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4 EkdifiHwumowif;

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10/26/2013 5:49:41 AM

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27-10-2013

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27-10 (P-5) YYH.indd 1

vSpf&ef atmufwdkbm 28 &uf
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(181)
onf/

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(409)

10/26/2013 5:50:16 AM

6 jynfwGif;owif;

27-10-2013

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(610)

,mOfpnf;urf; vrf;pnf;urf;ynmay;

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u oifwef;wufa&mufvmaom

27-10 (P-6)EEN.indd 1

oifwef;om;? oifwef;ol 750
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(403)
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a&;yg/ /

10/26/2013 5:50:47 AM

u,m;jynfe,fowif; 7

27-10-2013

vdGKifaumfNrdKY e,f trSwf(1)tajccHynmtxufwef;ausmif;ü
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onf/

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(405)

ausmif;ESifh0ef;usifoefh&Sif;a&; aqmif&Guf

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pm;oltrsK;d orD;rsm; wufa&muf
EdkifaMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
(603)

abmfvcJNrdKYe,fü rIcif;avsmhenf;usqif;a&;
todynmay;a[majym
abmfvcJ atmufwdkbm 26
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aus;&GmtkyfpktkyfcsKyfa&;rSL;ESifh
a'ocHwdkif;&if;om;jynfolrsm;
wufa&mufMuonf/

27-10 (P-7)MMT.indd 1

tcrf;tem;wGif abmfvcJ
NrdKUr&Jpcef;rSL; 'kwd,&JrSL;pdk;
vGifu vwfwavmjzpfay:ae
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taersm;? Oya'ESifhywfouf
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vnf&Sif;vif;ajymMum;aMumif;
owif;&&Sdonf/
(603)

Myawady Digital Set Top Box

xkwfEkwf½Ijrif tpDtpOf
27-10-2013 (we*FaEGaeY)
MWD Variety
1/ 19;00 &opHkvif½kyfjrifZmwfvrf;
]]O,smOfrSL;}}
(tydkif;-13)
2/ 21;10 &opHkvif½kyfjrifZmwfvrf;
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3/ 22;15 rSwfom;avhvmtdrfwGif;rI
ynm (vufaqmifvSvSav;
ay;Mu&atmif)(tydkif;-2)
4/ 22;36 pD;&D;&ifckefoH
(*sufqefxGef;)

MWD Music
1/ 18;30 Girl Talk (18)
(Part-1-2)

2/ 19;00 My Style (19)
(Part-1-2)

3/ 19;30 Music Mix(38)

MWD Documentary
1/ 18;17 pGefYpm;olwdkYaysmfpH&m(41)
2/ 18;42 tmvm'ifESifh
rD;cGufapmifh(11)
3/ 18;57 Football &ifckefoH
pnf;csufrsm;
4/ 19;37 Game (128)
5/ 20;07 urÇmtESHU&GufvTifhjcif;
(149)
6/ 20;30 &ifxJutu,f'rD(417)

MWD Movies
1/ 18;00 aqmif;&moDtcspf
(tydkif;-14)
2/ 19;00 The Thin Red Lime
3/ 22;00 tdyfrufjrpf
(jrefrm)

(Part-1-2-3-4)

MWD Series
1/ 18;00 armifESrrsm; (tydkif;107)
2/ 19;00 pdwf\ap&m (tydkif;-170)
3/ 20;00 rkom;wpfcGef;&JUtrSef
w&m; (tykdif;-70)
4/ 21;00 at;jraomcspfjcif;
(tydkif;-3)
5/ 22;00 cspfuRrf;w0if
(tydkif;-74)
6/ 23;00 tajzr&SdwJhykpäm
(tydkif;-170)

MWD Shopping
1/ 18;10 Market Review
(*sme,faps;uGu)f
2/ 18;30 Shopping In
Shopping

(pHZmPDbdk)(11)
3/ 19;10 E-Market On Line
(12)

4/ 19;25 Art Guide (uk#mcif)
5/ 20;20 Car Guide (B B B)
6/ 20;45 E-Market On Line
(13)

jrefrmh½kyfjrifoHMum;

jr0wD½kyfjrifoHMum;

27-10-2013 (we*FaEGaeY)

27-10-2013 (we*FaEGaeY)

1/ 8;25 ]]cspfaomþurÇmajr}}
2/ 9;25 ]]csif;jynfe,f
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5/ 4;15 jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;
½dk;&mtu
6/ 5;15 qdkMur,f aysmfMur,f
7/ 6;25 umwGef;tpDtpOf
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8/ 9 em&D wpfrsufESmwpfuGufpm
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0ifh'gvD) ('g½dkufwm-arwif
(MMG))
9/
&ifckefvufurf;aw;opfvrf;

1/ 4;35 oDqdkajzazsmfwpfudk,fawmf
2/ 4;55 jr0wD½kyfjrifoHMum;r*¾Zif;
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3/ 5;00 om,moDa<u;
acwfqef;aw;
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(tydkif;-26)
5/ 8 em&D ya[Vdeef;awmf
6/ owif; ,aeYntwGufjr0wD\
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7/
&opHkvif½kyfjrifZmwfvrf;
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(tydkif;-2) (Zmwfodrf;ydkif;)
8/
&opHkvif½kyfjrifZmwfvrf;
]]cspfjcif;jzifhzefqif;aom
[if;vsm}} (tydkif;-48)

MRTV-4

MYANMAR
INTERNATIONAL

27-10-2013 (we*FaEGaeY)
1/ 6;20 MRTV-4 ½kyfoHZmwfvrf;wGJ
]]rsufESmzHk;cspfol}}
(tydkif;-115)
2/7;15 nd§KU,lzrf;pm;
ESvHk;om;oHpOfrsm;oDcsif;qkd
NydKifyGJ(tykdif;-4)
3/ 9;05 MRTV-4 ½kyfoHZmwfvrf;wGJ
]]aEG;axG;rIurÇm}}
(tydkif;-96)
4/ 10;00 Choice Collection
(atmifjrifhjrwf)
5/ 12;30 oDcsif;aumif;aumif;
oDcsif;awmif;
6/ 3;15 bmtcufqHk;vJ

27-10-2013 (Sunday)
Ä Traditional Snack
Ä In The Studio:LCO
Ä Independent Filmmaker
Ä Myanmar's Beauty and
Nature "Beach"
Ä Myanmar Harpist
Ä Yathe Taung Township In
A Nut Shell
Ä Traditional Chin Clothes
Ä SHWE SETTAW(Minbu)
Ä UP AGAINST THE TIDE

10/26/2013 5:51:18 AM

jynfwGif;owif;

27-10-2013

z

aZmwdupmMunfh wdkuf
tkwfjrpfcsr*Fvmtcrf;tem; usif;y
rif;&Gm atmufwdkbm 26
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(836)

27-10(P-8).indd 1

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(403)

1/18/2009 8:09:49 AM

aemufq;kH &Ekid if w
H umowif; 9

27-10-2013

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27-10-2013 (P-9)NMMA-1.pmd

1

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INS Satpura(F48)

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10/26/2013 5:09:51 PM

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27-10.2013 (P-11) Yadanar.pmd

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27-10-2013

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27-10-2013 P(12-13).pmd

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'or 87 vufr? vdGKifaumfNrdKUwGif 47 'or 16 vufr? bm;tHNrdKUwGif
196 'or 85 vufr? [m;cg;NrdKUwGif 65 'or 00 vufr? uav;NrdKUwGif
74 'or 88 vufr? uefYbvlNrdKUwGif 38 'or 03 vufr? awmifilNrdKUwGif
90 'or 28 vufr? jynfNrdKUwGif 58 'or 70 vufr? rauG;NrdKUwGif 33
'or 86 vufr? awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKUwGif 43 'or 11 vufr? rEÅav;NrdKU
wGif 33 'or 78 vufr? rdwD¬vmNrdKUwGif 32 'or 44 vufr? ausmuf
qnfNrdKUwGif 39 'or 41 vufr? a&;NrdKUwGif 233 'or 82 vufr?
arSmfbDNrdKUwGif 115 'or 75 vufr &GmoGef;cJhonf/
rdk;a&csdefuGmjcm;csuf
aejynfawmfaumifpDe,fajr ysOf;rem;NrdKUwGif 16 'or 50 vufr?
vdGKifaumfNrdKUwGif 6 'or 53 vufr? bm;tHNrdKUwGif 22 'or 72 vufr?
[m;cg;NrdKUwGif 18 'or 19 vufr? uav;NrdKUwGif 26 'or 14 vufr?
uefYbvlNrdKUwGif 16 'or 12 vufr? awmifilNrdKUwGif 16 'or 62 vufr?
jynfNrdKUwGif 13 'or 70 vufr? rauG;NrdKUwGif 3 'or 70 vufr?
awmifwGif;BuD;NrdKUwGif 14 'or 65 vufr? rEÅav;NrdKUwGif 8 'or 58
vufr? rdwD¬vmNrdKUwGif 12 'or 68 vufr? ausmufqnfNrdKUwGif 21 'or
73 vufr? a&;NrdKUwGif 26 'or 18 vufr? arSmfbDNrdKUwGif 14 'or 45
vufr ydkrdk&GmoGef; cJhJonf/

jr0wD

10/26/2013 7:23:38 PM

16 bmomjyefaqmif;yg;

27-10-2013

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av;pif;ESifh Man Class oHk;
pif;wkdYjzpfaMumif; od&onf/
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taejzif h w&m;0if a &ik y f
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onf vufeufuikd w
f yfrsm;zGUH NzKd ;

urÇmhyxrqHk;wdkufcsif;ypf 'Hk; jzefYusufxm;&SdNyD; ¤if;wdkY yif
wif a&ik y f o abF m SSBN v,fjyiftajcjyK EsLuvD;,m;
JG ifEEJT ikd pf rG ;f udk ydik q
f ikd x
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(SS=Strategic Submarine, ppfyq
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wif a&ikyfoabFmrSm qdkAD NyD; tuGmta0; 7400 uDvkdrD
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tus,f&SdNyD; a&atmufüwpf u ½k½Sm;wdkYESifh 'DZ,fvQyfppfpGrf;
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onf/ INS Chakra onf ½k&Sm;
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clear Power)? 'DZ,fpGrf;tif
oHk;a&ikyfoabFm(SSK)[kESpf

rsdK;&Sdonf/ yJhxdef;'Hk;wifa&ikyf

27.10.2013(P-16).indd 1

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ydkifqkdifEdkifa&;aqmif&GufaeMu
jcif;jzpfygaMumif; a&;om;wif
jyvdkuf&ygonf/ /

aZmfrif;xGef;
(a&eHacsmif;)

10/26/2013 5:42:30 PM

0w¬KESifhynmay;rIcif;owif; 17

27-10-2013

om;armifppfonfodkh

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(8)
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wuúodkvfbGJU,lNyD;aemuf 1957 ckESpf atmuf

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tokH;jyKaom ud&d,mrsm;ukd
wDxGifxkwfvkyfa&mif;csolrsm;
wGifvnf; wm0ef&dSonf/ jy'g;
yg0ifaom usef;rma&;qkdif&m
ypönf;ud&d,mrsm; xkwfvkyf
a&mif;csjcif;? rdrdEkdifiHtwGif;ü
tok;H rjyKaomfvnf; tjcm;Ekid if H
rsm;okdYwifykdYa&mif;csjcif;rjyK&ef
vnf; vkdtyfayonf/ xkduJhokdY
jy'g;yg0ifaom aq;ypönf;
ud&,
d mrsm;ukd uefo
Y wfouJo
h Ydk
xkyd pön;f rsm;ae&mwGif tpm;xk;d
tokH;jyKrnhf ypönf;rsm;\
wdusrSefuefrI? t&nftaoG;?

