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(NOTE: This chapter has to be expanded, updated and edited.. A more detailed version will follow in the final Toolkit which will cover the information relevant to the headings listed below)
SECTOR DESCRIPTION ....................................................................................................................................................1 PROCESS FLOW ..................................................................................................................................................................1 MAJOR PROCESS EQUIPMENTS ................................................................................................................................5 ENERGY EFFICIENCY OPPORTUNITIES ............................................................................................................... 10 REFERENCES .................................................................................................................................................................... 16
§ This section briefly describes the Industry Sector and gives a short introduction to the main features about the sector
Cement and CO2 The global cement industry contributes around 20% of all man- made CO2 emissions and is consequently responsible for around 10% of man- made global warming (Global cement technology magazine). The energy consumption by the cement industry is estimated at about 2% of the global primary energy consumption, or almost 5% of the total global industrial energy consumption. Cement production increases at about 3%/year at the moment. This rate is set to increase as developing nations rapidly become richer, and spends proportionately more on cement- intensive infrastructure. There are two sources of CO2 emissions from the cement plant. One by virtue of the energy it uses and secondly the evolution of CO2 as a by-product i n the calcination process. The cement plant releases one tonne of CO2 for every tonne of cement produced, half of it from the fuel it uses and the other half from calcinations process.
§ This section includes the description of each step and the main inputs and outputs
The basic process of Cement production as shown in fig. 8.2.1 involves 1. Acquisition of raw materials 2. Preparation of the raw materials for pyroprocessing 3. Pyroprocessing of the raw materials to form Portland cement clinker, and,
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Surface mining is gradually gaining ground because of its eco friendliness. For dry-process cement making.4. The crushed limestone is stored in the stockpile through stacker conveyors. bauxite and ferrite are stored in feed hoppers from where they are fed to the raw mill via a weigh feeders the required proportion. Roller mills for grinding raw materials and separators or classifiers for separating ground particles are the two key energyconsuming pieces of equipment at this process stage. 2 in Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. 7. Crushing: The limestone as mined is fed to a primary and secondary crusher where the size is reduced to 25 mm. the key raw material is mined in the quarries with compressed air drilling and subsequently blasting with explosives. Grinding the clinker to Portland Cement Limestone quarry High grade limestone Raw Mill Exit gas to raw mill or abatement Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Crusher Limestone stockyard Iron Alumina Ore Raw meal blending and storage silos Gypsum and other constituents Cement Mill Stage 4 Precalciner Fuel in Rotary Kiln Cement silos Grate cooler To clinker storage Clinker storage Bag Loading Bagging M/cs Upto 60% Fuel in Fig. the raw materials need to be ground into a flowable powder before entering the kiln.2. Raw Materials Preparation: .geriap.1 Description of production processes Mining: Limestone. Of late even a tertiary crusher is used to further reduce the inlet size to the mill.org . The crushed limestone. The mined limestone is transported through dumpers or ropeways to the plant.
during which carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is evolved. Dehydration as the material temperature increases from 100OC to approximately 430 OC to form oxides of silicon. Aluminum Oxide. coal mills are part of the system to provide dried pulverized coal to kiln and precalciner. The coal mill can be an air swept ball mill or vertical roller mill where the coal particles are collected in the bag filter through a grit seperator. in series. but they can be viewed conceptually as the following sequential events: 1. and Calcium Oxide with the free lime to form clinker compounds: C3S. This system transforms the raw mix into clinkers. Hot air generated in a coal fired furnace or hot air from clinker cooler/preheater exhaust is used in the drying of coal in the mill.Generally ball mills and vertical roller mills are used. gas. pet coke or Oil are the fuels generally used. Coal Milling: In plants using coal. The raw coal from stock yard is crushed in a hammer crusher and fed to the coal mill. Reaction of the oxides in the burning zone of the rotary kiln to form cement clinker at temperatures of approximately 1510O C Pre heater and Pre calciner: Preheaters are cyclones are arranged vertically. The raw material of is mix enters the kiln at the elevated end. Ferric Oxide. Evaporation of uncombined water from raw materials as material temperature increases to 100 OC 2. The chemical reactions and physical processes that constitute the transformation are quite complex. and iron. The required size is 80 % on 90µ and less than 2% on 212µ . The materials are continuously and slowly moved to the lower end by rotation of the kiln. glass-hard. which are gray.1 centimeters (cm) in diameter. Compared Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. C3A. 3. Calcination. between 900OC and 982 OC to form CaO. and are supported by a structure known as the preheater tower. and the combustion fuels generally are introduced into the lower end of the kiln in a countercurrent manner.org 3 . and 4. spherically shaped nodules that range from 0. Pulverized coal. Hot exhaust gases from the rotary kiln pass counter currently through the downward.geriap. aluminum. and C4AF.32 to 5. Pyro processing: The function the kiln in the cement industry to first convert CaCO3 into CaO and then react Silica.moving raw materials in the preheater vessels. C2S..
