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com 2013 | Page 1


ADVANCED PRACTICE on
WORD FORMATION
BOOKLET 1


Suitable for
teachers of English
gifted students of grades 912
entrance exam to high school for the gifted
exams for the gifted, Olympic contests, etc.







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People
1
1 Some adjectives which describe character use the prefixes self- and well-. Choose the suitable word given
in the box below and supply its correct form to fill in each blank. Use the prefixes self- or well- and other
affixes if necessary. Each word is used ONCE.
absorb
just
sure
behave
breed
bring
centre
confide
congratulate
conscious
deprecate
dress
educate
importance
form
like
manner

rely
round

1. (This word fits both blanks.)
a. A television announcer with a _______________ voice was reading the news.
b. She is a _______________ woman, who comes from a family of high social position.
2. (This word fits both blanks.)
a. Its a _______________ article which is fair to both sides of the dispute.
b. She describes herself as a _______________ person who works hard but has a varied social life.
3. A colleague described him as _______________ and respected by all.
4. He gave a _______________ shrug. He is always making his own achievements seem unimportant.
5. He grew more _______________ as he got older, that is to say the older he got, the more confidence he
had in himself and his abilities. (2 possibilities)
6. He watched the joggers with their _______________ faces.
7. Make sure you are _______________ about the laws at your local before setting up a business.
8. On the whole, the visitors were too _______________ to complain. (2 possibilities)
9. Parents should teach their children to be independent or _______________.
10. She was not at all the _______________ celebrity Id read about. She never thought that she was more
important than other people.
11. Shes completely _______________. She only thinks about herself and doesnt think about the needs or
feelings of other people.
12. Some children were _______________ despite family breakdown. (2 possibilities)
13. Taken aback by her frankness, he gave a little _______________ laugh.
14. The school aims to produce _______________ members of society, who are able to deal with people,
problems and life in general in a normal, sensible way.
15. The winners gave themselves a _______________ round of applause.
16. This hat is what todays _______________ man is wearing.
2 Choose the suitable word given in the box below and supply its correct form to fill in each blank.
personify characterise
1. Shes always the life and soul of the party because she has such a bubbly _______________.
2. Dedication, commitment and knowledge are all _______________ of a good teacher.
3. I dont believe he said that; it would be really out of _______________.
4. I didnt get along with my business partner because our _______________ clashed.
5. Children may display _______________ of either of their parents.
6. In the past, people were seen as either intelligent or unintelligent, and this was measured with an IQ
test. However, psychologists now recognise that there are many different types of intelligence and these
are reflected in your (a) _______________. The multiple intelligence theory first came to light in 1983
in Howard Gardners book Frames of Mind. In it, Gardner listed seven types of intelligence. The first if
these is termed linguistic, and this describes people who are more interested in the written word and
reading. The next kind of intelligence is logical, and this is used to describe people whose strengths are
in subjects such as maths and science. Then there is musical intelligence, followed by kinaesthetic,
which relates to the body and movement. After that there is visual intelligence, which describes people
who are attracted by or drawn to images. And then the final two intelligences are (b) _______________
describing someone who is aware of the feelings of others and (c) _______________, which
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concerns self-awareness. Over the years, researchers have put forward other types of intelligence to add
to this list, but these are usually ignored as they tend to be rather complex and less easily defined.
7. Many people agree that wearing school uniform _______________ children.
8. She played a (a) _______________ who was the (b) _______________ of evil.
9. The sales assistant was a very _______________ young man.
10. The children had been _______________ quiet.
3 Many nouns can be formed by adding a suffix to another noun, or a verb or adjective. Nine suffixes which
are frequently used to create abstract nouns (nouns which are not people, places or objects) are listed in the
chart below, with some examples. Which would you guess is the most commonly used suffix? Work with a
partner. Together think of one more abstract noun to add to each category. Then share your ideas with the
rest of the class, and add their words to your list.
Suffixes Nouns
-ance / -ence tolerance, independence, .....................................................................................................
-cy infancy, ...............................................................................................................................
-dom wisdom, ..............................................................................................................................
-hood motherhood, ........................................................................................................................
-ity sanity, .................................................................................................................................
-ment encouragement, ...................................................................................................................
-ness thoughtfulness, ....................................................................................................................
-tion concentration, .....................................................................................................................
-ure exposure, ............................................................................................................................
4 Choose the suitable word given in the margin and supply its correct form to complete the gaps.
Important social changes are taking place in the areas of marriage and the family. There
is a global (1) _______________ going on in how we think of ourselves and how we form
ties and (2) _______________ with others.