0rf;ysuf? 0rf;avQma&m*g jzpf
yGm;rIESifhywfoufí todynm
ay;aqG;aEG;um INGO tzGJUrS
uk,
d pf m;vS,w
f pfO;D u urÇmvk;H
qkdif&mvufaq;jcif;aeYESifhywf
oufí todynmay; aqG;aEG;
onf/ xkaYd emuf urÇmvk;H qkid &f m
vuf a q;jcif ; aeY txd r f ;
trS w f t jzpf tcrf ; tem;ok d Y
wuf a &muf v mMuonf h Xme
qkdif&mwm0ef&Sdolrsm;? vlrIa&;
toif;tzGUJ rsm;? uav;i,frsm;
ESihf rdbrsm;u pkaygif;vufaq;
MuaMumif; od&onf/ (408)

wifarmifvdIif
aps;EIef;wkdYukdvnf; vltrsm;
vufvrS ;f rDap&ef aqmif&u
G af y;
oGm;&rnfjzpfonf/
2013ckESpf
Zefe0g&Dv
twGi;f u rDemrmwmjy'g;qkid &f m
uGeAf if;&Si;f a&;qJ&G ef Ekid if aH ygif;
147 EkdifiHu oabmwlnDcJhMu
onf/ xku
d eG Af if;&Si;f t& vlom;
wkdY
usef;rma&;ESihf ywf0ef;
usif t m; jy'g;tEÅ & m,f r S
umuG,f&ef azmfñTef;aqmif
&G u f M urnf j zpf o nf / rD e mrm
wmjy'g;qkdif&m uGefAif;&Sif;ukd
2013ckESpf atmufwkdbm
10 &ufu *syefEkdifiH ulrmrkd
wkdNrKdUü usif;yaom tpnf;
ta0;wGif twnfjyKcJhMuonf/
uk v or*¾ t zJ G U 0if E k d i f i H r sm;
taejzihf uGeAf if;&Si;f ukd twnf
jyKaMumif; vufrSwfa&;xkd;jcif;
ukd e,l;a,mufNrKUd &dS ukvor*¾
XmecsKyw
f iG f 2014 ckEpS f atmuf
wkdbm 9&uftxd aqmif&Guf
EkdifaMumif; od&onf/
urÇmhusef;rma&;tzGJYtae
jzifh use;f rma&;qdik &f mab;xGuf
pGefYypfypönf; xdef;odrf;rI tpD
tpOft& jy'g;uif;pifa&;
aqmif&GufrIwGif tm*sifwD;em;?
tdE,
d´ ? vwfA;D ,m;? vufbEGe?f
zdvpfydkif? qDeDa*g? AD,uferf
wdkYu 2008 ckESpfuwnf;u

omrdrk w
D mESihf aoG;aygifcsed w
f ikd ;f
ud&d,mrsm;rS &ufowåwpfywf
twGi;f xGu&f adS om jy'g;yrmP
onf tm*sifwD;em;EdkifiH\
tBuD ; qH k ; a&uef r sm;teuf
wpfckjzpfaom e[l;0,f[Gmyd
a&uefudk wpfESpfvHk;tqdyfoifh
apEdkifaMumif; yg0ifavonf/
ukvor*¾ ywf0ef;usifxdef;
odr;f a&; tpDtpOf\cefrY eS ;f csuf
wGifvnf; wpfurÇmvHk;&Sd oGm;
bufqikd &f m vkyif ef;rsm;ütok;H
jyKonhf oGm;ydk;pm;rIudkzmax;
aomypönf;wGif jy'g;wefcsdef
aygif; 240 rS wef 300 txd yg0if
vsuf&Sdonfukd awGU&onf/
vlom;rsm;taejzifh obm0
w&m;t& zGUH NzKd ;wd;k wufí aysmf
&Ticf sr;f ajrUaom b0vrf;c&D;udk
avQmufvSrf;vdkMuonf/ rdrdESifh
rdrd\ &ifaoG;rsm;b0 zGHUNzdK;
wdk;wuf&eftwGuf t"du
vdktyfcsufrsm;rSm ynm&nfjrifh
rm;a&;ESifh usef;rmBuHhcdkifa&;[k
qdkvQif rrSm;Edkifay/ xkdYaemuf
rdrdwdkY\ OD;aESmuftm½HkaMum
qdkif&mzGHUNzdK;rIudk t[efYtwm;
jzpfapí use;f rma&;udt
k EÅ&m,f
jzpfaponfh jy'g;udk a&Smif&mS ;a&;
onf vlom;wdkif;\ wm0efjzpf
ayonf/ okjYd zpfygí jy'g;uif;pif
aom usef;rma&;apmifha&SmufrI

pwifyg0ifcMhJ uonf/ urÇmu
h se;f
rma&;tzGUJ \ owif;azmfjycsuf
rsm;t& tm*sifwD;em;EdkifiH
usef;rma&;qdkif&mavhvmcsuf
rsm;wGif aq;½Hkrsm;rS usdK;yJh
ysufpD;ívTihfypf&aom jy'g;oHk;

udkcH,l&if; aysmf&Tifcsrf;ajrU
aomb0udk
vlom;wdkif;
avQmufvrS ;f Edik &f ef ukvor*¾
ESifh urÇmYusef;rma&;tzGJUwdkY\
BudK;yrf;rIrsm;udk BudKqdktyfyg
onf/ /

aemif½kd;pdwfarG;
Ä jrefrma[h jrefrm
jrefwmcsif;NydKifrvm;
tEkdifrcHt½IH;ray;
aoG;jrihfolrsm;/
Ä jrefrma[h jrefrm
oefwmcsif;NydKifrvm;
ZGJcsif;NydKif tEkdifETJ
&Jpdwfjr§ifhxm;/
Ä jrefrma[h jrefrm
rmwmcsif;NydKifrvm;

tm;csif;qkdifb,frwGefY
pGefY0HhpGefYpm;/
Ä yGJawmfBuD; eD;vmNyD
qwkd;eD jrefrmhaoG;
ta&SUawmiftm&SyGJrSm
ESpfq,fhckepfBudrfajrmufyGJrSm
owdåjzm ta&mifrnd§K;
aemif½kd;pdwfarG;/ /

bkef;&JEkdif(*efha*g)

10/26/2013 5:52:53 AM

jynfwGif;owif; 19

27-10-2013
tcsyfydk(C) rS

jrefatmifNrdK he,f wmcG&Gmübdk;&mZmpmMunfh wkduf zGifh yJGusif;y
jrefatmif atmufwkdbm 26
{&m0wDwdkif;a'oBuD; jref
atmifNrdKUe,f wmcGwJBuD;tkyfpk
wmcG&Gmü ,refaeY eHeuf 9
em&Du bdk;&mZmpmMunfhwdkuf
zGifhyJG usif;yonf/
tcrf;tem;odYk wkid ;f a'oBu;D
vT w f a wmf u d k , f p m;vS , f r sm;?
[oFmwc½dkif jyefMum;a&;ESifh
jynfolUqufqHa&;OD;pD;XmerS
wm0ef&Sdolrsm;? pmMunfhwdkuf
rwnftvSL&Sif OD;aevif;ESifh
BucH if;NrKd Ue,frS NrKd UrdNrKd Uzrsm;? Xme

CA Kits

NrdK he,fpdkufysKd;a&;bPfrS aqmif;oD;ESHpdkufysKd;p&dwf
awmifolrsm;tm; acs;aiGrsm;xkwfay;
awmifBuD; atmufwkdbm 26
&Srf;jynfe,f "Ekudk,fydkif
tkycf sKycf iG &hf a'o yif;w,NrKd U
jrefrmhpu
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&moD o D ; ES H x k w f v k y f r I t wG u f
bPfacs;aiGrsm;udk ,refaeY
eHeuf 10 em&Du pwifxw
k af cs;

ay;cJh&m NrdKUe,fpdkufysKd;a&;bPf
refae*sm OD;cifarmifaqGESifh
0efxrf;rsm;u yifaysmfaus;&Gm
tkypf ?k awmifajctkypf ?k NrKd Uraus;
&Gmtkypf rk sm;rS yef;ESr;f ? qDrek n
f if;?
ajryJ pdkufysKd;Muaom awmifol
rsm;tm; wpf{uvQif aiGusyf

20000 EIef;jzifh {u 1860
twGuf aiGusyf 37200000 udk
pwifxkwfacs;ay;cJhonf/
tqkdygaiGacs;rIESifhywfouf
í usef&Sdaom tjcm;aus;&Gm
rsm;rS aqmif;&moDoD;ESHpdkufysKd;
Muonfh awmifolrsm;odkYvnf;
{utvdkuf acs;aiGrsm;xkwf
acs;ay;rnfjzpfaMumif; od&
onf/
(405)

wyfwGif;bJG h&
'kwd,&Jtkyfavmif;
(trsKd;om;)
a&;ajzpmar;yJGusif;y
27-10 (P-19) -2YYH.indd 1

a&mif;csMu&m NrdwfNrdKU qdyfi,f
aps;Bu;D twGi;f &Sd txnfqidk rf sm;
ESifh pwdk;qdkifrsm;wGif tqkdyg
qD;*drf;wHqdyfyg wD&Syfta&mif
taoG;rsKd;pHk csdwfqJGjyoxm;NyD;
a&mif;csvsuf&Sd&m uav;i,f
rsm;omru vli,fvl&G,frsm;
uyg BudKufESpfoufMuojzifh
a&mif ; tm;aumif ; aeaMumif ;
txnfqidk w
f pfqidk rf S od&onf/ wD&Syft&nftaoG;ay:rlwnf
aps;EIef;rSm t&G,ftpm;ESifh í aiGusyf 2500 rS aiGusyf

tvSL&Sifudk,fpm; BuHcif;NrdKUe,f
rS NrdKUrdNrdKUzwpfOD;ESifh bdk;&mZm
pmMunfhwdkufaumfrwDOuú|wdkY
u pmMunfw
h u
kd zf iG v
hf pS &f jcif;ESihf
ywfoufí &Sif;vif;ajymMum;
um pmMunfw
h u
dk o
f Ykd uGeyf sLwm?
pmtkyfpmwrf;rsm;udk tvSL&Sif
rsm;u vSL'gef;Muonf/ xdaYk emuf
pmMunfhwkdufudk tvSL&SifESifh
wm0ef&Sdolrsm;u zJBudK;jzwfzGifh
vSpMf uNy;D tcrf;tem;ud½k yk o
f rd ;f
vdkufaMumif; od&onf/
ae0if;aZmf(jrefatmif)

opfarT;rIdaq; rdwfqufyJGusif;y

jrpfBuD;em; atmufwdkbm 26
ucsifjynfe,f jrpfBuD;em;NrdKU
,kZe&yfuu
G &f dS a&TjynfpcH ef;rü
CA Myanmar ES i f h Green
Garden Cooperative wd k Y r S
yl;aygif;í CA Kits opfarT;rId
aq;rdwfqufyJGtcrf;tem;udk
,refaeY eHeuf 9 em&Du usi;f y
&m CAMyanmar rS MD OD;ppfr;kd
u tzGifhEIwfqufpum;ajym
Mum;onf/
qufvufí opfarT;uRr;f usif

ynm&Sif tar&duefEkdifiH rifeD
qdk;wm;wuúodkvfrS Dr.Robert
u urÇmo
h pfarT;rsm;teuff jrefrm
EdkifiH ucsifjynfe,fxGuf opf
arT;\tusK;d tmedoifEiS hf xl;jcm;
qef;jym;rIrsm;? opfarT;\ oabm
obm0rsm;ESifh toHk;0ifyHkrsm;?
opfarT;pdkufysKd;yHkenf;pepfrsm;?
CA Kits(rd)I aq;uRr;f usiy
f nm
&Sif Dr. Henry u urÇmhtod
trSwfjyK rIdaq;tjzpftoHk;jyK
vufcHvmrI? opfarT;yifudk

aq;oGif;NyD;rS owfrSwfumv
twGi;f tqDuyfrEI iS hf toH;k 0if
rIrsm;? urÇmhEkdifiHrsm;yifvQif
tqDudk wkdif;&if;aq;0g;tjzpf
oHk;pJGrIrsm;udk y½dk*sufwmjzifh
&Sif;vif;wifjyonf/
xdkYaemuf wufa&mufvmol
opfarT;0goem&Sirf sm;u opfarT;
qD? cJ? trIefYESifh opfarT;xGuf
ypönf;jycef;i,fudk pdwfyg0if
pm;pGmavhvmMuaMumif; owif;
&&Sdonf/(tay:yHk)
(403)

