P. 1
Under the Bolshevik Uniform Vladmir Lazarevski 1935 318pgs POL BOL

Under the Bolshevik Uniform Vladmir Lazarevski 1935 318pgs POL BOL

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The Fall of The American Empire
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---
BOLSHEVIKACTION
IN MORALS
The
political sections [says this
newspaper] are progressively
enlistingthe assistance
oflargernumbersofschoolchildren and
ofthechildrenofthe kolkhozes
inthecampaignforthedefenceof
thesocialistharvest.
Thechildrenlearncommunismfrom the
look-outs "1 ofthe kolkhozes,
theyabsorbthecommunistmorality
whileparticipatinginthenoblelabourofmillions
ofworkers. . . .
Thesovietpressexalts
" theexploitsofthepioneers
enrolledinthesedetachments
. "Thus SocialistAgricul-
ture
(MarchI2th,1 934)praisesthesplendidinitiativeof
littleOlgaBalandina,amemberofthesegroupsof
Redpioneers
. Thischildofcommunismmadeareport
totheauthoritiesinwhich "sherevealedthecriminal
activitiesoftheadministrationoftheOtradaKolkhoze
(intheSpasskydistrictoftheTartarrepublic)
. "The
directorsofthis kolkhoze
weresystematicallystealing
publicgoods,mutilatinghorsesandforgingdocuments
.
Prominentamongthecriminalsmentionedinthis
reportwaslittleOlga'sownfather
.
Veryfrequentlyarrestsaremadebythepioneers
themselves,sometimesbysmallgirlsoftwelveyearsold,
as wemayreadin
ForCommunistInstruction
( 1
933,
No. 1 82)
. Inthatsameissuewefindthestatementof
ComradeSteinholtz,headofthepoliticalsectionof
NorthernCaucasus,whoaffirmsthatthearrestof
criminalsbyschoolchildrenis"apracticebothsound
andindispensablefromtheeducationalpointofview. "
Welearnalso,fromthesamepaper(August9th,
1 933),
thatintheCentralRegion, 1 27
brigadesofstormtroops
arecomposedofschoolchildrenofallages ; thatisto
say,ofeightyearsoldandupward.
Itisworthmentioningthatitwasacongressofthese
pioneersthatM. EdouardHerriotattendedatRostov
duringhisvisittotheU . S. S. R
. intheautumnof
1 933-
I
Postserectedinthefieldswhich serveaslook-outsforthe
discoveryofthosewhostealthecorn .
1 71
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
WeknowthattheFrenchtravellerwaxedenthusiastic
overthespectacleoffourthousandchildspies .
Itmayindeedbesaidthattheessentialaimofsoviet
educationistoinculcateintotheheartsofchildrenthat
hardnessandhatredwhicharesuchpreciousandneces-
saryqualitiesinthosewhoaretobethefuture
"
build-
ers "
ofcommunism
. Theseedssownbybolshevism
inthemindsofchildrenhavealreadyshownsignsof
vigorousgrowth,buttheplantisfarfromfulfillingthe
expectationsofthesowerswho,aswillbeseeninalater
chapter,arebeginningtoquailbeforethespiritwhich
theyhavethemselvesdeveloped.
Iv
FamilyLife
ForthecitizenoftheU . S. S. R. , afflictedbysomuch
moralandmaterialsuffering,hishomeshouldatleast
bearefugeinwhichtorecoverhisbalanceandenjoy
repose
. Buteversinceitsinaugurationcommunismhas
wagedperseveringandmercilesswarfareagainstfamily
life.
Immediatelyaftertheadventofbolshevismthedoc-
trineoflicenceintherelationsbetweenthetwosexes
wasnoisilyproclaimed. Itfoundmanyadherents,
bothmaleandfemale; somewereseentoparadethe
streetscladonlyinaribandbearingtheinscription
"Downwith Shame"! In certainplacesthe
"socializationofwomen "
wasdecreedbylocal
authorities,andthisdecreewasfollowedbyawaveof
individualandcollectiverapes. Theseverepunish-
mentsinflictedupontheculpritsprovedentirelyin-
efficacious
. Rapeisstillacommonoffence,andina
generalway,conditionsoflifeundertheSovietscontinue
1 72
BOLSHEVIK ACTION IN MORALS
toexerciseadisastrousinfluenceuponpublicmorals
.
AmongtheYoungCommuniststhereisauniversal
tendencytoapplywhatmaybetermed "
theglassof
watertheory" ; anelegantmetaphorlaunchedbya
sovietauthorasasimiletodenote "theunimportance
ofthesexualact. "
Forsometimepastaspontaneousandsalutary
reactionhasoccurredinthisconnectionamongthe
youthofthecountry. Atleast, we
areassuredofthis
factbypersonswhohaverecentlyvisitedtheU . S. S. R.
andbycertainstatementsgleanedfromthesovietpress .
Butevenso,thisreaction,intheconditionsoflifeen-
genderedbybolshevism,assumesbrutalandbarbarous
aspects. The
TruthoftheComsomol (September1 2th,
1 934)quotedthecaseoftheyoungCommunistwoman,
Nesterova,thebestemergencyoperativeoftheZelen-
odolskfactoryandleaderofadetachmentofRed
pioneers. Thestoryinitselfiscommonplace
. This
factoryhandhadformedaunionwithayoungelec-
tricianwhoshortlyafterwardslefther
; abouttogive
birthtoachildtheyounggirlflungherselfinfrontofa
trainandwaskilled
. Whatisinterestingisthefact
thattheideaofsuicidewasnotonlysuggestedbut
actuallyforceduponNesterovabyhercomradesand
byherownsister,alsoaYoungCommunist,whohad
unitedtotrackherdownpitilessly,overwhelmingthe
unhappygirlwithobscenejestsandabuseandcon-
vincingherthatdeathwasforhertheonlymeansof
escapefrom "
shame. "
Marriage,intheeyesofthelaw,isequivalentto
concubinage,sincethemerewishofeitherpartyis
sufficienttodissolveit . Isitsurprisingthatitshould
notbeoflongduration
? Fromthreetosixmonthsis
theaveragedisclosedbyinvestigationsmadeatvarious
factories. Popularterminology,moreover,doesnot
I73
UNDERTHEBOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
failtoemphasizethe,difference
: peopledonotspeak
of"marriage"butof"registration
. "
Herearenumberscorrespondingtotheaggregate
populationofMoscow :
accordingtotheIzvestia ofthe
4thofJuly,1 935,amongtenthousandinhabitantsof
thecitytherewere,in1 934,onehundredandtwenty-
fivemarriages(ofwhicho-3percentweresanctifiedby
religiousrites) ;
loomarriagesproduced,in
1 934,37
divorces
. Thepercentageishigherthisyear,forin
March1 935,fromloomarriagesensued
44. 3
divorces.
Theconditionsofsovietlifeengendermanyconjugal
tragedies,butperhapsthemosttragicfactorofthese
liesinthattheyhavelosttheirpoignancyintheeyes
evenofthosewhomtheyconcern . Wemayinstancea
memberoftheYoungCommunistswho,havingkilled
hiswife,quietlyexplainedtothecourtthatshehad
wormedherwayintotheComsomolanddenounced
himasthe"sonofa
koulak. " Washenottherefore
justifiedindefendinghishonourasaCommunist?
Obviouslyinthemajorityofcasesitisthewomanwho
isthechiefsufferer
. Inthisconnectionthereismuch
ofinterestintheratherincoherentstatement,whichis
howeverremarkableinitssincerity,madebyawoman
operativetothePartyCommittee.
IhavecohabitedwithamemberoftheParty
. Itrulylovedhim.
ButhewouldputmeinaclinicwhenIwasabouttohaveachild
andduringthattimehewouldsleepwithotherwomen
. Having
alreadythreewomen,hehasnowfoundafourth.
HowcanIdo
myworkinsuchcircumstances? Ihavebeenamemberofthe
Partyforelevenyears. Iamalwaysemployedonpoliticalwork,
myhealthisnotrobust,andnowthemisfortunesofmylifebid
fairtodestroymyconstitutionwhileIamstillyoung.
Iamrelatingallthisbecausemineisnotanunusualcase. It
occursconstantly.
Communisthusbandsbehaveinarevolting
manner ;
theykeepseveralwomenandwishtoincurnoobligations
withregardtoanyofthem.
ThisappealwasquotedinastatementbyComrade
1 74
BOLSHEVIK ACTION
IN MORALS
Yaroslavsky,whoseverelycriticizedthecomplaintsmade
bythiswoman : "
ItisnopartofatrueCommunist's
principlestoregardprivatelifeasanessentialmatter
whilethePartyhastoconsidersuchproblemsandunder-
takingsasindustrialization,collectivizationandthe
socialiststructureofthecountry
. Lethertakeherself
offandattendtoherhealth !"
Hereagain,fromamonghundreds,isanotherinstance
intheshapeofaletteraddressedtotheEditor
of The
TruthoftheComsomol
byayoungCommunistwoman
handatthe"
Electrostal "factoryintheMoscowregion
(TheTruthoftheComsomol,
September1 2th,
1 934)
Iamtwentyyearsofage ;
Ihavebeenmarriedforoverayear.
Ihadachildwhodiedamonthago .
Idonotliveongoodterms
withmyhusband. . . . Idonotseehimfordaystogether
. . .
sometimeshegoesofffortheentirenight
. WhenItellhimthat
hisfamilyisentitledtosomemeasureofhisattentionhereplies
thatitisimpossible. . .
. Ithenaskmyselfwhetheramember
oftheYoungCommunistsshouldmarryatall
? Thelifewelead
isonlydesignedtomaimusmorallyandisinnowaycalculated
todevelopinustheactivespiritofbuildersofsocialism
. Our
childwasillforalongtimeandisnowdeadbecauseIwascom-
pelledtoleavehimaloneinthehouse. . .
. Allthesecircum-
stanceswillprobablyendindivorce.
ThePressinformsusofthefollowingfacts : 40per
centoftheworkwomenwithchildrenbelongingtothe
factoryDedovskydonotlivewiththeirhusbands
;
" thehusbandsabandontheirchildrenanddeserttheir
wives,"wearetold
(Pravda, IIthofAugust1 935) :
itis
notsurprising,therefore,tolearnthatinMay1 935of
1 50workwomenofthesamefactorywhowerepregnant,
30cametothehospitaltobecomemothersand
1 20
toabort.
InageneralwaytheidealoguesofthePartywere
alwaysbitterlyopposedtowoman,whoinspiteofevery
obstaclealwaysrepresentstheidealofthehome
. The
Anti-ReligiousReview declaredrecently : "
Webeholdin
1 75
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK
UNIFORM
thepersonsofmothers,grandmothersandchildren's
nursesthemostbitterenemiesofatheism . "
Ontheotherhand,assoonasthewoman,asthe
moretimidvessel,bendsherbackbeneaththeburden
ofunderpaidlabour,whilethemancursesitandrejects
it,communismpromptlyflattersthewomanworker,
andpraiseshertotheskies : "Thewomanoperative
bothinfarmlabourandinthefactorieshasgiven
abundantproofofthefoolishnessofcurrentstatements
astothephysiologicalpeculiaritieswhichmustlimit
thefieldoffemaleemployment . . . . "
Verbalflattery,however,coexistswiththeworst
abusesinact,witnessincidentsmentionedalmostdaily
inthePress ; theheadsofthe
kolkhozes imposeonthe
pregnantpeasant-womenthemostdifficultworkwhere-
upontheybringtheirchildrentolifeinthefields
(Izvestia of1 5thofJuly1 935) ; thesamenewspaper
relatesthatapresidentofa kolkhoze obligedtwoyoung
girlswishingtobelongtothe kolkhoze toundergoa
" medicalexamination "toprovethattheywerenot
"dechauched. "
Norarefamilyquarrelsconfinedtothosebetween
marriedpeople
. Theyalsosetchildrenandparentsin
conflict. ThePartydiditsutmosttoweanchildren
fromtheinfluenceofthefamily,whichwasregardedas
"theseatofputrefaction . "
Howfarhavetheirefforts
beensuccessful?
Weareherefacedwiththemovingproblemofchild-
hood,movingfromthehumanstandpointbutserious
alsofortheSovietGovernment,whichisanxiousto
educateitspupils .
Wehavealreadystudiedthepreceptsthatactuate
communisteducation. Itremainsforustoglanceat
theeffectsoftheirapplication
.
Muchhasbeenwrittenwithregardtothedeserted
1 76
BOLSHEVIK ACTION
IN MORALS
children in the U. S. S. R. ,
and this phenomenon is
indeedonesoatrociousthattheunemploymentand
povertyinWesterncountriespalebeforeit
. In1 923,
ComradeKroupskaiaestimatedtheirnumberastwo
millions,andtheevilpersiststothisday
! Ofcourse,
wearenottakingintoconsiderationtheviewsofcertain
amongthecourtiersoftheregimewho,onthecontrary,
usetheirgaudiestcolourswithwhichtopaintand
disguisethisterribleblemishandpresentitasanother
glorioussubjectforpropaganda
. Inwhatmanner?
LetuslistentoGorkyinhisreview OurVictories
Ihaveforthefirsttime[hetellsus]beheldthedesertedchildren
intheMoscowdispensary
. Broughttherebythemilitia,cladin
sordidrags,theirfacesbedaubedwithmud,listless,nervy
. They
appearedill,tortured,trampleddownbyapitilessexistence. . . .
Itwasstrangetoseethemagainanhourortwolater,washed,
clean,strongandasthoughcastinbronze
. . . nearlyallthe
youngstersappearedtobeinexcellenthealth,sturdyandupright
. .
Suchatransformation,accomplishedbeitnotedinan
hour'stime,maywellbetermeda "victory "! 1
TherehasbeenpublishedintheU . S. S. R. an
"AlmanacofDesertedChildren"where,inproseand
verse,wemayreadofthehelpfulcollaborationafforded
bytheselittleonestotheexecutionofthevarious
"plans. "Norhastheobjectofthepublicationbeen
leftindoubt : "OurAlmanacisthebestreplyto
thosemeddlingbourgeoisoftheWesterncountrieswho
revelinthehorrorsofcriminologyandinthesufferings
ofdesertedchildren. SuchanAlmanacisonlypossible
inourepochandinoursovietcountry. "
1 GorkyhavingassumedthepartoflackeytoStalin,exaltshis
regimewithsomuchexaggerationthatStalinhimselforderedhim
tomoderatehistransportsandtoinsertafewcriticismsamong
the"conquests. "Itisperhapsofinteresttonotethatthirtyyears
ago,whenGorkywasarrestedatNijni-Novgorod,forprovocation
torevoltamongtheworkmen,theTzarsenthisownaide-de-camp
toobtainfromthejudicialauthoritiestheliberationofthewriter
.
1 77

M
UNDER
THE BOLSHEVIK
UNIFORM
Suchisthelanguageofthesesinistersovietclowns,
headedbyGorky
. Letusnowstudytherealityasit
isdescribedinthe
RedEveningGazetteofApril
28th, 1
935
FromeverypartofLeningrad,
homelesspersons,andamong
themchildren,maketheirwaynightlytowards
therailwaystations
.
Theyfindshelterthereinrailwaytrucksstanding
onsidings.
Theretheyspendthenightdrinking
anddividingthefruitsof
pillageandtheft
. Theadultmalefactorssparethoseplacesthat
haveshelteredthembutthechildren
actverydifferently.
These
younghooliganslight
bonfires,breakwindows'and
stealand
destroyallthattheycanlaytheirhands
on. Therailwayofficials
gotherounds,arrestingprostitutes
andtheirclients,peoplewith-
outpapers,vagrantsandwastrels,butabove
allandinfargreater
numbers,homelesschildren
. . . .
Buttherearisesayetgraverproblem
. Themorals
ofthesedesertedchildrenaredailytendingtobecome
thoseoftheentireyoungergeneration
. Itissignificant
fromthisstandpointthatforseveralmonthspast,side
bysidewiththeterm "
homelesschildren " thesoviet
presshasadoptedanother,
"childrennotunderany
supervision. "
Weshallquote,chosenfromamongmanyothers,a
seriesofstatementswhichcharacterizethesituationof
childhoodandparticularlyofschoolchildren
; thatisto
say,ofthatcategoryofchildrenwhichitwouldseemis
inthemostfavourablepositioninthematterofsuper-
vision
. Here,tobeginwith,areafewextractswhich
demonstratethearbitrarycruelty
of
theuneducated
peopletowhomisentrustedtheeducationofthechild
inacountrythatpridesitselfparticularlyuponthecare
giventotheyounggeneration. For
CommunistInstruction
(Marchloth,
1 935)
givesthenames of fourmale
teachersinaschoolatBrianskwhosystematically
thrashedtheirpupils,loadingthemwithabuseand
callingthem "
scum,vipers,filth. " For Communist
Instructionin
April 1 935givesthecaseofaschoolmistress
1 78
BOLSHEVIK
ACTION IN MORALS
whothrashedalittlegirlofeightyearsoldsocruelly
thatthechilddiedthreedayslater
. Thesamepaper,
onApril22nd,relatesthestoryofaschoolmasterwho
beatshispupilsdailyandwhohasliterallytortureda
girlpupilinthefifthclass
. Anotherschoolmaster,
accordingtothissamepaper'sissueofMarchloth,
boltedapupilintoacold-storageroom,causingthe
childtofalldangerouslyill
. OnMarchthe1 8thwe
read,stillinthesamecolumns,thestoryofaschoolin
WhiteRussiawherethemastersorganized" banquets
"
withtheirfemalepupils ;
oneofthemastersatthis
school,withthefriendlyassistanceofacolleague,raped
agirlpupilagedfifteen . Labour,
initsissueofApril25th,
1 935,describesthefollowingcase
: "Inamodelschool
atTaschkentthemasters,particularlythoseteaching
physicalculture,wereinthehabitofdebauchingyoung
girls ;
whenagroupoftheseorganizedacomplaint
theymetwithsuchbrutaltreatmentthatoneofthem
committedsuicide. "
Evenmorenumerousaretheincidentsofthesame
natureinwhichtheactorsarethescholars
! Thefts,
brawls,seriousquarrels,drunkennessandattemptsto
corruptmodestyaredailyreportedinthesovietpress,
Wewillgiveonesinglequotationfrom
Izvestia
(March26th)
. Afterhavingreportedtheaccidental
deathofachildofthirteen,killedbyaschoolfellow,
Izvestia goesontosay
Severalpupilshavebeenarrestedinthissameschool,small
"apaches,"habitualthieves
. Foundintheirpossessionwere
pistolsandknivesoftheirownmanufacture
. Thesechildren
drank,smokedandpractisedtheworstlicencewithoutmeeting
withtheslightestinterference
. Theymanufacturedpistolsand
usedthem,notonlyinthecourtyardbutalsoinclassduringlesson
hours.
Wemayalsonotethematterofcollectivebrawls
whichareincreasinginfrequency
. Thus TheTruthof
1 79
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
theComsomol tellsus,onApril23rd,1 935,ofabattle
atYaltainwhichonehundredandfiftyscholarstool
partandwhichlastedfromteno'clockinthemorning
untilfiveo'clockintheafternoon . Thechildrenwere
armedwithknivesandpistolsandfoughtwithsuch
ardourthatpassers-bywereinjured
. Manyofthe
scholarswereseriouslywounded.