the degree of heat utilization is more complete. These materials are then sent through mills which perform the remaining grinding. Calciner systems sometimes use lower-quality fuels (e. This system is called the preheater/precalciner process. Finish Milling: In this final process step. The grinding process occurs in a closed system with an air separator that divides the cement particles according to size. From pre-heater and pre-calciner.geriap. Upto 95 % of the raw meal gets calcined before entering the kiln. These gases are ultimately passed through electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for the maximum removal of particulate matters. The main cooling technologies are the reciprocating grate cooler and the tube or planetary cooler. 60 % of flue gases travel towards raw mill and 40 % to conditioning tower where water injection is used to condition the gases. increases the production. the heat transfer rate is significantly increased. . at least 40 percent of the thermal energy is required in the rotary kiln. The improved heat transfer allows the length of the rotary kiln to be reduced or in other words for the existing kiln if retrofitted. and to reduce the clinker temperature to a level suitable for the equipment downstream. Once clinker leaves the kiln it must be cooled rapidly to ensure the maximum yield for the compound that contributes to the hardening properties of cement. Finish milling is the grinding of clinker to produce a fine grey powder. Gypsum Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. and the process time is markedly reduced owing to the intimate contact of the solid particles with the hot gases.. The cooler has two tasks: to recover as much heat (upto 30% of kiln system heat) as possible from hot (1450OC) clinker so as to return it to the process. The hot air from recuperation zone is used for main burning air (second ary air) and precalciner fuel (tertiary air).org 4 . Clinker Cooler: The hot clinker is cooled from 1100OC to 90OC in the grate cooler with a series of fans. the cooled clinker is mixed with additives to make cement and ground using the mill technologies described above. Material that has not been completely ground is sent through the system again. The remaining air is sent to the stack through multiclones or ESP. Additional thermal efficiencies and productivity gains have been achieved by diverting some fuel to a calciner vessel at the base of the preheater tower. less-volatile matter) as a means of improving process economics. While a substantial amount of fuel is used in the precalciner.with the simple rotary kiln.g.
to produce finished cement.geriap. The energy used for cement grinding depends on the type of materials added to the clinker and on the desired fineness of the final product. Cement fineness is generally measured in a unit called Blaine. Higher Blaine indicates more finely ground cement. The major electrical energy consumption areas are mill drives. This provides ample opportunities for reducing energy consumption as many of the cement plants in developing countries consume much more than the the best achieved figures in developed countries. which has the dimensions of cm 2 /g and gives the total surface area of material per gram of cement.org 5 . Major Process equipments § This section includes a general description of the equipments used in different processes (available and used) and comparing the energy efficiency of these Energy flows: The cement making process is highly energy intensive accounting for nearly 40 – 50 % of the production costs.2 below.2. fans and conveying systems. Portland cement commonly has a Blaine of 3000-3500 cm 2 /g. Gypsum controls the rate of hydration of the cement in the cement-setting process The cement thus produced is collected in the bagfilter and taken to cement silos through a vertical pneumatic pump.(CaSO4 ) is blended with the ground clinker. which requires more energy to produce. Electrical Energy: The energy flows in a typical cement plant is given in the figure 8. Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. along with other materials..