&Srf;pmay rdk;&moDoifwef;qif;yJGusif;y

NrdwfNrdK h ü qD;*drf;wHqdyfygwD&Syfrsm;vlBudKufrsm;
Nrdwf atmufwkdbm 26
weoFm&Dwdkif;a'oBuD; Nrdwf
NrdKUwGif qD;*drf;trSwfwHqdyfyg
wD&SyfrsKd;pHkvlBudKufrsm;í a&mif;
tm;aumif;vsuf&SdaMumif; od&
onf/ (27)Budrfajrmuf ta&SU
awmiftm&Stm;upm;NydKifyJGBuD;
usif;y&ef eD;uyfvmonfESifh
trQ pD;yGm;a&;vkyif ef;&Sirf sm;u
wD&SyftusÐtrsKd;rsKd;udk qD;*drf;
wHqdyfrsm;½dkufESdyfí xkwfvkyf

qdkif&mrsm;? a'ocHjynfolrsm;
ESifh ausmif;om;? ausmif;olrsm;
wufa&mufMuonf/
qufvufí {&m0wDwdkif;
a'oBuD; vTwfawmfudk,fpm;
vS,f OD;atmif0if;aqGu tzGifh
trSmpum;ajymMum;NyD; jrefrm
EdkifiHvHk;qkdif&m pmMunfhwkduf
azmifa';&Sif; twGif;a&;rSL;
OD;[def;vwf? [oFmwc½dkifjyef
Mum;a&;ESifh jynfolYqufqHa&;
OD ; pD ; rS L ;? jref a tmif N rd K Ue,f
'k w d , Nrd K Ue,f t k y f c sKyf a &;rS L ;?

8000 ausmftxd&SdaMumif; od&
(412)
onf/(tay:yHk)

aejynfawmf atmufwdkbm 26
aejynfawmfaumifpeD ,fajr ZrÁLoD&Nd rKd Ue,f&dS aejynfawmf&w
J yfzUGJ rSL;½H;k rS OD;pD;usi;f yonfh wyfwiG ;f
bJGU& 'kwd,&Jtkyfavmif;(trsKd;om;)a&;ajzpmar;yJGudk ,aeY eHeuf 9 em&DutrSwf(3)tajccHynm
txufwef;ausmif;(cG)J ü usi;f yonf/ tqdyk gpmar;yJw
G iG f aejynfawmf&w
J yfzUGJ rS wyfzUGJ rSL;&JrLS ;Bu;D atmif
atmifu pmar;yJGBuD;Muyfa&;tzJGUOuú|tjzpfaqmif&GufNyD; pmppfXme jrefrmEdkifiH&JwyfzJGUXmecsKyf
ud,
k pf m;vS,t
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d &JrLS ;Bu;D wifatmif(Edik if w
H umrl;,pf)u aqmif&u
G cf o
hJ nf/ a&;ajzpmar;yJG
wGif jrefrmEdik if &H w
J yfzUGJ atmuf&dS owif;wyfzUGJ ? rIcif;wyfzUGJ ? ,mOfxed ;f &JwyfzUGJ ? &xm;wyfzUGJ ? pnfyifom,m
&JwyfzJGU? tjrefvrf;&JwyfzJGU? &Jwyf&if;rsm;tp&Sdonfh wyfzJGUrsm;rS wyfzJGU0if wyfwGif;bJGU& 'kwd,
&Jtkyfavmif;trsKd;om; 379 OD; 0ifa&mufajzqdkcJhaMumif; owif;&&Sdonf/
(136)

rlq,f atmufwkdbm 26
&Srf;jynfe,f rlq,fc½dkif
rlq,fNrdKU r[m0efausmif;
]]armufaygif;[Gr}f } cef;rü ,ref
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toif;rS BuD;rSL;usif;yaom
&Sr;f pmay rd;k &moDoifwef;qif;yJG
usif;yonf/
tcrf;tem;wGif oifwef;
q&mtm; *kPjf yKocD si;f jzifh oDqkd
ylaZmfMuonf/ ajrmuf&yfuGuf
orm"dOD;rkdifiif;ESifh NrdKUe,ftkyf
csKyaf &;rSL; OD;udu
k akd Zmfwu
Ykd oif
wef;qif;trSmpum;rsm;ajym
Mum;NyD; ajrmuf&yfuGuftkyfcsKyf
a&;rSL; pdkif;cdefcrf;u yg0ifulnD
ay;aom apwem&Sifrsm;tm;
aus;Zl ; wif p um;ajymMum;cJ h
onf/ qufvufí &Sr;f pmayESihf
,Ofaus;rItoif;Ouú| OD;pdkif;

ausmfaxG;ESihf wm0ef&SdolwdkYu
aus;Zl;wifpum;rsm;ajymMum;
í oifwef;q&mru oifwef;
tawGUtBuKH rsm;udk &Si;f vif;ajym
Mum;cJNh y;D oifwef;om;wpfO;D u
,ckuJhodkY oifwef;NyD;ajrmuf
atmif oif,l&onfhtwGuf
txl;0rf;ajrmufygaMumif;? oif
wef;udk touft&G,rf a&G;wuf
a&mufcGifh&aomaMumifh tx
ajrmufatmif aqmif&Gufay;
aomvlBuD;rsm;ESifh apwem&Sif
rsm;? oifwef;q&mrsm;tm; aus;
Zl;wifaMumif;ajymMum;cJhonf/
xdkYaemuf oifwef;xl;cRefqk
rsm;udk qufvufcs;D jri§ &hf m NrKd Ue,f
tkyfcsKyfa&;rSL; OD;udkudkaZmfESifh
wm0ef&Sdolrsm;u qkrsm;toD;
oD;ay;tyfcJhaMumif; od&onf/
jrifhatmif

10/26/2013 5:53:23 AM

20 t*FvdyfpmESifh ÓPfprf;ya[Vd

27-10-2013
udk do ae&mwGifxm;NyD; ajz&onfudk owdjyKyg/
What are you doing ?
I'm playing the piano.
What did you do yesterday?
I gave her a present
yesterday.

a'gufwmae0if;Edkif
{Victoria University College}

a&;om;jyKpkaom

WHY

English for Myanmar
á ,refaeYrStquf

tjzpftysuw
f pfc\
k taMumif;&if;udk od&efar;onft
h cg toH;k jyK
onf/ Why jzifhar;vQif because jzifhajz&onfudk todrsm;Mu
onf/ because tpm; as jzifhvnf; ajzEdkifonf/
bmjzpfvdkY trsm;BuD;pm;cJhwmvJ/

tvGeftar;rsm;aom yHkpHjzpfonf/ ar;[ef? ajzMum;[efudk avh
vmrSwfom;Edkif&ef yHkpHcGJNyD; &Sif;vif;ydkYcsay;ygrnf/
What did Sub
V ?
1. What did you buy yesterday?

I ate a lot because it was very delicious. (because +
sentence)
I ate a lot as it was very delicious.

t&omt&rf;&SdvdkY trsm;BuD;pm;rdwmyg/
2. Why does she study hard?

olr bmjzpfvdkY tjyif;txef BudK;pm;avhvmaewmvJ/
She studies hard to pass the examination with flying
colours. (to + V)

]]rif;raeYu bm0,fcJhovJ}}
I bought a new car yesterday.

*kPfxl;awGeJYatmifzdkY tjyif;txef BudK;pm;avhvmaewm
yg/
þyHkpHwGif to + V wGJNyD; why jzifh ar;aomtajzudk ajz
xm;onfudk *½kjyKapvdkygonf/

uRefawmfraeYu um;topfwpfpD;0,fcJhw,f/
(tajzudk Verb aemufwGifxm;onfudk *½kjyKyg/)
II. What + V
?
What made him happy?

3. Why can't she go to school?

olYudk aysmfatmifvkyfay;wmbmvJ/

olrbmjzpfvdkY ausmif;rwufEdkifwmvJ/

Her kind treatment made him happy.

olr&JU MuifemwJhjyKpkrIawGu olYudkpdwfaysmfapwmyg/
þyHkpHonf Subject udk ar;jcif;jzpfonf/ tajzudk What
ae&mwGifxm;NyD; ajz&onfudk owdjyKyg/
III. What do/ did Sub do
?
What did she do when he made her angry?

olu olrudk a'gojzpfatmifvkyfwJhtcg olru bmvkyf
vdkufovJ/
She shouted loudly when he made her angry.

olrudk a'gojzpfatmifvkyfwJhtcg olru tus,fBuD;jyef
atmfvdkufw,f/
bmvkyo
f vJ[k odví
kd ar;jcif;jzpfojzifh jyKvyk jf cif;jyBu,
d m

She can't go to school because of her illness.

zsm;aevdkY ausmif;rwufEdkifwmyg/
Because jzifhajzvQif because aemufwGif taMumif;jy
0gus sentence &Sd&rnf/ because of jzifhajzvQif phrase
pum;pkomxm;&rnf/
rSwfcsuf / / jrefrma0g[m&wGif trsK;d om;a&m? trsK;d orD;udk
yg emrfpm;tjzpf ]]ol}}[komoH;k ygonf/ t*Fvyd f
pmwGif em;vnfvG,fap&ef She udk ]]olr}}[k
azmfjyxm;aomfvnf; jrefrma0g[m&wGif ]]ol}}
[kom oHk;ygonf/

qufvufazmfjyygrnf
pd e f & wem ema&;ul n D r I
toif;wGif ,cktvSLcH&&So
d nfh
edAmÁ ef,mOfum;tygt0if edAmÁ ef
,mOfppk ak ygif; ckepfp;D &&Sx
d m;Ny;D
touf 70 ESit
hf xuf oufBu;D
&G,ftdk ema&;yk*d¾Kvfrsm; ema&;
jzpfay:ygu tcrJu
h n
l aD y;oGm;
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aejynfawmf-067-422452,09-49319983

27-10-2013(Page-22).pmd

1

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10/26/2013, 11:19 AM

ZD0rsKd;uGJawG
<u,fapzdkh
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Classifieds 23