Thereisoneverycuriousfactwhichmustbenoted
thisspiritofindisciplinewhichhasdevelopedamon€
thechildrenasaresultofthemoraleinculcatedby
sovieteducation,isnecessarilylevelledagainstthe
existingauthority,andonemayperceivewithamazemen -
thatitisstronglytingedwithacounter-revolutionar3
element. Thesovietpress,viathe Pravda ofFebruar)
25th,1 935,notesthefactthatchildrenaretobehearc
singinginunisoncounter-revolutionaryverseswhile
theyremaininignoranceofsongscomposedtotheglor3
oftheregime. Fromtimetotimeverystrangeincident
occur : For CommunistInstruction relatedinAprilofthi;
yearthatatPetrozavodskagroupofchildrenwere
discoveredstealingmoneyinordertobuyblessedcandle
toburnbeforetheicons
!
TheMoscowpapersare
showingever-increasinganxietywithregardto
" anti•
sovietinfluences " whicharegaininggroundamongthe
children. Thepointtowhichthisanxietyhasdeveloped
notonlyinthepressbutamongthemastersofthe
country,isdemonstratedbythebizarrefactthatthe
people'scommissary,Boubnov,hasapprovedthemotior
passedataparents'meetingwhichtookplaceale
SerpoukhovintheMoscowregionwhichrecommendec
familysupervisionofchildrenasaremedy.
AfterBoubnov,Stalinhimselfapprovedthispointo:
viewsofavourabletothefamily ; atoncethepress
hurriedtochangeface,anditwasopenlydeclaredthat
onlythe"sovietfamily
"
washealthyandstrongwhile
1 8o
BOLSHEVIK ACTION IN MORALS
the " bourgeoisfamily " oftheWest " hasbeenlong
rotten. " If-so,whyshouldtherebeatthesametime
(AugustandSeptember,1 935)questionofmeasuresin
supportofa " normalandhealthysovietfamily
"?
Theprincipalprojectedmeasuresconcerndivorceby
thewishofonepartyonly
. Inthismattertheadminis-
trationwillbeobligedtoadvisethattheconsentof
bothpartiesmustbeobtained,andwillinvitethem
bothtotheRegistrationbureausoastotrytoguarantee
thepaymentofthealimony. Itisalsoproposedto
imprisonthosewhodonotpayalimony ; thislast
decisionarosefromthefactthatin1 934thereweretwo
hundredthousandalimonyclaims(communicatedfrom
MoscowonAugust IIth,1 935) . Thecourtofjustice
willberelieved,butwilltheprisonsbeabletoholdthose
condemnedunderthenewmeasure?
Thesovietregimethusbestowsitsapprovalof
thecultivationofthefamilyspiritinthehopesof
winningoverthechildrentocommunism ; surely
aparadoxicalhope? Bolshevismhassucceededin
destroyingthefoundationsoffamilylife; itmust
surelybeunabletodependuponitasapropforthe
>upportofitsaimsI
And,indeed,themastersatMoscowappeartolook
toamuchmoreradicalremedy. Onthe8thofApril,
1 935,thesovietpaperspublishedadecreewhich,
" with
aviewtotheimmediatesuppressionofcrimeamong
minors,"prescribedtheapplicationtoallyouthful
criminalsfromtheageoftwelveyearsandupwards,of
allclausesofthepenalcode,includingthedeath
sentence. TheMoscowPravda wascynicalenoughto
applaudthisdecisioninitseditorialas " thelawwhich
willcontributetothebettereducationandtheprotection
ifyouth !"Where,then,arethepowerful"
Young
communists" withtheir " rhythmoflabour,"with
1 81
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
theirinnumerable
"culturalinitiatives "? Whereare
the"
modelchildren'shomes,"the "colonies"installer
informerconventsofwhichsovietpropagandahadsc
persistentlyboastedabroad?
Manycouldanswerthisquestion
. Duringtheyear:
1 931 -2ninethousandpupilsescapedfromthesovie
-
" children'shome" (Izvestia,July
23rd,1 935) . Iti;
truethatthisnumberisnotnewastheCommissionfoi
PublicInstructiondoesnotpossessmorerecentones
Buthereisanexamplewhichillustratesthesituatior
to-day : attheendofthemonthof
July 1 935,the
CommunistInstruction
relatesthefollowingcase : 1 4(
childrenescapedtogetherfromthe
"colony " Leushin.
sky,whichwasinstalledinaformerconvent(50okm
fromPetrograd) ;
sothat 1 40 pupilsoutof250preferrec
forestlifetothe "
cares " ofthesoviethomes. Th(
superintendentsopenedarealchaseagainstthefugitive:
andmanywerewounded
. Acommissionofinquir`
sentdownfromLeningradafterthisincidentapprover
thecriminalconductoftheadministration ; thecom-
missiondecided,probably,thatitwasjustthecaset<
whichtoapplythedecreeofthe7thofApril
.
NotlongagotheWesterncountrieswereabletosei
asovietfilmentitled
TheRoadofLife, whichdisplayec
thebenefitssaidtoaccruetotheyoungergeneratioi
underthesovietregime
. Wearenowabletoseetha
bolshevisminrealitysetschildren'sfeetontheroado
deathbyinculcatinginthemamoraldepravitythati
toendincapitalpunishment
.
V
ADiscussiononHappiness
OntheI5thofOctober1 934,oneofthechieforgan
oftheFrenchRadicalParty,the Toulouse Telegram
1 82
BOLSHEVIK ACTION IN MORALS
publishedasaneditorialundertheheading, "Reflec-
tionsuponaVisittoRussia,"anarticlebyProfessor
RaoulLabry,whohadjustreturnedfromastayin
Petrograd
. Thesubjectofhisarticleandthemanner
ofitstreatmentareverymaterialtotheproblemwhich
wearenowabouttodiscuss
. ButwewillallowMonsieur
Labrytointroducethisprobleminhisownwords .
Iwished[sayshe],withinoneofthestrongholdsofbolshevism,
therewhereitsactionenjoyedtheutmostsecurity,tostudysome
ofthecharacteristicsofthenewlifewhichithasdesiredtocreate
Ihopedtobeabletojudgebycertainmannersofthinking,
offeelingandofjudging,whatmightbetheinteriorconstruction
ofsocialismwhichcorrespondedtoitsexteriorstructure,notamong
theapostlesandtheeliteofitsfollowers,butamongthemasses
ofitsservants. Thispsychologicalproblemis,inpointoffact,the
onlyonethatarisesinconnectionwithSovietRussia . Uponits
solutiondependsnotonlythereplywhichmustsettlethequestion
astowhetherthedictatorshipoftheproletariatisgenerallyaccept-
abletothemassesorisonlythesubjectofatemporaryresignation
onthepartofthemajority,butalsowhatmustbeourjudgment
withregardtothegospelofhumanitywhichitproclaims . For
itisundeniablethatanypowerfulgovernmentcanhackandslice
atthenationalbody,rationalizing,planingandtrimmingit . And
afterwards?Whatwillbetheoutcomeofsuchmanipulation,
howeverperfected,unlessitbringstotheindividualafreedomof
hisentirebeing,anincreaseofallhispowersoratanyrateasure
hopeofsuchattainment ? Ithereforefoundthepeopleofthe
U. S. S. R. verymuchmoreinterestingthananyotherstudy
. I
didnotgotheretoobservethesceneryofthedrama,butinorder
tolistentotheactorsandtofollowtheirperformancewithout
theinterventionofanyofficialguide. Imayaswellsayatonce
thatIwasquiteunabletosucceedinthisaim-Iwasnotper-
mittedtoapproachpersonsbutonlytoseetheirsettings .
Aftertellingusthathehadspenthischildhoodand
youthinPetrograd,andthatduringhisstayinLeningrad
hewasabletomoveaboutwithoutdifficulty,thewriter
proceedswithhis "
reflections "
HowdiditcometopassthatbeingfamiliarwiththeRussian
languageandmymovementsinnowayinterferedwith,Iwas
yetquiteunabletoobtainanycontactwiththelivesofthosewho
1 83
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
surroundedme? ThefactisthatIwasnotabletospeakto
anyoneortomakemywayintoanyhousehold. Iexchanged
onlyafewverycasualremarkswiththeservantsofmyhotel,the
employeesonthetramsandinthelibraries. Notoneofthem
exhibitedtheslightestdesiretoengageinconversation . Ishould
neverhaveconversedatall,duringtheentirecourseofmyvisit,
ifmyworkhadnotledtomyquestioningafewRussianprofessors
andscholars. Buteventhenourdiscussionswerestrictlyconfined
tosuchpurelyscientifictopicsasareoutsidetimeandspace
. It
wasnotgivenmetohearasinglewordspokenwhichcouldthrow
anylightuponpresent-dayexistence. Notoneof
my interlocutors
invitedmetovisithiminhishome,notoneofthemcametovisit
meinmyhotel
. Wemetonlybetweentwodoorsandnever
withoutawitness
. PerhapsthegreatestdifferencethatIremarked
layintheUniversityasitusedtobeandasitnowis. Their
willingnesstoassistmewashoweverquiteunaltered. Inthe
streetsIwasalwayscompletelyaloneamongthethrongsofpeople,
whopassedtoandfro. EverymorningIreadthenewspapers
surroundedbysomethirtycompanions . NeverdidIhearone
ofthemsayawordtoanyofhisneighbours. Mouthsandfaces
alikeremainedclosed. . . . Never,inanycountry,haveIlived
insuchastiflingatmosphereofmistrust,ofsuspicionandofterror.
Russiato-dayhasatanyratelostsomeofherformercharacter-
istics ; herhospitablekindliness,hersimplicitywhichsoeasily
madeyouherfriend ; hertrustfulnesswhichsoeasilyledtoper-
sonalconfidences ; thissociabilityhasvanishedinanageofiron .
MonsieurLabryconcludesbysaying
Itmaythusbeseenthatnosearchingordecisiveinvestigation
intotheinnerlifeofRussiacanbeaccomplished. . . . This
country,whoselanguageIhavespentmylifeinstudyingtogether
withitsliterature,itshistoryanditsideas,hasbecomeaclosed
booktomebyreasonofrevolutionaryupheavals . Wecanknow
ofitonlysomuchasitsmasterschoosetotellus.
Arenottheseverysignificantconclusions,ascoming
fromthepenofaprofoundstudentofRussiaanda
memberoftheleft-handparty
? Theycertainlypresent
acontrasttothestatementsofMonsieurHerriot,the
leaderofthatsamepoliticalparty. Butitmustbe
rememberedthatMonsieurHerriothadneverknown
RussiabeforetheRevolution,heisignorantofthe
1 84
BOLSHEVIK ACTION IN MORALS
Russianlanguageandspentonlyafewdaysinthe
U. S. S. R. ,
wherehewascontinuouslyfeted,surrounded,
accompaniedandguided
.
ThetestimonygivenbyMonsieurLabry,inwhich
wecanperceivethefrankandconscientiousspiritof
thetruescholar,clearlyshowsushowlittlecredence
canbegiventothe " impressions "offoreigntravellers
undertheauspicesofthesoviettouristicenterprises.
Butthescopeofhis
"reflections"farexceedsthis
aspect.
Prudent,scrupulous,hedoesnotpretendto
solvetheproblemwhichisengagingourattentionand
which,touseMonsieurLabry'swordsoncemore,may
thusbesummarized,whetherornothesovietregime
" bringstotheindividualafreedomofhisentirebeing,
anincreaseofallhispowers,or,atanyrate,asure
hopeofsuchattainment
. "Wemayputitmore
brieflyandsaythatitisaquestionofhappiness .
MonsieurLabryrefusestoconstitutehimselfajudge,
butitwouldseemthatheoffersus,unintentionally,the
keyoftheproblemwhenheenunciatesthiseloquent
paradox : thecompulsory "collectivization
" oflifeas
practisedbytheCommunistGovernmenthaskilled
spontaneoussociabilitywhichwasanaturalcharacter-
isticoftheRussianpeople. Itthereforeonlyremains
forustodevelophisjudgment,confirmingitand
explainingitbyconcretefacts.
Suchfactsarenotfartoseek
. MonsieurLabry
writes : "Wecanknowofthiscountryonlysomuchas
itsmasterschoosetotellus. " Buttothesewordsshould
beaddedthefollowing :
orthatwhichtheyseethem-
selvescompelledtorevealsolongastheyholdtothe
utilityofthemethodof"self-criticism" whichis
amongthemthereciprocalmeansofcontrolofadminis-
trationsorpersons.
Letusnowstudytheseconcretefacts .
Wehave
1 85
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
alreadyquotedacertainnumberinourattempttc
demonstratetheconditionsinpresent-dayRussiaof
humanthought,religiousbelief,science,literatureand
thearts ; wehavealsotriedtooutlineapictureo:
familyrelations. Itwillthereforebesufficientforour
presentpurposeifweevokeafewaspectsofdailylife,
ofthosedetailsofexistencewhichplaysolargeapare
inthe "moralclimate" ofacountry.
Tobeginwiththehousingconditions . Rarearethe
instanceswhereafamilycanhopetooccupyanentire
apartment ; gopercent,atthelowestestimate,ofthe
populationofthetownsoccupy"sovietapartments . '
Inthesethelawassignstoeachoccupantastrictly
limitedsuperficialarea.
InMoscowthisareai ;
technicallysevensquaremetres,butinpracticei
;
reducedtofivesquaremetresperperson
. Severa
families,frequentlyofverydissentientviews,arethu
:
compelledtosharethesameapartment,sometimesthe
sameroom
.
Inpursuanceofthepolicyofthe " communizationo
life,"theGovernmentforbidstheconstructioninnevi
buildingsofmorethanonekitchenoneachstorey
Thisisonemeansofestablishingthe" collectivizatiot
ofdomesticeconomy " bydeliveringitfromthecondi
tionsof "
bourgeoisslavery. "
Hereisananecdotewhichwilldemonstratethecharm
ofthiscohabitation. Wefounditinthe EveningRed
Gazette, April
1 935
TheapartmentNo. Seventy-threeinLigovkaStreetisoccupied
byfourteentenants. Theroomsareindependentbutthetenant
areinthehabitofsettlingtheirpersonalgrievancesinthecom
munalkitchen. . . .
Inordertoberevengeduponaneighbou
thekitchencanbefloodedwhenitisherdayforcleaningito
thewater-closetcanbeblockedwiththeaidofbrokenbottles . . .
Freefightsoccurontheterritoryoftheapartment,inwhichchi]
drentakepart,repeatingtheinvectivesvociferatedbythegrown
I86
BOLSHEVIK ACTION IN MORALS
up people; these childrenfrequently
have the opportunity of
beholding acertain"AuntNura
" throwingcigaretteendsinto
aneighbour'skettle,butthesecigaretteendsareameretrifle
.
Onetenantaffirmedthataneighbourhadthrownnaphthaline
intoherboiledwater.
Thesehabitationsaregenerallyrenderedevenmore
horriblebyreasonofjerry-building . Atalocalsoviet
congress,theComradeEgorov,memberforthesoviet
commissionofcontrol,furnishedsomecuriousdetailsin
thisconnection.
AtNijni-Novgorod[hedeclared]ahousehasbeenbuiltinwhich
thefloorsrockandthewallsswayatapushofthehand. . . .
ThetractorfactoryatStalingradhasestablisheditshandsina
housedevoidofwater-closetsorofelectricity.
Inmanydistricts
thecondemnationofhousesbuiltduringthelastfiveyearsamounts
tofifteenandeventhirtypercent. AtKizelthere is ahousefrom
whichallthedoorshavebeenremovedandburnt.
ThissameEgorovhassuppliedanexampleofthe
costlinessofpublicservices. " AtPerm,thecostprice
ofwateristwenty-fivekopeksthecubicmetre ; itis
soldtothepopulationatsixty-onekopeksthecubic
metre,butconsumersarechargedsixtykopeks"
(Izvestia, January22nd,
1 935)
Butdearwaterisbynomeanstheworstevil . Pravda
relatesonJanuary4th,1 935,thatinthetownof
Karatchev,inconsequenceofthelackofwaterinthe
houses,queueswereformedeverymorningbeforethe
streettaps . . . andeventherethewaterdidnot
alwaysmakeitsappearance. Butwhygosofaras
Karatchev ? IfweremaininMoscow, as wecanlearn
from Izvestia (March1 st,1 935),outofonethousandand
elevenliftsexistinginthehousesofthecapital,five
hundredandeighty-fourareoutofworkingorder,and
ofthisnumber,fivehundredandthirty-threearein
houses
' offiveormorestoreys .
Tothedelightsofliving _ a laSoviet mustbeadded
1 87
UNDER THE
BOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
thegeneralpoverty. TheAmericanjournalist,Knicker-
bocker,estimatestheaveragesalaryoftheoperativeat
onehundredandseventyroubles(subsequenttotherise
grantedearlyin
1 935
afterthesuppressionofbread
cards) . Butfortheinferiorcategoriesofoperatives,
salariesbeginateightyroubles . Aforemanearns
threehundredandfiftyroubles ; anassistantengineer
thesameamount,andduringthespringof1 935the
remunerationofdoctorswhopriortothattimehad
rarelyearnedmorethantwohundredroubles,was
raisedtothesamelevel . Sincethesuppressionofthe
breadcardsandsincethisbasicproductissoldinthe
" commercialshops,"itiseasiertoestimatethereal
valueofsalaries. If,forinstance,weknowthatthe
averagecostofbreadintheU . S. S. R. isonerouble
twentythekiloandthatakiloofbreadinFrance
costsonefrancseventy,weareabletoconclude,without
undueinaccuracy,thatthebuyingpowerofarouble
intheinteriorofthecountryisaboutequivalentto
onefrancfifty. Notalways,however ! For,according
to Moscow Evening (April26th,1 935),a" private"
hairdresser,aftershavingaclientandsprayinghisface
witheaudeCologne,demandedofhiminexchange
forthesedelightsthesumofthirteenroublesandeighty
kopeks !
Butthepriceofmealsconfirmsourcalculations : in
smallMoscowrestaurantsthenormalmealcoststhree
roubles ; the " select " publiccanfeedinthe " In-
tourist "
restaurants,whichundertake,atacostoftwelve
roublesperhead,tocaterfor "congresses,conferences,
etc. "
ThiswelearntinFebruary1 935froman
announcementmadebytheGrandHotelinMoscow.
Therearealsopot-houseswhichsupplyworkerswith
twocourses,excludingmeatorfish,forthesumof
sixty-fivekopeks,butthispittanceisonlyequivalentto
1 88
BOLSHEVIK ACTION IN MORALS
theParis " soupkitchen. "Wecanthusseethatthe
greatmajorityofoperatives,engineers,doctorsand
officialsintheU . S. S. R. areinbynomeansanybetter
situationthanthoseworklessmeninFrancewhohave
noresourcesbeyondunemploymentrelief. Andwemay
addthattwenty-ninemedicalprofessors,addressing
themselvestoStalinbyorder, " expressedtheirenthusi-
asmfor" andactuallydescribedas " historical " the
decreeoftheCentralCommitteeofthePartyon
March4th,1 935,whichraisedtheirfees
. Sincethis
decreethecountrydoctor'ssalaryamountstofrom
threehundredandsixtytofourhundredroublesa
month,theequivalentoftwentymeasuresofcorn,
whilebeforethewarthissamedoctorwithasalaryof
onehundredroubleswasabletobuyonehundred
measuresofcorn.
Thedomainofhealthalsoaffordsusaneloquent
illustrationofthequalityofthe "publicservices
"
whichtheGovernmentprovidesforthefortunate
population.
Sovietpropagandaproclaimsbrilliant
successinthisdomain
: thenumberofitsdoctors,it
avers,hasrisenfromthirteenthousand,in1 91 3,to
fifty-threethousandin1 934,whilethenumberof
clinicsandofdispensariesisnowtwoandahalftimes
greaterthanitwasbeforethewar,etc. etc. Wehave
nomeansofverifyingthesefigures,butwedoknow
fromthesovietpressitselfthatthedoctorsarewithout
clothing,thehospitalswithoutdoctorsorbeds,thebeds
withoutlinenandthedispensarieswithoutdrugs
.
