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D. T. Suzuki
18 October 1870 Honda-machi, Kanazawa, Japan
12 July 1966 (aged 95) Kamakura, Japan
National Medal of Culture
Daisetsu Teitaro Suzuki (鈴木 大拙 貞太郎 Suzuki Daisetsu Teitarō; he rendered his name "Daisetz" in 1894; 18 October 1870 – 12 July 1966) was a Japanese author of books and essays on Buddhism, Zen and Shin that were instrumental in spreading interest in both Zen and Shin (and Far Eastern philosophy in general) to the West. Suzuki was also a prolific translator of Chinese, Japanese, and Sanskrit literature. Suzuki spent several lengthy stretches teaching or lecturing at Western universities, and devoted many years to a professorship at Otani University, a Japanese Buddhist school.
to raise him in impoverished circumstances after his father died.4 Marriage 2 Career o o o 2.3 Scholarly opinions 3 Zen training 4 Spread of Zen in the West o o o 4. When he became old enough to reflect on his fate in being born into this situation.3 Carus 1. the fourth son of physician Ryojun Suzuki. and Anti Semitic Statements 5.1 Zen-messenger 4.o o o o 1. a humble monument marks its location (a tree with a rock at its base).3 Criticism 5 Involvement with Japanese nationalism o o o 5. Although his birthplace no longer exists.1 Early life 1.2 Studies 2. meaning "Great Humility".2 New Buddhism 5. was given to him by his Zen master Soen (or Soyen) Shaku. Ishikawa Prefecture. The samurai class into which Suzuki was born declined with the fall of feudalism. the kanji of which can also mean "Greatly Clumsy".1 Professor of Buddhist philosophies 2.2 Buddhist modernism 4. T. Suzuki was born Teitarō Suzuki in Honda-machi. which forced Suzuki's mother.1 Sympathy for Nazism and Hitler's Expulsion of the Jews from Germany.2 Study 1. he began to look for answers in various forms of .3 Japanese nationalism 6 Praise of Suzuki's work 7 Bibliography 8 See also 9 References 10 Sources 11 External links Biography Early life D. The Buddhist name Daisetsu. a Jodo Shinshu Buddhist. Kanazawa.
titled The Gospel of Buddha. Buddhism. Career Hu Shi and DT Suzuki during his visit to China in 1934. below. Suzuki set about acquiring knowledge of Chinese. In Illinois. approached Soyen Shaku to request his help in translating and preparing Eastern spiritual literature for publication in the West. Carus. around the turn of the century. (See Zen Training section. Suzuki married Beatrice Erskine Lane. His naturally sharp and philosophical intellect found difficulty in accepting some of the cosmologies to which he was exposed. Illinois. During his student years at Tokyo University. who met him at the World Parliament of Religions held in Chicago in 1893. Soyen Shaku wrote an introduction for it. Sanskrit. a Radcliffe graduate and Theosophist with multiple contacts with the Bahá'í Faith both in America and in Japan. and worked with him. initially in translating the classic Tao Te Ching from ancient Chinese.religion. Professor of Buddhist philosophies . and Suzuki included) were involved in the worldwide Buddhist revival that had begun slowly in the 1880s. At this time. Later Suzuki himself joined the Theosophical Society Adyar and was an active Theosophist. and Suzuki translated the book into Japanese. Marriage In 1911.) Carus Suzuki lived and studied several years with the scholar Paul Carus. and several European languages. Soyen Shaku instead recommended his student Suzuki for the job. Carus himself had written a book offering an insight into. Pali. the Hegeler Carus Mansion. Study Suzuki studied at Tokyo University. Soyen. Suzuki lived at Dr. quite a number of Westerners and Asians (Carus. Suzuki began his early work Outlines of Mahayana Buddhism. who had set up residence in LaSalle. Suzuki was introduced to Carus by Soyen Shaku. Suzuki took up Zen practice at Engaku-ji in Kamakura. Carus's home. and overview of.