27-10-2013
usm;^r (6)OD ;
Marketing Executive
(wpf c goH k ; Tower rsm;jzef Y c sd & ef )
- wuú o d k v f b J G U &
- touf(25ESpf rS 35ESpf)twGif;jzpf&rnf/
- Marketing vkyfief;tawGYtBuHK (3)ESpf&Sd&rnf/
- ay;tyfaomvkyfief;wm0efudk aumif;pGmOD;aqmifEdkifoljzpf&rnf/
- Customer ESihf qufqHa&;udk aumif;pGmod&Sdem;vnfxm;oljzpf&rnf/
- ½kyf&nfoefYjyefYNyD; vlrIqufqHa&;ajyjypfoljzpf&rnf/
- vkdtyfygu e,fc&D;oGm;Edkifoljzpf&rnf/
- Sale & Marketing Management oifwef;wufa&mufatmifjrifNyD;olrsm;udk OD;pm;ay;rnf/
usm;^r (5)OD ;
Computer Operator
- touf(20ESpf rS 30ESpf)twGif;jzpf&rnf/
- wuú o d k v f b J G U &jzpf & rnf /
- Microsoft Excel, Data Entry uRrf;usif&rnf/
- vkyfief;tawGYtBuHK tenf;qHk; (1)ESpf&Sd&rnf/
- ½kyf&nfoefYjyefYNyD; vlrIqufqHa&;ajyjypfoljzpf&rnf/
- pnf;urf;&SdNyD; ½kd;om;oGufvufoljzpf&rnf/
usm;^r (5)OD ;
Account & Audit
- touf(20ESpf rS 35ESpf)twGif;jzpf&rnf/
- wuú o d k v f b J G U &jzpf & rnf /
- Microsoft Excel uRrf;usif&rnf/
- pnf;urf;&SdNyD; ½kd;om;oGufvufoljzpf&rnf/
- LCCI Level 1,2,3 atmifjrif&rnf/
- vkyfief;tawGUtBuHKtenf;qHk; (1)ESpf&Sd&rnf/
- ½kyf&nfoefYjyefYNyD; vlrIqufqHa&;ajyjypfoljzpf&rnf/
Sale Promoter (ta&mif ; jr§ i h f w if a &;0ef x rf ; ) r (15)OD ;
- tenf;qHk;(10)wef; atmifjrifoljzpf&rnf/
- touf(18ESpf rS 25ESpf)twGif;jzpf&rnf/
- tdrfaxmifr&Sd (tysKd)jzpf&rnf/
- ½kyf&nfoefYjyefY&rnf/ pnf;urf;&SdNyD; qufqHa&; ajyjypf&rnf/
- ½kd;om;NyD;oGufvufcsufcsmí ta&mif;udk pdwf0ifpm;oljzpf&rnf/
usm; (5)OD ;
Driver
- touf(25ESpf rS 40ESpf)twGif;jzpf&rnf/
- ,mOfarmif;vkdifpifoufwrf; (3)ESpf&Sd&rnf/
- ,mOfBuD;? ,mOfi,f uRrf;uRrf;usifusif armif;ESifEdkif&rnf/
- tajccHynm txufwef;tqihf
- usef;rmoefpGrf;oljzpf&rnf/
- qDaysmuf? rD;aysmufem;vnfol? vkyfief;tawGUtBuHK&Sdol OD;pm;ay;rnf/
- vdktyfygu e,fc&D;oGm;Edkifoljzpf&rnf/
t&nf t csif ; jynf h 0 NyD ; pnf ; urf ; &S d w m0ef a usyG e f a om0ef x rf ; rsm;twG u f a useyf a vmuf o nf h
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rSwfcsuf/
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ausmif;qufwufrnfholrsm; avQmufxm;&efrvkdyg/ avQmufxm;vkdolrsm;onf rdrdukd,fa&;&mZ0if
tjynfhtpHk? "mwfyHk(2)yHk? ynmt&nftcsif;twGuf atmifvufrSwf rl&if;^rdwåL? EdkifiHom;pdppfa&;
uwfrl&if;^rdwåL? &yfuGufaxmufcHpmrl&if;^rdwåL? &Jpcef;axmufcHpmrl&if;^rdwåL? tvkyform;
rSwfyHkwifrl&if;^rdwåL? tdrfaxmifpkZ,m;rl&if;^rdwåL? vkdtyfaompm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;ESihftwl (1811-2013)aeYtxd we*FaEG ½Hk;ydwf&ufrSty trSwf(205)A? 0g;wef;vrf;? vrf;rawmfNrdKUe,f?
&efukefNrdKUokdY vlukd,fwkdifvma&mufavQmufxm;Edkifygonf/
bk&m;? &[ef;? ausmif;? Z&yf
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OD;rif;armifarmif-a':oef;ñGefY? OD;aX;
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OD;BuKd ipf ef;a&TEiS Zhf eD; Adv
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rGef;vGJ 12;15em&DwGif uG,fvGefoGm;aMumif; od&Sd&yg
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'kwd,ñTefMum;a&;rSL;(Nidrf;)
taumufcGefOD;pD;Xme
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rS 10em&Dtxd txufygaetdrfodkY &ufvnfqGrf;auR;w&m;awmfem
usef&pfolrdom;pk
<ua&mufyg&ef zdwMf um;tyfygonf/

'k&JrSL;jrwfoefY (Nidrf;)
touf(82)ESpf
jrpfi,fNrKd U? O,smOfawmf&yf? (5)&yfuu
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25-10-2013&uf (aomMumaeY) eHeuf 4;40em&DwiG f uG,v
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26-10-2013&uf (paeaeY)wGif rD;oN*KØ [Nf y;D jzpfygaMumif; &yfa0;&yfe;D rS
aqGrsK;d rdwo
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uG,fvGefoltm;&nfpl;í 29-10-2013&uf (t*FgaeY)wGif aetdrfodkY
&ufvnfqrG ;f auR;w&m;awmfem <ua&mufyg&ef zdwMf um;tyfygonf/
usef&pfolrdom;pk

Funward Myanmar Co.,Ltd

owif;pmvay;ESifh ukd,fpm;vS,f

No.33/49, Corner of Bank Street &

&,lvkdolrsm;atmufygukd,fpm;vS,f
rsm;xH qufoG,fEkdifygonf/

Mahabandoola Garden Street, Strand Condo,

a&mifpkH owif;pm

Kyauktada Township,

aejynf a wmf 1/
2/
&ef u k e f
1/

Yangon.(100% Japan Company)
Manager

M/F (2)Posts

Software ESihf ywfoufí bJGU&&Sdol? vkyfief;tawGUtBuHK

2/

(3)ESpftxuf&Sdol? touf(25-30)ESpftxd? t*Fvdyfpm uRrf;
usipf mG ajymqkEd idk o
f ?l Management ESifh ywfoufí oifwef;qif;
vufrSwf&&Sdol? *syefpm N2 ESihf txuf&Sdol? tusihfpm&dwå
aumif ; rG e f o l ? ½d k ; om;Bud K ;pm;í OD ; aqmif E d k i f o l ? trsm;ES i h f
yl;aygif;aqmif &GufEdkifpGrf;&Sd&rnf/
1.

Software developer

3/
4/
5/
6/
7/

M/F (30)Posts

- uGeyf sLwmody?HÜ enf;ynmESifh ywfoufí bJUG ^'Dyvdrk m&&So
d l
- Software Development ykdif;ESihf ywfoufí A[kokw
&Sdol? pdwf0ifpm;ol
- t*Fvdyfpmbmompum;uRrf;usifol
- *syefpmwwfuRrf;oljzpfygu OD;pm;ay;a&G;cs,frnf/
- Magazine Layout Design uRrf;usifpGm qJGEdkif&rnf/
a&G;cs,fcH&ygu *syefpmrwwfolrsm;udk ukrÜPDrS wm0ef,l
tcrJh oifMum;ay;oGm;rnf/
2.

Accountant

8/
9/
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wmcsD v d w f
jrpfBuD;em;
Aef ; armf
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1/
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1/
2/
Nrdwf
1/
2/
rtl y if
jynf
anmif a jcaxmuf
BudKUyifaumuf
rif;vS

F (2)Posts

B.Com, BA(Eco), LCCI, MYOB

-

pm&if;ESihfywfoufí bJGU^'Dyvkdrm&&Sdxm;ol
½kd;om;BudK;pm;ol
uGefysLwmtoHk;jyKEdkifol
*syefpm N4 ESihf txufuRrf;usifygu OD;pm;ay; a&G;cs,f
rnf/ a&G;cs,fcH&ygu *syefpmudk ukrÜPDrS wm0ef,ltcrJh
oifMum;ay;oGm;rnf/
- txufyg &mxl;tm; pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;onf owfrSwfxm;
aom avQmufvTmESihftwl Photo(2)yHkESihf tjcm;vkdtyfaom
pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;udk yl;wJGNyD; 30-10-2013&uf aemufqHk;xm;í
txufazmfjyyg vdyfpmtwkdif; vma&mufavQmufxm;Edkifonf/
zk e f ; -01-377737? 09-43052668? 09-5148608?
09-250173065
&[ef ; 'g,d u mrBuD ;

a':usifar

(usKH e awå m f & G m )
touf(87)ESpf
rtlyifNrdKUe,f? usKHeawåmf&Gmae
(ausmif;q&mBu;D OD;[efñeG )Yf \ZeD;?
(OD;atmifMunf? 'kpuf½rHk LS ;? ykord rf eS f
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jrif(h txufwef;a&SUae)-(a':&ifEUJG ?
tv,fwef;jyq&mr)? OD;ae0if;a':armfarmf(a&T"eqefpuf)? OD;pdk;
at;(M.D Golden Pearl Myanmar
Travels & Tours Co.,Ltd.)-a':pDpD
vGif? OD;pdk;aX;-a':cifaxG;axG;(rl
q,fpm;aomufqikd ?f rtlyifNrKd U)wdYk
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a,mufwdkY\tbGm;onf 25-102013&uf(aomMumaeY) eHeuf 5em&D
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f iG f uG,v
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3em&DwGif a&a0;tat;wdkufrS
a&a0;okomefoYkd ydaYk qmifr;D oN*KØ [f
rnfjzpfygaMumif; &yfe;D &yfa0;rSaqG
rsKd;rdwfo*F[wdkYtm; today;
taMumif;Mum;tyfygonf/ [wdu
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295? tcef; 13? &efatmifvrf;oG,f
(2)? &efuif;NrKd Ue,faetdrrf u
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rGe;f vGJ 1;30em&DwiG f xGucf mG ygrnf/]
usef&pfolrdom;pk

a':MunfMunf

OD;0if;odef; (zkef;-09-49345739? 031-74006)
OD;ausmf (zkef;-09-49203017)
OD;atmifjrifhpkd; (zkef;-09-5193652? 01-400697?
031-74020)
OD;atmifjrifh(qifawmifBuD;) (zkef;-09-5411910?
01-381834)
reDvm (zkef;-01-253707)
OD;oef;vGif (zkef;-09-73048354)
eef ; OD ; (zk e f ; -09-49325575)
ukdrl (*sdKumpmay) (zkef;-09-73053960)
OD ; jrih f O D ; (tif ; pd e f ) (zk e f ; -09-5088925?
09-420072687)
udkt&SnfBuD;(c) udkjrifhodef;(bk&ifhaemif)
(zkef;-09-421060327)
udkZifrif;vwf (ordkif;) (zkef;-09-73144273)
OD ; at;rif ; atmif (zk e f ; -09-402523982)
a':rsdK;rsdK;ol-rDvQHempmay (zkef;-081-2122811)
**F g eED ´ p may (zk e f ; -081-2123838)
OD ; pd e f 0 if ; (zk e f ; -081-50249)
OD ; vS j rif h (zk e f ; -084-52933)
OD;ausmfausmfOD; (zkef;-09-47000824)
OD;rsdK;qef; (zkef;-074-50166)
a':at;at;oef ; (zk e f ; -071-21357)
OD ; ausmf a usmf (zk e f ; -09-440223258)
a':oEÅ m cif (zk e f ; -062-23535)
OD ; 0if ; aX; (zk e f ; -061-200595)
OD;tkef;jrifh ]]jrifh}} pmay (zkef;-061-200774)
OD;aevif; (zkef;-09-256092323)
OD ; wif a tmif - 0if ; 0if ; pmay (zk e f ; -058-21117)
a':oEÅ m 0if ; -oD [ pmay (zk e f ; -058-40705)
OD;pdef0if;(zdk;a&ToGef;) (zkef;-09-422190081)
OD ; atmif j rwf x G # f (zk e f ; -09-450992643)
a':oEÅmvGif (zkef;-09-422193704)
OD ; atmif j rif h O D ; (zk e f ; -09-5640488)
OD ; jrif h O D ; (zk e f ; -09-8585136)
OD ; oef ; xG # f a tmif (zk e f ; -09-452333556)
OD;0if;ñGefY (zkef;-09-6300964)
OD;aZmf0if; (zkef;-09-5374532 ? 053-50316)
OD ; 0if ; Ed k i f p d k ; (zk e f ; -09-423667632)