ThehospitalatStavropolisaccommodatesfourtimesitscorrect
complementofpatients
. AtVologdafivehundredpatientsare
beingattendedbyonedoctor
(Pravda,
March23rd,
1
935)
.
Inthechemists'shopsatSamara,itisimpossibletoobtaindrugs ;
thereisneitheraspirin,castoroilnorzincointment (Pravda,
February
1
3th, 1
935)
ThesanatoriaintheCrimeaareintheutmostdifficulties . For
1 89
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
lackofmoneytheyareindebttotheprovisioningcentrewhich
refusestosupplythem. Yesterday,inthelargestsanatoriumat
Yalta,therewasnothingwherewithtoprovidedinner
. To-day
theyareunabletoprepareanyluncheon (Pravda,
March1 4th,
1 935)
Negligence, disorder, despotism are rife at every
momentandineverydirection
. Twoemployeesofa
Moscowrailwaystation,wearetoldbyatelegram
originatingfromHavasonJanuary3oth,1 935,have
beencondemnedtotenyears'imprisonment ; theyhad
receivedorderstopoisonrats,butbyinadvertencehad
poisonedseveralrailwayofficials . InDecember 1
934
MoscowEvening
publishedaletterwhichisworthyof
quotation
Onthe4thofOctoberIhadorderedanovercoatattheNo . 4
workshopofthetailors'co-operative. Thereceiptmentioned
October1 6thasthedateforthefittingandNovember6thasthe
datefordelivery. SinceOctober1 6thIhavebeententimesfor
thefittingwhichwasalwayspostponeduntilthefollowingday.
Onthenineteenthday,November4th,Iwasfinallytold : " Sit
down,andtheovercoatwillbebroughttoyou. "
Iremainedtherethreehoursandwastheninformedthata
mistakehadbeenmadeandthattheovercoatwasnotready.
OnNovember3othIwasdelightedtolearnthatonlythecollar
remainedtobeattached,butonDecember1 6thIwastoldthat
thecollarhadbeenlost . SincethedayuponwhichIgavethe
order,twomonthsandsixteendayshaveelapsedandmyovercoat
isstillunfinished.
Butwecanaddyetmorepicturesqueincidents : In
January1 935anArchangeloperative,lunchingina
workmen'srestaurant,discoveredacockroachinhis
soup
. Hecomplainedtothesecretaryofthelocal
CommitteeoftheParty,whodevisedaningenious
punishmentforthepersonneloftherestaurant : the
preparationandadministrationofcockroachsoup .
Thiswasdulyconcoctedanddulyswallowedbythese
unfortunatesunderthreatofdismissal . Thepresident
ofa kolkhoze intheEkaterinburgdistrictordereda
Igo
BOLSHEVIKACTION IN
MORALS
kolkhozian
woman,Votinova,tosucklenewly-bornpiglets
atherownbreast ;
sheobeyed,andinrecognitionof
herzealreceivedthetitleofemergencyoperative
(Pravda, April1 5th,1 935)
Theselasttwoincidentswhichmightcrediblybe
anecdotesinventedbyhumorists,bringusrightinto
theatmosphereofpresent-daylifeintheSoviets
. Itis
indeedanessentialcharacteristicofthislifetodenyany
rightstotheindividual
. Itmayevenbesaidthatthey
denyallrightsofeverykind
. Thisislogical . From
themomentthatthecommunistStatesetsouttoregulate
allhumanrelationships,lawhasnoplaceinthebusiness,
administrativeactionsuffices
. Thisiswhathasoccurred.
TheG. P. U
. hassuppressedjustice,thepenalcodeand
legalprocedure;
collectivizationhasmadetheTerri-
torialCodesuperfluous,whiletheabolitionofprivate
tradeandenterprisehasoustedtheCivilCode
. The
administrationsoftheTradesUnionshavereplacedthe
Workers'Code.
Nowthedisappearanceoflegalprinciplescouldnot
possiblybeaccomplishedwithoutseriousrepercussions
uponpublicmorals
: withtheassistanceofpovertythe
worstinstinctsbrokeloose
. Eversince(earlyin
1
935)
thesovietnewspapershavebeenpermittedtoopen
theircolumnstocurrentevents,apainfulpanoramahas
passedbeforeoureyes
. Dangeroushooligansareevery-
where,bothintownandcountry,stealingandraping
ontrains,inthestreets,inthehousesandintheschools
.
Theyfrequentlycommitburglaries,eventheverypoor,
andruthlesslymurderanywhoattempttodefend
themselves
. Weareabletoseethatmisguidedchild-
hoodonlyfollowsthegeneraltrend
.
Ineverycountry,ofcourse,abominablecrimesoccur,
butnowhereelsedotheyappearinsuchmassproduc-
tion,nowhereelsedotheypartakeofthataspectof
1 91
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
"currentevents"whichcharacterizestheminthe
U . S. S. R. Andthisinspiteoftheveryseverepunish-
mentsinflicteduponthievesandhooligans.
If,moreover,onerecollectstheshadowoftheomni-
presentG
. P
. U. whichbroodsoverallthecountries;
onemayeasilyandcompletelyrealizethat " stifling
atmosphereofmistrust,ofsuspicionandterror
" which
pervadesallRussiaandsooffendedMonsieurLabry.
Butwearetoldthattheeraofdrearymelancholyis
pastandthatnowadaysthereismuchdiversioninthe
U. S. S. R
. , thatthereisdancingtothestrainsofthe
jazzband,andthatthesovietpressisevenbeginning
toaccusecertainsectionsoftheYoungCommunistsof
obeyingtooliterallyandtoozealouslythecommandof
thepowersthatbetolivemerrily.
Yes,thereareindeeddiversionsinthe U. S. S. R. , but
whoarethosethatenjoythem? Asmallgroupof
privilegedindividualsintheGovernment,theimmediate
entourageoftheleadersoftheParty,those " responsible
workers "whoearnfromthreetofivethousandroubles
monthly. Asaconsequenceoftheperfectedand
systematicpillageoftheagriculturaldistricts,the
socialistcitydwellershavefoundthemselveswellpro-
videdwithcash,eventothepointofcreatingan
opulence,anexcessofrichesinrelationtothesmall
numberofthoseprivilegedtoenjoythem . Andthe
permissiontodosoonlyservestoemphasizetheterrible
inequalitywhich,intheU . S. S. R. ,separatesthegovernors
fromthegoverned,themastersfromtheirslaves .
Thereexistsofcoursethere,aseverywhere,asection
ofyouthwhichdesirestoobtainpleasureatanycost.
Butnotalltheyoungergeneration ! Somearticles
whichappearedrecentlyinthesovietpressthrowa
revealingrayoflightuponthispoint,especiallyinthe
caseofone, "AFrankConversation,"whichwas
1 92
BOLSHEVIKACTIONINMORALS
publishedby Pravda intwoissuesattheendofDecember
1 934underthesub-title"OfaHappyLife. "The
phraseaddedasacorollary,"Thepeopleofour
country,"showsthatthearticlepurportstodealwith
tendenciesthataregenerallycurrent ; moreover,were
thisnotso, Pravda woulddoubtlessnothavecaredto
publishthearticleinquestion .
Fromthis " FrankConversation " welearnthat
sovietyouthrecognizeswithinitsrankstheexistenceof
twodistinctandopposingtypes : thosewhomitterms
"mechanized " andthosewhomitreferstoas " sensi-
tives. "Thewriterofthearticlesdisplaysathousand
reticencesandendlesscaution,buthismeaningis
neverthelessclearenough
: the "sensitives,"who
undoubtedlyrepresentthesounderportionoftheyoung
generation,aredeeplyunhappyandfeelthemselves
oppressedbythestiflingatmosphereoflifeunderthe
Soviets
. Itisonlythe"mechanized " whoenjoy
themselves-whentheirmeagrepurseswillpermitof
theirdoingso.
ImaginaryjoyandenthusiasmarefortheBolsheviks
materialforexportation. Sovietpropagandaintroduces
astrongdoseofthemintoallitsproducts : reviews,
almanacs,films (HappyBoys, forinstance),eventhe
electoralplacardsofforeignCommunists(ascouldbe
notedinthoseoftheFrenchmunicipalelectionsin
May1 935) . Buttheover-exuberance,theimportunate
exaggerationofthismanufacturedhappinessrevealsthe
sham.
Itisobviousthatmancannotlivewithoutsmiling .
Butthesmile,amongsovietcitizens,isalmostalways
anervousgrimace,orperhapsthatlaughofwhicha
Germanprofessor,theheroofoneofTourguenev's
novelsremarked,shrugginghisshoulders : "The
Russianssooftenlaughwhentheyoughttoweep. "
1 93

N
CHAPTERIV
SOVIETACTIONINTHEMATERIAL
FIELD
I
TheMagicofthePlans
T
HEprimaryprincipleofsocialismbeingthecen-
tralizationofproduction,thefirstaimofthe
sovietauthoritieswastoapplyit
. Thecontrolof
economiclifewasthereforeplacedbodilyinthehands
oftheSuperiorEconomicCouncil,whichhadunder
itscommandvariousdifferentofficesentitled" Glavki,''
eachofwhichcorrespondedtoadifferentbranchof
production
.
Lateron,aspecialoffice,knownastheStatePlan
andcreatedin 1 920,
wasentrustedwiththeelaboration
oftheplanswhichweredesignedtoregulatetheworking
oftheeconomicorganisms. TheStatePlan,however,
didnotsucceedinretainingthatexclusivenesswhich
wasits raisond'etre. SincetheliquidationoftheNew
PoliticalEconomy (N. P. E. ) thetrendoffashionbrought
backintofavour,inaveryspecialmanner,plansof
averyvarieddescription.
Evenatthepresentday
theycontinuetopourforthinacontinuousstream-
suchandsuchaCongressofInventorsdecidetodraw
upa " plan " forfuturediscoveries ; theycalculate
thatthenetprofittobeexpectedwillbeabillion
roublesperannum,andnotonlythis,buttheyproceed
todividetheseprofits,whichareashypotheticalasthe
1 94
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL FIELD
inventionsthemselves,intopredeterminedsharesfor
eachdistrict. Suchandsuchanoffice,bymeansof
aprematurecensus,foreseesandregistersthenumber
offuture. birthsandimmediatelybeginstoshufflethe
food-cardsuponafoundationofthesecalculations
whicharewithoutanyconfirmation . Suchandsuch
an "Institute,"havingdoubtlesslearnedthesecretof
howtoharnesstheelements,decidesuponthefuture
climateand,as Moscow Evening termsit," preparesto
governtheclouds,toorganizetherainandthefogs
withaviewtoestablishingacentraldirectionofrainfall
intheSovietStates . "
Butwithoutlingeringovertheseexaggerations,which
wouldappeartobejestsweretheynotinfactthesober
truth,letusexaminethereasonswhichcannot-failto
defeatthearrogantpresumptionofeventheleastfan-
tasticaloftheirplans . Hereisthechiefandthemost
decisiveofthesereasons.
Alleconomicprocessesarecloselyboundtogether,
andacentraldirectiononlyservestoaccentuatetheir
interdependence. Itisthereforeindispensabletothe
successoftheplans,thateachindustry,eachbranch
ofthatindustry,eachfactoryshouldpossessrawmaterial
ingoodtimeandinsufficientquantity,togetherwith
availablelabourandmeansoftransport,etc . In
"capitalistbourgeois" economyitisprivateinitiative
whichundertakesthesupplyingofindustries,whereas,
underthesovietregime,thereisaworsefactortobe
consideredthaneventheabsenceofinitiative: there
isthefearofaction : themanagingpersonnel,incom-
petentanddominatedbytheapprehensionofincessant
fault-finding,feelsitselftobetheobjectofconstant
suspicionandcarefullyavoidsallresponsibility
. The
outcomeofthesecircumstancesisadisorderinwhich
planscannotfailtocometogrief.
1 95
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
Oneverysideandateverymomentonemeetswith
completeindifference. Itisacommonsighttoseea
costlymachineimportedfromabroad,putoutofaction
forwantofthereplacementofsomesimplepart,ora
highcombustionfurnaceidleforlackoffuel . Nor
mustwebesurprisedatthecryoftriumphuttered
bythe RedEveningGazette
ofMoscowwhenmaking
theannouncementthat : "yesterdayallthetrains
arrivedontime
!" Lesspleasingweretheresultsof
aninquirymadebythe
OperativeandPeasantInspection
intotheworkingdisciplineinasovietoffice,revealing
thatamongtwohundredandtwoofficialsonlyfifty-
fivewerepresentintheoffice,andofthesetwenty-five
hadarrivedlate. Moreover,suchderelictionsfrequently
passunnoticedowingtothefactthatthemanagement
andboardsofcontrolarethemselvesconniving. Such
wasthecase,quitelately,inthe"Electroless " factory
atStalingrad,wherealltheledgershadbeenpassedas
correctbythelocalcommissionofcontrol,butwhere
amillionroubleshadquitesimplyvanishedintothin
air,asstated by Pravda,
whichexposedtheincident
.
Accidentsofthisdescriptionarereferredtoincurrent
sovietparlanceas " gaps "
(inthePlan)
.
Aneffortis
madetoobviatethembymeansof "campaigns. "For
instance,thecampaignforrearingrabbitsatthetime
whenthemeatfaminehadincreasedtosuchanextent
thatthepredeterminedrationonthefood-cardshad
becomepurelytheoretical . ARedprofessorwascom-
mandedtopreachtotheoperativesuponthenutritious
qualitiesofrabbitflesh,aswellasthemarvellous
profitstobeobtainedfromtheby-products : skin,
bones,etc. Inafactorywherethisapologiagained
credence,theoperativesplacedanorderforfivehundred
breedingrabbits,andconstructedthecagesrequired
fortheirreception. Alas! Only
eightrabbitsmade
1 96
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL FIELD
theirappearance,andthesequicklydiedowingtothe
defectiveconditionsinwhichtheywerekept . The
experimentwasnotrepeated ; theprojectwasaban-
donedowingtothefactthatthefoodsuggestedasbeing
mostsuitablefortheseanimals,cabbages,beetrootsand
carrots,waspreciselythatpreferredbytheoperatives,
orinanycasetheonlydiettheywereabletoafford !
Nordoweforeseeanybetteroutcomeofthe " Plan
fortheDevelopmentofStockBreedingin 1 935," which
ordersthecowsintheU . S. S. R. toproduce,byJanuary
1 st, 1 936, atlatest, II,288,000 calves,whilemares
mustgivebirthto 2,055,000 foals,sowsto 1 6,965,000
piglets,andgoatsandewesmustprovideexactly
1 6,21 2,200 offspring. Moreover,thisprogenymustbe
producedinvariousdistrictsinnumbersstrictlydecreed
byorderoftheSovietGovernment.
Oneseesthattheinnumerable
" plans " withtheir
various" landmarks " and " co-efficientsofexecution "
reallyconsistonlyofawarofwordswhichpanders
tocommunistmysticism
. Inreality,theState,making
useofitsmonopolistsituation,ismerelyawasteful
masterwhosacrificestheeconomiclifeofthecountry
andhumanlivestothephantasmagoriaofitsdoctrine.
The
"
plans " and "campaigns " whichcrossand
inter-crossoneanotherleadfinallytoaconfusiononly
comparabletothatoftheTowerofBabel,acom-
parisonwhichhasfrequentlybeenmadebythepriests
intheirpulpits,andwhichhasbeenmentionedwith
vexationbythesovietauthorofthebookentitled
TheReligionandEdi
,ficationoftheK'olkhozes .
Moreover,itisnotalonethepriests,those
" declared
enemiesoftheregime,whocriticize" : theentire
populationhasmadeupitsmindwithregardtothe
valueofcommunisteconomicsand "
plans. "Hereis
ananecdotemuchinvogueintheU . S. S. R. andwhich
1 97
UNDERTHEBOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
isquotedbythereview
TheStruggle, editedinParis
bytheformerReddiplomat,Bessedovsky .
ThepresidentKalininewasonedaytalkingtothe
peasantsofavillage,whowerecomplainingthatthey
werebeingruinedbycollectivization,totheextentof
nolongerbeingabletoclothethemselvesdecently
.
Hethereuponexplainedtothemthatindistantcountries
theunfortunatenegroespossessednoclothesofany
kind. Whereuponthepeasantsexclaimed
"Withoutadoubt,thosecountriesmusthavereached
theendoftheirsecondFiveYearPlan !"
II
TheWaragainstthePeasant
WhenLenin,in1 91 8,approachedthetaskofthe
buildingofsocialism,hefullyrealizedthatitcould
notbeaccomplishedwithoutcommandeeringtheactivi-
tiesofthepeasants .
Hethereforeopenedhiscampaign
bythepromulgationofthedecreewhichclaimedas
Statepropertyall " superfluous " productsoftheland
.
Thiswaspracticallyequivalenttotheestablishmentof
aheavytaxinkind.
Inorder,ontheonehand,tomastertheopposition
whichitforesawwouldariseamongthepeasants,and
ontheotherhandtocreateanelementloyaltothe
regimeintheagriculturaldistricts,thePartythrew
theappleofdiscordamongtheruralpopulation . It
fomentedthehatredofthepoormanagainstthelanded
proprietorknownas a
Koulak anddeclaredtobean
enemyoftheregime. Committeesofthe " poor" were
formedandinvestedwithpowersofsupervisionoverthe
Koulaki. Thesecommitteeswerefirmlysupportedbythe
Chekasandbythespecial "
victuallingdetachments. "
Fromthatmoment,asalogicalreaction, thepeasant
1 98
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL
FIELD
proceededtoreduceineverymannerandplacethe
sowingoftheland
. Heceasedtoattempttomakeit
produceanythingbeyondtheamountstrictlynecessary
forhispersonalneeds. Theyearhappened,inany
case,tobeaverybadone,andthepeasant'scalculations
werefrustratedbyawretchedharvest
; eventhein-
dispensablemeanwasnotobtained,andtheterrible
famineof 1 921
hurleditselfontotheentirecountry,
slayingseveralmillionsofhumanbeings.
Struckbytheseresults,LenindecreedtheN. E. P
.
(NewEconomicPolicy),whichwascharacterizedby
adiminutionoftaxesinkindandthefreedomofbarter
-althoughtheauthorizedconcessionswerestrictly
limitedandthepoliticalpersecutionofthe
Koulaki
remainedinforce
.
Aswiftimprovementinruraleconomicswasimmedi-
atelyapparentamongthesoundandanti-communist
populationofthevillages,animprovementconsolidated
bythefeelingofstrengthandeconomicpowerto
whichittended
. TheParty,notwithoutreason,
vieweditwithapprehensionasacounter-revolutionary
danger,andStalin,onhisaccessiontoauthority,hast-
enedtosuppresstheN
. E. P. Heproceededtoapro-
gressivetighteningofthescrewsofthemachineryof
taxationinkind,especiallyfrom
1 928
onwards,when
hebeganurgentlytorequirelargequantitiesofagri-
culturalproducewithwhichtofeedtheFiveYear
Plan,nourishthelargelyincreasedpersonnelofthe
tradesandobtaintheforeignrelationsnecessaryfor
thecoveringofsomepart,atanyrate,oftheorders
placedabroadformachinery
. Andthustheruinof
thepeasantbecameanaccomplishedfact
.
Butinspiteofeverypossibledevice,therequisitions
oftheproduceofthelanddidnotproceedwithout
greatdifficulties ;
theywereonlyobtainedbyan
1 99
UNDER
THE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
incessant struggle.
Moreover, the sovkhozes, formed
withaviewtotheirbeingtosomeextenttheState
granaries(its"wheatfactories,"astheyhavebeen
sometimescalled),didnotjustifythehopesoftheParty.