in China. Besides teaching about Zen practice and the history of Zen Buddhism. The Eastern Buddhist. founder of the Jōdo Shinshū school. and taught at Columbia University from 1952 to 1957. Suzuki was an expert scholar on the related philosophy called. However. Suzuki maintained connections in the West and. and gave guest lectures on Jōdo ShinshūBuddhism at the Buddhist Churches of America. Suzuki received numerous honors. a famous Zen Buddhist scholar. Alan Watts and the others who worked in the California Academy of Asian Studies (now known as the California Institute of Integral Studies). which he thought of as the intellectual explication of Zen experience. Kegon. Suzuki was especially interested in the formative centuries of this Buddhist tradition. Until 1919 they lived in a cottage on the Engaku-ji grounds. and publishes a scholarly journal. Suzuki traveled through Europe before taking up a professorship back in Japan. Suzuki also produced an incomplete English translation of the Kyogyoshinsho. He went on a lecture tour of American universities in 1951. Judith Tyberg. and particularly of the Zen school. then moved to Kyoto.T. Studies Still a professor of Buddhist philosophy in the middle decades of the 20th century. he visited Dr. He was also interested in how this tradition.  The Society is focused on Mahayana Buddhism and offers lectures and seminars. once imported into Japan. the magnum opus of Shinran. A lot of Suzuki's writings in English concern themselves with translations and discussions of bits of the Chan texts the Biyan Lu (Blue Cliff Record) and the Wumenguan(Mumonkan/Gateless Passage). had influenced Japanese character and history. at the University of London (he was an exchange professor during this year). in San Francisco in the 1950s. Suzuki wrote a translation of the Lankavatara Sutra and a commentary on its Sanskrit terminology. D. delivered a paper at the World Congress of Faiths in 1936.Besides living in the United States. he began to explore the Jōdo Shinshū faith of his mother's upbringing. While he was in Kyoto. including Japan's national National Medal of Culture. Later in his life he was a visiting professor at Columbia University. the same year he joined Otani University. He looked in on the efforts of Saburō Hasegawa. where Suzuki began professorship at Otani University in 1921. Suzuki's reputation was secured in England prior to the U. Suzuki and his wife dedicated themselves to spreading an understanding of Mahayana Buddhism. and wrote about it in English in Zen and Japanese Culture. Suzuki did not attempt to popularize the Shin . which record the teaching styles and words of the classical Chinese masters. and discussed Zen Buddhism together at Shunkō-in temple in theMyōshin-ji temple complex.S. In addition to his popularly oriented works. in Japanese. In 1921. Hoseki Shinichi Hisamatsu. In his later years. for instance. he and his wife founded the Eastern Buddhist Society. Suzuki wrote some of the most celebrated introductions and overall examinations of Buddhism.
or attuned. Suzuki was among the first to bring research on the Myokonin to audiences outside Japan as well. and the practice of folk medicine. carpentry. as he believed Zen was better suited to the Western preference for Eastern mysticism. administration (or community direction). His book Zen and Japanese Buddhism delved into the history and scope of interest of all the major Japanese Buddhist sects. had emphasized the Mahayana Buddhist roots of the Zen tradition. architecture. Suzuki's contrasting view was that. It was Suzuki's contention that a Zen satori (awakening) was the goal of the tradition's training. Suzuki also took an interest in Christian mysticism and in some of the most significant mystics of the West. Other works include Essays in Zen Buddhism (three volumes). Additionally. bhikku in Pali) prevailed. but in China social circumstances led to the development of a temple and training-center system in which the abbot and the monks all performed mundane tasks. the tradition of the mendicant (holy beggar. Zen (or Chan) had absorbed much from indigenous Chinese Taoism. Soyen Shaku. including long periods . though he is quoted as saying that Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism is the "most remarkable development of Mahayana Buddhism ever achieved in East Asia". Studies in Zen Buddhism. American philosopher William Barrett has compiled many of Suzuki's articles and essays concerning Zen into a volume entitled Zen Buddhism. Meister Eckhart. but that what distinguished the tradition as it developed through the centuries in China was a way of life radically different from that of Indian Buddhists. to nature than either the people of Europe or those of Northern India. and Manual of Zen Buddhism. housekeeping.doctrine in the West. In India. whom he compared with the Jōdo Shinshū followers called Myokonin. Suzuki subscribed to the idea that religions are each a sort of organism. Suzuki is often linked to the Kyoto School of philosophy. Suzuki took an interest in other traditions besides Zen. but he is not considered one of its official members. Suzuki continued with Kosen's successor at Engaku-ji. After Kosen's passing. Zen training While studying at Tokyo University Suzuki took up Zen practice at Engaku-ji in Kamakura studying initially with Kosen Roshi. Suzuki believed that the Far Eastern peoples were more sensitive. for example. the enlightenment sought in Zen had to stand up well to the demands and potential frustrations of everyday life. Under Soyen Shaku." Scholarly opinions Suzuki's Zen master. in its centuries of development in China. which is (through time) subject to "irritation" and having a capacity to change or evolve. These included food gardening or farming. Consequently. who also wrote a book published in the United States (English translation by Suzuki). Suzuki's studies were essentially internal and non-verbal. Soyen Shaku.
