Print and Power

The capacity to exercise control over others. Unbounded interpretation of texts CULTURAL CONTINUITY .Institutional Power The ability to decide who will have access to resources.


PRINT CULTURE The need to hand copy texts as well as the cast of scribes DISSAPPEARED .

Church-educated elite. 1440 1522 Printing press Bible in vernacular German language Sacred truths accessible to all .Johannes Gutenberg Martin Luther King Jr.

OF . the academy.e. the press & the political institutions.MEANING • CHURCH MONOPOLY REPLACED BY • Interpretive authority • Secular powers CENSORSHIP • i.

CENSORSHIP Conservative pressure of the social group External powers as Church or the State Oral culture More SUBERSIVE than Written culture Constrained by Institutions: the academy. the publishing industry New technologies . the law.

Academic monopoly over the meaning of written texts Literacy: ability to read & write Formal lingüistic aspects of texts Etymology of words & literal meaning Correct grammar & accurate spelling Compliance with the letter of text but not necessarily with their spirit .

TRADITIONAL ACADEMIC PRACTICE Students interpret texts = autonomous units FORM OVER MEANING Imposition of own context interpretation Independent of reader’s response Universal & accessible to anybody’s intuition Imposed its own context of interpretation .

Students unable to follow such norms of interpretation “BAD STUDENTS” may fail on National Standardized Academic Tests .

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