [ 2 marks ] (c) After all the potassium hydroxide is poured into the volumetric flask.

0 mole dm-3 barium hydroxide solution in a conical flask and is titrated with suphuric acid.50 cm 3 of sulphuric acid is required to achieve the end-point. [ 1 mark ] 3.BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka (e) What step should be taken to make sure that the meniscus level of the standard solution is exactly in line with the graduation mark on the volumetric flask? ………………………………………………………………………………………………… [ 1 mark ] (f) A volumetric flask is more suitable to be used in the preparation of the standard solution rather than a beaker. The titration is repeated with the same volume and concentration of of barium hydroxide solution. It is found that 24.. [ 1 mark ] (g) Why do you need to shake the solution after all the water had been added? …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Determine the volume of sulphuric acid used in the third titration.50 cm 3 of sulphuric acid is required to reach its end-point. 25. 7 32 8 33 Initial burette reading Final burette reading Diagram 2 (a) Diagram 2 shows the initial and final burette readings for the third titration. 2 drops of phenolphthalein indicator is added to 25cm 3 of 1. Why? …………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 .

(d) State the volume of acid required for complete titration if sulphuric acid in this experiment is replaced with hydrochloric acid of the same molarity. sulphuric acid Classify these acids into strong acids and weak acids by using a suitable table.BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka (b) Construct a table to record the results of the three titrations in this experiment. phosphoric acid. (f) Explain why phenolpthalein is used in this experiment. 5 . Ethanoic acid. (c) Calculate the molarity of the sulphuric acid used.. …………………………………………………………………………………………………. nitric acid. (e) Below are some examples of acids.

[ 6 marks] 2 The chemical equation below show the neutralisation reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O Describe an experiment to determine the concentration of sodium hydroxide solution by using titration method.  The pH of 1 mol dm-3 hydrochloric acid solution is 1  The pH of 1 mol dm-3 ethanoic acid solution is 4 Explain why these solution have different pH values. In your answer include the diagram . [ 9 marks] (b) The following imformation is about hydrochloric acid and ethanoic acid. 6 . (a) What is the meaning of weak acid? [ 2 marks] (b) What is the role of water for acid to show its properties? Explain. data and all relevant calculations involved.BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka SECTION B [ Essay ] 1. [ 3 marks] (c) Explain three simple experiments to show the properties of acid.

025 x [ 39 + 16 +1 ] = 0.BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka ANSWER 1(a)(i) acid is a compound that ionises in water to form H +/ H3O+ // Acid is compound that dissolve in water to produce H+ ion. (ii) weak acid : Strong acid: (iii) T R 1 1 1 pH lower than 7// turn blue litmus paper red react with [named] metal to form hydrogen gas react with [named] metal carbonates to form carbon dioxide gas react with base/alkali to form salt and water [any one of the properties] 1 1 1 1 - (b) (i) pH is measurement of concentration of H+ (ii) concentration of H+ high. pH is low Concentration of H+ low.1 x = 0. pH is high (c) (i) compound that ionises in water to form OH // Base is compound that reacts with acid to form salt and water (ii) alkali is base that is soluble in water (iii) Y 1 1 1.025 x 56 = 1..10m 2 (a) solution of known concentration (b) Number of mol = Molarity x volume 1000 = 0.4 g (c) to make sure all KOH is transferred to the volumetric flask // 1 1 1 7 .025 mol Mass = mol x Molar mass = 0.

Question No.70 cm3 Final burette reading = 32.90 VB = 25. Volume of acid required (with unit) *data ecf from 2(a) Titration Final burette reading (cm3) Initial burette reading (cm3) Volume of acid used (cm3) Average volume of acid used (cm3) 3(c) 1 2 3 3 Rubric KK0508 – Interpreting data Steps and answer correct with appropriate unit Suggested Answer : H2SO4 + Ba(OH)2  BaSO4 + 2H2O MA MB = 1. 2.70 = 24.0 VA = 24. Initial Burette readings (with unit) 3.004 mol dm-3 MB V B 1 Able to state the volume of hydrochloric acid used correctly and with correct 3 3 (d) 8 .40 -7.BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka To make sure the concentration of solution is accurate (d) To make sure that the meniscus level of the solution is exactly in line with the graduation mark on the volumetric flask.70 cm3 3(b) Rubric [ KK0506 –Communication] Able to construct a table which contain 4 of the following : 1.40 cm3 Volume of acid used = 32. 3 (a) Rubric [ KK0503 – measure and using number] Able to record the initial and final burette readings correctly and accurately ( with 2 decimal points ). Titration No. Final Burette readings (with unit) 4. (e) the eye level is parallel to the meniscus level // Add the distilled water drop by drop/ slowly (f) volumetric flask is more accurate (g) to make sure that solution is well mixed// the solution is homogeneous 1 1 1 1 1…8m 3. / Experiment No. with correct unit and the correct volume of acid used Maximum Score 3 Answers : Initial burette reading = 7.0 (average) MA V A = 1 MA = 1.

