# HEAT LOSS / GAIN FROM PIPE By Stephen Hall The heat loss from a pipe is calculated in two parts

: inside the pipe and outside the pipe User inputs are in RED Formulas in Column F are from the reference listed at the bottom of the worksheet Cell names (preceded by underscore_) are listed in Column B Data Inputs G ro mu k c T1 Fluid flowing inside the pipe Flow rate Density Viscosity Thermal conductivity Heat capacity Temperature of fluid entering pipe Pipe parameters inside diameter outside diameter pipe length pipe thermal conductivity emittance of pipe or insulation cover Insulation parameters insulation thickness insulation thermal conductivity Environmental conditions (pipe is outdoors) Temperature of the air Wind velocity 500 1,000 0.005 0.64 4,180 176 m3/h kg/m3 Pa-s W/m-K J/kg-K C

di do L kp e

207.3 219.1 1,000 45 0.80

mm mm m W/m2-K

it ki

25.4 mm 0.035 W/m2-K

T4 w

-5 C 5 m/s

Calculate radial distances from center-line to: R1 inside pipe wall R2 outside pipe wall R3 outside insulation Calculate the Reynolds number inside the pipe Ap Pipe cross sectional area v Velocity Re Reynolds number Calculate the Prandtl number Pr Prandtl number Calculate the Inside heat transfer coefficient

0.1037 m 0.1096 m 0.1350 m

0.0338 m2 4.12 m/s 170,612

32.7

935 C Get the properties of air for temperature T5 I did a simple linear regression of thermal conductivity for air at atmospheric pressure MW Molecular weight of air 29 P Pressure of air 100 kPa kair cair Thermal conductivity of air Heat capacity of air (treat as constant) 0. assume viscosity at wall = bulk viscosity It is NOT RECOMMENDED to be in the transitional region. it really doesn't make a practical difference if the calculation for inside coefficient is off hi inside heat transfer coefficient 3.13 C <---. surface (T3). assume viscosity at wall = bulk viscosity Turbulent flow calculation 3.Initial guess between a Average between surface and ambient -0. but with viscosity correction) For this illustration.440 W/m2-K Calculate the outside heat transfer coefficient The outside coefficient is calculated differently for the cases of wind or no wind No wind = natural convection Three temperatures to be concerned with.The formula depends on the flow region For Laminar flow (Re < 2100) use Sieder and Tate For this illustration. assume a value for T3. this is an interative calculation First.006 J/kg-K . and the correlation is iffy Transitional flow calculation N/A For Turbulent flow (Re>10000) use Sieder and Tate (same as Dittus-Boettler. the surface temperature T3_assume (cell is highlighted if iteration required) Calculate T5 T5 3. assume viscosity at wall = bulk viscosity Laminar flow calculation N/A For Transition flow (2100 <= Re <= 10000).000 Because the outside heat transfer coefficient will be so much less than the inside coefficient. use Hilpert correlation For this illustration.440 Note: alternative turbulent flow correlation from Gnielinski Said to be valid from 3000 < Re < 5.0238 W/m2-K 1. and average T5 = (T4 + T3)/2 Since T3 is a function of the heat transfer. ambient (T4).000.

divide pipe into segments and calculate sequentially . use the greater of this calc or the no-wind calc Rewind B n Nuwind Reynolds number Hilpert equation factor B Hilpert equation factor n Nusselt number.2 W/m2-K 214. the heat loss through the wall Q 26. no wind 3.94 C T3calculated Calculated outside surface temperature 3. abs value 3.72 Gr x Pr 2.27 W/m2-K Calculation for the case where wind is present Note that for very low wind velocity (<0.435 0.30 kg/m3 1.77 W/m2-K Next.5 m/s). Coefficient of expansion = 1/T for perfect gas assumption Beta Coefficent of expansion 0. no wind 102.dair muair Density of air (treat as perfect gas) Dynamic viscosity of air 1.43 W/m2-K 1.32E+07 Prair Prandtl number 0.71E-05 Pa-s estimated with the Sutherl ' kinematic viscosity = dyna For no wind condition.10 Outside heat transfer coef.40E+07 Nuair Nusselt number 37.805 258 22. wind condition (Hilpert) Outside heat transfer coef.00367 K^-1 Gr Grasoff number (L = pipe OD). calculate the radiation loss Let's use radiation only when pipe is warmer than environment hrad Radiation heat transfer coefficient 3.9 W/m2 Calculate the inside wall and surface temperatures based on the estimated surface temperature from above Calculated inside surface temperature 175.0239 0.13 C Calculate the fluid temperature as it exits the pipe segment Assumes constant properties and constant heat flux along pipe length For significant temperature changes.66 W/m2-K Add the convection and radiation heat transfer coefficients together ho Outside heat transfer coefficient Calculate surface temperatures and iterate until calculation = assumed Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient U Next.

Heat Transfer in Process Engineering.7 C Cao.Heat loss per meter Downstream temperature Reference: 182.com Spreadsheet prepared by Stephen Hall This is the calculation method included in PIPESIZE.2 W/m 175. Eduardo. See .pipesizingsoftware. McGraw-Hill. 2010 4/9/2013 www.

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Initial guess between ambient and fluid temperatures.<---. then substitute value from below (_T3calculated) .

174 0.466 4000 0.0239 0.385 40 0.891 0.4 0.615 40000 0.805 e from above .33 4 0.615 0.821 0.estimated with the Sutherland equation ' kinematic viscosity = dynamic viscosity / density Factors for Hilpert Equation Re B n 0.

98 1.018 1.95 9.0243 0.013 1.05 62.007 1.013 1.7 0.008 1.0485 0.0372 0.55 13.016 1.55 29.83 2.022 1.06 25.69 0.3 15.205 1.0204 0.85 32.014 1.010 1.293 1.534 1.946 0.009 1.022 -150 -100 -50 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 250 300 350 400 2.711 0.746 0.0454 0.68 0.034 1.713 0.009 1.82 kJ/kg°C the heat capacity of water vapor. 1.566 0.61 1.005 + 1.21 5.0116 0.709 0.127 1.616 0.0257 0.68 0.0515 3.854 0.0343 0.779 0.23714E-05 0.016 0.695 0.023883641 0.17 47.715 0.63 41.68 2.013 1.524 Sp Ht 1.898 0.85 55.703 0.21 2.23 27.08 5.012 1.9 20.005 1.29 34.008 1.026 1.055 1.1.012 1.43 2.11 1.55 2.91 1.0421 0.036910488 Therm C 0.005 1.53 8.005 1.51 3.68 cs = 1.94 23.006 1.009 1.047 1.009 1. and H is t .005 kJ/kg°C is the heat capacity of dry air.0386 0.2 3 2.725 0.75 1.815 0.97 18.0285 0.708 0.0358 0.32 2.012 1.020 1.43 3.0299 0.82H where 1.793 1.82 4.49 0.067 1 0.74 0.685 0.67 3.026 1.010 1.675 0.008 1.009 1.11 16.69 0.068 7.76 0.0314 0.017 1.011 1.0271 0.005 1.0328 0.68 0.

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0. and H is the specific humidity in kg water vapor per kg dry air in the mixture .05 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.03 0.01 0 -200 -100 0 100 200 300 400 500 Series2 Linear (Series2) acity of water vapor.

below 0 .