ItwasatthisjuncturethatStalinconceivedwhathe
believedtobeaperfectedmethodofdrainingthe
wheat,andthatthecollectivizationoftheruraldistricts
cameintoexistence
. Itwasdecidedpermanentlyto
abolishindividualpeasanteconomies,andtoplace
theharvestandtheirdistributionunderthestrict
controlofStateofficials . Thisplanwasatfirstcon-
ceivedonamodestscale,butfromDecember1 929
onwardstheCentralCommitteeofthePartyresolved
toadvanceenergeticallyinthisdirectionandStalin
himselfgavethewordofcommandattheCongressof
MarxistAgriculturists.
Thesedecisionscausedagreatupheavalintherural
districts,wheretheymetwithadesperateresistance
fromthesaneandhealthyelements
. TheKoulaki then
foundthemselvesdeportedbytensofthousands . They
wenttopopulatetheconcentrationcampswherethey
areemployedonhardlabour(especiallyinthetimber
trade) ; asfortherest,theyflungthemselvesincrowds
intothe Kolkhozes. Thesewereforthemtheonly
harbourofrefuge,forthere,atanyrate,theywere
sureofcertainprivilegesandofreceivingtheirdaily
breadwithouthavingtowageanincessantwarfareto
protectthefruitsoftheirlabours . Nevertheless,they
permittedthemselvesbeforehandthesinisterconsolation
ofholdingimmense "funeralfeasts,"forwhichthey
slaughteredanumberoftheircattleinorderthatthey
shouldnotfallintothehandsoftheoppressors . The
figuresquotedareremarkable. Inadditiontoseveral
millionhorses,eighteenmillionheadoflargecattleand
sixtymillionsheepandpigs.
200
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL
FIELD
Beitasitmight,successappearedtobeassuredto
thecauseofcollectivization,andtheGovernmenthast-
enedtosingapaeanofvictory
; butitsoonbecame
apparentthatonlyanewphasehadbeenreached
ofthegiganticstrugglewhichwasbeingwagedbetween
thePartyandthepeasantmasses. Withinthe Kolk-
hozes, labour,beingunstimulatedbyanypersonal
interest,becamecontinuouslylessproductive,andthe
sovietrecordsthemselvesestimatethatin1 931 one
thousandmillion" poods " (I pood= 1 6 kg. ), thatis
tosay,morethanafifthpartoftheharvest,remained
onthegroundandwaslost(weshallpresentlylearnof
afurtherreasonforthisenormouswaste) ;
thesowing
oftheruraldistrictsinOctober1 931 wasestimated
at30percentunderthefigureforecastinthePlan. ,
Confrontedbythissituation,Stalinresortedtonew
tactics.
Ontheonehandheintroducedanewmethodof
compulsionintheformofindividualrations,theamount
ofwhichwouldinfuturedependuponthelabour
contributedbyeachmemberofa Kolkhoze. Atthe
sametime,directcontrolwasreinforced : aspecial
serviceof" brigadiers " forpurposesofsupervisionwas
createdinthisconnection . OntheotherhandStalin
dangledbeforetheeyesofthepeasantsthedazzling
promisethataftertheharvestof1 932,oncetheState
I
Thereareofcourseinexistenceafewmodel Kolkhozes usedfor
purposesofpropaganda.
Thesearethosewhichareshownto
foreigners
. LadyAstor,afteratripwhichshemadewithBernard
ShawtotheU. S. S. R
. ,drewupanenthusiasticreportoftheKolk-
hoze
whichshevisited,andwasjustlyimpressedbythefactthat
shewasabletoconversewiththepeasants,since,asbymiracle,
thecowherd,Maric,spokeperfectlyintelligibleAmerican-English.
WhatLadyAstordidnotknowwasthatthereexistmodel Kolkhozes
importedstraightfromAmericawithmanagersandpersonnel
composedofformerSlavemigrantswhohavereturnedtoliveon
Russiansoilunderspeciallyfavourableterms !
201
UNDERTHE
BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
taxeshadbeenpaid,the
K'olkhozes shouldbeentitled
toselltheremainderoftheharvest. Lateritwas
decidedtograntthis" concession " immediately
. Fin-
ally,infaceofthepeasants'incredulity,anappreciable
reductionwasmadeinthetaxesinkind
.
However,thepeasantspaidnoattentiontothe
benefitsofthe " liberal " decreeconcerningtheexcess
portionsoftheharvest,andthatforanexcellentreason
-suchexcesswasnon-existent . Itwasindeedsoentirely
non-existentthat,withthespringof1 933,thespectre
ofagreatfaminewhichhadlongbeenloomingover
thecountrybecameaterriblereality
. Itwasan
exactrepetitionoftheblackyearof
1 g21 , withhun-
dredsofthousandsofdeadandallthehorrorsofan-
thropophagy. Justasin 1 g21 ,
themostfertileregions
werethemostseverelyassailed,andthisbecausethe
SovietGovernmenthadworkedwithparticularenergy
todeprivethemoftheirharvests
. Itmaythusbeheld
aswhollyresponsiblefortheirruin .
Thereisnolackoffirst-handevidencetocorroborate
thefactoftheterriblefamineofwhichRussiawasthe
victimin1 933
. Wemaymention,forexample,the
officialreportonthesubjectwhichwasmadetohis
government,in May
1 933,byMonsieurSchiller,adviser
totheGermanEmbassyinMoscow. Tothismaybe
addedtheimpressionsofhistourinthe U. S. S. R. ,
duringtheautumnof1 933,whichwererecordedby
theAmericanjournalist,Mr
. Lang,correspondentto
Vorwaerts
ofNewYork(themostimportantJewish
newspaperintheworld)
. Hewasliterallyterrified
bytheghastlyspectacleswhichhewitnessedinthe
courseofhisstayinRussia .
Thesovietpaperswereverycarefultoignorethe
factofthefamine. Nevertheless,thespecialpress
acknowledgeditsexistenceamongthecattle
. Letus
202
SOVIETACTIONINMATERIALFIELD
listentothecryofdespairutteredbythereview
Pro-
visioningCo-operationandTrade
(SeptemberLoth,
1 933,
No
. 209)
. Thereviewmentionsthecaseofamilk
co-operative"
whoseyieldonlyreached76percent
ofthe "
Plan"duringthefirstquarterof1 933,and
fellduringthesecondquarterto37percent !
Ifa
certainimprovementwasnotedduringthemonthof
Julyitwasbecause,abandoningthemethodsof
"scien-
tificfeeding,"itwasdecidedtoallowthecowstocrop
thecommongrass
. Norwasthisanisolatedinstance
inanother "
co-operative" fifty-fivecowshadtobe
slaughteredowingtostarvation .
Letusmentioninpassingthatofallthefieldsof
ruraleconomics,thatofbreedingsufferedmostcruelly
fromthedireeffectsofthecollectivizationintherural
districts
. In1 928theRussianvillagespossessed33
. 5
millionhorses,70.
5millionheadoflargecattle,1 46
. 7
milliongoatsandsheep,and26millionpigs
. In1 932,
attheendofthefirstFiveYearPlan,thestatisticsof
the cheptel
indicated
1 g-6
millionhorses,40
. 7million
headoflargecattle,52 . 1
milliongoatsandsheep,and
II-6millionpigs
. Thatistosay,atotalreductionof
55percent
. Sincetheneveryefforttoincreasethe
cheptel
hasremainedwithoutresult.
Noristhelotofhumanbeingsanybetterthanthat
ofthebeasts
. Inordertoformanideaofthelevelof
peasantlife,itwillbeprofitabletotracethefollowing
parallelwhichmaybeestablishedfromthesoviet
statistics
. In1 91 3,inexchangeforaquintalofwheat,
thepeasantcouldobtain :
25metresofcottonmaterials ;
1 3kg. ofsugar
; 1 7kg. ofsoap
. In1 927,thesame
quantityofwheatwouldprocurehim
1 o-5
metresof
materials ; 7kg
. ofsugar ; 8kg. ofsoap
. In1 932-3,
theequivalentofaquintalofwheatwas
:
3
. 3metres
ofmaterials ; 2kg. ofsugar
; I• 5kg. ofsoap.
203
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
Intheautumnof1 934,thestrugglefortheharvest
betweenthepeasantsandtheSovietGovernmentwas
notlessbitterthaninthepreviousyears,butavery
importantandsignificantnewfactormadeitsappear-
ance:
itfrequentlyhappenedthatthelocalauthorities
inthepersonsofthe "
politicalsections " oftherural
districts,andthesubordinatecommitteesoftheParty,
foundthemselvesaccusedofhavingactedinconnivance
withthemalcontents . Thus,theeditorialof
Pravda
(September25th,1 934)vehementlyblamedthelocal
authoritiesforthedeficienciesintheplansofdelivery
andinthemonthlyplan(example
: intheOdessa
district24percenttothelothSeptember,inWestern
Siberia1 4percentonthesamedate)aswellasinthe
annualplan(8 . 9percentinWesternSiberia)
. This
wasasmuchastosaythatthelocaladministrative
personnel,boundtothepopulationbythethousand
tieswhicharecreatedbydailylife,frequentlyfinds
itselfcompelled,willy-nilly,tomakecommoncause
withthepeopleagainstaparasiticalGovernment .
Afterinflictingseverepunishmentsuponalongseries
ofworkersinthe "politicalsections
" oftherural
districts,thePartydeterminedintheendupona
radicalmeasure
: thesuppressionofthesesame
"politi-
calsections "
attheendofNovember1 934. Hence-
forwardtheirdutiesareentrustedtoothersubordinate
organismsoftheParty
. InMay1 935thenewspapers
announcedthattheseorganismswerepreparingactively
fortheirtask,notablybytheestablishmentof "
radio-
liaison
. "Buttheyencounterto-daythesamedifficulties
astheirpredecessorsandyieldtothesamecontagion
.
Theharvestof1 933,exceptionallyfavouredby
naturalconditions,sparedRussia,duringtheyear
1
934,anyrecurrenceoftheterribletrialsshehad
sufferedduringtheprecedingyear ;
in1 934the
204
SOVIET
ACTION IN MATERIAL
FIELD
peasantsenjoyedonlythatsemi-starvationwhichmay
nowadaysbeconsidered
" normal
. "
Theharvestof1 934,whilebeingrelativelyabundant,
wasinferiortothatof1 933, 1
andsincetheadventof
thespringof1 935,distressingnewshasbeguntoreach
usfromtheSouthofRussia
. Inordertoavoida
repetitionofthefamine,theGovernmenthavebeen
compelledtograntthe Kolkhozes,
inadecreeofDecem-
ber27th,1 934,a "
loanwithoutinterestofcerealsfor
foodandsowing
"whichamountedto70millionpoods
(rathermorethanamilliontons)
. Lateron,on
March4th,1 935,the"
normsofdeliveryofwheat
"
owedtotheStatein1 935werediminishedforcertain
districtsascomparedwiththe
"norms " of1 934
.
Nevertheless,theyear1 935isbeingmuchharderfor
theRussiancountrysidethantheprecedingyear
.
Whatwillbetheharvestof1 935whichistodetermine
thelifeofthecountryin1 936
?
ThefirstresultsknowninSeptemberindicateahar-
vestsuperiortotheformeryear
;
butalreadythe
Governmentcountsuponthatand,seekingitsown
advantagefirstofall,issellingaconsiderablequantity
ofcorntoItaly
. Itseemsthatthepricesaskedare
muchlowerthanthoseoftheworldmarket
. The
reasonisobvious :
thecornwhichtheSovietsdispose
ofisaproductofplunder
.
Itisevidentthattheharvestisnotbeinggathered
withoutseverehindrances
. Inparticularthereisa
menacing,discrepancybetweenthecutandthethreshed
corn
; sothat,accordingto
Izvestia
(August4th),the
1
Herearetheestimatesmadebyimpartialspecialistsasregards
theharvest
: 57milliontonsin1 932,75millionsin
1
933,70
millionsin1 934(in1 91 3,85
.
8milliontons) . Thesovietstatistics
giveentirelydifferentfigureswhichhavenoconnectionwithfact
andwhichareconstantlyrefutedbytheirownreports
: 69 . 9
milliontonsin1 932 ; 89.
6 millions in1 933
; 89'3
in1
934•
205
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
Kolkhozes oftheregionsofKiev,Tchernigov,Kharkofl
andothershavethreshedfortheendofJulyonly 2 tc
8percentofthecrops. Inshort,thesituation iE
accuratelysummedupbythechiefoftheagricultural
sectionoftheCentralCommitteeoftheParty,Yakovlev,
whoremarkedatacongressofemergencyworkersofthe
Kolkhozes inFebruary 1 935 : "We-mustconfessthatour
progressinagricultureisnotyetsatisfactory. . . . The
mostelementaryorderinourfieldsisstilllacking . . . . "
Thecongressof"emergency Kolkhozians "inFebruary
1 935, atwhichthesewordswerespoken,markeda
newstageinthewarbetweenthepeasantsandthe
Party. InconformitywithStalin'sinstructions,the
congressadoptedthenew " Kolkhoze statutes" which
inauguratedtherulingof "individualplots" which
eachpeasantfamilyisnowauthorizedtokeepinits
possession. Thisrulingdoesnotbyanymeansconfer
anyproprietaryrightoverthesescrapsofterritory,it
merelypermitstheirpersonalenjoyment. Butitdoes
affordanoutlettothepeasant'sindividualisticinstincts.
Undeniably,thisconcessionisablemishonthepurity
ofthesovietprinciplesofagriculturalpolicy,butthis
drawbackmustsurelybecompensatedbythefactthat
collectivizationmustbemoreeasilyacceptedbyin-
dividualproprietors ? Foritmustnotbeforgottenthat
inAugust 1 935 thereremained73
.
5millionfamilies
asagainst1 8millionwhohadjoinedthe Kolkhozes.
ButtheSovietswillalsoreapamaterialbenefit.
Itistruethatthe " individualplots " areexceedingly
small ;
theyvarybetweenone-halfandthree-quarters
ofahectareperfamily,accordingtothedistricts,and
thereforetheirsurfacewillnevertotalevenone-tenth
partoftheareasundercultivation (1 29 . 8 millionhectares
in1 934) . Nevertheless,thereiseveryreasontobelieve
thatafterthelegalizationofthe
" plots " thepeasant
206
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL FIELD
willdohisbesttoincreasetheharvestupontheground
accordedtohim,andthisinitselfisnotanegligible
factor. Itisevenlessnegligibleinthedomainofbreed-
ing. Thenewstatutesofthe Kolkhoze havealsoin-
creasedthenumberofbeastswhichthepeasantwill
infuturebeallowedtopossessforhisownprofit(two
andthreecowsinsteadofone,etc. ),andthismeasure
permitsustoforeseeaspeedyincreaseofthe
cheptel,
whichuptothepresentdayhassufferedfromchronic
shrinkage.
Againstthisindividualproductionunder a Kolkhozian
label,thePartyaimsthepitilesscatapultsoftaxation .
Twoorthreefigureswillsufficetoindicatetheincome
ofacollectivizedpeasantfamilyanditsobligations
towardstheState. Inaspeechmadeduringthe
springof1 935ComradeMolotov,Presidentofthe
CouncilofthePeoples'Commissars,wassoimprudent
astogiveindetailtheamountoftheremuneration
incerealsgrantedtomembersofthe Kolkhozes ; he
quotedanaverageestimatedupon83,000 Kolkhozes
i-iquintalin1 932(abadyear) ; 2. 2 quintalsin 1
934
(agoodyear)perfamily . Wemayremarkthatbefore
thewarthepersonalconsumptionofcerealsbythe
Russianpeasants(quiteapartfromthewheatsold)
amountedto4. 3quintalsperfamily,ofwhich3 . 1
quintalsrepresentedhumanconsumptionand I• 2 quintal
foodforbeasts. Inadditiontothewheatthemembers
ofthe Kolkhozes alsoreceiveasalary. Itsamount ?
Itisvariable,butatthecongressof "emergency
Kolkhozians"a
reporter,speakingofthefertiledistrict
ofEkaterinoslavandofthegoodyear,1 933,putitat
iroubleand4okopeksperworkingday
(Pravda,
Februaryiith,1 935) . Wehavereckoned,inoneof
ourprecedingchapters,basingourcalculationsupon
thepriceofbread,thatthepurchasingcapacityofa
207
UNDER THE
BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
roubleintheU. S. S. R
. maybecomparedtothatof
I franc50centimesinFrenchmoney
. Ifthereforewe
makeaparallelbetweenthepricesofaseriesofproducts
ofprimarynecessityintheSovietStatecommerceand
thecostofthesesameproductsbeforethewar,we
perceivethatasovietroubleisequivalentto
4
. 4kopeks
oftheoldcurrency. TheAmericanjournalist,Knicker-
bocker,comparingthecostoflivingintheU
. S. S. R.
andthatintheUnitedStates,estimatesthedailywage
ofa Kolkhozian at8centsinAmericanmoney
.
Moreover,thispitifulincomeisloadedwithformidable
taxes. For CommunistInstruction (November1 8th,
1 934)
quotesthecaseofthefamilyofa Kolkhozian
who,out
ofhisannualcerealremuneration,amountingto 24
poodsand1 5pounds,hadtopay1 73roublesofdiffer-
enttaxes ;
thissamefamilywas,inaddition,compelled
togivetheState,inreturnforthepossessionofone
singlecow,1 30litresofmilkand
29 kilosofmeat,etc .
etc. "
Ifonereckonsthetotalofthetaxesandtribute
inkinddemandedofthe
Kolkhozian," commentsthe
paperquoted,
"thistotalappearstoexceedtheincome
ofthefamily. . .
. "Moreover,thisyearcertaintaxes
havebeenincreased,ashavethepaymentsinkind(for
example,39kilosofmeatinsteadof 29, etc. ) .
Thusweareoncemoreabletoplumbthedepthsof
thepovertyintowhichtheRussianpeasantshavebeen
plungedbythecommunistregime.
Itistruethatthepeasantcontrivestokeepfrom
theGovernmentapartofthefruitsoftheearth
. Dis-
satisfiedwithhismiserable " ration,"weigheddown,
moreover,byintolerabletaxation,heseekstoamassa
smallclandestine "supply " ; oftenhecutsthecorn
withscissors,onthefieldthatwasformerlyhisown
property (" hairdressers "
isthetermemployedbythe
sovietpresstodescribethiscategoryofcriminals)
. If
208
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL FIELD
hesucceedsinamassingamoreorlessconsiderable
quantityofwheat,heburiesitintheground (" black
barns
"
isthecommonexpression) . Suchillicit
"savings"
mustbesoughtforintherubricofthe
" lossesoftheharvest
. "
Wehaveseenthatsovietsourcesestimatedthese
lossesintheharvestof1 931 atafigureof20percent . .
In1 933,ComradeOssinsky,inalengthyarticlepub-
lishedin
Izvestia (September21 st,1 933),estimatedthe
averageyieldofahectareofland (" biologicalharvest ")
at II-8
quintalsandestimatedthelossesinthecourse
ofharvestingandthreshingashavingrisento5 . 6
quintals. Thus,accordingtoOssinsky,thelossesin
1 933amountedtoone-halfoftheharvest. Ofcourse,
Ossinsky'scalculationsarepurelyimaginary
: heim-
menselyexaggeratedthelosses,sincehewasexaggerating
thefiguresofthe "biologicalharvest,"wishingto
emphasizetheincreasedyieldofthelandundersoviet
rule!Moreover,quiterecently,prominentsoviet
officials,andnotablyKalinine,mentionedioquintals
asayieldwhichitwasnecessarytoattain
inthe near
future!
