PRESSURE

• Pressure (the symbol: P) is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. • Gauge pressure is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.

such a signal is electrical. . typically of gases or liquids • A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer.PRESSURE MEASUREMENT • The measurement and control of fluid pressure is important in process industries. it generates a signal as a functionof the pressure imposed. • A pressure sensor measures pressure. • Many techniques have been developed for the measurement of pressure. For the purposes of this article.

and altitude . speed. • Pressure sensors can also be used to indirectly measure other variables such as fluid/gas flow. water level.• Pressure sensors are used for control and monitoring in thousands of everyday applications.

ELECTRICAL METHODS Strain gauges Piezoelectircal tranducers Piezoresistive transducers . ELASTIC ELEMENT METHODS Bourdon tubes Bellows Diaphragm 3. LIQUID COLUMN METHODS Manometer 2.PRESSURE MEASUREMENT EQUIPMENT • THE 3 MAIN METHODS OF MEASURING ARE 1.

• PRINCIPLE: Manometers are those pressure measuring devices which are based on the principle of balancing the column of liquid(whose pressure is to be found) by the same or another column of liquid. On the other hand Differential manometers measure the difference of pressure between any two points in a fluid contained in a pipe or vessel. simple manometers • 2.Differential manometers • simple manometers are those which measure pressure at a point in a fluid containing in the pipe or a vessel. They are of two types • 1.e liquids and Gases). .MANOMETER • A Manometer is a device which can be used to measure pressure of fluids(i.

visual monitering of air and gas pressure for compressors. fire extin .APPLICATIONS OF MANOMETER • Pressure guages are used for a variety of industrial and application specific pressure monitering applications.Vaccum equipment and speciality tank applications such as medical gas cylinders.

one side of which is connected to the region of interest while the reference pressure (which might be the atmospheric pressure or a vacuum) is applied to the other.• Liquid column gauges consist of a vertical column of liquid in a tube whose ends are exposed to different pressures. P = hgρ. The pressure exerted by a column of fluid of height h and density ρ is given by the hydrostatic pressure equation. Therefore the pressure difference between the applied pressure Pa and the reference pressure P0 in a U-tube manometer can be found by solving Pa − P0 = hgρ. . A very simple version is a Ushaped tube half-full of liquid. the pressure on either end of the liquid (shown in blue in the figure to the right) must be balanced (since the liquid is static) and so Pa = P0 + hgρ. The column will rise or fall until its weight is in equilibrium with the pressure differential between the two ends of the tube. In other words. The difference in liquid level represents the applied pressure.

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