(82)ES p f

&efukefNrdKU? tvkHNrdKUe,f? odyÜHvrf;? trSwf 33(av;vTm)ae OD;vlcifa':oef;&ifw\
Ykd orD;? OD;pdex
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tajccHOya'a&;qGJa&;aumf
r&SiftzGJU0if 54 OD;onf
txuftydk'f (1)yg trsKd;
om;nDvmcHu,
dk pf m;vS,rf sm;
u csrSwfay;aom rlrsm;udk
tajccHNyD; a&;qGJonf/

rlcs&m? a&;qGJ&mü 2008
ckESpf
tajccHOya'u
jynfolYukd,fpm;vS,frsm;
ydkrdkyg0ifonf/

4 ygvDref 'Drdkua&pDpepf jrefrmhenf;jrefrmh[ef qdk&S,f
usio
hf ;kH í ygvDref'rD u
kd a& vpfpepfukd usio
hf ;kH í qd&k ,
S f
pDukd tajccHa&;qGJonf/ vpf'Drdkua&pDudk tajccHa&;
qGJonf/

trsKd;om; tusKd;pD;yGm;udk
tav;*½kjyKaom trsK;d om;
EkdifiHa&;pepf usifhoHk;í
ppfreS Nf y;D pnf;urf;jynf0h aom
'Drdkua&pDudk tajccHa&;qGJ
onf/

EkdifiHwGif ay:xGef;cJhaom
tajccHOya' oH;k ckpvH;k onf
usifhoHk;aom EkdifiHa&;? pD;
yGm;a&;pepftay: tajccH
í wpfcEk pS w
f pfck Ekid if aH &;
tESpo
f m&csi;f rwlujJG ym;
onf/

27-10 (A).indd 7

wef;wl&EkdifwJhtajctxd jr§ifhwifEkdifatmif aqmif&Gufay;rS wu,fh'Drkdua&pDtxd wufvSrf;Ekdifr,f/ 'gjzifh tJ'Dvkd
'Drkdua&pDtqifhtwef;a&mufatmif b,fvkdtajccHawGcs&rvJ/
'Drkdua&pDtajccHrsm;
1/ ta&;BuD;wJhpufrIvufrIypönf;vkyfief;awGukd tpkd;&odrf;Ekdif&r,f/ okdYr[kwf odrf;EkdifatmiftajccHysKd;xm;&
r,f/
2/ tvkyform;awG&JU aea&;? xkdifa&;? pm;a&;? aomufa&;? usef;rma&;? pnf;½Hk;a&;? tdkempmta&;tp&Sdojzihf
tcGihfta&;awG &Sd&r,f/
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7/ wkdif;jynfumuG,fa&;[m jynfolYtpdk;&wm0efjzpfw,f/ tckuRefb0rSmvdk a&S;uvdktaysmfxrf;&JtzJGUtp&Sd
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8/ wkdif;jynfOya'w&m;½Hk;pepf[mvnf; jynfolawG&JUtusKd; a&S;½Ir,fh jynfolYw&m;½Hk;pepfrsKd;jzpf&r,f/
_____________________________________________________________________/}}
vlrsm;pktmPmydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;
'Dru
dk a&pDopft& vkyrf ,fzh UGJ pnf;tkycf sKyyf OHk ya'rsK;d [m b,fvjkd zpf&rvJq&kd if wkid ;f oljynfom;vlrsm;pkawG tmPm
ydkiftjzpf tkyfcsKyfEkdifatmif olwdkYa&G;aumufwJhudk,fpm;vS,fawG[m atmufuaeNyD; xdyftxd wkdif;jynftkyfcsKyfa&;
wkid ;f jynftpd;k &tmPmudk udik x
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dk w
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f &Ykd &dS if jyefac:Ekid &f r,f/
_____________________________________________________________________/
þonfum; jrefrmEkdifiH\'Drkdua&pDa&mifjcnfoef;cgp vGwfvyfa&;BudK;yrf;qJumvwGif vGwfvyfa&;okcrdef
trsKd;om;acgif;aqmifBuD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;udk,fwkdif zJGUpnf;yHktajccHOya'jy|mef;Ekdifa&;twGuf rdefYMum;cJhonfh
orkdif;0ifrdefYcGef; jzpfayonf/
EkdifiHawmfonf jynfwGif;tuGJtNyJrsm;? rNidrf;csrf;rIrsm;aMumihf 1962 ckESpfwGif awmfvSefa&;aumifpDay:aygufcJh
onf/ xkaYd emuf 1974 ckEpS w
f iG f qk&d ,
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f pfp;D yGm;a&;pepfukd usio
hf ;kH rnfjzpfaMumif; qH;k jzwfcsuEf iS t
fh wl zJUG pnf;yHt
k ajccH
Oya'opfwpf&yfa&;qGjJ y|mef;cJo
h nf/ xdaYk emufwiG u
f m; trsm;odNy;D jzpfonfh 1988 ckEpS f ta&;tcif;ay:aygufrEI iS t
fh wl
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ckESpfwGif trsKd;om;nDvmcHpwifusif;yí zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'a&;qGJ&mwGif yg0if&rnfh tajccHrlrsm;udk n§dEdIif;a&;qGJ
cJhMuonf/ xkdYaemufwGifum; 2008 ckESpf zJGUpnf;yHktajccHOya'a&;qGJjy|mef;EdkifcJhNyD; 2011 ckESpf rwfvwGif vTwfawmf
toD;oD;ESihf EkdifiHawmfor®w OD;odef;pdef OD;aqmifaom tpdk;&tzJGUopfwpf&yf ay:aygufvmcJhjcif;jzpfonf/
uReaf wmfavhvmrSwo
f m;xm;cJah om rSww
f rf;rsm;t& jrefrmEkid if w
H iG f ,cifua&;qGjJ y|mef;cJah om zJUG pnf;ykt
H ajccH
Oya'ESpf&yfESihf vuf&SdusihfoHk;aeaom 2008 ckESpf zJGUpnf;yHktajccHOya'wdkYdudk EdIif;,SOfí atmufwGif qufvufwifjy
ygonf/ zJUG pnf;yHt
k ajccHOya'jyifqifMu&ef odrYk [kwf tjcm;&nf&,
G af qmif&u
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kd nf; awGU&ygonf/
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tajccHOya'udk jynfhpHkpGm od&Sdem;vnfjcif;jzihf 'Drdkua&pD EkdifiHawmfopfqDodkY csDwuf&mwGif taxmuftuljyKEkdifap&ef
wifjyvdkuf&jcif; jzpfayonf/
(1) 1947 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'
5 ygwDppkH epf usio
hf ;kH aMumif;
tajccHOya'ü azmfjyjcif;
r&Sdaomfvnf; ygwDpHkpepf
vufcHcJhonf/

pOf

(2) 1974 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'
yk'rf 11 wGif Ekid if aH wmfonf
wpfcw
k nf;aom ygwDpepfukd
om usifhoHk;&rnf/ jrefrmh
qd&k ,
S v
f pfvrf;pOf ygwDonf
Ekid if aH wmf\ wpfcw
k nf;aom
Ekid if aH &;ygwDjzpfí Ekid if aH wmf
udk OD;aqmifonf[k azmfjy
um wpfygwDpepf jy|mef;
usifhoHk;onf/

(3) 2008 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'

rSwfcsuf

Edik if aH wmfonf ppfreS í
f pnf; - 1947 tajccHOya'ü
urf;jynfh0aom ygwDpHk'Drdk ygwDpHkpepfudk w&m;0if
ua&pDpepf xGef;um;a&; rjy|mef;bJ ygwDpzkH UJG pnf;
twGuf EkdifiHa&;ygwDrsm;ukd vIyf&Sm;rIcGifhjyKcJh&onf/
pepfwuszGJUpnf;Ekdif&ef vdk ygwDrsm; pepfwus zGJU
tyfonfh Oya'jy|mef;aqmif pnf; rSwyf w
kH ifjcif;r&Scd /hJ
&Gufonf/
- 1974 ckEpS f tajccHOya'
rSmrl ygwDpv
kH ufrcH? wpf
ygwDpepfudkom jy|mef;
cJhonf/
- 2008 ckESpf zGJUpnf;yHk
tajccHOya'ü ppfreS í
f
pnf;urf; jynfh0aom
ygwDppkH epfusio
hf ;kH &ef yg
&Sdonf/
- ygwDrsm;onf 'dkYwm0ef
ta&;oHk;yg;udk OD;wnf
csuf xm;&rnf/
- Ekid if aH wmf\ aus;Zl;opöm
udk apmifo
h ½d akd o&ef wm
0ef&Sdonf/
- zGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya'
ESifhwnfqJOya'rsm;udk
vdkufem&rnf/
- EkdifiHa&; ygwDtjzpf
Oya'ESifhtnD zGJUpnf;
rSwfyHkwifxm;&rnf/
- Oya'ESifhtnD vGwfvyf
pG m pnf ; ½k H ; cG i f h ? a&G ;
aumufyrJG sm;ü yg0if,OS f
NydKifcGifh&Sdonf/
- ygwDrsm;a&Smif&rnfh pnf;
urf;rsm; yg&Sdonf/
tcsyfykd (c) odkY