Actually,inthebadyears,theaverageharvest
sinksbelow5quintalsperhectareandriseswithdifficulty
inthegoodyearsto6
.
Nevertheless,thelossesareenormous. Inaddition
tocerealswhichareruinedbycarelessness,theyinclude
thecornpilferedbythepeasantsandalsoaproportion
whichthecultivatorsprefertodestroyratherthanhand
itovertothebandit-State.
Atthepresenttime,havingbroughtintoplaythe
motiveofpersonalinterestwithaviewtostimulating
productionintheruraldistricts,thePartyisleading
anewassaultuponthepeasants
. Thewaristocon-
tinue
. Itwillnotceasesolongasthecommunist
regimeendures.
209

0
UNDERTHEBOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
Thus,yearbyyear,thelifeoftheentirecountryis
leftinthehandsofchance
. IfbyGod'sgracethe
harvestisgood,everymansomehowfindsthemeans
ofavoidingstarvation. Butiftheyearisunfavourable,
then,undertheregimeofcommunisteconomics,the
slightestdeficiencyintheharvestleadstoafamine
whichcarriesoffvictimsinhundredsofthousands,if
notinmillions
. Neverwilleitherthepeasantsorthe
landworkunderthesocialistlash.
CertainmembersoftheParty,eveninfluential
members(whoknowswhethertheymaynotbenumer-
ous),recognizethissimpletruth-whentheydiscussit
amongthemselves. Aformersovietjournalistand
editorofaMoscowreview,nowarefugeeinFrance,
related,inthecourseofalecture,thepurport of a
conversationwhichhehadhadwiththePresidentof
theEconomicCounciloftheGeorgianSovietRepublic
whentheyweretravellingtogetherinGeorgia . They
discussedatlengththebreedingofsheep,thatone
wealthofthecountry,whichwasdailydecreasing,and
finally,tosumuptheentirequestion,thepresident,a
veryprominentCommunist,exclaimeddespairingly
"Butwhatcanwedo,myfriend,sincethisdamned
sheepwillnotenduresocialism !"
Noristhesheepaloneinthispeculiarity !
III
TheDefeatsandProblemsofIndustry
InthetimeofLenin,thefirstresultsof "stateized"
economics-directedinaccordancewithcommunistpre-
cepts-verysoonrevealedthemselvesasdisastrous
.
The" Glavki
"
knewneitherhowtoorganizenorhow
tomanage,andonlysucceededinrapidlyruiningand
dispersingthepossessionsoftheoldregime
. Withthe
21 0
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIALFIELD
inaugurationoftheNewEconomicPolicy,although
thebreathoffreedom,orofaveryrelativefreedom,
wasmuchmoreapparentinagriculturethaninnational-
izedtrade,thislatterwasnotslowtoevidenceaper-
ceptiblemeasureofrecovery.
Stalin,onhisaccessiontopower,cutshortthis
recoveryandreinstatedtheentireeconomicsystem
initsinitialrigidity . Animmediaterelapsewasthe
result. Thistimetheremedywassoughtinaheavydose
ofthediseaseitselfandthereemergedthecelebrated
FiveYearPlanof1 928 .
Andletusonceandforall,atthisjuncture,avoida
mistakethatistoooftenmade,andletusunderstand
onethingthoroughly : thefundamentalaim ofthePlan
containednothingharmful,nothingcommunistic,and
nothingnew.
What,afterall,isthesumofthefivefatvolumes
whichexpoundtheFiveYearPlan?
Themaster-idea
thatthecentreofgravityofnationaleconomymustbe
shiftedfromagriculturetotrade: oncetheexecution
ofthePlanwascompleted,theannualyieldoftrade
wouldrisefrom 1 8 to43thousandmillionroubles,while
theforecastfortheagriculturalyieldonlyenvisageda
risefrom
1
7to26thousandmillions. Themereun-
foldingoftheprojectarousedrespectfuladmiration
abroad,eventhatofcertainforeignspecialists. But
anyonewhoisintheleastfamiliarwiththeeconomic
historyofRussia,canimmediatelygraspthefactthatthe
processusvisualizedbytheBolsheviksisnoneotherthan
thatwhichhadbeendevelopingbeforethewarever
sincetheendofthenineteenthcentury .
Afewfigureswillservetoclarifythiseconomicfact.
Duringthethreeyearswhichprecededthewar,the
populationofthetownsincreasedatarateof6oo,ooo
inhabitantsperyear
. Theproductionofthefoundries
21 1
UNDERTHE
BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
rosefrom1 83millionsofpoundsin1 9 1 0 to283millions
in1 91 3
. Themakingofmachinerydoubledbetween
1 9o8and1 91 3 . In1 91 3Russiawasalreadyableto
provideherselfwiththree-quartersofherrequirements
inmanufacturedgoods,andoutoftheotherquarter
whichsheimported63percentconsistedofmachinesand
tools,againstonly31 percentofobjectsfordirect
consumption.
Thesearenotthefiguresofanyconcerted "plan "
butofacomparativelyrecentreality . TheBolsheviks
thereforehavesimplywishedtoimposeupontheir
"stateized
"economythesameevolutionthattheyhad
wipedouttenyearsearlierwhenengagedinkilling
freenationaleconomy .
Yetthereremainsbetweentherealityofthepastand
the "plans" ofto-dayonevitallyimportantdifference
.
Andthatisthatthepre-wardevelopmentwasthecon-
sequence,theindicationandtheproofofthegeneral
increasingprosperityofthecountry
: itwasmerelythe
resultofthefreeinterplayofeconomicforces,without
anyforeignintrusion
. Therewasinitnothingun-
healthyorartificial,andthatwaspreciselywhyitwas
leadingthecountrytowardsprosperityandwell-being
.
TheFiveYearPlan,onthecontrary,borewithinitselfa
morbidafterthought :
behinditseconomicaimitcon-
cealedpoliticalintentionsbothunhealthyandvicious.
Foroncloseanalysis,itprovedtobeessentiallyapolitical
enterprisedestinedtoequipthePartyandtheComintern
withaviewtoaneconomicandmilitarycampaignof
aggressionagainst"
thebourgeoisandcapitalistworld. "
Itgoeswithoutsayingthatveryheavyexpenditure
hasgonetotheputtingonitsfeetoftheFiveYearPlan.
Thiswillbeapparentifweproceedtoabriefexposeof
its " financialcarcase. "
ThePlanasawholewasexpectedtoentail64thousand
21 2
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL FIELD
millionsofroublesofinvestmentsofwhich1 3wereto
befurnishedbythepeasants, 2I-5 bytheStateBudget,
loans,etc. ,and 2g-5 weretobefishedoutofthereturns
of "stateized" economy. Whencewerethesereturns
expectedtocome? Theyappearedtobeassuredbya
skilfulmanipulationofthecostpriceandtheselling
priceoftheproductsoftheStateIndustries. The
authorsoftheplotdeclared,infact,withoutattempting
anyexplanation,thatthecostpriceswouldfallby7per
centeachyear,sothatthereductionwouldhavereached
thefigureof35percentattheexpirationofthePlan .
Andthesellingprices,werethesetorise?Notatall ;
afallwaspromised,butonlyof
20
percent,sothat
therewouldremainthat1 5percentwhichwastobe
themagicalsourceofwealth. Towhatextent,then,
didthereckoningsofthePlanfindtheirjustificationin
fact?Inotherwords,inwhatmeasuredidtheBol-
shevikssucceed in conqueringtheobstaclesthatarose
intheirpath?
Forobstaclessprangupfromalldirectionsthemore
formidableinthattheirprimaryoriginlayintheregime
itself
Thedefectsoftechnicaldirection,whichwehave
alreadymentioned,affordusastrikingexampleinthis
connection. Let ' usnotforgetthatundertheregime
ofthePlanthesedefectsbecomeahundredtimesmore
serious. Itwouldbefutiletonourishanygreatexpecta-
tionsif,thePlanoncelaunched,nohighlevelhasbeen
attainedinthedisciplineoflabourorhighdegreeof
precisionintheentire"economicmechanism . "The
Bolsheviks,inanycase,hadrecoursetoforeigntech-
nicians,inwhomtheyfeltmoreconfidencebothfrom
thestandpointofpoliticalloyalty(particularlywhen
comparedwithelderlyRussianengineers)andfrom
thatofcompetence(particularlywhencomparedwith
21 3
UNDERTHEBOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
youngengineersofsoviettraining) . Itisestimatedthat
atleastfivethousandforeignspecialists(chieflyGermans
andAmericans)wereemployedinthevarioussoviet
industrieswhichwereengagedintheexecutionofthe
firstFiveYearPlan . Nevertheless,aswasonlytobe
expected,thesespecialistsprovedpowerlesstoalterthe
generalstateofaffairs ; onthecontrary,theirpersonal
activitywentdownbeforeitandwasfrequentlypara-
lysed. Certainforeignengineers,moreconscientious
thanothers,endedbyresigningtheirpositionsand
returninghome,feelingthatthebadorganizationof
tradepreventedthemfromusefullyapplyingtheir
knowledge. Finally,duringthelastthreeyearsorso,
theBolsheviks,havingrunshortofforeigncurrencies,
haveseizeduponanypockettorepudiatethecontracts
whichtheyhavesignedwithforeigners,orelse,contrary
totheclausesinthesecontracts,theybegintopay
salariesinsovietmoney,andseeingthemselvesthus
deceived,theforeigntechniciansdeserttheirposts.
Thequestionoflabourisnotlessthorny.
The
operatives,badlydisciplined,poorandignorant,always
wanderingfromonefactorytoanother,areutterly
incapable,asarethemanagers,oftakingadvantageof
themodernequipmentswhichhavebeeninstalledat
thecostofthecruelprivationsimposeduponthepeople.
Ifweaddtothisthedearthandthewasteofrawmaterial
andthedefectivefunctioningoftransport,weshallcome
totheconclusionthattheFiveYearPlanhadverylittle
chanceofsuccess.
Isitnecessarytoquotetheofficialfigureswithregard
tothePlan'sexecution ?
Weproposetodosoina
laterchapterinwhichweshallattempttoformageneral
judgmentupontheeconomicexperienceoftheSoviets
.
Forthemomentourtaskistoascertaintowhatextent
wecanrelyuponofficialsovietstatistics
. Withthis
24
SOVIET ACTION
IN
MATERIAL FIELD
purpose,wewillturntoasourcewhosecompetenceat
anyratecannotbecontested : thestatementsofthe
mastersoftheKremlin. Itwouldbeeasytocollect
veryenlighteningtestimonyfromthespeechesmadeby
theleadersatthelastCongressoftheParty,inFebruary
1 934,andattheCongressoftheSovietsinFebruary
1 935
. Butinordertodiscoverageneralappreciation
whichreallyreservestheproblem,wecannotdobetter
thanturnourattentiontothePartyConferenceof
January1 932. Atthatconferencethecommunist
chiefswereforthefirsttimecompelledtoconsiderthe
generalaspectsoftheexecutionofthefirstFiveYear
Planwhichhadjustreachedthebeginningofitsfinal
year. Insomuchasconcernedtheactivitiesof1 931
(thepenultimateyearofthePlan),whichhadbeen
expectedtoprovideanincreaseoftradeprofitsexceeding
thoseofthepreviousyearby42percent,itwasadmitted
thattheincreasehadonlyamountedto24 . 3percent ;
thatistosay,slightlyoverone-halfofthefigurehoped
forandprescribed.
Butwhatwasmuchmoreseriouswasthatthereporters
attheconferencewereobligedtoconfessthatthe
balancesheetinquestionhadbeenbaseduponvery
doubtfulstatistics,owingtothefactthatamultitudeof
enterpriseshadfalsifiedtheirreturns,eitherbyreckoning
goodsinthecourseofmanufactureasalreadydelivered,
byincludingoldstocksamongnewoutput,bylargely
exaggeratingthevalueoftheiroutput,orfinallyby
concealingwasteandfaultyproduce.
Thisverification-themostauthoritativethatcould
bemade-iscorroboratedbyinnumerablestatements
inthesovietpress,concerningthechaosexistingin
variousfactoriesandtrades : theirtalewouldfill
volumes. Wewillquoteafewexamples .
Therepairoftractorsinthespringof1 935 "showed
21 5
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
inexcusable delays," declared Pravda (February 4th,
1 935) .
Accordingtodistrictsonly30to6opercent
werereadyonthe1 stofFebruary,andinMiddleAsia
thispercentageofrepairedtractorsvariedfrom22to
35.
Notlongagothemanagerofatypewritingmachine
factorywasprosecutedinPetrograd ; thisfactoryhad
inthecourseofoneyearmanufacturedfivetypewriters
whichhadcosttheState 500,000 roubles. According
to
Izvestia ofDecember1 7th,1 934,theexperimental
factoryofthePharmaceuticalTrusthadonlyaccom-
plished36percentofitsprogrammeofproduction .
Finally,oneofthemoststrikingexamples,andonewhich
clearlydemonstratesthetruevalueofthetriumphant
announcementsinthesovietpress,isaffordedbythe
caseofthe "
Uralmache"factory,animmense" com-
binedfactory"fortheconstructionofmachinery,
situatedintheUraldistrict,andwhoseequipment,
importedfromabroad,representedthelastwordin
technique. OnJuly1 4th,1 934, Pravda proclaimedthe
" gloriousvictories " ofthis "factoryoffactories. "
Thirteendayslaterwereadinthelocalpaper, TheUral
Workman, thatthissame "giantofheavyindustry"
hasbeensince1 928monopolized(how?)byagroupof
counter-revolutionaryengineerswhohavesystematically
destroyeditsoutputandhaveendedbysettingfiretoa
partofthefactory.
Theoutput,deficientastoquantity,isfurtherhandi-
cappedbyaformidablepercentageofbadworkmanship .
Certainreportsinthisrespectarealmostincredible.
Aboutfouryearsago,Herrjust,awell-knownGerman
journalistwhowasatthattimeinsympathywiththe
Bolsheviks,describedinthecolumnsofthe Koelnische
Zeitung
ajourneywhichhehadmadeintheU . S. S. R.
Hespokeatlength,andinenthusiasticterms,ofthe
marvellousventilationinstalledinthegreatStalingrad
21 6
foundryproduces97percento
ProletarianTruthpointedoutso
caseofthefourthbootands
whichtheentireoutputwas
enterprisecosttheStateio,o
Thehopelesslybadqualityo
edlytheinherentscourgeofs
where,inSiberia,intheDonet
wecomeuponthesefearsome
manship. Moscowanditsn
centreofIvanovo,donotescap
1 934)pointedoutthatthe
factoryinthe U. S. S. R
. , nic
Ivanovo,"hadinFebruary1 93
70percentoffaultyoutputfro
Onthelastdayofthemonth,
pletedthemonthlytallyinape
bydiscarding86percentofi
morerecentexample
. Accord
ber4th,1 934,theglassfacto
facturedtwomillionbottles
coveredwithamultitudeofli
anyofthesebottleswerefilled
thepressure,andtheliquidw
ofglass
. The" secret " ofthe
byaconsumerofthisinteresti
In1 935thesovietpresscon
examplesofthisdescription.
generalestimate,competents
centageoffaultyoutputthrou
oftheU . S. S. R. at20to25pe
textileindustryforthepartic
ofitsproduction, Pravda (Au
withmuchcommonsense,to
21 7
foundry,concludingwiththebriefremark
: "This
imperfectwork. "The
etimeagotheamazing
oefactoryatKiev,of
seless. Thisprodigious
roublesperdiem.
productionisundoubt-
vieteconomy. Every-
,
atKiev,atLeningrad,
tatisticsoffaultywork-
ighbour,theindustrial
. Izvestia (Marchi2th,
mostimportanttextile
named"theprideof
recordedanaverageof
itsweavingworkshops
.
February28th,itcom-
uliarlyeloquentmanner
output
. Hereisayet
ngto Izvestia
ofSeptem-
atOurchelskymanu-
hoseinnersurfacewas
tlebubbles
. Assoonas
thebubblesbrokeunder
smixedwithfragments
ebottleswasdiscovered
glemonade.
nuestogiveusconstant
Sofarasconcernsany
ecialistsplacetheper-
houttheentireindustry
cent. Reproachingthe
larlylamentablequality
ust7th,1 935)invitesit,
dopt,assoonaspossible,
I .
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
theprocessesusedbythetextilefactoriesofEngland
Andthisafterseveralyearsofpropagandawiththe
slogan,"
Wearegoingsoontocatchupandleave
behindEnglandandAmerica
. "Thesovietnewspaper
forgetstorecommendatthesametimetheapplication
ofsalaryscalesusedtowardsEnglishworkmen.
Wehavealreadymentionedthelamentablecondition
oftransportation,anditisnecessarytodwellingreater
detailuponthissubject
. Itrepresentsoneofthemost
characteristic "sectors "
ofthesoviet " economicfront,"
andmoreoverthesubjecthasacquiredaspecialimport-
ancesince,forreasonsofinternationalpolicy,Europe
hastakenakeeninterestintheprobablefuturestrength
oftheRedArmyinaction-anactionwhichbothfrom
thestandpointofstrategyandthatofvictuallingmust
necessarilylargelydependupontransportation
. Here
thenareafewbriefnotesdealingwiththisquestion
.
Beforethewar,theRussianrailways,thoughcovering
arelativelysmallarea,neverthelessprovidedavery
dependablesystemofcommunications,andwereex-
tendingrapidly
. Duringthelastdecadeofthenine-
teenthcentury,agreatperiodofrailroadconstruction,
23,000 kilometresofnewlineswerelaidanddevelopment
wascontinuous. Duringthedurationofthewar,alone,
intwoandahalfyears, II,oookilometreswereeither
completedorconstructed. Inadditiontothis,among
the
1 8,3oo kilometresbroughtintousebetween 1 91 8
and 1 928, thevastmajorityrepresentedenterprises
begunandcontinuedbeforetheRevolution
. Thecon-
structionofrollingstockkeptpacewiththisactivity
ontheeveoftheGreatWarRussiawasinaposition
toproduce400carriagesdaily ;
thePoutilovfactoryin
St. Petersburgalonewasturningout
200 goodstrucks
and5passengercoachesaday,aswellas
3o express
enginesand45ordinaryenginesamonth
.
21 8
SOVIET
ACTION IN ATERIAL FIELD
ThefirstFiveYearPlanpro
of1 5,oookilometresofrailro
materialized,ofwhich,again,
forexploitationintheir"provis
rollingstock,theeffortsmade,t
werebynomeansadequate.
ultimateyearofthefirstFive
ofgoodstrucksamountedto
figuresanticipatedforthat
foundthemselvescompelled
urgentdeliveryof9,000trucks
ofthatwhichhasbeenprodu
thePlanisthesubjectofcon
AtthelastCongressofthe
veryseriousremonstranceswe
roadsbyStalinhimselfand
ChiefoftheRedArmy,Vor
conditionagravedangertoso
ofwar. Vorochilovrepeated
morehotly,attheCongress
Then,inMarch1 935,Stalin
Commissariatforrailroads
closestcollaborator,Kaganov
theParty(somehaveseenint
ofhislossoftheDictator'sfa
toking overhisnewduties,
whichrevealedsomestaggers
thereoccurred62,000cata
5,000enginesand64,000
destroyedordamaged,whil
theselatteramountedtoonly
firstmonthsof1 935,acciden
frequent. Othersovietsourc
theseaccidents : ofhundreds
wounded. Welearnalsoofs
21 9
dedfortheconstruction
d,ofwhichonly6,6oo
2,200werehandedover
onalstate. "Asregards
oughveryconsiderable,
Thusin1 931 (thepen-
earPlan),thebuilding
my 37percentofthe
earandtheBolsheviks
oapproachBerlinfor
Moreover,thequality
edundertheregimeof
tantcomplaint.