and at the same time to grasp the longing and the way of thinking within the hearts of Westerners.. To accomplish this task it is necessary to be deeply engrossed in the tradition. and Suzuki acted as English-language translator for a book written by him (1906). Buddhist modernism That Suzuki was a university-educated intellectual steeped in knowledge of Western philosophy and literature allowed him to be particularly successful and persuasive in presenting his case to a Western audience. later in life Suzuki was more inclined to Jodo Shin (True Pure Land) practice on a personal level. his role in translating and ghost-writing aspects of Soyen Shaku's book was more the beginning of Suzuki's career as a writer in English. In his book Buddha of Infinite Light (2002). (originally titled. Suzuki's activities. but a significant contributor to the development of Zen and to its enrichment.. "Of all the developments that Mahayana Buddhism has achieved in East Asia. the most remarkable one is the Shin teaching of Pure Land Buddhism. As Suzuki portrayed it. physical. who declared: .. Moore said: Suzuki in his later years was not just a reporter of Zen.of sitting meditation (zazen). He did it on behalf of the whole Buddhist world. This is echoed by Nishitani Keiji. During training periods at Engaku-ji. Awakening of Faith in the Mahayana).. Up to now this new Buddhist path has been blazed almost single-handedly by Dr. Philosopher Charles A. Buddhism came to possess a forward-moving direction with a frontier spirit. This involved shouldering the task of rethinking.. Interestingly. moral. Though Suzuki had by this point translated some ancient Asian texts into English (e.. The task involved what Suzuki described as four years of mental. From there.g. Suzuki. new possibilities should open up in the study of the Buddha Dharma which have yet to be found in Buddhist history. 22) Spread of Zen in the West Zen-messenger Suzuki was the foremost important person in spreading Zen in the West. Zen Buddhism was a highly practical religion whose emphasis on direct experience made it particularly comparable to forms of mysticism that scholars such as William James had emphasized as the . He described this life and his own experience at Kamakura in his bookThe Training of the Zen Buddhist Monk.." (p..in Dr. or other power as opposed to self power. restating and redoing traditional Buddhism to transmit it to Westerners as well as Easterners. Suzuki lived a monk's life. and intellectual struggle. an abandonment of self that is entirely complementary to Zen practice and yet to his mind even less willful than traditional Zen. Shin Buddhism) Suzuki declared that. seeing in the doctrine of Tariki. not just an expositor. Suzuki was invited by Soyen Shaku to visit the United States in the 1890s.