What most people call the traditional family was in fact a transitional phase in family (3)
_______________ in the 1950s. By then the idea that romantic love was the best (4)
_______________ for marriage had replaced the concept of marriage as an economic
contract. The family has since changed further.

In the traditional family the married couple was only one part of the family system. Ties
with children and other relatives were equally important in day-to-day (5)
_______________. Today the couple is at the core of what the family is. While statistically
marriage is still the norm, for most people its (6) _______________ has completely changed.
Although marriage promotes the (7) _______________ of a relationship by making a public
declaration of (8) _______________, it is now the quality of the couples relationship which
is considered the most important element.

A couple has its own exclusive history. It is a unit based upon emotional communication
or (9) _______________. Communication is both the means of establishing the tie in the first
place and the basis for ensuring continuing (10) _______________ in the relationship.
COMMIT
CONNECT
DEVELOP
EXIST
FIND
HAPPY
INTIMATE
REVOLVE
SIGN
STABLE

Change
2
1 The prefix retro- (in nouns, adjectives and adverbs) means back or backwards. Choose the suitable
word given in the box and supply its correct form to fill in the banks. Use the prefix retro- and other affixes if
necessary. In some cases, you will need to form a word from a base. (A table of meaning of some bases is
given below. Further details about root, stem, base, etc. will be discussed at university level.)
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act fit grade -gress- -nym- -spect-
Base Meaning Example
-gress- go regression, progressive, etc.
-nym- / -nom- name nomenclature, synonymous, anonymous, etc.
-spect- look inspectorate, spectacle, prospective, perspective, etc.
1. In _______________, and with the benefit of hindsight, it is clear that this was a bad decision.
2. She feels a pang of _______________ sympathy for John. He reminds her of her younger brother who
passed away in a civil war.
3. The closure of the factory is _______________ step.
4. The government has imposed _______________ and disastrous policies on tax, which provokes a
furious backlash from voters.
5. The legislation was supposed to have been applied _______________. (2 possibilities)
6. The list of _______________ includes acoustic guitar, manual typewriter, silent movie and landline
phone.
7. Voice recorders were _______________ into planes already in service.
2 Choose the suitable word given in the box and supply its correct form to fill in the banks. In some cases
you will need to form a word from a base.
temp
finite
go
stand
-ced-
colour
-cur-
point
fact
balm
topic
deter
Base Meaning Example
-ced- / -cess- move; go; give way concede, procession
-cur(r)- / -curs- run; go occurrence, cursory
1. The exhibition contains faded photographs reminding us of a _______________ era.
2. He mixes _______________ ideas with those of the old times. (3 possibilities)
3. I prefer this newspaper because it covers the most _______________ news stories. (2 possibilities)
4. On New Years Day, people often stop and reflect on all that happened in the _______________ year.
5. In previous years, the library was always very busy, but our _______________ students seem to prefer to
study in privacy of their own room.
6. The trouble with a back injury is that there is a great risk of _______________.
7. He was imprisoned for two _______________ terms of 30 months and 18 months.
8. The museums collection includes _______________ dating back to prehistoric times.
9. The amounts of radioactivity present were _______________ small.
10. The government is hoping that this is only a _______________ shift in public opinion.
11. The pipes were beginning to rust, _______________ the water.
12. The materials used have to be able to _______________ high temperature.
13. Weve seen a _______________ in relations between countries.
14. This work is in austere _______________ to that of Gaudi. We can see that there is a pleasing and
interesting contrast between the two works of art.
15. These _______________ substances, including fairly exotic materials, were as complex as those used
for human mummification.
3 Put the words below in the correct part of the chart, adding the prefix that would be used to give the word
a negative meaning.
appear
balance
balanced
behave
capable
colonial
comfort
comfortable
conduct
desirable
do
eligible
experience
formation
government
grateful
inform
interest
obedience
mature
mobile
polite
plausible
practice
satisfied
septic
tolerant
trustworthy
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anti/anti-
dis-
im-
in-
mal-
mis-
un-
Work with a partner. Choose two words from the chart above. Write two sentences, each including one of the
words you have chosen. The sentences should not be definitions, but should illustrate the meaning of the
word. When all pairs are ready, take turns to read your sentences aloud, saying beep instead of the word.
The rest of the class must guess what the missing word is.
Example: I thought it was very *beep* of him to leave the party without thanking the hostess.
Answer: impolite
4 The prefix im- does not always have a negative meaning. What meaning does it convey when put in front
of these words? Use a dictionary, check the exact meaning of the five words created by adding the prefix im-.
migrate plant peril port prison
5 Complete the gaps in the text with a word formed from the word given in the margin.
Complaining can be used constructively, for example to draw attention to (1)
_______________ but all too often in western society it consists of (2)
_______________ moaning and groaning which leads to (3) _______________ and
unnecessary arguments within relationships.