Party(February
1 934)
eaddressedtotherail-
bytheCommander-in-
chilov,whosawintheir
ietstrategyintheevent
hisremonstrances,even
oftheSovietsin
1 935
d ppointedasheadofthe
ndcommunicationshis
tch,secondsecretaryto
isappointmentevidence
our) . Kaganovitch,on
ublisheda "
manifesto
"
gfigures : during1 934,
trophesandaccidents
;
railwaycarriageswere
theannualoutputof
1 9,ooo. Duringthetwo
shavebeenevenmore
stellusofthevictimsof
ofdeadandthousandsof
chcasesasthefollowing
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
atonerailwaystationduringthenightofNovember
1 3th, 1 934, fourtrainshadtobetakenoffforlackof
lanternsamongtherailwaystaff.
TheeffortsofKaganovitchhavenotgivenserious
results. Hehasconfessedithimselfinhisspeechof
August
1 935. IntheregionofOrenburgalonethere
were284 accidentsinApril
1 934,3 23
inMayand1 69
duringthefirstfortnightofJune. Scarcely50percent
oftrainsleavebythehoursmarkedonthetime-table,
statedKaganovitch; heprefersnottomentionthe
hoursofarrivalandlimitshimselftothefollowing
declaration : "Onourrailwaysthenotionoftime
doesnotexistyet . "
Thefluvialtransportationisevenmoredefectivethan
therailways,ifwearetobelievethesovietpapers,who
supporttheirallegationsbyalongfileofeloquentfacts.
Theconditionsoftransportationonlyservetoempha-
sizethedeficienciesinherentinall "stateized"
econo-
mics,whicharemoreparticularlyglaringinallthose
fields,suchastransportation,inwhichsomuchdepends
upontheinterdependenceofvariousbranches,and
which,moreover,requireconstantvigilanceandindi-
vidualinitiative.
ThisisalsothereasonwhytheSovietsmeetwithmuch
greaterdifficultiesinthelightindustriesthaninthe
heavyindustries .
Nordotheselatterinanycaseproceedwithout
infiniteobstacles. ComradePiatakov,AssistantCom-
missaryforHeavyIndustries,hashimselfseverely
criticizedthelabouroftheirfactories . Speakingpar-
ticularlyoftheUralfactoriesatEkaterinburg,ata
directors'meeting,hesaid : "Wordsfailmetodescribe
themethodswhichareinforceinthebrassindustry
.
Forinstance,thefactoryatKrasno-Ouralsk,which
shouldbeextracting 83 percentofthemetalfromthe
220
SOVIET ACTION IN
mineralactuallyobtainsbut6
tivesofthissamefactoryhavin
andbrushup " beforeanantici
out8ootonsoffilthfromtheir
(see ForIndustrialization, Marc
In May1 935,atasitting
Industries,thissamePiatakov
andquotedthelossesowingto
in1 934vitiatedtheworkof
productionconnectedwithhi
tractorindustrythetotalo
amountedto75millionsofroub
directlyunderthesupervision
49millions,etc. etc
. Inthe
centageof"throw-outs" in I
precedingyear (ForIndustriali
Evenbetterthan bystatistic
tionsummedupbytheChi
structionsTrustinSiberia,i
madeonedaywhenconvers
Moscownewspaper
"Allowmetotellyouplai
ofthecountry ; thestaffalon
millionsinoneyear,andweh
ofthreemillions
. Welackt
labourandtechnicalexperts
badlyandareconstantlyco
havejustcompleted. "
Insuchconditionsasthese,
sovietstatisticsconcerningthe
Planmustberegardedaspurel
fictitious
. Wecannowunder
doubtsexpresseduponthissu
enceinJanuary1 932 . The
uponaseriesofprobabilities
221
ATERIAL FIELD
percent. "Theopera-
decidedupona "wash

atedinspection,cleared
orkshopsandbuildings
I5th,1 934)
ftheCouncilofHeavy
renewedhiscomplaints
faultyproductionwhich
thevariousbranchesof
Commissariat : inthe
faultyproductionhad
es ; inthegreatfactories
oftheCommissariat,to
ractorindustrytheper-
34exceededthatofthe
ation, MayIIth, 1
935)
andrecordsisthesitua-
fEngineeroftheCon-
astatementwhichhe
ngwiththeeditorofa
y :
wearetheparasites
ofourtrusthascost 1 0
veonlybuilttothevalue
ematerials,specialized
Webuildabominably
pelledtoalterwhatwe
tisself-apparentthatthe
orkingoftheFiveYear
arbitraryandpractically
tandthefullextentofthe
jectatthePartyconfer-
figuresareindeedbased
ndaboveallofenigmas
UNDERTHEBOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
whichdonotlendthemselvestotheformationofany
seriousestimates
. Andthisappliesnotonlytothe
returnfromindustries,tothequalityoftheiroutput
andtothepercentageoffaultyproductionsandwastage,
butalsotothemonetaryunit-thesovietrouble-the
unitwhichisusedinconnectionwiththerealizationof
thePlan,butwhichinitselfisonlyfictitiousandrests
uponnogenuinefoundation
.
Itisalsoobviousthatthewasteintheindustriesputs
anyreductionofcostpricesoutofthequestion
; fre-
quently,indeed,wenotetheirascendingmovement,and
thenetresultoftheseconditionsisthatthefinancial
carcaseofthefirstFiveYearPlantogetherwiththatof
thesecond,whichsucceededit,aredecomposingvisibly
.
Anymeasureofsuccesswhichmayhaveattendedthese
plansisduetoquiteothercircumstancesandquite
differentproceedings,whichwillbedealtwithinalater
chapter.
IV
TheOnlyCountrywithoutUnemployment
Wehavealreadyseen,inanearlierchapter,thatthe
operativeshaverecentlybeendispossessedofthepre-
ponderancewhichtheyhadenjoyedoverthepeasant
populationwithrespecttothevalueoftheirvoteatthe
sovietelections
. Thispreponderance,althoughasillu-
siveastheelectionsthemselves,wasneverthelessnot
withoutitsmoralimportance
. Andyettheentire
doctrineandhistoryofthePartyandoftheU
. S. S. R.
itself,thepartplayedbytheoperativesthemselvesin
theconsolidationoftheregime,thefactthattheyform
thechiefforcesoftheParty,guaranteethem,whatever
maybetheirrelationswiththeinnermosthierarchyof
thatParty,aprivilegedsituationinthe "Operative's
andPeasant'sState. "
222
SOVIET
ACTION IN M TERIAL FIELD
Butacloserinspectionoftelivingconditionsof
these "ewelambs
" oftheregiemayleadustosome
veryunforeseenconclusions .
Allauthoritiesareagreedinvaluing,in1 935,the
averagemonthlysalaryofanoperativeintheU . S. S. R
.
atbetween1 5oand1 7oroubles . Buttherearemany
formsofemploymentwhichonlyearn7oroubles,andan
ordinarymalenursereceivesonly55roublesamonth
.
Itisuselesstodwellupontheextremeinadequacyof
thissalaryaftertheestimatewhichwehavealready
madeofthenetvalueofthesovietrouble
. Wewillonly
remarkthatthisyearthepositionoftheoperativeisyet
morewretchedthanitwasintheprecedingyears
. For
theincreaseofsalarieswhichtookplaceatthebeginning
of1 935wasnotsufficienttobalancetheincreasedcost
ofbread ;
infact,afterthesaleofbreadwastransferred
fromtheco-operativestothe"
commercial " shops,its
priceincreasedbymorethan
1 0o percent. Itisthere-
forenotastonishingthatthesuppressionoffood-cards
forbread,whilesparingthefamilieslonghoursofwait-
inginqueuesbeforetheshops,hasbeenthecausein
variousdistrictsofbitterrecriminationsandcomplaints.
TheendofJune1 935bringsusonemoreinteresting
statementinregardtothisquestion . Thefollowing
statisticswereestablishedinthefactoryofKamensky,
nearMoscow,wherefourthousandwomenareem-
ployed
. Duringthefirstsixmonthsoftheyear
1 934,
onfivenormalchild-birthsthereweretwomiscarriages
;
atthesameperiodintheyear1 935themiscarriages
equalledthenormalchild-births
. Onesearchedforthe
reasonandfoundthatin1 934
" thetariffs,"otherwise
thefixedwages,allowedtheworkingwomantolead
moreorlessa"soviet-life" ; thepregnantwomanhad
thusalltheadvantageoftheleaveofabsenceaccorded
beforethechild-birth,as "
thetariffs " continuedtobe
223
UNDER THEBOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
paidduringthelastweeksofpregnancy. Butthisyear
the"tariffs "
givenopossibilitiesforliving ; inorder
to " makeendsmeet
" theworkwomanisobligedto
undertakeasupplementarytaskwhichisremunerated
byadditionalwages
. Thussheoftenconcealsher
conditionandworksuntilthelasthour ; sometimes
childrenwerebornatthefactorynearthemachines .
Letus,moreover,quotetheopinionofanimpartial
witness,Mr
. Knickerbocker,who,duringthespringof
1 935,
calculatedthatinordertoensurehisscanty
weeklyfood,thesovietworkmanmustworkseventeen
hoursandahalf,thatistosay,twoandahalfdays,
whiletheAmericanworkmanearnshisrationsfora
weekwithonlyfourhours'dailylabour.
Toconcludethisquestionoftheearningoffoodwe
willgiveanexamplethatisverycharacteristicofthe
atmosphereinwhichthesovietworkmaneatshismeals
.
Hereisapicture,paintedby SocialistAgriculture
in
January 1 935, oftherestaurantofatractorworkshop
Thewallsoftheshedinwhichitisestablishedare
coveredwithhoarfrost ; thechinaiswashedinadirty
woodenvat ; theflooriscoveredwithspittleandcigar-
etteends ; steamandsmokestingtheeyes ; thebare
tablesarecoatedwithathicklayerofgreaseandfilth
;
thesoup_ frequentlycontainshairsorpiecesofplaster
thathavefallenfromtheceiling.
Herrjust,correspondentofthe Koelnische,Zeitung,
observedthatatStalingradmanyoftheoperatives
avoidedtheirdinnerinthefactoryrestaurantandpre-
ferredtognawahunchofdrybread
. Andyetthese
werespecialworkmenattachedtothetractorfactory
andenjoyingprivilegedtreatment .
Theyear 1 935
markedadesertioninmassesbythe
workmenfromthefactory-restaurants
. Accordingto
Izvestia (August24th, 1 935), insuchindustrialcentresas
224
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL FIELD
Kharkoff,Tcheliabinskandothers,thoserestaurants
havelost4oto45percentoftheirclients . Asa
resultofthisthestateenterprise "publicfood-supply"
registeredduringthefirstthreemonthsofthisyeara
deficitofmorethan1 5millions . Theworkmenrefuse
thebenefitsofferedtothembythe "publicfood-
supply"andprefertopreparethefoodathome
.
Thenwhydidtheygototherestaurantsbefore?
Becausetheyusedtoreceive2oogrammesofbreadfree
ofcost,inadditiontothatwhichtheyobtainedwith
theirfood-cards. Now,afterthedisappearanceofthe
rationcards,the
200
grammesfreeofcostaresuppressed,
andwithoutthemtherestaurantslosetheironly
attraction. Enormoussumsspenttoestablishthe
" cooking-factories " and " workmen'srestaurants "
weremerelythrownaway. Thesefactsprovethe
sterilityoftheefforts madebythemastersofthecountry
to "communizelife" ; theyshowalsothegeneral
conditionsexperiencedbythesovietworker,forwhom
2oogrammesofbreadisofsomuchimportance
.
Asfortheirlivingquarters,inonesinglenumberof
the WorkingMan'sGazette
fourworking-men'shouses
arementionedasthreateningtocollapse
. Evenmore
significantisthereportofameetingoftheoperativesof
Stalingradwhichispublishedby
For Industrialization,
March4th,1 935. "Inourhouses,"statesaworkman,
"therearecracksthrough whichonecanalmostpass
one'shead
. Wesufferfromthecold ; thedrainage
pipeshaveburstandspreadinfectioneverywhere. "
Afteralongseriesofcomplaintsofthisdescription,the
presidentcouldthinkofnothingbettertosaythanthat
theattitudeofthoseattendingthemeetingledhim
to
feelthathisbestcoursewastoclosethedebate
; the
meetingthereuponcametoanend .
Izvestia (Marchloth,1 935)quotedthecaseofan
225

P
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
operative'shomeatIcheliabinskwhichhadbeen
invadedby "criminalswhohadnothingincommonwith
thefactory,buthadsettleddownthere,whilethieves
arrivingfromothertownsuseditasanhotel
. "
Thelivingconditionsoftheoperativesarefrequently
productiveofvicessuchastheft,drunkenness,brawls
anddebauches. Thesovietpaperscomplainofthis
factalmostdaily.
Wherethenisthat
"
skilledlabour " whoseprodigious
developmenthasbeentheconstantsubjectofsomuch
sovietpropagandaabroad ?
Atarecentmeetingof
theworkersoftheheavyindustriesComradeKossarev
quotedastrikingexample. HestatedthatatMagnito
gorsk,thesyndicateofthebuildingpossesseda " cultural
fund "
of 400,000
roublesperannum ; ofthissum,
324,000roubleswereexpendeduponthesalariesof
"skilledworkmen
"
ofvariousdescriptions(thatisto
say,upontheparasitesoftheParty) .
Itgoeswithoutsayingthattheworkmencannothope
tosaveanyportionoftheirownsalariesforthesatis-
factionoftheirmentalneeds . Itmustbebornein
mindthateventheirmeagreearningsarefurtherdimin-
ishedbycompulsoryreductionswhichamounttonot
lessthan1 5percentoftheirsalaries
.
Tobeginwith,insomuchasconcernstheStateloans,
ForIndustrialization onApril1 5th,1 934,attemptedto
drawupabalancesheetofthethousandsofmillions
thusextortedfromtheunhappyworkersoftheU. S. S. R.
andprimarilyfromtheoperatives . " Atthemoment
ofenteringupontherealizationoftheFirstFiveYear
Plan,"thispaperinformsus, "theStatehasissuedafirst
industrializationloanamountingto 200 millionsof
roubles
. Thesecondindustrializationloan(500millions
ofroubles)followedit . Latercamethethirdindus-
trializationloanamountingto829millions,theloan
226
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL
FIELD
`for the Five Year Plan in Four
Years 'which
accountedforthesumof I,o25 millions,theloan`for
thethirdanddecisiveyear ' of1 ,934. millions
; that
forthefourthandfinalyear '
of2,logmillions,and
finallythefirstsliceofthe `
loanfortheSecondFive
YearPlan
' of3,21 4. millions
. Ournewloan,the
secondsliceoftheloanfortheSecondFiveYearPlan
whichamountsto 3,500
millionsofroubles,isto
guaranteeaseventhoftheinvestmentsprovidedfor
inthePlanofimmenseworksin1 934 .
. "Tothis
balancesheetmustbeaddedin1 935 - anewloanof
threethousandfivehundredmillionswhich,likeits
predecessors, "ishailedwithvastenthusiasmbythe
workers,"ifwearetobelievethesovietpress . Inany
case,thisloan,anddoubtlessalsotheenthusiasm,made
theiranticipatory. appearanceintheU
. S. S. R
. budget
forthepresentyear,undertheheadingof : "mobiliza-
tionofthepeople'sresources . "
Thereareobviouslyothercompulsorypayments,
; uchasthat "forAviationandChemistry,"thattothe
InternationalAssociationforAssistingRevolution-
iries," "foraidingthosewhofightfortherevolution
. nSpain,"etc. etc.
Inadditiontothese,theworkersoftenmeetwith
onsiderabledelaysin-thepaymentoftheirdues . For
Industrialization,
inApril1 935,relatesthatthehandsof
; he sovkhozes ofthelargeKouznetzkfactoryhadbeen
ceptwaitingthreemonthsfortheirsalaries,andmean-
Nhileweregiventhreeorfiveroublesfromtimetotime.
Intheautumnof1 935thePresscontinuedtopublish
: actsofthesamekind.
Thisstateofaffairspermits us toappreciateattheir
: ruevaluethesumptuousstatementsmadebythe
3olsheviksatinternationalconferencesandsooften
-epeatedintheWesterncommunistpress,totheeffect
227
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
thattheU . S. S. R. istheonlycountryintheworld
exemptfromthescourgeofunemployment . The
Sovietsseektouseitasasubjectforpropagandaand
toofferitasaproofoftheeconomicprosperityofthe
U. S. S. R. , whichthusaffordsastrikingcontrasttc
"worm-eatenandexpiringcapitalisteconomics. "In
realitythereisnotonlyacompleteabsenceofunem-
ploymentinthe U. S. S. R. , thereisaseriousscarcityof
industriallabour,resultingfromthefactthatthe
populaceoftheruraldistricts,eventhoughtheirpoverty
iscruelandtheirnumberexcessive,utterlyrefusetogc
andworkinstateizedfactories. Ifunemploymentis
indeednon-existentintheU . S. S. R. , theGovernment
haslittlereasontoboastofthefact .
Tormentedbypoverty,molested,exploitedandper-
secuted,thepeasantneverthelessretainsagreaterfaith
inthebeneficentearththaninthosefavourswithwhich
theBolsheviksloadthefactoryworkers.
Onlyasmall
portionof"thefloatingpopulation" oftheruraldistricts
makesupitsmindtoenlistinthesovietindustries . '
Eventhentheserecruitsdonotremaininoneplace
butwanderperpetuallyfromonefactorytoanother,
Thisphenomenon,recordedeverywhereundertheterm
"fluidityoflabour,"isnottheleastofthescourgeswhich
afflictsovietindustry ; theoutputoftheoperativesandthe
disciplineofthefactoriessufferseverelyfromitandfinally
thetrainingofskilledworkmenbecomesimpossible.
InthisconnectionwecanquoteanarticlebyComrade
Rubinstein,publishedinthereview The Bolshevik,
April1 5th,1 934. Thisarticlemoreoverdrawsapic-
'This situation
is demonstrated by astatementpublishedb)
Pravda onJanuary1 5th,1 935. Accordingtothatpaper,thereis
inMoscowthe "permanentrepresentation " oftheadministra.
tionoftheOulan-Oudenlocomotivefactory ; the "representa-
tion
"spent,duringtheperiodOctober-December1 934,
1 93,00(
roublesoftheirfund
forthe hiringoflabour.
228
SOVIET ACTION,INMATERIALFIELD
tureasstrikingasitisinstructiveoftheambiencein
whichtheoperativesofacountrygovernedby "
the
powerofoperativesandpeasants " hastoliveand
labour. Thistimethesceneisonceagainthehuge
Magnitogorskfactory,whichis "oneofthegreatest
triumphsofthesocialiststructure. "Onewouldscarcely
lookelsewhereforamorejoyfulpicture.
One oftheprincipalscourgesoftheMagnitogorskfactory
[Rubinsteinwrites]isthefluidityofthehands. Donotletus
evenspeakoftheconstructiondepartmentsinwhich,inthecourse
offouryears,thenumberofoperativeswhohavehadtobereplaced
hasamountedtotenorfifteentimesthatwhichisemployedat
anygiventime. Butamongtheexploitationhandsfluidityisof
equalimportance. Uptothepresentdatenoactualstatisticshave
beenpreparedonthissubject,butinanycaseduringtheyear
1 933thefluidityhasnotbeenlessthanioopercent . According
tothefiguresgivenataconferenceofthePartyatMagnitogorsk,
thetwelvelocomotivesemployedinmineraltransporthave,in
thespaceoftwoyears,changedtheirmechanicsfourhundredand
sixtytimes. In therepairshops,duringthesameperiod,more
than 200,000 workmenhavebeenemployedsuccessivelyon
seventymachines.