10/26/2013 5:11:46 PM

tcsyfykd(c) zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'a&;&m
pOf
(1) 1947 ckESpf
(2) 1974 ckESpf
(3) 2008 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'
zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'
tajccHOya'
6 - ygvDref 'Drkdua&pDyHkpH - qkd&S,fvpf'Drkdua&pDyHkpH - zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya' yk'f
twkdif; tcsKyftjcm twkid ;f tcsKyt
f jcmtmPm r 11? yk'rf cGJ (u)yg jy|mef;
tmPm\ cufroHk;jzm oH;k &yfukd tpk;d &? vTwaf wmf csut
f &ppfreS í
f pnf;urf;
jzpfaom (1)Oya'jyKa&;? ESifh w&m;½Hk;csKyfwkdYu jynfh0aom 'Drkdua&pDykHpH
(2)tkycf sKyaf &;? (3)w&m; wm0ef,l &aomfvnf; twkid ;f tcsKyt
f jcmtmPm
pD&ifa&;tmPmrsm;udk OD;aqmifygwD (jrefrmhqkd \ cufroHk;jzmjzpfonfh
a&G;aumufyGJü trwf &S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD) \ Oya'jyKa&;tmPm? tkyf
ae&m trsm;pktEkdif&&Sd OD;aqmifñTefMum;onfh csKyfa&;tmPmESifh w&m;
aom ygwDacgif;aqmifu twkdif;vkdufemaqmif&Guf pD&ifa&;tmPmwkdYudk ykdif;
qkyfukdifxm;onf/
&onf/
jcm;NyD;cGJa0tyfESif;onf/
- ygwDu wm0efay;aom - zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'yk'f
or®wonf tkyfcsKyfa&;? r 16yg EkdifiHawmftBuD;
Oya'jyKa&;wku
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onf/ w&m;pD&ifa&;udk a&;tBuD;tuJonf EkdifiH
Bu;D MuyfuyG u
f o
J nf/or®w awmf or®wjzpfonf[k
txufwGif ygwD&Sdonf/ jy|mef;csuft& or®wu
- or®wu tmPm(vkyfykdif tkyfcsKyfa&;udkvHk;0wm0ef
cGifh)rsm;udk atmuftqifh ,l wm0efcH&onf/ jynf
qifhokdY cGJa0tyfESif;onf/ axmifpk vTwfawmfu
a'gifvkduf (Division of Oya'jyKa&;udk vH;k 0wm0ef,l
wm0efc&H onf/jynfaxmif
powers)jzpfonf/
pk w&m;vTwfawmfcsKyfu
w&m;pD&ifa&;udk vHk;0
wm0ef,l wm0efc&H onf/
- tmPm&ygwD acgif;aqmif - wpfygwDwnf; (jrefrmh qkd - tmPm(3)&yfudk (3)Xme
u 0efBu;D csKyv
f yk Nf y;D tkyf &S,fvpfvrf;pOfygwD) u okdY tvsm;vkdufykdif;jcm;
csKyfonf/ tmPm&ygwD tmPmtm;vHk; csKyfukdif ay;tyfNyD;rS txuf
\ trwfOD;a&u trsm; OD;aqmifvrf;ñTefonf/ atmuf a'gifvkdufcGJa0
qHk;jzpfí 0efBuD;csKyf ygwDvyk if ef;ppfaq;a&;ESihf tyfESif;aponf/
jy|mef;vkad om Oya'rsm; ygwDpnf;urf;xde;f odr;f a&; (Separation of Powers+
om jy|mef;NyD; twkduf aumfrwD? ygwDnDvmcH Division of powers)
tcHwkdY wifoGif;aom wkdYu xdef;odrf;EkdifpGrf; - or®w? vTwfawmf? w&m;
Oya'Murf;udk trwf(rJ) &Sdonf/
vTwfawmfcsKyf(3)OD; (3)
ESifh y,fcsavh&Sdonf/
zvS,fu tmPmwpf&yf
- 0efBuD;csKyfu xkdtmPm
pD wm0ef,lum tmPm
rsm;udk atmuftqifh
(3)&yf pvH;k twGuf tjyef
qifo
h Ydk cGaJ 0tyfEiS ;f onf/
tvSefxdef;ausmif;aom
a'gifvkduf(Division of
pepf(Check and counter
check or check and
powers) jzpfonf/
Balance)yHp
k jH zifh xde;f onf/
- wpfOD;wnf; (tmPm&
ygwD acgif;aqmif 0efBu;D
csKyf)u tmPmtm;vHk;
csKyfukdifonf/ tmPm&
0efBuD;csKyfu tmPmoH;k
&yfpvHk;Ekdifeif;pGm rukdif
Ekid cf í
hJ ygvDref 'Dru
dk a&pD
pepfwGif tpkd;&wnfNrJ
ckdifcHhrI tm;enf;onf/

pOf

7 jynfaxmifpkEkdifiHtjzpf
ucsifjynfe,f? u,m;
jynfe,f? u&ifjynfe,f?
&Srf;jynfe,fESifh
csif;
0daoowkdif;wkdYjzifh zGJU
pnf;onf/ 1948 ckESpfrS
1960 jynfhESpfcefYtxd
&Srf;apmfbGm;rsm;? u,m;
apmzsmrsm;? ucsif 'l;0g;
rsm;\ ya'o&mZfpepf
&SdaecJhonf/ A[kdcsKyfukdif
rIrsm;vGe;f í wpfjynfaxmif
pepfqefonf[k wkdif;&if;
om;EkdifiHa&;orm;tcsKdUu
a0zefcJhonf/

jynfaxmifpktjzpf ucsif?
u,m;? u&if?csif;?rGef?&ckdif?
&Srf; ponfh jynfe,fckepfck?
ppfukdif;? weoFm&D? yJcl;?
rauG;? rEÅav;? &efukef?
{&m0wD ponfh wkdif;ckepf
wkdif;jzifh zGJUpnf;onf/

8 tcef;(10) yk'rf 201?202? jynfaxmifpkrS cGJxGufcGifh
203? 204?205?206 wkw
Yd iG f ay;rxm;/ (cGJrxGuf&[l
jy|mef;xm;aom pnf;urf; aom tajccHrlvnf;ryg
csurf sm;ESit
hf nD jynfaxmif &Sday/)
pkrS cGx
J u
G Ef idk &f ef jynfe,f
wkdif;wGif tcGifhta&;&Sd
onf[k azmfjyyg&Sdonf/

27-10 (B-C).indd 1

(1) 1947 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'

(2) 1974 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya'

rSwfcsuf
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csKyfukdif&mü ygwDpHk
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pepfbuf a&S;½IoGm;
wwfonf/(tmPm,pf
rl;jcif;) tmPmwnfNrJ
&ef rrSefruefvkyfjcif;
rsm; &Sdvmwwfonf/

- wpfygwDwnf;u OD;
aqmifjcif;jzifh t&nf
tcsif;ESifhapwemjynfh0
rSeu
f efaomygwDjzpfvQif
Ekid if t
H usK;d jyKvyk if ef;rsm;
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EkdifiHykdrkdxdckduf tusKd;
,kwfaponfhtjyif wpf
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OD;wnfoGm;wwfonf/
-tcsKyftjcmtmPmudk
(3)ykdif; ykdif;jcm;í (3)
zGJUtm; wm0efrQay;jcif;?
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tmPm&SifpepfESifh vHk;0
jcm;em;oGm;onf/ ykdrkd
oGufvufxufjruf rSef
uefaponf/

jynfaxmifpktjzpf ucsif?
u,m;?u&if? csi;f ?rGe?f &ckid ?f
&Srf;ponfh jynfe,fckepfck?
,if;jynfe,frsm;ESihf tqifh
wl wkdif;a'oBuD;ckepfckjzpf
onfh ppfukdif;? weoFm&D?
yJc;l ? rauG;?rEÅav;?&efuek ?f
{&m0wDwkdif;a'oBuD;ckepf
ckESifh jynfaxmifpke,fajr
wkdYjzifh zGJUpnf;onf/
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d yf idk t
f yk cf sKycf iG &hf
wkdif;?
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dk yf idk t
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a'o?
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wko
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jynfe,frsm;?jynfaxmifpk
e,fajrrsm;?ukd,fykdiftkyfcsKyf
cGifh&pD&ifpkrsm;ponfh EkdifiH

zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'a&;&m tcsyfykd(*)

27-10-2013

tcsyfykd (u) rS

1947tajccHOya'tcef;
(10)rS cGJxGufcGifhrlrsm;
t& 1962ck rwfvwGif
zuf'&,f vIyf&Sm;rIjzifh
jynfaxmifpkrS cGJxGufum
uGJtufa&;vIyf&Sm;vmcJh
íwyfrawmfuumuG,cf hJ

(3) 2008 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'

rSwfcsuf

awmf\ e,fajrtykid ;f tjcm;
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[k jy|mef;xm;onf/

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Oya'wGif OD;wnfcsuf
6 &yft&? EkdifiHawmf
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t& cGx
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xm;ojzifh jynfaxmifpk
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&SdNyD; jzpfonf/

Ekid if aH wmfor®wonf Ekid if H
awmf tBuD;tuJjzpfaomf
vnf; 0efBuD;csKyfu tkyf
csKyfa&;(tpk;d &tzJUG ) tBuD;
tuJtjzpf tmPmoHk;
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f ;l aqmif
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Oya'acwf or®wxuf
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tuJonf EkdifiHawmfor®w
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aom A[dkESifh a'oqkdif&m
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cGifhjyKonf}}[k azmfjyxm;
onf/

zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'udk
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pnf;yHk tajccHOya'u
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a&;tmPmudk cGJa0tyfESif;
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2008ckESpf tajccHOya'
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9

11 vlrsKd;pkvTwfawmf? jynfolU
vTwfawmfESpf&yf &Sdonf/
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jynfoUl vTwaf wmfwpfcw
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12 tajccHOya'yk'fr 87\
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vS,fudk,SOfNydKif ta&G;cHrI&Sd
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- zGUJ pnf;yHt
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- zGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya'

- 2008 ckESpf tajccH
Oya'wGif wkdif;&if;om;
vlrsKd; ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;
ykdrkd us,fjyefYpGm yg0if
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rnf/
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tajccHOya'rsm;wGif
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(1) 1947 ckESpf
(2) 1974 ckESpf zGJUpnf;yHk
(3) 2008 ckESpf
pOf
zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
rSwfcsuf
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csut
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awmfwGif usefukd,fpm; - 2008 ckESpf tajccH
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rsm;rS ukd,fpm;vS,frsm;jzifh
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jznfhoGif;&rnf}} [k azmfjy
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rsm;[k
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yg jy|mef;csuft& wkdif; jynfwGif;aomif;usef;rI
a'oBuD ; od k Y r [k w f aMumifh 1948-49 ckEpS f
jynfe,frsm;wGif NrdKUe,f rsm;uwpfBurd ?f tmPm
wpfNrdKUe,fvQif ESpOf ;D us & zqyvtzGJUcsKyf
pD a&G;aumufwifajrm§ uf twGif; tpdwfpdwf
aom wdkif;a'oBuD; odkY
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aoG;acsmif;pD; vkeD;
yg0ifrnf/
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yk'fr 161? yk'frcGJ (c)yg wpfBudrf? &Srf;jynfe,f
jy|mef;csut
f &jynfe,f^ zuf'&,frl vIyf&Sm;rI
wdkif;a'oBuD;rsm;wGif jzifh jynfaxmifpkBuD;
wkdif;? jynfe,f? ukd,fydkif NydKuGJvkqJqJ 1962
tkyfcsKyfcGifh& pD&ifpk &&Sd ckESpfu wpfBudrf? wdkif;
NyD;aom wdkif;&if;om; qljynfzsuf qlylrIjzifh
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om; vlrsKd;rsm;teuf um jynfytiftm;BuD;
EkdifiHawmf&Sd vlOD;a&\ Ekid if w
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umuG,fay;cJh&ojzifh
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uk d , f p m;vS , f r sm;u
vTwfawmfrsm;ü yg0if
wifjy? aqG;aEG;? tMuH
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cGifh &Sdapoifhygonf/
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om; ukd,fpm;vS,f
av;yHkwpfyHkonf 'Drdk
ua&pDyHkpHt& wyf
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atmif umuG,Ef idk rf nf
jzpfonf/ ,aeY wyfr
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pOf

(1) 1947 ckESpf zGJUpnf;
tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'

(2) 1974 ckESpf zGJUpnf;yHk
tajccHOya'