So it is refreshing to live in a society where people do not complain. Kiribati consists
of thirty-three small islands located in the Central Pacific. By western standards, the
islanders, diet is plain and (4) _______________, but, thanks to plentiful fish, none of the
islanders suffer from (5) _______________. Feasts are popular social occasions, but if
the fish is (6) _______________ or the rice proves to be (7) _______________, nobody
complains. Similarly, in restaurants, if the waiter brings the wrong dish or the bill is
(8) _______________, the error is pointed out with a calm smile, not a surly frown.
Ships frequently leave hours later than scheduled, yet the passengers wait with none of
the signs of (9) _______________ which would be loudly evident elsewhere.

Other traits of the Kiribati people complement this (10) _______________ to
complain. Teachers find it difficult to get their pupils to answer questions in class because
it is culturally (11) _______________ to show yourselves to be better than those around
you. Competition is not exactly frowned upon in this society, but it is refreshingly (12)
_______________.Western tennis stars, well-known for their (13) _______________
behaviour on court, could learn a lot from one young (14) _______________ here who,
despite being the better player, (15) _______________ lost the match as his opponent
was an older and more respected member of the village.
EFFICIENT
SOCIAL
TRUST




TONE
NUTRIENT
DO
EDIBLE
CALCULATE

PATIENT

CLINE

ACCEPT
CHARACTER
MODEST
FINAL
LIBERAL

Community
3
1 Supply the correct form of the words given in brackets.
1. Everyone should try to maintain their _______________. (DIVIDE)
2. My friends started going out late to nightclubs so I decided to _______________ myself from the group.
(SOCIAL)
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3. New immigrants have been successfully _______________ into the community. (SIMILAR)
4. He doesnt conform to the _______________ image of the businessman with a dark suit and briefcase.
(TYPE)
5. He wanted Jill to give up her life of alcohol and _______________. (DESTROY)
6. Some people create a(n) _______________ (an alternative social group) and rebel against the traditional
way of life. (CULTURE)
7. The six long years in prison had _______________ him. (COARSE)
8. College _______________ have increased for the past years in. (DROP)
9. While all the desserts are pretty good, the clear _______________ is the lemon pie. (STAND)
10. The sports association accepted the inevitability of a(n) _______________ by the elite clubs. (BREAK)
11. Since the _______________, the hospital has been responsible for its own budgeting. (OPT)
12. She looked absolutely _______________ when I told her what had happened. She could hardly say a
word. (DUMB)
13. The police described it as one of the most _______________ crimes of recent years. (PULSE)
14. It was not wickedness that led him into crime but a cheerfully _______________ nature and a complete
lack of reasoning power. (PULSE)
15. He does a little training, but first and _______________ hes a writer. (MANY)
2 Many adjectives can be formed by adding the suffixes ful or ic to a noun or verb stem. Put the words
below in the correct part of the chart, adding the suffix that would be used to change the word into an
adjective, and making any necessary spelling changes.
apathy
art
artist
bliss
chaos
cheer
delight
disgrace
drama
ecstasy
forget
idyll
materialism
play
rest
sarcasm