and ethical contexts and reframes it in terms of a language of metaphysics derived from German Romantic idealism. As scholar David McMahan describes it. where key tenets are described as universal and sui generis." Most scholars agree that the influence of Protestant and Enlightenment values have largely defined some of the more conspicuous attributes of Buddhist modernism. since Suzuki was also influenced by Western esotericism. Buddhist modernist traditions have also been characterized as being "detraditionalized. is largely a twentieth-century construct. himself following a Chinese nationalist agenda. and even joined the Theosophical Society. as these elements are seen as incommensurate with the discourses of modernity. Instead.fountainhead of all religious sentiment.  Buddhist modernist traditions often consist of a deliberate de-emphasis of the ritual and metaphysical elements of the religion. Suzuki's approach has been marked as "incomprehensible": . and to Japanese nativist critiques of Buddhism as a "foreign funerary cult" in particular. disguised as eastern metaphysics.  Criticism Suzuki has been criticized for this essentialist approach. rationalism and scientific naturalism. Beginning with the persecution of Buddhism in the early Meiji (haibutsu kishaku) Zen apologists have been forced to respond to secular and empiricist critiques of religion in general." often being presented in a way that occludes their historical construction. partisans of Zen drew upon Western philosophical and theological strategies in their attempt to adapt their faith to the modern age. McMahan cites western monotheism. As early as 1951 Hu Shih. Buddhist modernism consists of forms of Buddhism that have emerged out of an engagement with the dominant cultural and intellectual forces of modernity. notably the notion that Zen refers not to a specific school of Buddhism but rather to a mystical or spiritual gnosis that transcends sectarian boundaries. It is this idea of a common essence which made Suzuki's ideas recognizable to a Western audience. Suzuki takes Zen literature out of its social. Buddhist modernists often employ an essentialized description of their tradition. Several scholars have identified Suzuki as a Buddhist modernist. and American Transcendentalism. McMahan states: In his discussion of humanity and nature. In response. and Romantic expressivism" as influences. who could identify with the Western esotericism concealed in it. Suzuki presents a version of Zen that can be described as detraditionalized and essentialized. This resemblance is not coincidental. ritual. It was this form of Zen that has been popularized in the West: The popular "lay" image of Zen. English Romanticism. accused Suzuki of presenting an idealist picture of Zen.
While it is a very cruel policy. to distance oneself even further from the goal of achieving what Suzuki termed the "Zen enlightenment experience". Suzuki left a record of his early view of the Nazi movement that was included in a series of articles published in the Japanese Buddhist newspaper. However. and I am in agreement with him. some sort of extreme action is necessary in order to preserve the nation. another result was to increase the confusion in reader's minds.. there are a lot of reasons for his actions." He also expresses agreement with Hitler's expulsion of the Jews from Germany. 6." Suzuki expressed sympathy with individual Jews. Sympathy for Nazism and Hitler's Expulsion of the Jews from Germany.. This is what my relative told me. To question such accounts was to admit one did not "get it".T. then offer a suitably incomprehensible story or two by way of illustration. 11. they have never enjoyed greater peace of mind than they have now. they want to cheer Hitler on. "While they don't know much about politics. it appears that in this. 1936. Suzuki was associated with Japanese nationalism and its propagation via the appraisal of Japanese Zen. Please do not remove this message until the dispute is resolved.. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. for a time. "As regards individuals. this is truly a regrettable situation. while this approach substantiated Suzuki's authority as one with insider access to the profound truths of the tradition. He has been criticised for defending the Japanese war-efforts. and Anti Semitic Statements Brian Victoria delivered lectures in Germany in 2012 in which he revealed evidence of Suzuki's sympathy for the Nazi regime. For this alone." and "The fact that they have no country is karmic retribution (J.D. on October 3." In this Suzuki expresses his agreement with Hitler's policies as explained to him by a relative living in Germany. when looked at from the point of view of the current and future happiness of the entire German people." While supporting anti-Jewish measures.Victoria writes. Suzuki's approach captured the imaginations of generations of readers. Suzuki. though Suzuki's thoughts on these have also been placed in the context of western supremacy in the first half of the 20th century. whose most cherished methodology seems to have been to describe some aspect of Zen as beyond ordinary explanation. "D. it may be that. "Changing the topic to Hitler's expulsion of the Jews."   . 4. Obviously. and 13. too. and stating that "The Jews are a parasitic people who are not indigenous. and the reaction against this supremacy in Asian countries. (January 2013) According to Sharf and Victoria. It is quite understandable. T.. gōhō) on the Jews. Involvement with Japanese nationalism The neutrality of this article is disputed. Chūgai Nippō.