(3) 2008 ckESpf zGJUpnf;yHk
tajccHOya'

rSwfcsuf
tajctaerSm Oya'jyKtzGUJ tpnf;
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om;vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,frsm;
yg0ifoifhonf? odkYaomf ,if;odkY
yg0ifjcif;onf wpfcsed v
f ;kH yg0ifrnf
r[kwf?
- rsufarSmufacwf urÇmhEkdifiH trsm;
tjym;rS ygvDref(vTwfawmf)uJhokdY
Oya'jyKtzGUJ rsm;wGif rJqE´&iS v
f x
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u rJay;ra&G;bJ ceft
Y yfwm0efay;
aom trwfrsm;&Sdaeonf? ,if;
wdkYteuf atmufyg EkdifiHtcsKdUudk
avhvmawGU&Sd&ygonfl NAdwdeftxufvTwfawmf (House
of Lords) trwf 659 OD; pvH;k
udk bk&ifru cefYonf/
l uae'gtxufvTwfawmftrwf
tm;vHk;udk bk&ifcHcsKyfu cefY
onf/
l t,fvf*sD;&D;,m; txufvTwf
awmf trwf 144 OD;&Sd&m 48OD;
rSm or®wu cefYí usef 96OD;
udk jrLeDpDy,faumifpDu a&G;
onf/
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trwfae&m 40 pvHk;udk bk&if
u cefYonf/
l blwefEkdifiH trsKd;om;vTwfawmf
trwf 150 teuf 50 udk bk&if
u cefYonf/
l td E ´ d , txuf v T w f a wmf w G i f
or®wcefYtrwf 12OD;? atmuf
vTwfawmfwGif t*Fvdyf-tdE´d,
ujym;xJrS cefaY om trwf 2 OD;
yg0ifonf/
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txufvTwfawmf
trwf 32 OD;&Sd&m vlrsKd;pktBuD;
tuJrsm;u tqdkjyKol 14 OD;?
0efBuD;csKyfu tqdkjyKol 9 OD;?
twdkuftcHu tqdkjyKol 8 OD;
ESihf Rotuma uRe;f twGuf or®w
cefYaom trwf 1 OD;wdkY yg0if
onf/
l tdkif,mvef txufvTwfawmf
trwf 60 teuf 11 OD;udk
0efBuD;csKyfu cefYonf/
l a*smf'ef qdedwfvTwfawmftrwf
40 pvHk;udk bk&ifucefYNyD;
atmufvTwfawmfu twnfjyK
&onf/
l armf ½ d k u d k
txufvTwfawmf
trwf(270) OD;\ 60 &mEIef;udk
a'oaumifprD sm;u a&G;NyD; usef
40 &mEIef;udk pD;yGm;a&;ESifh
tvkyform;tzGJUtpnf;rsm;u
a&G;onf/
l ½dkar;eD;,m; atmufvTwfawmf
trwf(346)ae&mteuf (19)
ae&mukd vlrsKd;pktwGuf oD;oefY
owfrSwfay;xm;onf/
l pydeftxufvTwfawmfü wdkuf
½dkufa&G;cs,fonfh trwf (208)
ae&m? a'oukd,fpm;jyKtrwf
(47) ae&myg0ifonf/
l wGefukdvTwfawmfü
bk&ifcefY
trwf (11)OD;? vlrsKd;pkacgif;
aqmif r sm; a&G ; cef Y o l (9)OD ; ?
wdkuf½dkufa&G;cefYol (9)OD;yg&Sd
onf/
l tm&yf a pmf b G m ;jynf a xmif p k
(UAE) wGif jynfaxmifpktrsKd;
om;aumifpD ac: tMuHay;tzGUJ
0if (40)OD;pvH;k udk ceft
Y yfonf/
l ZifbmabGü trwf (150)&Sd&m
(12)OD;udk or®wu cefYonf/
l tif'dkeD;&Sm;wGif
2004 ckESpf
txd vTwfawmfukd,fpm;vS,f
(500)teuf (38)OD;rSm wyfr
awmfrS jzpfonf/
- urÇmhEkdifiH trsm;tjym;teuf
jynfol\ qE´rJjzifh a&G;cs,fjcif;
rjyKbJ wdkuf½dkuf wm0efay;cefY
xm;aom Ekid if t
H csKdUukd azmfjyjcif;
tcsyfykd (C) okdY

10/26/2013 5:07:08 PM

tcsyfykd(C) zGJUpnf;ykHtajccHOya'a&;&m

27-10-2013

tcsyfykd (*) rS
pOf

(1) 1947 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
tajccHOya'

pOf
(2) 1974 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'

(3) 2008 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'

rSwfcsuf

-

13 wdkif;&if;om; t&if;&Sif?
ajr&Sifudk ypm;ay;aom
t&if;&SifpD;yGm;a&;yHkpHjzpf
aomfvnf; EkdifiHjcm;om;
t&if;&SifwdkY vTrf;rdk;EkdifcJh
aom pD ; yG m ;a&;yH k p H j zpf
onf/ yk'rf 23 wGif pD;yGm;
a&;udprö sm;ü ypön;f ydik q
f ikd f
cGi?hf ud,
k yf ikd v
f yk u
f ikd w
f x
D iG f
cGi?hf Ekid if pH ;D yGm;a&; ysujf ym;
atmif vkyfaomtzGJUrsm;?
umwJ? qif'Dudwfx&yfpf
paom vuf 0 g;BuD ; tk y f
tzG J U rsm;r&S d & / jynf o l Y
tusKd;twGuf vdktyfvQif
ud,
k yf ikd yf pön;f udk uefo
Y wf
csKycf s,jf cif;? odr;f yku
d jf cif;
jyKEkdifonf/ vkdtyfvQif
pD ; yG m ;a&;vk y f i ef ; rsm;
jynfolykdifodrf;Ekdifonf[k
azmfjyxm;onf/

jzpfonf/ ,if;EkdifiHrsm;
wGif 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk
usifhoHk;aom EkdifiHrsm;
yg0ifonfukd awGUjrif
Ekdifonf/
jrefrmEkdifiH vTwfawmf
rsm;wGif wyfrawmfom;
vTwaf wmfu,
dk pf m;vS,f
rsm; yg0ifro
I nf vuf&dS
Ekid if aH wmf\ vdt
k yfcsuf
tajctaet& jzpf
onf/ tNrJwapyg0if
aernfr[kwf/
1947 ckESpf tajccH
Oya'wGif qdk&S,fvpf
pepfrus? t&if;&Sipf epf
rusaom pD;yGm;a&;yHkpH
cscJh&m qdk&S,fvpfvnf;
jzpfrvm? t&if;&Siv
f nf;
jzpfrvm? jynfoltrsm;
pkqif;&Jí EkdifiHjcm;om;
t&if;&Sirf sm;omaumif;
pm;cJhonf/
1974 ckESpf tajccH
Oya'wGif qdk&S,fvpf
pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk csay;
cJah omfvnf; vufawGU
taumif txnfazmf
&mütaMumif;aMumif;
aMumifh wkd;wufrIr&&Sd
EkdifcJhay/
2008ckEpS zf UJG pnf;yHt
k ajc
cHOya'wGif urÇmESifh&if
aygifwef;Ekdifaom vGwf
vyfus,fjyefYonfh aps;
uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf cs
rSwfay;jcif;?EkdifiHwGif;rS
wkdif;&if;om;pD;yGm;a&;
tiftm;pkrsm;udk yg0if
aqmif&GufcGifhjyKjcif;?
jynfolUtusKd;pD;yGm; um
uG,fay;jcif;? pD;yGm;a&;
vkyfief;rsm; jynfolykdif
rodrf;jcif;? EkdifiHoHk;
aiGaMu;rsm;udk w&m;
r0ifaiGaMu;tjzpf owf
rSwfjcif;rjyK[k tmrcH
umjynfwGif; jynfy
&if;ESD;jr§KyfESHrIrsm;tm;
,HkMunfrI&Sdapjcif;jzifh
EkdifiHpD;yGm;wkd;wufa&;
a&S;½Iaom trsKd;om;
pD;yGm;a&;yHkpHtjzpf ½Ijrif
Ekdkifonf/

zGJUpnf;yHk tajccHOya'\ tcef;(1) EkdifiHawmftajccH
rlrsm;wGif pD;yGm;a&;ESifh
pyfvsOf;í(u) yk'fr 35 wGif EkdifiHawmf
\ pD;yGm;a&;pepfonf
aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepf
jzpfonf/
(c) yk'fr 36? yk'frcGJ(u)wGif
EkdifiHawmfonf trsKd;
om;pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wuf zGHUNzdK;a&;twGuf EkdifiH
awmf? a'oqdkif&m tzGJU
tpnf;rsm;? or0g,r
tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? zufpyf
tzGJUtpnf;rsm;? yk*¾vd
u ponf h pD ; yG m ;a&;
tiftm;pk tm;vHk;udk
pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief;rsm; wGif yg0ifaqmif&GufcGifh
jyKonf/
(*) yk'fr 36? yk'frcGJ(c)ü
EkdifiHawmfonf pD;yGm;a&;
vkyfief;rsm;wGif w&m;
ojzifh ,SOfNydKifjcif;udk
ysufjym;ap&ef wpfOD;
wpfa,mufujzpfap?
tpktzGJUujzpfap vuf
0g;BuD;tkyfaqmif&GufrI
okdYr[kwf aps;upm;rIjyK
jcif;jzifh trsm;jynfolwkdY
\ tusKd;pD;yGm; xdckduf
epfemapjcif;rS wm;qD;
umuG,frnf/
(C)yk'fr 36? yk'frcGJ(*)ü
EkdifiHawmfonf trsm;
jynfolwkdY\ aexkdifrI
tqifhtwef; jr§ifhwif
a&;ESifh taxGaxGt&if;
tES;D rsm;wk;d wufzUHG NzKd ;a&;
udk a&S;½Iaqmif&Gufrnf/
(i) yk'fr 36? yk'frcGJ (C) ü
EkdifiHawmfonf pD;yGm;a&;
qkdif&m vkyfief;rsm;udk
EkdifiHykdifodrf;,ljcif; rjyK/
(p) yk'fr 36? yk'frcGJ (i)ü
EkdifiHawmfonf w&m;0if
xkwaf 0xm;aomaiGaMu;
udk w&m;r0if aiGaMu;
tjzpf owfrSwfjcif; rjyK
[k rlcsNyD;jzpfonf/
14 tykdif; (4) ygvDref\ ta&;ay:umvESifhywfouf yk'fr 410rS yk'fr 432 xd 1947ESi1hf 974ckEpS t
f ajccH
tmPmrsm; tcef;yk'fr í ]]EdkifiHawmf aumifpDonf ta&;ay:umvqkdif&mjy|mef; Oya'rsm;wGif ta&;ay:
94wGif ]](1)ppfaMumifh jzpf EkdifiHwpf0ef;vHk;ü ta&;ay: csufrsm;ESifh pyfvsOf;í tao; tajctaeMuHKonfh tcg
ap? EkdifiHwGif; qlylrI tajctae ay:aygufaevQif pdwftajccH&rnfh rl (23) &yf aqmif&Guf&rnfh rlrsm;yg&Sd
aMumifhjzpfap?jynfaxmifpk ta&;ay: tajctaeudk aMu csrSwfNyD;jzpfonf/ ta&;ay: aomfvnf; ,if;rlrsm;\
Ekid if \
H wnfwrhH u
I t
kd EÅ&m,f nmí jynfolUvTwfawmf tajctaeudk Ekid if aH wmfor®w jynfhpHkvHkavmufrIr&Sdjcif;?
jzpfaptHhaom
txl; tpnf;ta0; ac:,lusi;f y& u trsKd;om;umuG,fa&;ESifh tmPmykdifrsm;\ ajz&Sif;
ta&;wBuD; tajctae rnf/ ,if;tpnf;ta0;okdY vHkjcHKa&;aumifpDESifhnd§EIdif;NyD; aqmif&GufrI aES;auG;jcif;?
jzpfay:aeNy[
D v
k nf;aumif;? tpnf;ta0; xajrmufa&; Oya'uJhokdY tmPmwnfonfh rxufjrufjcif;? qHk;jzwf
jynfaxmifpkudk xdckdufae twGuf owfrSwfxm;aom trdefYxkwfjyefí ta&;tay: vkyfaqmifyHk rSm;,Gif;jcif;
aompD;yGm;a&;ta&;wBuD; jynfolUvTwfawmf ukd,fpm; tajctae aMunmEkid o
f nf/ wkdYaMumifh 1948-49
tajctaeonfjynfaxmif vS,fOD;a& rwufa&mufEkdif ,if;aMunmcsufü ta&;ay: (&efukefajrmufykdif; tpkd;&
pkEkdifiH\wpfpdwfwpfa'oü vQifatmufygtwkdif; aqmif tajctaetusKd;oufa&muf [kac:wGifaom umv)?
ay:aygufaeNyD[lí aomf &GufcGifh&Sdonfonfh e,fajra'oESifh tcsdef 1958-59 (zqyvtuJG
vnf;aumif; EkdifiHawmf (1) EkdifiHawmfaumifpD 0efBuD; umvwkdYudk owfrSwfazmfjy& aMumifh vlolvufeufpk
or®wu (þtajccH Oya'
tzJUG ? jynfoUl w&m;olBu;D rnf/ vkdtyfygu ta&;ay: Muonfh cufzG,f&,fMuHK
vufeufu,f
wGif ta&;wBuD; aMunm
tzGJU?
jynfolUOya' tajctae