8.7 2 5.2.0 23. Typical distribution of electrical energy is provided in the table below for a cement plant operating at 75 kWh per tonne of cement.5 18. Electrical energy distribution Section / Equipment Mines. Ferrite Raw Milling Electrical Energy for mill drive and fans Pre calcination Coal Milling Pyro Processing Heat Energy from fuel input/waste heat from clinker cooler Clinker Cooling Gypsum Electrical Energy for Mill drive and fans Cement Grinding Packing & Dispatch Fig.7 30.0 1.3 6.5 4.3 100 Thermal Energy: Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. Raw meal grinding & transport Kiln feed.0 22.geriap. drive and clinker breaker Crushing Bauxite.0 % Energy Consumption 2 24 29.org 6 . dozers and compressors Diesel for dumpers and trucks/ Electrical energy for ropeway Limestone Mining Transport Electrical Energy for crushers Electrical Energy for Mill drive and fans Heat Energy from kiln off gases Heat Energy from fuel input Electrical Energy for Kiln drive. kiln & cooler Coal mill Cement grinding & transport Packing Lighting. The raw mill circuit and finish grinding process mainly consumes electric power for the mill. fans and ESP Heat Energy from fuel input Electrical Energy for fans.2 About 30% of electric power is consumed for finish grinding. Raw mill circuit is another major consumer accounting for 24 % of the energy.0 75. and a little under 30% each is consumed by the clinker burning process. pumps & services Total Electrical energy consumption (kWh / ton of cement) 1.Energy Flows Diesel for loaders. and the clinker burning process mainly for the fan. crusher & stacking Reclaimer.0 5.
In plants using coal.. Specific heat consumption in various kiln systems Kiln process Wet process with internals Long dry process with internals 1-stage cyclone preheater 2-stage cyclone preheater 4-stage cyclone preheater 4-stage cyclone preheater plus calciner 5. agro residues etc are used in the cement plant.geriap.stage preheater plus calciner plus high efficiency cooler 6-stage preheater plus calciner plus high efficiency cooler Heat consumption (kcal per kg clinker) 1400-1500 1100 1000 900 800 750 720 less than 700 Material and Energy balance Material and energy balance in a cement plant The cement process involves gas. combustion of fuel. lower emissions. liquid and solid flows with heat and mass transfer. diagnose operational problems. gas and oil in addition to unconventional fuels such as used tires. It is important to understand these processes to optimize the operation of the cement kiln. and increase refractory life. reactions of clinker compounds and undesired chemical reactions that include sulphur.2. an external coal or oil fired furnace is used for generation of hot air required for coal mills. The major use of thermal energy is in the kiln and precalciner. A variety of fuels such as coal.3. incinerable hazardous wastes. pet coke. increase production. improve energy consumption. A typical balance is shown in the figure 8. chlorine. and Alkalies.Thermal energy accounts for almost half the energy costs incurred in cement manufacture. The number of stages in the pre-heater system has a major bearing on the thermal energy consumption of the kiln as shown in the table below. Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www.org 7 .
Since the temperature. bag filters.2.Fig 8. dust concentrations and electrical energy consumptions. No 1 2 Parameter Velocity Static pressure Purpose To calculate gas flows To measure pressure drops across various equipment such as cyclones. pressure and flow rate are always variable during operation. material losses etc.3 Mass balance for production of 1 Kg cement Based on figure from Austrian BAT proposal 1996. The number of measurements to be taken depends upon the repeatability of the data. a little skill and patience are required to keep the error up a Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. concentration collection efficiency. Cembureau Instruments required: Conducting a material and energy balance would require apart from various parameters available in the control panel. Surface To calculate radiation losses temperature Power To calculate specific electrical energy consumption Instrument Pitot tube with manometer 3 High vacuum sampler 4 5 Infra red thermometer Portable power analyser Points to consider: The plant has to be under stabilized condition so that the measurements taken are representative of normal operating conditions.geriap. Mills etc Dust To calculate powder loading. ESPs. measurement of flows. The following instruments are suggested as minumum requirements.org 8 .