before even . incapable of fostering the nativist sentiments that would be vital for national. preMeiji) Zen exegetics. inimical to Japan's need for scientific and technological advancement. accepting the notion of a corrupt Buddhist institution in need of revitalization. It was led by university-educated intellectuals who had been exposed to a vast body of Western intellectual literature. the influence of these Japanese intellectuals on the established Zen sects in Japan has been negligible. and superstitious creed. or "New Buddhism" came into existence. and their intellectual heirs may have shaped the manner in which Westerners have come to think of Zen. when Japan entered into the international community. anti-social.New Buddhism At the onset of modernization in the Meji period. as well as Japanese Zen monk G. have argued that the breed of Japanese Zen that was propagated by New Buddhism ideologues. the one feature shared by virtually all of the figures responsible for the Western interest in Zen is their relatively marginal status within the Japanese Zen establishment. These leaders stood in agreement with the government persecution of Buddhism. Nishida. like Suzuki's teachers Kosen and his successor Soyen Shaku.e. just as the writings of Suzuki and Hisamatsu are not representative of traditional (i. it is necessary to affirm that Japanese Zen monasticism is indeed still alive. ideological cohesion. the shin bukkyo. Zen monks were often expected to have spent several years in intensive doctrinal study. Buddhism was briefly persecuted in Japan as "a corrupt. and also saw it as a way to bring their nation into the modern world as a competitive cultural force. despite the shrill invectives of some expatriate Zen missionaries who insist that authentic Zen can no longer be found in Japan. While Suzuki. in its customary form."  The Japanese government intended to eradicate the tradition. which was seen as a foreign "other". The traditional form of Zen has been greatly altered by the Meiji restoration. The Zen tradition in Japan.  Indeed. saw this movement as a defense of Buddhism against government persecution. was not typical of Japanese Zen during their time. parasitic. decadent. Scholars such as Martin Verhoeven and Robert Sharf.  However. In addition to this. Victor Sogen Hori. a group of modern Buddhist leaders emerged to argue for the Buddhist cause. industrialization led to the breakdown of the parishioner system that had funded Buddhist monasteries for centuries. in 1868. required a great deal of time and discipline from monks that laity would have difficulty finding. nor is it typical of Japanese Zen now.. At this point. memorizing sutras and poring over commentaries. Its importance lies especially within western Zen: Suffice it to say that. the style of Zen training most familiar to Western Zen practitioners can be traced to relatively recent and sociologically marginal Japanese lay movements which have neither the sanction nor the respect of the modern Rinzai or Sōtō monastic orthodoxies. such as Imakita Kosen and Soyen Shaku. but Japanese Zen still flourishes as a monastic tradition. As a response to the modernisation of Japan and the persecution of Buddhism. Advocates of New Buddhism.
 Praise of Suzuki's work Contemporaries of Suzuki acclaimed his works. Japanese nationalism During the Meiji restoration the Nihonjinron-philosophy took prevalence. It emphasizes the uniqueness of the Japanese. The fact that Suzuki himself was able to do so (as a layman) was largely the invention of New Buddhism. which includes a 30-page commentary by famous analytical psychologist Carl Jung.entering the monastery to undergo koan practice in sanzen with the roshi. Suzuki attributed it to Zen. and the other forces that were pushing Japan toward militarism and war. which was considered to be superior to the western ways of thinking. Suzuki's books have been widely read and commented on by many important figures.  Sharf criticizes this uniqueness-theses. public talks. This uniqueness has been attributed to many different factors. A notable example is An Introduction to Zen Buddhism. We cannot be sufficiently grateful to the author. But Jung was also critical. In this Suzuki's standpoint was consistent from the late nineteenth century through to the postwar years. He pictured Zen as a unique expression of Asian spirituality. or letters to friends (in which he would have had no reason to misrepresent his views)—he is clear and explicit in his distrust of and opposition to State Shinto. .  Sharf also doubts the motivations of Suzuki: One is led to suspect that Suzuki's lifelong effort to bring Buddhist enlightenment to the Occident had become inextricably bound to a studied contempt for the West. These materials reveal in Suzuki an intellectual independence. and a sound appreciation for human rights. and secondly for the manner in which he has achieved this task. Kemmyō Taira Satō does not agree with this critical assessment of Suzuki: In cases where Suzuki directly expresses his position on the contemporary political situation —whether in his articles. rightwing thought. warning against an uncritical borrowing from Asian spirituality. Zen embodies the ultimate essence of all philosophy and religion. Carl Jung wrote of him: Suzuki's works on Zen Buddhism are among the best contributions to the knowledge of living Buddhism. a healthy scepticism of political ideology and government propaganda. first for the fact of his having brought Zen closer to Western understanding. as propagated by Suzuki: The nihonjinron cultural exceptionalism polemic in Suzuki's work—the grotesque caricatures of 'East' versus 'West'—is no doubt the most egregiously inane manifestation of his nationalist leanings. In his view. even as he expressed interest in decidedly non-rightist ideologies like socialism.