therapy
waste
-ful -ic
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
................................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
...............................................................................
3 In most cases, the meaning of adjectives ending in -ful is full of or displaying the qualities of the stem
noun or verb. In some cases, however, the meaning has changed, for example:
awe (noun) = respect and wonder
awful (adj) = bad or unpleasant
Can you think of another adjective ending in -ful which has a similar meaning to awful? What is the
meaning of the stem of this other adjective?
4 The adjective artful can sometimes mean displaying the qualities of art but is more often used with a
very different meaning. What is it?
5 There are several words with the ending -ic which exist only as adjectives. Some examples are given
below. Work with a partner and try to think of at least two more adjectives like this, then share your ideas
with the rest of the class.
domestic exotic hectic
6 Not all words ending in -ic are adjectives! Tick () the words in the list below which are not adjectives.
What is the adjective form of the words you ticked?
altruistic critic logic polemic shambolic statistic topic
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7 Work with a partner. Choose three adjectives ending in -ful or -ic that you have already studied. Write
one or two sentences which illustrate the meaning of each adjective. When all pairs are ready, take turns to
read your sentences aloud. The rest of the class must respond with a short phrase including the appropriate
adjective.
Example: They spent their honeymoon in an isolated beach cabin on a tropical island, surrounded by palm
trees and the sound of the surf.
Answer: That sounds idyllic.
8 Choose the suitable word given in the margin and supply its correct form to complete the gaps.
In an effort to escape from their hectic and (1) _______________ city lives, more
and more Northern Europeans are buying houses in rural areas of France, Spain, Italy
and Greece. Some relocate permanently in search of a more (2) _______________
existence. Those who cannot afford to give up their jobs seek a (3) _______________
respite from their (4) _______________ lifestyle by relaxing for a few weeks each year
in their second home in the sun.

However, many of those who relocate permanently find that life in the country is not
as quiet and (5) _______________ as they had anticipated. Aspects of village life which
seemed delightfully (6) _______________ in the context of a two-week holiday can
grate on the nerves when you live with them on a daily basis. Recently a group of
British residents in an Italian village took local farmers to court because they found the
smell of the villagers pigs (7) _______________. In other cases, foreigners have
complained to neighbours about the (8) _______________ early-morning crowing of
their cockerels, or to village priests about the regular tolling of church bells.

(9) _______________, the local inhabitants are somewhat (10) _______________ of
these attitudes. They argue that the foreigners have an (11) _______________ view of
what country life is like and that, since no-one forced them to come and live in a village,
they are being (12) _______________ by now complaining about the (13)
_______________ of rural life.
SPHERE
CONVENE
CRITIC
ENTHUSE
EVENT
MATERIAL
MEANING
REAL
SEND
STRESS
TASTE
THERAPY
UNDERSTAND