org 9 .83.4 represents the balance carried out for the raw mill circuit Raw Mill circuit Kiln gases 290OC 69122 m 3 /hr Bag filter Grit Separator Grit rejects Feed Raw Mill 70 TPH CA fan DC fan DC fan Efficiency – 44 % Cyclone To Raw meal Silo The following were the outcomes of the balance − T h e r e i s h u g e Dilution air CA fan Efficiency – 52 % 85. What do we get out of it ? Raw Mill Example This example illustrates how a material and energy balance is to be carried out for a raw mill. 8.000 m3 /hr @ 120O C 550 mmWC 200 kW 1000 RPM Fig.minimum. Necessary sampling points if not available have to be provided.4 1. and the measurement shall be made in cooperation with that party. Since it becomes necessary to set up a measuring point at a place different from the usual working place.2.2.geriap. consultation shall be held with a relevant party in advance taking the safety of work into consideration. 8.115 m3/hr @ 125OC 165 mmWC 140 kW 750 RPM Roots blower 3600 m3/hr 5000 mmWC 75 kW Air Lift pump leakage between mill outlet and CA fan inlet − CA and DC fans are not operating in the best efficiency points resulting in poor efficiencies (Efficiencies upto 80 % is possible by impeller change or fan replacement) − Air infiltration is observed in the bag house Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. Under stable operating conditions the following were measured: − − − − − Mill throughput by weigh feeder at the mill inlet Velocity measurements at various points for calculating flow Static pressures at various operating points Energy measurements by a portable power analyzer which directly measures kW Fan operating speed by tachometer The fig.
CPEE options checklists etc Option to reduce CO2 . By promotion of blended cements which can decrease the clinker percentage in cement.Necessary rectification and retrofitting can bring about a 20 % reduction in energy consumption per ton of raw meal.P. CP-EE measures can be classified into the following three steps: Raw material process 1) Selection of raw material 2) Management of fineness 3) Management of optimum grinding media Finish process 1) Management of 1) Prevention of stoppages fineness due to failure 2) Management of 2) Selection of fuel optimum grinding 3) Prevention of leak media Clinker burning process First step Second step Third step 1) Use of industrial waste material (waste tires) 1) Use of industrial waste material 2) Recovery of preheater (fly ash) exhaust gas 2) Replacement of fan rotor 3) Recovery of cooler 3) Improvement of temperature exhaust gas (drying of raw and pressure control system material and generation of 4) Improvement of mixing & electricity) homogenizing system 4) Replacement of cooler dust collector from multiclone to E.org 10 . 1) From wet process to dry 1) From wet process to dry process process 2) From ball and tube mills to 2) Conversion of fuel (from roller mill existing to cheaper alternatives) 3)From SP to NSP 4)Use of industrial waste (slag and pozzolana) 1) Installation of closed circuit dynamic separator) 2) Installation of feed control system Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. Samples of formats for undertaking material and energy balance are given in the next few pages.geriap. By improving energy efficiency 2. Energy Efficiency Opportunities § This section includes practical tips. Generally. thus reducing the process CO2 emissions CP-EE in cement plants. 1. starts from the software including operation control and process control. then extends into the field of hardware including equipment improvement and process improvement. However it would be desirable for each plant to make its own formats depending on the depth of the balance and the nature of the plant.Reduction in CO2 emissions from the cement plant involves a two pronged strategy.
Various energy audit studies reveal that ‘Fine-tuning’. Technology Upgradation But quantum jumps in energy saving can be achieved only by application of new technologies/upgradation of existing technology. This brings down the fixed energy loss component of the specific energy consumption. A list of energy efficient technologies are given in Chapter 8.geriap. if efficiently done can yield 3 to 10% of energy saving. On achieving high capacity utilisation. Survey of excellent energy efficient companies show that 80% of the companies attribute capacity utilisation as one of the foremost reason for a major drop in specific energy consumption. The greatest incentive for resorting to fine tuning is that it requires only marginal investment.2.6.org 11 . Fine Tuning of Equipment This is another opportunity for saving energy. Also achieving high capacity utilization is under the control of plant personnel.5)From planetary and under coolers to grate cooler Capacity Utilisation High capacity utilisation is very essential for achieving energy efficiency. Atleast 90% capacity utilisation is to be ensured for achieving low specific energy consumption. the fine tuning of equipment should be taken up by the energy efficient plants. Hence the first and foremost step for an aspiring energy efficient unit should be on increasing capacity utilisation and reduce the specific energy consumption. CP-EE in a cement plant 10%-20% of electrical energy reduction has been achieved in a cement plant by: Raw meal mix design change Elimination of run-on equipment Finish Mill Optimization Avoidance of air supply leakage Installation of more efficient fan motors Employees ’ Awareness Power monitoring and targeting Process Replacement Measures Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www.