Inthecokeshopwefoundthefourteenth
managerincommand. Examplesofthisnatureabound
.
Theprincipalcauseoffluidityliesinthetremendousdelayin
theconstructionofhousesandinothermattersdestinedtosupply
thedailyneedsoftheworkers. Magnitogorskatpresentnumbers
morethan 200,000 inhabitants,andyet,properlyspeaking,the
townofMagnitogorskisstillnon-existent. Onlyasmallpor-
tionofthepopulationliveinthestonehouseswhichformthe
alleged "socialisttown,"atitlewhich,itwasproposedatarecent
conferenceoftheParty,shouldnotbeappliedtothiscolonyfor
fearofcompromisingtheveryideaofasocialisttown . Thehouses
arescandalouslybuilt. Thewateranddrainsarenotproperly
installed. Hardlyhavethetenantssettledinbuttheymustpro-
ceedtorepairs.
Themainportionoftheoperativesliveinshedscoveringan
immenseareaandhavingrathertheaspectofacampthanthat
ofhabitationsformenwhoforalongtimepasthaveboundthem-
selvestooneofthemostpowerfulandperfectedofsocialistenter-
prises. . . . Inmostofthesehovels,bugs,dirtandrefuserule
theroost.
Onalevelwiththeseshockinghousingconditionsarethe defici-
229
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK
UNIFORM
encies in the victualling
oftheoperatives,andthisdefect
goes
fartoincreasethefluidityoflabour.
Mostofthetimethecook-
ingintherestaurantsisrepulsive ;
therearepracticallynoclean
orwell-lightedplacesinwhichtoeat
. Communistinvestigation
-hasrevealedthatthievesandswindlers
hadwormedtheirway
intotheoperatives'victualdepartment .
InthegreatcombinedworkshopofMagnitogorsk
literallynot
onedaygoesbywithoutabreakdownoran
accident. Thebrass
industryoftheUralisorganizedinadisgraceful
mannerandthe
delayswithregardtotheprovisionsofthePlanaresystematic
.
Thefactorydoesnotutilizeevenaminimum
partofitscapacity
itdestroysitsequipmentinabarbarous
manner.
Butwhatcrownseverythinginthebrass
industriesoftheUral
districtistheorganizationoflabour,
whichistrulyamazing,the
lackofanycarefortheworkingman,
thecrazyimbrogliowhich
obtainsinthenormalizationoflabour
andthescaleofsalaries.
TheextractsfromtheMoscowpresswhichwehave
justquoted,andparticularlythestatementsoftheSoviet
papersregardingtheworkshopsofMagnitogorsk,are
sufficientproofthatRubinstein'saccounthasnot
becomeoutofdate
.
Inanattempttocombattheinstabilityoflabour
andtostimulate_ productiontheBolsheviks,aboutfour
yearsago,gaveuptheirmostcherished'principle,a
principlewhichhadformerlybeenwidelyadvertised
theequalityofsalaries.
Itwasessentialforthem(we
haveseenthesamesystemintheKolkhozes)
tostimulate
thezealoftheoperativesbythemethodofconcessions
withregardtoclothingandrations
. Thestratagem
wasdisguisedbythelabel "
socialistemulation. "
InpursuanceofthismethodtheBolsheviksraisedto
therankof" starindustries "
certainbranchesofproduc-
tionwhichwereofparticularimportancetothefirst
andthentothesecondFiveYearPlan
.
Theoperatives
oftheseindustriesreceiveahigherscaleofsalaries
.
To-day,ineveryfactory,theworkmenaredividedinto
categorieswhosesalariesvaryveryconsiderably
. With
aviewtoincreasinghisearnings,everyworkman
230
SOVIETACTIONINMATERIALFIELD
intriguestoobtainthepositionof "
emergencywork-
man,"whichcarrieswithitcertainprivileges
. But,as
ageneralrule,theincreasedoutputofthese"emergency
workmen "
goeshand-in-handwithaloweringofthe
qualityofthatwhichtheyproduce
. Adiscussionon
thissubjectoccurredinMay1 935,betweenthenews-
papers For
Industrialization and Labour.
Theformer
urgedthenecessityforcontrollingthequalityofthe
workofeachoperativebymarkingeachpiecethathe
produced(inthesamemannerasmarksareaccorded
tothetasksofschoolchildren)
. Onlysuchoutputas
received3,4or5marksshouldbepaidfor. The
"
emergencyworkman,"ifhewastoretainhisdistinc-
tion,mustproduceatleasthalfofhislabouratastandard
worthyof5marksandtheremaindermustnotfall
below4marks.
Labourstrenuouslyopposedtheproject
evolvedby
ForIndustrialization, averringthatitwasout
ofthequestiontoinsultinsuchamannertheentire
massof "
emergencyworkmen
"bypouringcoldwater
uponthe "
enthusiasm " oftheseloyalservantsofthe
regime,manyofwhomhavebeenasyetunable
"to
acquirethemoderntechnique. "
Thisdiscussionhasnowbeenputanendtobythe
decisionoftheleadersofthePartywhohavesupported
theviewsofLabour ;
itistrue,however,thattheyhave
atthesametimeapprovedthesuggestionmadeby
ForIndustrialization
withregardtothemarkingofoutput
andhaverecommendedthat"
specialrewards " be
conferreduponworkmenwhoavoidfaultyproduction,
only,itisstillnecessarytograntthefundsrequiredfor
these "
qualityprizes. "
Betweentimes,anever-increasinguseisbeingmade
ofthelabourofwomenandofchildren,whoareeasier
toexploitandlessinclinedtocomplainortodesert
theirfactory
.
231
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
Forcomplaintsandgrumblesariseevermorein-
sistently. AttheperiodwhenthefirstFiveYearPlan
wasbeingbaited,skilfulsovietpropagandacontrived
toarouse,amongtheoperatives,anexplosionofenthusi-
asmwhichforacertaintimesuppliedthenecessary
steamfortheU . S. S. R
. industries. Buttheenergy
expendeddidnotobtainitsjustrewardinanyimprove-
mentoflivingorlabourconditions . Enthusiasmfaded,
givingplacetodisappointment . Andnow,insteadof
theveryinfrequent,vagueandscatteredallusionswhich
couldformerlybegleanedfromthesovietpress,wefind
definiteandmuchmorefrequentindicationswhich
bearwitnesstotherecrudescenceofdiscontentamong
theoperatives
. Themalcontentsaredenouncedinthe
papersasdisorderlyruffians,blackguardsandhooligans,
butthisdoesnotinanywayalterthesituation .
Economicscienceteachesusthatallmonopolist
economyisnaturallyinclinedtoconsiderlabourasa
simplemeansofproductionandtotreatitassuch,and
theBolshevikshavealreadygonealongwayinthis
direction. Stalin'srecentstatementtotheeffectthat
"wemustnowproceedtothepolicyoforganized
enrolmentofindustriallabour " foretellsnewmeasures
ofcompulsionwithregardtotheoperativeclass .
Doubtlessanattemptwillbemadetoreduceittoa
situationanalogoustothatinwhichexistbyhundreds
ofthousandstherealslavesoftheregime. Thosewho,
crowdedintheconcentrationcamps,alsoknownothing
ofunemployment
!
V
IrregularTrade
Bolshevism,fromthefirstmomentofitsadventto
power,couldnotfailtocondemnonprinciple,asthe
232
SOVIET ACTION IN
MATERIAL FIELD
mostshamefulandreprehensibleofactivities,allprivate
trading. Allthepossessionsoftradersweredeclaredto
bethepropertyoftheState
. Largeshopshadtherefore
noalternativeleftthembuttoclose,andtherevery
soonremainedinthetownsonlysuchsmallshopsas
contrivedtoescapefromthegeneralconfiscationof
merchandise. Tradeceasedtoexistexceptinthe
marketswherereversionwassoonmadetotheold
systemofbarter
: thecitizensexchangedobjectsof
everydescriptionwhichtheyhadmanagedtosave
frompillage,fortheproducenecessarytotheirexistence,
broughtfromtheruraldistrictsattheutmostriskand
dangerbypeasantsincessantlythreatenedbyChekist
patrols.
Therespiteaccordedbythe N. P. E. ,whichalso
appliedtoprivatetrade,wasonlyofshortduration .
Stalin,seekingtomonopolizeproductionwithinthe
handsoftheState,entrustedtoitalsothetaskof
distribution. Thisworkwashandedovertoavast
chainofsovietco-operatives,inwhichany"citizen
consideredusefultothesocialistfatherland,andthere-
foreprovidedwithafood-card,couldobtainatmoderate
pricesfixedbytheState,foodstuffsandobjectsofprimary
necessity,inaquantitywhichvariedaccordingtothe
"category " ofthepurchaser
; theacquisitionofother
articleswasonlylimitedbytheirnotinfrequentscarcity
ontheshelvesoftheco-operatives. .
Lateron,twoothervariantsofstateizedtrade
madetheirappearance
. Thereappearedthe "closed
distributors
" servingonlythehighofficialsofthe
Party,theStateandtheArmy,andthentheshopsof
the"Torgsin" (anabbreviationofthephrase "
com-
mercewithforeigners")
. Theselatterestablishments
weredesignedexclusivelyfortheuseofforeignersand
theirgoodswereonlysoldforforeigncurrencies . Never-
233
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
theless,sovietcitizenswerealsopermittedtopurchase
thesegoods,butonlyinexchangeforsolidcashinsuch
foreignmoney as theymightstillpossess
. Thosewho
receivemoneyfromabroadcanalsoobtain
" chits "
whichtheTorgsinacceptsasameansofpayment
.
ThustheTorgsinshopsplaythepartofinstrumentsof
drainage,notonlyofthelastremnantsofprecious
metalandforeigncurrencieswhichthepopulationmay
possess,butalsooftheforeignmoneysreceivedby
sovietcitizensfromtheirrelationsandfriendsabroad .
Weseethatthe"closeddistributors"andthe
Torgsinshopsareopenonlytoarelativelysmallsection
ofprivilegedpersons
. Foryearsonendthemassof
thepopulationhadthereforeonlyonelicitmeansof
obtainingfood
: theco-operatives
. Nowthemanage-
mentoftheseestablishments(which,itmustbeclearly
understood,havenothingwhateverincommonwith
the co-operatives"
of bourgeois "countries)has
alwaysbeenandstillremainsinthe,highestdegree
unsatisfactory
. Thecommunistmethod,whichconsists
inbreakingthespiritofindividualinterests,hashere
as
elsewhereengenderedaterribleindifference
. Hereis
anexampletakenathazard
. Oneday,inMoscow,
thequeuesatthedoorsoftheco-operativesweregreatly
extendedbyreasonofasuddenrestrictioninthesale
ofparaffin.
Itwasneverthelesscommonknowledge
thatthereservesofparaffininMoscowwerequite
adequate.
Inthecourseoftheinquirywhichwas
instituted,the
"responsibleworkers "
oftheco-operation
offeredasapretextaninsufficiencyofcansfortrans-
portation. Theinquiry,however,persisting,revealed
thefactoftheexistenceof
1 1 3
largenewoil-cansonthe
premiseswhichhadmerelybeenforgotten .
Negligence
alsoappearsdailyinthedistributionofgoodswhich
hasbecomepositivelyfantastic.
Casesarerecorded
234
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL
FIELD
wherethisorthatco-operative,duringseveraldaysin
succession,offereditsclientsnoothergoodsbeside
playingcardsandherrings .
Elsewhere,thisorthat
merchandisewhichwasingreatdemand,wasonlytobe
purchasedtogetherwithsomearticlewhichwasdifficult
todisposeof,suchasakettleoratobaccopouch
.
Butthedisorderwhichreignsintheco-operatives,
towhichmustbeaddedeverykindofabuseonthepart
oftheirofficials,isperhapsbestdemonstratedbythe
economicresultsofthissystemoftrade,resultswhich
aredeplorablefortheGovernmentitself. Thus,itwas
expectedthatin1 934considerableprofitswouldaccrue
fromtheseco-operatives
. Andsuchanexpectationwas
logicalinviewofthefactthatthepricesnowcharged
fortheirgoodsarebynomeanssomodestastheywere
atfirst : ForIndustrialization hasreckoned(inMarch
1 935)thatthepricesofcertainarticlessoldinthe
co-operativesamountedtosixtimesthecostoftheir
production. Nevertheless,thebalancesheetofthe
activitiesoftheco-operativesin1 934
. showedadeficit
whichamountedtomillions, in
spiteofthefactthat
thevolumeofsalesexceededexpectations
.
Thefaultsofmanagementandtheabusesalready
mentionedaddedconsiderablytothedisastrouseffects
ofthepenuryofagriculturalproductionandofarticles
oflargeconsumption
. Andtothesedisadvantagesis
addedthefactthattheSovietshavetried,especially
duringthefirstFiveYearPlan,toincreasetheirexports
atanyprice,andthatconsequentlytheco-operatives
havebeenextremelybadlyprovidedwithgoods,especi-
allythoseofprimarynecessity,foremostamongwhich
wasbread.
ThisisthereasonwhythewholeofRussia,
excepttheprivilegedpetsoftheParty,founditself
undertheregimeofqueues,whichwouldsometimes
begintoformupbeforedaybreakinfrontofthesoviet
235
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
shops. This regime continued so long as the co-
operativesretainedtheirfunctionofsellingbreadupon
thepresentationoffood-cardsatpriceswhich,although
repeatedlyraised,yetremainedmuchbelowthoseob-
taininginthemarkets. ItwasonlyafterJanuary1 st,
1 935,whenthebread-cardswereabolished(byadecree
promulgatedamonthearlier)andthesaleofbread
wasremovedfromtheco-operatives,thatthecountry
founditselftoagreatextentdeliveredfromthisdaily
trialofqueues
. Butaformidableransomwasclaimed
inexchangeforthisrelief.
Itcannowbeunderstoodwhysmalltradesurvived
inspiteofeverything : thecitizenswereliterallycom-
pelledtoturntoitinspiteoftheprohibitiveprices
whichitchargedbyreasonnotonlyofthedearthof
goodsbut also becauseoftheendlesspersecutions
sufferedby all traders. Ontheotherhand,the
Bolshevikscouldnevermakeuptheirmindstoputa
decisiveendtoitwhiletheco-operativesremainedthe
onlylicitmeansofexchange,sincethepopulation,
includingtheoperativeclass,wassobadlyservedby
theseco-operativesthatitwould'inevitablyhavebeen
facedbyimmediatestarvationhaditbeendeprivedof
thislastresort : themaimed,moribundbutindis-
pensableremnantsofprivatetrade. '
ButtheSovietGovernment,compelledagainstits
'Nevertheless, thevolumeofthissecretmarketmustnotbe
overestimated. Inacountryofuniversalpoverty,everyman
be-
comesatradertotheextentofsellingorinanycaseexchanging
thelessessentialgoodsforthosethatareindispensable. Andthen,
wemayquotetheinterestingstatementmadeinasovietpublica-
tionwhichwastotheeffectthatinthespaceofsixmonths,on
onesinglerailwayline 1 5 millionsofroubles'worthofvarious
propertyhadbeenstolen. Theseobjectsstolenbythepopulation
(accordingtothesloganoftheoldrevolutionaries'"lootwhat
hasbeenlooted ") wenttoswelltheclandestineprivatemarket.
236
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL FIELD
willtotolerateameasureofsurvivalofprivatetrade,
conceived,atagivenmoment,theingeniousideaof
makingsomeprofitoutoftheexorbitantpriceswhich
werechargedbyitbyveryreasonofthereprisals
whichitsuffered. TheCommunistStatedecidedto
enterintocompetitionwiththesereprobateanddespised
traders,anditwasthusthatsidebysidewiththe
co-operatives,thoselegitimatechildrenoftheregime,
thereappearedbastards,thatreceivedthecurioustitle
of " commercialshops,"whosoldwithoutdemanding
food-cardsfromtheircustomers,butatpricesclosely
approachingthosecurrentinprivatetrade
. Here,for
instance,aretheaveragepriceschargedbythem
duringthispresentyear : I kg
. ofbutter, 22 roubles ;
I
kg. ofham,28roubles
;
I kg. ofsausage, 1 4 to
25roubles ; I
kg. ofsugar,7roubles50 ; I kg. ofrice,
1 oroubles ; I
kg. ofryeflour,3roubles 40. Letus
remarkinparenthesisthatacomparisonoftheseprices
withthosecurrentintheTorgsingivesusthelevelof
theinflationofthesovietroublewhichispractically
recognizedbytheBolsheviksintheirownterritory
thevalueoftheroublehasfallento7or
Iokopeks.
Wehavealreadymentionedearlierthattheparallel
establishedbetweento-day'spricesinthecommercial
shopsandpre-warpricesdoesnotpermitofusvaluing
thebuyingpowerofthepresentroubleatahigher
figurethan4. 4kopeks.
Itcaneasilybeunderstoodthatthecreationofthese
shops, " duetoStalin'swonderfulinitiative
" (if we
mayquotehisacolyte,Mikoiane),haspermittedState
commerce,inthesenewconditions,torealizesub-
stantialprofitsinspiteofthedisorderandwasteinherent
intheSovietadministrations.
TheSovietsveryquicklyacquiredatasteforthislucra-
tivetraffic,andonJanuary1 st,1 935,theyentrusted
237
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIK
UNIFORM
tothe commercialshops "
thesaleofbread,which
thusbecamefree. Theyhaveexplainedthismeasure
officiallyasbeingactuatedbyadesireforthegreater
convenienceoftheworkers,adesirewhichitwasnow
possibletorealizeowingtoanabundanceofwheatdue
toCommunistorganization
. Butitisnotdifficultto
readtheinnermotivewhichisconcealedbehindthese
demagogicassertions
. TheStateappropriatesanenor-
mousquantityofwheatproducedbythepeasant
(25 milliontonsin
1 934),
payingforitatstockprice,
say7to
1 2 kopeksakilo. Apartofthestockisexported
abroad,apartconsumedbythearmy,theG
. P. U. and
theprivilegedfavouritesoftheParty,whilethethird
andbyfarthelargestshare(likelytoamountin 1
935
to
1 8 milliontons)issoldintheformofbreadtoordinary
mortalsatpricesvaryingaccordingtodistrictsandthe
qualityofthebread,butbeginningat 8o kopeksand
risingto
2 roublesandmoreakilo. Certainlyafair
profit !
Thesellingpriceisfifteentimesthecostprice.
Eventakingintoconsiderationtheincreaseofsalaries
thataccompaniedthereform,themonopolyofthesale
ofbread(anditisnothingshortofamonopoly)must
thisyearprovidetheStatewithasupplementaryrevenue
ofabouteightthousandmillions
.
Thenewsystemofsellingbreadhas
; inspiteofthe
highlevelofcost,practicallybanishedthiscommodity
fromtheprivatemarketsandthe Kolkhoze market
.
Wehavealreadypointedoutthatthe "marketof
the
Kolkhozes" wascalledintobeingbythedecreeof
themonthofMay1 932
. Itisaspeciesofhybrid : a
tradewithouttradersbutalsowithoutanydirect
connectionwiththeState. The Kolkhozes, andeven
individualpeasantenterprise,oncethetaxinkindis
paid(thatwhichiscalledthestockingofwheat),are
freetoselltheirproduceaftermakingsurethatthe
238
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL
FIELD
purchaserisnotatrader. Thereisthusanexchange
betweenproducerandconsumerundertheguardian-
shipoftheState,whichundertakestoeliminatethe
middleman. Thusalargeopeningisprovidedfor
administrativeandChekistinterference,whichisthe
reasonwhythosewhowereinahurrytoperceivein
theMaydecreesthebaitingofanew
N. E. P. ,were
verydeeplymistaken.