Science
4
1 Supply the correct form of the words given in brackets.
1. The _______________ company sent millions of dollars marketing their new wonder drug.
(PHARMACY)
2. Although the drug is very effective, it does have some unpleasant _______________. (EFFECT)
3. This margarine is full of food _______________ just look the label! (ADD)
4. Patients with diseases that are highly _______________ are isolated in a special area. (CONTAGION)
5. Very soon, Third World came to _______________ poverty. (NOTE)
6. The government has _______________ plans for new energy legislation. (VEIL)
7. The complexity of these simplest forms of life is _______________. (WILD)
8. Early man made use of the medical properties of insects and reptiles to treat common _______________.
(AIL)
9. Scientists are convinced that, because crocodiles have such a long _______________, they must have a
natural ability to combat infection. (LIFE)
10. University professors both teach and _______________ research. (TAKE)
11. There is a strong smell of _______________ in the hospital. (INFECT)
12. Steroids often help reduce the _______________ and itching in the skin. (FLAME)
13. These materials are highly _______________. (FLAME)
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14. They are producing _______________ drugs for arthritis. (FLAME)
15. The organization works in many _______________ (WAR) and _______________ (POOR) countries.
16. An NGO is helping to make ozone-friendly natural _______________ designed to replace R-22 in
existing air conditioning and _______________ systems. (FRIDGE)
17. They were asked to _______________ the factors that had influenced their choice. (NUMBER)
18. The project has been delayed by _______________ problems. (NUMBER)
19. Students mustnt be _______________ and illiterate when they leave school. (NUMBER)
20. Treat them with this kind of spray to make them _______________. (WATER)
2 Choose the suitable word given in the margin and supply its correct form to complete the gaps.
Many chemists caution that health risk assessment of chemical mixtures can be
complex and it is often very expensive to get sufficient (1) _______________ data for
proper (2) _______________. They assert that a single (3) _______________ to a
chemical mixture automatically places a person into a higher risk category is an urban
myth that has no (4) _______________. They state that: The facts about toxicity
remain the same for either a single chemical or a mixture of chemicals: it is the (5)
_______________ that makes them poisonous. When assessing the toxicity of a
substance, it is important to have a good understanding of how the different (6)
_______________ in the mix may interact both with one another and inside any
creature which absorbs them. Sometimes these reactions can make a substance more,
or less, toxic. They said the cost of (7) _______________ all the possible interactions
and effects of any compound mixture would be immense.
ANALYSE
CONTAMINATE
DOSE
EVIDENT
FIND
POSE
VALUE

3 Put the words below in the correct part of the chart, adding the prefix that would be used to alter the
words meaning.
able
arrange
bitter
close
compress
contaminate
courage
frost
fuel
large
louse
motivate
place
state
try
de- em- / en- re-
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
Most of the words you have formed can be further transformed into nouns. Write the corresponding noun
forms in the chart below.
de- em- / en- re-
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
Work with a partner. Choose one word from each column of the chart above and write a mock dictionary
entry for the word, then share your ideas with the rest of the class. An example is given to help you.
Example: enable (verb) make someone or something able to do something
His university degree enabled him to get a better job.
4 A number of words can have both de- and re- added to them. These include:
form generate value vitalize
What would the resulting eight words mean? If necessary, use a dictionary to help you.
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5 Complete the gaps in the text with a word formed from the word given in the margin.
In January 2001 the (1) _______________ Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
issued its latest report on climate change. Climate models worked out by giant super-
computers had become far more reliable since the previous report in 1995 and allowed
them to (2) _______________ the earlier (3) _______________ for global warming.
Their conclusions were that something very serious is happening and that it cannot be
a natural process. The 1990s was the hottest decade for 1.000 years and the Earth is
warming faster than at any time in the last 10.000 years. According to the report,
human activities are (4) _______________ to blame for the temperature rise. The
burning of fossil fuels releases carbon dioxide and, due to (5) _______________, there
are fewer trees to absorb this gas and (6) _______________ it back into oxygen.
Methane (7) _______________ have also gone up dramatically because of increases in
rice culture and (8) _______________, both of which generate methane from
(9) _______________ vegetation. These greenhouses gases trap heat in the Earths
atmosphere and cause the temperature to rise.

The IPCC reported that, in the worst case, the average temperature could rise by
5.8
o
C this century, 2
o
C higher than their original predictions. The resulting melting of
ice-caps and glaciers would cause sea levels to rise by up to 88cm, (10)
_______________ the homes and (11) _______________ of tens of millions of people
who live in low-lying regions.

Unfortunately, there is far greater (12) _______________ among the world's
scientists over the issue than among politicians. As long ago as 1990, the IPCC
recommended a 60% reduction in carbon dioxide (13) _______________, as the basic
level required to return the planets climate to a healthy level.