control of clinker bed depth and new grates. Preliminary estimates suggests 5 to 10 times lower energy use and emissions Advance Comminution Technologies Mineral Polymers Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. Reducing throttling and coupling Estimated at 10 kWh/t cement losses by replacing fixed speed AC motors High-pressure mills (like the Horomill) has improved grinding characteristics Estimated at 16-19 kWh/t (40-50%) Efficient Grinding Technologies High-efficiency Classifiers Material stays longer in the separator. Optimisation of Heat Recovery in Clinker Cooler High efficiency Motors and Drives Adjustable Speed Drives Heat recovery improved by reduction of excess air volume.4 GJ/t Increase of capacity. and sometimes one example reduction from 3.2 GJ/t (increase of power by about 10 kWh/t) Four or five stage preheating Depending on original process. and 0. In reduces heat losses. leading to sharper separation.3 kWh/t cement (8%) Rotary kiln replaced by stationary Fuel use of 2.4-4 kWh/t silos clinker) Complex operation.44 GJ/t) Reduction of 0.5 GJ/t in the US. (also lower NOx emissions) wider variety of fuel use and lower energy use Non-mechanical ‘milling’ Expected (theoretical) savings are technologies as ultrasound. leaving only the structural parts intact Estimated at 2.9 to reduces pressure drop 3. specific fuel consumption Estimated at 12% (0. and lowering Depending on original process.Energy Efficient technologies: Technique Process Control and Management Systems Raw Meal Homogenising Systems Conversion from Wet to Dry Process Conversion from dry to multi-stage preheater kiln Conversion from dry to precalciner kiln Description Automated computer control may help to optimise the combustion process and conditions Emission reduction/ energy improvement Typically 2. Variable speed drives. Not large commercially available in coming decades Mineral polymers are made from alumino-silicates leaving calcium oxide as the binding agent.3 GJ/t (increase in power by 3 kWh/t) Estimated at 0.9 to 3.1-0.5-5% Use of gravity-type homogenising Reduction power use (1.7-2. improved control strategies and highefficiency motors Estimated power savings ranging from 3 to 8%.35 GJ/t clinker kiln leading to lower capital costs.2 GJ/t in India Conversion from Cooler to Large capacity and efficient heat Grate Cooler recovery.org 12 . thus reducing overgrinding Fluidised bed Kiln Estimated at 1.geriap.
Specific Electrical Energy Consumption : 69 Kwh/tonne of Cement Thermal Energy Consumption : 705 Kcal/kg Clinker The major measures implemented during last three years include: 1 2.5% of the total energy cost by achieving the bench marking figures for the cement industry. Specific 5. This has saved about 4 Kwh/ Tonne of cement. This has saved about 2 Kwh / Tonne of cement. Replaced conventional chokes with energy efficient electronic chokes in fluorescent lamps and filament indication lamps in control pane ls with LED lamps. This has saved 1.org 13 .2 kWh/T of cement and 10 Kcal /Kg cl. 4. Power consumption is 60% less than the conventio nal crusher. 8. 10. 3. 9. 7. Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www.4 KV and 48 Hz Optimized pressure setting of identified air compressor. Up-gradation of Raw mill capacity from 180 TPH to 220 TPH by modifying the classifier. Reduced voltage drop in pump house MCC feeder by shifting capacitor bank from SS to center. Up-gradation of Kiln and Cooler capacity improvement from 2350 to 3000 TPD by modifying the top of cyclone diameter and introducing CIS/CFG system to cooler for higher heat recuperation. 6. Saved energy by optimizing process cooling water pump capacity. Optimized DG Set operating voltage and frequency to 6. 14. Installed Fuzzy Logic Software System for better process stability and increased throughput Installed Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) for cooler fans to save electrical energy. Installed new generation of MMD Crusher for limestone crushing. Optimization of Cement mill with changes in the mill internals.Case studies MADRAS CEMEMTS LIMITED. 12. INDIA The plant achieved savings equivelent to 16. Effective utilization of hot gases from cooler to Cement mill.geriap. Clinker. Utlisation of hot gas to Raw mill and Coal mill from Kiln exit gas thereby saving 160 Kcal/ Kg. 11. This is equivalent to saving of 55 Kcal/ Kg clinker.