ISBN 0-87728-182-3. and De Martino. 1949. Manual of Zen Buddhism. Zen and Japanese Culture. 1950. Republished with Foreword by C. New York: Grove Press. Essays in Zen Buddhism: Third Series (1934). Suzuki gives a theoretical explanation for many of the swordsmanship teaching stories in Zen . London: Rider & Company. Inc. Boulder. Suzuki also completed the translation of the Lankavatara Sutra from the original Sanskrit. 1956. Macmillan. Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist Soc. D. A classic. first published Routledge Kegan Paul. Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist Soc. Jung. 1949.ISBN 0-87773-702-9. Approximately one third of this book is a long discussion by Suzuki that gives a Buddhist analysis of the mind. York Beach.Bibliography These essays were enormously influential when they came out. Zen Buddhism and Psychoanalysis. Essays in Zen Buddhism: Second Series (1933). 1934. 1959.London: Rider & Company.A collection of Buddhist sutras. London: Rider & Company. 1934. CO: Prajña Press. Suzuki. Edited by Christmas Humphreys. 1959.including the "Ten Ox-Herding Pictures". a second series followed: An Introduction to Zen Buddhism. T. making Zen known in the West for the very first time: Essays in Zen Buddhism: First Series (1927). The Training of the Zen Buddhist Monk. icons & images. New York: Pantheon Books. Includes translation of myokonin Saichi's poems. Maine: Samuel Weiser.G. 1932. 1934. 1978. "A study of the qualities Meister Eckhart shares with Zen and Shin Buddhism". 1953. Shortly after. 1957. its levels. Edited by Christmas Humphreys. New York: Samuel Weiser. After WWII. 1948. Dr. New York: University Books. 1953–1971. In producing this analysis. Mysticism: Christian and Buddhist: The Eastern and Western Way . London: Rider & Company. York Beach. Kyoto: Eastern Buddhist Soc. and the methodology of extending awareness beyond the merely discursive level of thought. Inc. classic texts from the masters. a new interpretation: The Zen Doctrine of No-Mind. Maine: Red Wheel/Weiser 1972. Erich Fromm. Living by Zen.
Suzuki. Shinshū Ōtaniha.Swedenborg: Buddha of the North. 1998. Faith.Buddha of Infinite Light. Shinshū Ōtaniha. by Andrew Bernstein of Swedenborugu. West Chester. Doubleday. Living. Edited by William Barrett. 1973. Tribute. Boston: Shambhala Publications. anthology of essays by great thinkers. 1913. Wheatherhill. Gutoku Shaku Shinran. Very early work on Western mystic-philosopher. by The Eastern Buddhist Society). The Kyōgyōshinshō. The Collection of Passages Expounding the True Teaching. New York: 1956. Trans. 1949. Pa: Swedenborg Foundation. extrasensory perception. translated by Daisetz Teitarō Suzuki (ed.T. Kyōto. Transcription of talks on Shin Buddhism. etc. 1996. by The Eastern Buddhist Society). See also the works of Alan Watts. New York. and Realizing of the Pure Land. See also Buddhism portal Indian religions portal Japan portal Buddhist modernism Zen Narratives Buddhism and Theosophy Japanese Zen Kyoto School Zen Studies Society Cambridge Buddhist Association Timeline of Zen Buddhism in the United States . Paul Reps et al. 1986. Harper & Row. Miscellaneous: An anthology of his work until mid-1950s: Zen Buddhism: Selected Writings of D.and Japanese Culture that otherwise would seem to involve mental telepathy. Suzuki: A Zen Life Remembered. 1970. Collected Writings on Shin Buddhism (ed. Shinshū Ōtaniha. Shin Buddhism.D. Edited by Taitetsu Unno. Kyōto. A Miscellany on the Shin Teaching of Buddhism. Kyōto.T. 1973. Reprinted by Shambhala Publications.