Answer : 49.BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka unit.20 cm3 // twice the volume of sulphuric acid used// 24.60 x 2 cm 3 Rubric [KK0502 – Classifying] Able to classify the acids given into strong acids and weak acids correctly in table form : 1. showing the 2 category of acids 2. classifying the acids correctly Strong acid Weak acid 3 3(e) 3 3(f) Rubric [KK0509-Define operationally] Able to explain accurately the purpose of using phenolphthalein in this experiment Answer : To determine the end –point / neutral point of the titration and to determine the volume of acid required 3 9 .

.2m (ii) add magnesium ribbon to the given solution in a test tube Bring the lighted splint near the test tube ‘pop’ sound is heard/produce 1 add calcium carbonate (any carbonate) to the solution in a test tube Pass the gas through lime water Lime water turn cloudy/ chalky..BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka SECTION B(Essay) 1 (a) Weak acid is a chemical substance that dissociate (ionise) partially in water To produce low concentration of hydrogen ion (b) Water help molecule of acid dissociate(ionise) to produce hydrogen ion Hydrogen ion is responsible for an acid to shows its properties (c) 3 experiments (i) [ procedure ] [ name of indicator ] [ observation ] Sample answer : Add the named indicator [ observation as in the table ] : indicator Universal indicator litmus Methyl orange Methyl red Congo red Colour changes pH less than 7 Blue to red Orange to red Yellow to red Red to blue 1 1 1 1. 1 1 (iii) 1 1 1…9 10 .3 m 1 1.

For the second and third titration..20 2 3 [Apparatus and material] 25 cm3 pipette.5 mol dm-3 . The titration process is repeated two times using another portion of the sodium hydroxide. retort stand with clamps.00 23. cornical flask. white tile Hydrochloric acid 0.BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka (d) hydrochloric acid dissociated (ionises) completely in water to form high concentration of hydrogen ions pH is low HCl + (ak) ------> H+ + Clethanoic acid dissociated partially in water to form a low concentration of hydrogen ions pH is high CH3COOH (ak) ---- H+ + CH3COO2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Number of titration Initial reading/cm3 Final reading/cm3 Volume of acid /cm3 1 0. The conical flask containing sodium hydroxide is placed on top of white tile at the base of the retort stand Hydrochloric acid is added slowly into the conical flask and swirl the flask to mix the contents until the colour of solution change to pale pink or colourless(end point). when the volume of hydrochloric acid added are within 5 cm3 of the first titration.6m [ Calculation ] 11 . 25. sodium hydroxide solution.20 23.0 cm3 sodium hydroxide solution is transferred into a conical flask using pipette. swirling continuously until the colour sf solution change 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1. The final reading of burette is recorded. burette. phenolphtalein Rinsed pipet with distilled water followed by a little sodium hydroxide solution. Several drop of phenolphthalein are added into the sodium hydroxide solution in conical flask Rinsed burette with distilled water followed by a little hydrochloric acid The burette is clamped vertically on the retort stand Filled the burette with hydrochloric acid and record the initial reading. the acid solution is added slowly drop by drop .

0 cm3 (pipette) 17 = MHCl VHCl VNaOH 0.5 mol dm-3 V = VHCl MHCl VHCl MNaOHVNaOH MNaOH = 1 1 = NaOH → NaOH + H2O M=? V = 25.5 x VHCl 25.BENGKEL BIMBINGAN BERKALA – Sekolah Tinggi Melaka 15 16 Average volume of HCl = (V1 + V2 + V3) / 3 = VHCl HCl + M = 0.0 mol dm-3 12 .

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