76-10 (D).indd 10

tajccHrlrsm;wGif ]]EkdifiHawmf
pD;yGm;a&;pepfonf qdk&S,f
vpfpD;yGm;a&;pepfjzpfonf}}
[k azmfjyxm;onf/ ]]EkdfifiH
awmf o nf Ek d i f i H t wG i f ; &S d
ukefxkwft&if;tESD;rsm;ukd
jynfoyl ikd f rvkyEf idk af o;onf
ukd or0g,rydkifvkyf&onf}}?
]]EkdifiHawmfonf qdk&S,fvpf
pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk rxdcdkuf
aom wdkif;&if;om; yk*¾vdu
ydkifqdkifvkyfudkifrIudk cGifhjyKEkdif
onf}} [lívnf; pD;yGm;a&;
rl0g'rsm;csrSwfay;cJhonf/

(1) 1947 ckESpf
(2) 1974 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;tkyfcsKyfyHk
zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'
tajccHOya'
csuf[k ñTef;xm;aom)
tusKd;aqmif tzGJU?
aMunmcsuf w pf & yf
jynfolvkyfief;ppfaq;
xkwfjyefcJhaom yk'fr 92
a&;tzJUG wkpYd ak ygif;í jynf
wGif rnfokdYyif qkdxm;
olUvTwfawmf\ vkyfief;
apumrl jynfe,f Oya'jyK
wm0efrsm;udk aqmif&Guf
pm&if;wGif oD;jcm;a&wGuf
&rnf/
azmfjyxm;aom udpöwpf (2) jynfolYvTwfawmftpnf;
ckESifh pyfvsOf;í jynfe,f
ta0; ac:,lusif;y&ef
wpfe,fü aomfvnf;
tajctaeay;vQif ay;
aumif;? jynfe,fwpfpdwf
csif; jynfolUvTwfawmf
wpfa'otwGuf aomf
tpnf;ta0;udk ac:,l
vnf;aumif; Oya'rsm;udk
usif;yum jynfolYvTwf
jyK&efygvDrefwGif tmPm
awmf\ ukd,fpm;aqmif
&Gufcsufrsm;udk wifjyí
&S&d rnf}} [k azmfjyxm;onf/
ta&;ay:umv jy|mef;
twnfjyKcsuf,l&rnf}}
csufyif jzpfonf/
[k azmfjyyg&Sdonf/

15 wnfhrwfaom Mum;aea&;
[laom EkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'
udk usifhoHk;onf/
yk'fr 211-jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEkdifiHawmfonf ppf
rufuEkd idk if aH wmf0g'\ vuf
eufozG,f toHk;rjyK? pGefY
y,fonf/ xkdYjyif EkdifiHjcm;
ESihf qufq&H mü jynfaxmif
tcsif;csif;Oya'\oabm
w&m;rsm;udk usifhpOfrsm;
tjzpf vku
d ef mvufco
H nf/
yk'fr 212- jynfaxmifpk
jrefrmEdik if o
H nf jynfaxmif
tcsif;csif;w&m;rQwrIESifh
EkdifiHwumwkdY apmifha&Smuf
tyfaom usifh0wfodu©m
wkdYudk tajccHí urÇmhNidrf;
csrf;a&;udkvnf;aumif;?
EkdifiHwumwkdYESifh rdwf0wf
rysuf aygif;zufaqmif&u
G f
a&;udkvnf;aumif; a&S;½I
rnf[í
l cdik Nf raJ om t"d|mef
udk jyKonf/

]]EkdifiHawmfonf vGwfvyf
aom EkdifiHjcm;a&;0g'udk
tpOfrjywf usifhoHk;í urÇmh
Nidrf;csrf;a&;ESifh EkdifiHtcsif;
csif;rdwf0wfrysuf aygif;zuf
qufqHa&;udk a&S;½Ionf/
EkdifiHtcsif;csif; Nidrf;csrf;pGm
twl,SOfwGJaexkdifa&;rlrsm;
udk apmifhxdef;onf}}[lí
Mum;ae? bufrvkduf EkdifiH
jcm;a&;rl0g'udk vGwfvyfpGm
usio
hf ;kH aMumif; azmfjycJo
h nf/

(3) 2008 ckESpf
zGJUpnf;yHktajccHOya'

rSwfcsuf

tusKd;oufa&mufonfh pkHnDpGmeJYumv)?1962 (zuf
e,fajra'oü aexkid Mf uaom '&,f &Spjf ynfe,frv
l yI &f mS ;rI
EkdifiHom;rsm;\ rlvtcGifh aMumifh jynfaxmifpkBuD;
ta&;wpf&yfukd
jzpfap? tpdwfpdwf uGJrnfhumv)?
wpf&yfxufykdí
jzpfap 1988(Oya'pkd;rkd;rIysufjym;?
vkdtyfovkd uefYowfEkdif tpkd;&vkyfief;rsm; raqmif
onf? &yfqkdif;Ekdifonf/ &GufEkdifatmifwkdif;ql jynf
,if;trdefYxkwfjyefonfhaeY rS zsuq
f yl rl u
I mv)wkw
Yd iG f wyf
&ufaygif;
(60)twGif; rawmfuEkdifiHESifh jynfol
jynfaxmifpkvTwfawmfokdYwif wkt
Yd m;umuG,af pmifah &Smuf
jytwnfjyKcsuf,l&rnf/
cJh&onf/ 1948-49 wGif
EkdifiHawmf\ tcsKyftjcm
wyfrawmfuaomif;use;f rINzKd
tmPmudk qlylaomif;usef;rI?
tMurf;zufrIESifht"r® enf; cGJNyD; zqyv tpkd;&tm;
rsm;jzifh &,laqmif&Gufjcif;? tmPm qufvufwnfNrJ
tm;xkwfjcif;aMumifh jynf apcJhonf/1958-59-1960
axmifpkNydKuJJGaprnfh wkdif; jynfhESpfrsm;wGif wyfrawmf
h pk;d &u)tmPm
&if;om;pnf;vHk; nDñGwfrI (tdraf pmift
NydKuGJaprnfh
okdYr[kwf &0efBuD;csKyf\ arwåm&yfcH
tcsKyftjcmtmPm vuf csuft& EkdifiHwm0ef0if,l&
vGwfqHk;½IH;aprnfh ta&;ay: NyD;wnfNidrfat;csrf;vHkjcHKrI
tajctae ay:aygufvQif udktav;xm; aqmif&Guf
okdYr[kwf ay:ayguf&ef vHk um vGwfvyfí rQwaom
avmufaom taMumif; a&G;aumufyGJ usif;yay;cJh
ta&;&SdvQifEkdifiHawmfor®w onf/ tEkdif&aom oefY
onf trsKd;om;umuG,fa&; &Sif;zqyv (yxp) tpkd;&
ESifh vHkjcHKa&;aumifpDESifh nd§ vuf EkdifiHjyefvTJay;cJhonf/
EIdif;NyD; Oya'uJhokdY tmPm 1962ckESpfESifh 1988ckESpf
wnfonfh trdefYxkwfjyefí ta&;ay:jyóemrsm;(zuf
ta&;ay:tajctae tusKd; '&,frlvIyf&Sm;rIESifh 1988
oufa&mufonfh e,fajr ckESpfqlylrI) rsm;aMumifh
a'oonfEkdifiHwpf0ef;vHk; wyfrawmfu EkdifiHrNydKuGJ
jzpfaMumif;ESifh tcsdefumv atmif trsKd;om;a&;wm0ef
owfrw
S cf suo
f nf trdex
Yf w
k f tjzpf EkdifiHwm0ef0if,lcJh
jyefonfhaeYrS wpfESpftxdjzpf &onf/
aMumif; azmfjy&rnfjzpfonf/ 2008ckESpf zGJUpnf;yHktajccH
EkdifiHawmfor®wonf Oya'wGicf idk rf maomtajccH
EkdifiHawmftwGif; rlvtajc Oya'rlrsm;t&? EkdifiHawmf
taeokdY jyefa&mufapjcif;iSm or®w\wm0efay;tyfcsuf
vkdtyfonfh ta&;,laqmif t&omta&;ay: tajc
&GufrIrsm;jyKEkdif&efwyfrawmf taeMuHKvQif wyfrawmf
umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyftm; u tcsdefumvowfrSwf
EkdifiHawmfOya'jyKa&;? tkyf csufjzifh 0ifa&mufajz&Sif;
csKyfa&;ESifh w&m;pD&ifa&; wm0ef,Nl y;D Ekid if aH wmfor®w
tmPmrsm;vTJtyfaMumif; xH EkdifiHwm0efrsm; jyef
aMunm&rnfjzpfonf/
vnfvTJtyf&ef jynfhpHkaom
umuG,fa&;OD;pD;csKyfu rlrsm; yg&Sdonf/
ay;tyfxm;aom wm0ef
ausyGefatmif aqmif&GufNyD;
aomtcg EkdifiHawmfor®wxH
tmPm&yfrsm; jyefvnfay;
tyf&rnfponfjzift
h a&;ay:
tajctaeudk ausmfvGefonf
txd wyfrawmfudk wm0efvTJ
tyfNy;D tajctaewnfNird o
f nf
ESifh EkdifiHawmfor®wu rlv
wm0efjyefvnfxrf;aqmif
rnfjzpfonf/
EkdifiHjcm;a&;0g'ESifhpyfvsOf;
onfh tajccH&rnfh rlrsm;
tjzpf(u) yk'fr 41wGif EkdifiHawmf
onf vGwfvyfwuf<u
NyD; bufrvkdufaom
EkdifiHjcm;a&;0g'udk usifh
oHk;onf/ urÇmhNidrf;csrf;
a&;ESifh EkdifiHtcsif;csif;
rdwf0wfrysuf aygif;
zufqufqHa&;udk a&S;
½Ionf/ EkdifiHtcsif;csif;
Nidrf;csrf;pGm twl,SOf
wGJaexkdifa&;rlrsm;udk
apmifhxdef;onf/
(c) yk'fr 41? yk'frcGJ (u)
wGif EkdifiHawmfonf
rnfonfhEkdifiHudkrS pwif
usL;ausmfwkdufckduf
jcif;rjyK/
(*) yk'fr 41? yk'frcGJ(c) wGif
EkdifiHawmftwGif; rnf
onfhEkdifiHjcm;wyfzGJUudkrQ
wyfcscGifh rjyK[lí
jy|mef;xm;onf/

EkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'ESifh ywf
oufí jrefrmEkdifiHüa&;qGJ
usifhoHk;aom tajccH
Oya'wkdif;rSmyif bufr
vkdufEkdifiHjcm;a&; rl0g'?
EkdifiHtm;vHk;ESifh cspfMunf
pGmqufqHa&;rl0g'udk cH,l
usifhoHk;aMumif; awGUEkdif
onf/
1974 ckESpf tajccH
Oya'ESifh a&;qGJ&rnfh
tajccHOya'wGif Nidrf;csrf;
pGm twl,OS w
f JG aexkid af &;
rlBu;D (5)&yfukd twdtvif;
jy|mef;usifhoHk; Muonf/
2008ckESpftajccHOya'
wGif jrefrmurnfonfEh idk if H
udkrSpwifrusL;ausmf? EkdifiH
awmftwGif; rnfonhf
EkdifiHjcm;wyfzGJUudkrQ wyfcs
cGifhrjyK[k rlcsxm;jcif;jzifh
jrefrmh EkdifiHjcm;a&;rl0g'udk
ydkifEkdifckdifrm t"dyÜm,f
jynfh0apayonf/
pmrsufESm (19) okdY

10/26/2013 5:10:48 PM