Jump up^ Hu Shih 1953 . accessed 2012.2. Buddha Dharma Education Association Inc. 23.T. Jump up^ McRae 2001. Jump up^ D. Japanese nationalism Theosophy References 1. 125 ^ Jump up to: a b Fields 1992. 89-99. New York: University Books. Suzuki Studies in Zen. p. 2005. Jump up^ D. pp. 1970 ISBN 0-691-09849-2 14. amongst others 20. New York: Bollingen/Princeton University Press. pg.2. 56 15. Jump up^ Andreasen 1998.T. Jump up^ D. 8. 2005). Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki. Jump up^ McMahan 2008:10 21.T. Jump up^ Faure 1996. accessed 2012. A ZEN LIFE: THE D. New York:Delta. SUZUKI MUSEUM. Suzuki Zen and Japanese Culture.17. 155–156. Jump up^ The Eastern Buddhist 11. 18. 1981) 17. 4. Jump up^ Stirling 2006.Litt. "Amual of Zen Buddism". 1965 5. 2002 ISBN 1-57062-456-9 12. Jump up^ Tweed 2005. 3.SUZUKI DOCUMENTARY PROJECT. 7. Jump up^ McMahan 2008:6 19. 24. 6. Suzuki Buddha of Infinite Light: The Teachings of Shin Buddhism: the Japanese Way of Wisdom and Compassion Boulder: Shambhala. Jump up^ William James "The Varieties of Religious Experience" (New York: Collier Books. 138. 1955 13. Jump up^ D. Jump up^ See Tomoko Masuzawa "The Invention of World Religions" (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 9.T.17. T. Jump up^ Sharf 1995:44 22. Jump up^ Algeo 2005 ^ Jump up to: ^ Jump up to: a b a b Algeo 2007 Tweed 2005 Jump up^ the Eastern Buddhist Society 10. D.T.2. Jump up^ Fields 1992 Chapter Ten 16. accessed 2012. p. pg. ^ Jump up to: a b McMahan 2008. New Ed edition.17 2. pg. Jump up^ D. Suzuki "Introduction: Early Memories" in The Training of the Zen Buddhist Monk. 71-74. set in PDF.
p. 37.html 31.de/fileadmin/pdf/Vortragsreihen/Suzuki_s_View_of_the_Nazis. 4. Jump up^ http://www. 39.buddhismuskunde. Jump up^ See Giei Sato.uni-hamburg. Jump up^ Sato 2008. p.docx 30. Suzuki An Introduction to Zen Buddhism . Jump up^ Sharf 1993. 38. p. Jung. Jump up^ Sharf 1993. Foreword by C.9.0. 3.buddhismuskunde. p. Jump up^ McRae 2003:74 27. p. Jump up^ Hori 2005. 118. 1973). Jump up^ D.unihamburg. amongst others 36.133. 34. ^ Jump up to: a b c a b Sharf 1993 Victoria 2006.T. 1964 ISBN 0-8021-3055-0 Sources . 7. 29. 35. 32. Jump up^ McMahan 2008:125 26. Jump up^ Sharf 1995. ^ Jump up to: 28. Jump up^ http://www. Jump up^ Sharf 1993. 33.25.de/SoSe-2012. New York: Grove Press. Unsui: a Diary of Zen Monastic Life (Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii. ^ Jump up to: a b Sharf 1993.