Inpracticethemarketofthe Kolkhozes hasbecome
interchangeablewiththeforbiddenprivatemarket,
sometimestakingitsplace,andsometimesaffording
covertocamouflagedprivateinitiative
. Fromthe
privatemarketsithasinheritedthevexationswhichit
hastoendurefromtheauthorities,thescarcityof
merchandiseandtheextremeinstabilityofprices .
Itsbeginningswereparticularlydifficult,forthe
decreeof May 1 932 cameatatimewhenpeasant
economywascompletely "sapped " owingtocollectiv-
ization,andhadbeenfurthersmittenbyabadharvest
.
If,atthattime,breadappearedintheKolkhozemarkets,
thepurchaserswerethepeasants,whoexchangeditfor
theproduceoftheirkitchengardens,andthesellers
weretownsfolk,whopartedwithaportionoftheration
whichcametothemviatheStatepillageoftherural
districts.
In 1 934 andin 1 935, aftertwoyearsofgoodharvests,
the Kolkhoze tradehasbecomeslightlymoreprosperous
whilestillretainingitscharacteristicsofinstabilityand
unevenness. In 1 935 itspriceshavecomedowncon-
siderably,butthisunfortunatelyisnotanindication
ofabundance,forthetownsman,compelledtopay
amuchhigherpriceforhisdailybread,hashadto
restricttoayetgreaterextenthisconsumptionofother
provisions.
ThereisthusintheU . S. S. R
. alargechoiceofcom-
239
UNDERTHEBOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
mercialenterprises,andtheirresultsarealikedeplorable
foreveryonesavefortheeliteofthePartyandforthe
Speculator-Stateitself.
*

*

*
Asforforeigntrade,itsmannerofevolutionwas
totallydifferent ; indeed,itevolvedinaninverse
direction. TheN. E. P. , havingstimulatedinteriorex-
changes,simultaneouslycausedthediminutionofstocks
availableforexport. Ontheotherhand,whenStalin,
making avolteface, oncemoreassailedprivatetrade,he
seteverythinggoingatthesametime,tosqueezethe
ruraldistrictsandspeedupthedrainageofwheatand
otherproducesuitableforexportation . Thistendency
onlybecameaccentuatedatthetimewhentheFive
YearPlanwasbeingbaited. Financial,economicand
politicalconsiderationsforcedupontheBolsheviksthe
tacticsofexcessiveexportation . Theneedofforeign
currencieswithwhichtopayfortheimportationof
machineryprescribedbythePlanwasaddedtothatof
meetingthecostsofrepresentationandpropaganda
abroad,andthatofsubsidizingtheCommunistparties
invariousforeigncountries
. Moreover,seeingthe
economiccrisisabouttooverruntheentireworld,the
Bolsheviksweretemptedtoanticipateastrategicopera-
tionwhichhadoriginallyfiguredasmerelyacorollary
oftheFiveYearPlan,whichconsistedofinundating
theforeignmarketswithSovietgoodswithaviewto
provokingorintensifyingtheworldcrisisbyfomenting
socialtroubleswhichwouldhastentheadventofthe
universalRevolution.
Stalinsucceededinlargelyincreasingthevolumeof
foreigntrade; theresultsin 1 929-30 maybethus
summarized : exports =I,o02 millionsofroubles,im-
portsi,o68millionsofroubles ; theyeartherefore
endedwithanegligibledeficit(66millions) .
240
SOVIETACTIONINMATERIALFIELD
This,however,wasasupremeeffort
. 'Theterribly
impoverishedcountrywasnotagainable-evenatthe
costofatrocioussufferings-tosupplyproduceforexport
inanythingapproachingsufficientquantities
. More-
over,thegeneralcrisisinwhichtheBolsheviksplaced
theirmostardenthopesturnedagainsttheirown
interests,byloweringthepricesobtainableforsoviet
exports.
Finally,thedefectiveorganizationoftheir
commercialofficesabroadwentfartowardsneutralizing
theresultsoftheeconomicaggressionwhichtheyhad
attempted.
Fromthatstandpointitisinterestingto
quotethetestimonyoftheformerSoviettradeagent
Dovgalevski, 2
nephewtotheRedambassadortoParis,
whodiedlastyear
. Dovgalevski'sstatement,whichalso
concernshisrupturewiththeSoviets,clearlyshowshow
meagrearetheprofitsobtainedbytheBolsheviks
throughthesaleabroadofgoodsextortedfromthe
Russianpeasant . Inlayingbarethemannerinwhich
theRussianwheatwassoldin1 930,Dovgalevskimakes
thefollowingcalculation : the "stockprice"
imposed
uponthepeasantwas 1 .
8oroublesperpood,whichis
equivalentto
IIoroublespermetricton
; theaverage
costoftransportandofRussianharbourdues,amounting
to38roublesandadministrativeduestoatleast
4oroubles,thecostpriceisroundaboutZooroubles
perton,insovietcurrency
. Thesellingpriceofthis
tonintheforeignmarketswas 26
goldroubles,received
' Without the U. S. S. R.
having succeeded in reaching, even
approximately, the
normal volume of pre-war
foreign trade.
Average
for 1 909-1 3 : exports : 1 ,505 millions
ofgoldroubles ;
imports :
1 ,1 40
millionsofroubles ; balance:
365millionsof
roubles.
2
Dovgalevski'sstatementappearedinthereview
The Struggle,
publishedinParisbytheformersovietdiplomatBessedovsky,whose
tragi-comicescapefromtheU
. S. S. R. embassyin
Pariswasa
ninedays'wonder.
2 4 1

Q
UNDERTHE BOLSHEVIK
UNIFORM
irrforeigncurrencies
. Nevertheless,fromthismustbe
deductedthefreight,theloadingandunloadingatthe
portsandthemarketingabroad,theinterestofloans
onbillsofladingand,finally,theprovisionofmiddle-
men. Allthesecostsbeingdulydeducted,itwas
possibletoestimatethatthenetpriceobtainedbythe
Sovietsdidnotexceed I
oroublesatoninforeignmoney .
Which is as much as to say,
[concludedDovgalevski, whose
competence cannot
bequestioned]thatthepeasants' breadwas
snatchedfromthemandhardlabourand
famineimposedupon
j5omillionsoftheworkingpopulation . . .
andwhy? Inorder
thatahandfulofsatrapsshould beabletosellRussianmoney
abroadat5%ofitsnominalvalue.
Theperiod. ofaggressiveforeignexportation(which
wasknowntothepressthroughouttheworldbythe
incorrecttermof
"sovietdumping ") wasthereforenot
oflongduration . Itledtoapositivescandalwhen,in
October1 931 ,theSovietswerethemselvescompelled
topurchasewheatfromtheUnitedStatesinorderto
meetcertaincontractsofsalewhichhadbeencarelessly
undertaken.
Thisenlighteningoccurrenceputanend
tothefearof " sovietdumping
" inthemarketsofthe
world,andwasthepointofdepartureforariseinthe
priceofcertainrawmaterials .
Fromthattimeuntilthepresentmoment,wehave
witnessedacontinuousshrinkageofthevolumeofthe
U . S. S. R. 'sforeigntrade
. Herearethefiguresfor
1 932
: exports=704millionsofroubles,imports574
millionsofroubles
. 1 933beheldanewdiminution
exports643millionsofroubles,imports496millionsof
roubles.
Thedownwardmovementstillcontinues .
Thefiguresfor1 934areasfollows
: exports,41 9 .
2
millions ; imports,232 . 4millions.
Thefirsthalfof
1
935hasbeheldfurthershrinkage(exports,
1 49'24
millions ; imports,1 1 2
. o6millions) ; duringthesecond
2 42
SOVIETACTION IN
MATERIAL
FIELD
half,thetradecreditsobtainedbytheSovietsinApril
1 935,inGermany(forasumofZoomillionmarks)
andinCzechoslovakia,enabledthemtoincreasetheir
imports.
Itmaythusbeseenhowentirelydeceivedaresuch
countriesashaveenteredintorelationswiththeSoviets
inthehopesofreapingadvantagefromcommerce
.
Forinstance,theUnitedStateswho,in1 930,senttothe
U. S. S. R
. goodstothevalueof264millionsofroubles,
haveseentheirexportsfallin1 934totheabsurdfigure
of1 7millions. AtanyratetheUnitedStateshave
beenabletodrawlogicalconclusionsfromtheirexperi-
ence. Notlessvainhavebeenthehopesandexpecta-
tionswhichvariousindustrialistsandmerchants,and
insomecasesEuropeanstatesmen,haveplacedinthe
magicalpowersofatradeagreementwiththeU . S. S. R.
TheLondon MorningPost, inMay1 935,publishedsome
veryoutspokencommentsonthissubject,foundedupon
theresultsofthefirstyear'soperationoftheanglo-
soviettradeagreement,pointingoutthattheexchange
betweentheU . S. S. R. andtheBritishEmpire,during
elevenmonthsoftheyear1 934,hadamountedto
verymeagretotals : Britishimports=74millionsof
roubles,BritishexportstotheU . S. S. R
. 42
.
7millions,
withabalanceof31 .
3millionsinfavourofthe
Soviets
.
GiventhesmallvolumeofinternationalSoviettrade,
theallotmentofthesumofgoo-2millionsofroubles
(paperroubles,thistime)totheCommissariatforForeign
Trade,intheU . S. S. R. budgetfor1 935,wouldappear
tousentirelyabsurd,ifwedidnotknowthatemploy-
mentinSovietcommercialconcernsabroadisusedto
camouflagetheactivitiesofagentsforpropagandaand
ofspiesattachedtotheG. P. U. andundertheordersof
theComintern.
243
UNDERTHE
BOLSHEVIKUNIFORM
VI
AFinancialSurvey
Aftertherapidglancewhichwehavethrownatthe
foreigntradeoftheSoviets,itisnotdifficulttoguess
thatduringasuccessionofyearsandparticularlyduring
theperiodwhentheBolshevikswerefeverishlyerecting,
withoutlookingtorightorleft,thefragileedificeof
thefirstFiveYearPlan,thebalanceofaccountsin
theU. S. S. R
. mustrevealaveryseriousdeficit
. The
OfficeofEconomicResearchesoftheBirmingham
University,inits
"Memorandum"
dealingwiththe
year1 931 ,estimatedtheirliabilitiesat340millionsof
goldroubles
. Thisfigureshould,properlyspeaking,be
increased,fortheMemorandumdidnottakeintocon-
siderationcertainexpenses,suchasthesumsallotted
totheworkoftheCominternabroad
. ,
HowhavetheBolsheviksbeenabletofacethedeficits
resultingfromforeignexchangesandwhichhavebeen
mountingupforyears ?
Firstofalltheywerecompelledtobeginexporting
thegoldwhichtheyhadfishedoutofthetreasuryof
theoldregime,afundwhichhadbeenconsiderably
depletedbythewar,butwhichhadnevertheless
remainedveryconsiderable
. Thequantityofgold
exportedsincetheadventoftheSovietscannothave
beenmuchunder
1 ,700 millionsofroubles
. Thesupply
ofgoldnowremaininginMoscowisverysmall
; accord-
ingtocompetentexpertsitmayamountto50or6o
millionsofroubles.
Nevertheless,thelatestbalancesheetoftheSoviet
StateBankshowsagoldreserveof858
. 4millionsof
roublesonApril1 st,1 935
. Howarewetoexplain
suchacontradiction?
Inthefirstplace,wemustpointoutthatthequestion
244
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL
FIELD
ofgoldisofverygreatimportancetotheSoviets
. We
knowthattheyemployeverymeanstoobtainloans
fromabroadoratanyratenewtradecredits . Itis
thereforeforthemamatterofprovingtheirown
solvency,andtheythenputforwardtheargumentof
thepresenceofastrongreserveofgoldintheirState
Bank,anamounttotallingmorethanhalfofthereserves
beforetherevolution (1 ,643 millionsin
1 91 6), 1 andat
thesametimetheybroadcastthefactthattheyhave
contrivedappreciablytoaugmenttheirannualproduc-
tionofpreciousmetals
. Acertainnumberofarticles
byredpublicistsanddiplomats,referringtothislast
claim,haverecentlyappearedintheWesternpress
. A
littlewhileago,forinstance,the
Financial News published
anarticlebyComradeSerebrovsky,thechiefofthe
sovietgoldindustry,vauntingtheprodigiousprogress
madebytheSovietsinthisfield
. Nevertheless,Sere-
brovsky,incommonwiththeothersovietwriters,
workedentirelyuponrelativefigures,showingthe
percentagearrivedateachyearofincreaseoverthe
precedingyearandavoidinganymentionofdefinite
figureswithregardtotheweightofgoldproduced.
Definitefigureshavenotbeenquotedanywherefor
yearspastandrarelyhaveeconomistsbeenabletodis-
coveronehereandthereinalittlecirculatedpublication
whichgoesbackto1 928 . Thesefigures,whichrefer
to
1 926,
estimatetheannualproductionat
24,600
kg.
Ifweacceptthisfigureanddecidealsotoaccept
thepercentagesofincreasegivenbythesovietwriters,
wefindthatin 1 932
theSovietshadnotyetreachedthe
1 However, not all the reserves
fell into the hands of the
Bolsheviks ; quiteanappreciablepartfounditswayduringthe
greatwarintotheUral,whereitwastakenbythearmyofAdmiral
KoltchakandfinallycameintothepossessionoftheTchekoslovakian
Legions.
245
UNDER THE BOLSHEVIK
UNIFORM
levelofpre-warproduction(in1 932,46,400kg. =60. 3
millionsofgoldroubles ;
in
1 9 1 3,54,
000 kg. =70
millionsofroubles),butthatfrom1 933onwardtheir
productionexceededthatof1 91 3(in1 933theyobtained
65,400kg. =85. 3millionsofgoldroubles) . 1
However,asagainstthesereckonings,thereare
statisticsregardingtheexportofRussiangoldandthese
canbeverifiedbymeansofforeigninformation,and
itispreciselyuponthefoundationofthesestatistics
thatspecialistsvalueat50or6omillionsthereserveof
goldheldin1 935bytheMoscowStateBank
. Whence
thenhavecomethefiguresof858 . 4millionsinits
balancesheetofApril1 stofthisyear?Hereisthe
onlyplausibleexplanation : agreatpartoftheexported
goldhadnotbeensoldatthebeginningbutmerely
depositedinforeignbanks(thelion'sshareofitinthe
StateBankofGermany)asaguaranteetocoverthe
tradecreditsgrantedtotheU . S. S. R. Later,atthe
expirationofthecredits,notbeinginpossessionofany
foreigncurrencies(thebalancesoftheirforeigntrade
beingadverse),theysawthemselvescompelledtomake
theirpaymentsinthegoldthathadalreadybeenpledged,
andthustobiditfarewell . Thishypothesisisthemore
probableinthatitiscommonknowledgethatatthe
endoftheyear1 934theBolshevikswereforcedtocede
toGermany,inanticipation,theirfuturegoldproduc-
tionforyearstocome
. Thisbecausetheyhadalready
cededthatoftheprecedingyears
!
InalienatingthegoldofitsStateBanktheSoviet
Governmentprobablyreleasedthemfromtheirunder-
takings(goldcertificates)torestoretothematafuture
datethegoldofwhichtheyhadbeendispossessed.
Meanwhile,theRussiangoldwascirculatingthroughout
1
Thisisquitepossibleandinnowaysurprising : theRussian
goldminesarerichandtheirtechniqueofextractionfairlysimple.
246
SOVIET ACTION IN MATERIAL FIELD
theworld,foritsprincipalholder,Germany,became
unabletokeepit :
thegoldreserveoftheReichsbank,
whichamountedto 2.
21 6 millionsofgoldmarkson
January1 st,
1 932, hadfallento 83 millionsbyNovember
1 st,
1 934. Anditisthisgoldwhichisnowscattered
abouttheuniversethatstill,uponthestrengthof
illusory "
goldcertificates,"figuresuponthebalance-
sheetoftheMoscowStateBank !
However,neithertheirsuccessivecessionsofthe
preciousmetal,northeiroutrageouslyexcessiveimports
haveenabledtheSovietstocoverthepurchasesmade
abroadatthetimeofthefirstFiveYearPlan
. And
thisisthereasonwhy,inthecourseoftenyears,since
1 923,
thedatewhenthefirstcreditsweregrantedtothe
Bolsheviks,theirforeigndebthasneverceasedaugment-
ing
. Attheendof 1 932 itstoodatabout
1 ,400 millions
ofgoldroubles (1 7,000
millionfrancs),andthepro-
visionofannualinterestcouldnothavedevouredless
than 300 millions
. Andwhenwethinkthatthe
Sovietswereboastingtotheproletariatoftheworld
thattheyhadsparedtheRussianpeoplethenecessity
ofmakingpaymentsabroad,becausetheoldloanshad
beencancelled!
TheannualinterestonRussianloans
beforetherevolution,whichamountedtoabout
I6o
millions,waseasilymetbyhalfthecashreceiptsfrom
foreigntrade.
WhatgreatlyfacilitatestheBolsheviksobtaining
foreigncreditsaretheGovernmentguaranteeswhich
havebeenaccordedthembycertaincountries
. Such
wasnotablythecasewithGermany,who,inageneral
way,gaveproofofasingulareagernesstobecomemoney-
lendertotheSoviets ;
hershareinthetotalofforeign
creditsgrantedtotheU . S
. S. R
. beingnotlessthantwo
thirds
. Thisinexplicableprodigality,quiteapartfrom
politicalreasons,isnottheleastcauseofthosefinancial
247
UNDERTHEBOLSHEVIK UNIFORM
disorderswhichledGermanytorefusetofulfilher
financialobligationstowardstheformerEntente.
Thatwhichmadethesituationreallydangerouswas
thefactthatthedebtcontractedbytheSovietswas
not,properlyspeaking,aStatedebt,sinceitdidnot
involvealongtermloan
. Itwasratherinthenature
ofadebtincurredbythe "U. S. S. R. businesshouse
andassuch,thegreaterpartofitwasonshortterm.
Theseshort-termcreditsaretoservefortheinvestments
providedforintheFiveYearPlan. Weknowhow
perilousisthisallocationofshort-termloansand
Germanyherselfexperiencedthisinadisastrousmanner.
Verymuchmoreprecariousistheapplicationofthis
methodinthe U
. S. S. R. , fortheprofitsofSoviettrade
upsetallcalculationsandcompromiseeveryplan
.
TheSovietswererushingfulltilttowardsbankruptcy
.
Theyrealizeditandatagivenmomentputthebrake
upontheirimportationsandthenalmostentirelyceased
tobuyabroad(wehavealreadynotedthedownward
curveoftheirforeigntrade) . Nevertheless,iftheir
creditorshadshownthemselvestobefirminthematter
ofSovietpaymentswhenthesefelldue,thebankruptcy
oftheU . S. S. R. wouldto-dayhavebeenanaccomplished
fact. In1 931 ,in1 932andevenupto1 934,thedis-
countonSovietbillscost25,andevensomuchas30
percentoftheirnominalvalue
. Thisisindeedarate
ofdiscountapplicabletoadebtoronthevergeofruin
severalsmallspeculativebanksandanumberofprivate
individualsmadefortunesoutofthiscircumstance
.
However,thecreditorsoftheU . S. S. R. andforemost
amongthese,Germany,wereverylenienttotheir
embarrasseddebtor
. WehaveseenthatGermanydid
notneglecttheopportunitytoacquiretheRussiangold
whichhadbeendepositedwithherasaguarantee;
shethenobtainedfromtheU . S. S. R. anundertaking
248
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