1. the plant has been able to achieve specific power consumption of 63. Replacement of refractory at optimum wear to avoid radiation losses 9. The cement grinding system consists of a ball mill attached to roller press and hybrid classifier.SONADIH CEMENT PLANT.line precalciner and vertical roller mills for raw material and coal grinding. Uninterrupted power supply to plant by running main grid and DG power grid in auto parallel control 10.5 kWh/ per tonne of clinker and a specific heat consumption of 730 kcal/kg of clinker Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. The plant employs the latest concepts in instrumentation. and is fully automatic with centralized process control and operations equipment. Monitoring of process parameters and false air leakage. Use of variable speed control fan and belt drives by v/f. INDIA The plant incorporates the latest state-of-the-art technology comprising 5-stage preheater with in. 8. slip power recovery system (SPRS) thyristor control devices for energy conservation. A wide range of measures as below have been adopted: 2. Proper raw mix composition for easy grindability and better burnability 3.geriap. Optimization of coal mix 4. Burning waste oil emulsions in the kiln Through these measure. and optimization of parameters process 5. Replacement of table liner and roller tyres of raw mills and coal mill at optimum wear 6. Elimination of dampers from DC drive fans 7.org 14 .
(Portland cement). referring to the emissions from the decomposition of calcium carbonate. and silico-aluminous material according to the reaction 5CaCO3 + 2SiO 2 --> (3CaO.GHG linkages In the cement production process. by a maximum of 10%-15%. The only exceptions are so-called 'blended cements'. using such ingredients as coal fly ash.SiO 2 ) + 5CO2 this means that the manufacture of 1 metric tonne of cement generates 1 metric tonne of CO2 greenhouse gas. Studies have shown that one ton of carbon dioxide gas is released into the atmosphere for every ton of Portland cement which is made anywhere in the world. results from the calcination of limestone (calcium carbonate) at very high temperatures of approximately 1450-1500 C. Evaluating Carbon Dioxide Emissions due to energy savings Evaluating Carbon Dioxide Emissions due to cement blending Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. Cement.geriap.SiO 2 ) + (2CaO.org 15 . where the CO2 emissions are slightly suppressed. referring to emissions that result from the combustion of fossil fuel. carbon dioxide emissions can be grouped as “energyrelated”. and “processrelated”.
65 clinker-to-cement ratio. an additional 152 kilotonnes of carbon emissions are avoided. 0. References 1.950 TJ of fossil fuels. or 62 kilotonnes C if fuel oil is used in the kiln 10 . but because the clinker-to-cement ratio is benchmarked at 0. This is almost 10 times the total amount avoided by the efficiency project or 7 times when taken on a per tonne of cement basis.Reports of Lawrence Berkley Laboratory 3.org 16 . The blending project avoids 214 kilotonnes of carbon emissions. Also.1 Mt leads to an expected clinker production of 2.geriap.95 Mt of clinker are “avoided”. or nearly 70 kg C per tonne of cement. since 165 kg C per tonne are generated through calcination. This example demonstrates that blending cement can lead to significant carbon emission reductions. Since the plant operates with a 0. In the cement blending scenario there are no energy savings from efficiency improvements.Energy Audit reports in Cement Industries.Natio nal Productivity Council. Australian Cement Institute Company Toolkit for Energy Efficiency – www. Web Sites: India Cements Ltd. 2.4 kg C per tonne of cement. saving 2.95. These savings can be much larger than those that energy efficiency projects may attain.The efficiency scenario leads to energy savings at each step which can then be translated into annual carbon reductions – a total of 22 kilotonnes of carbon or 10. total cement output of 3.95 Mt.
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