Governments globally failed to (14) _______________ these proposals. Now that
the dangers have been (15) _______________ by the latest report, it is high time that
governments took an active interest in exploring alternative, (16) _______________
energy sources.
GOVERN

PRAISE
PROJECT



VOICE
FOREST
CYCLE
CONCENTRATE
CATTLE
POSE




DANGER
LIVE


-ANIM-
(base) spirit; life
as in animation

EMIT


ACT
FIRM
NEW

Achievement
5
1 Choose the suitable word given in the box and supply suitable form to complete each of the THREE
sentences in each group below. Follow the example:
deep
There were plans to deepen a stretch of the river.
The custom of sending a greeting in a card had become a deep-rooted tradition.
Tonights programme is a(n) in-depth look at the long-term effects of unemployment.
assess concept consist context define establish little proof thesis valid
1. a. Such databases are being used in a wide range of _______________.
b. As important as the photograph is a caption to _______________ the image.
c. Its important to understand the nuances of an isolated word without some _______________ clues.
2. a. She had that _______________ something that makes an actress a star.
b. The money was lent for a(n) _______________ period of time.
c. Scientists follow several _______________ steps in investigating unexpected outbreaks of disease.
3. a. World Music is now _______________ and popular with mass audiences.
b. The upkeep of the church is so expensive that it is going to be _______________.
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c. The visa is for foreign nationals wishing to study at a university, college or similar educational
_______________.
4. a. True education does not _______________ in simply being taught facts.
b. Its annoying that there is some _______________ between the witnesses evidence and their earlier
statements.
c. We must be _______________ in applying the rules.
5. a. We hope the documentary will dispel certain _______________ about the disease.
b. She presents a(n) _______________ framework for the analysis of educational processes.
c. Try to _______________ thought processes as a series of circles.
6. a. Students were allowed to hand in correct work again for _______________.
b. A(n) _______________ can reveal your personal attributes, values, skills, and interests, all of which
are critical in helping you make informed career choices.
c. _______________ income is your total income after deducting allowable expenses and approved
donations.
7. a. Too much background detail tends to _______________ the impact of the central image.
b. Children should be taught to lead a life of _______________ service to the community.
c. She felt her husband constantly _______________ her achievements.
8. a. It would be pointless to engage in _______________ before we have the facts.
b. These are particular problems that arise when _______________ about the origins of the universe.
c. I wasnt asking about anybody in particular it was a purely _______________ question.
9. a. The firm claims that its software is _______________.
b. This document needs _______________ before sending to the publishing house.
c. Theories of the meaning of dreams remain _______________.
10. a. Misuse of the mattress will _______________ the guarantee.
b. The period of _______________ of the argument has expired.
c. The treaty was declared _______________ because it had not been ratified.
2 Choose the suitable word given in the margin and supply its correct form to complete the gaps.
It is possible to predict your performance on a video game simply by measuring the
volume of specific structures in your brain, a multi-institutional team of researchers
announced this week. The study, headed by Kirk Erikson, a professor of psychology, adds
to the evidence that specific parts of the brain (1) _______________ influence a persons
ability to (2) _______________ his or her motor skills, learn new procedures, develop
useful (3) _______________ and adapt to a quickly changing environment.

Participants in the study were taught to play Space Fortress, a video game developed at
the University of Illinois. Half of the participants were asked to focus on maximizing their
overall score in the game while also paying attention to the various components of the
game. The other participants had to (4) _______________ shift priorities, improving their
skills in one area for a period of time while also maximizing their success at other tasks.
The latter approach, called variable priority training, encourages the kind of (5)
_______________ that is commonly required in daily life.

The researchers found that players who had a larger nucleus accumbens (an area of the
brain) did better than their (6) _______________ in the early stages of the training period.
This makes sense, Erickson said, because the nucleus accumbens is part of the brains
reward center, and a persons motivation for (7) _______________ at a video game
includes the pleasure that results from achieving a specific goal. This sense of achievement
and the emotional reward that (8) _______________ it is likely to be higher in the earliest
stages of learning, he said.

Players with a larger caudate and putamen (two other areas of the brain), learned more
quickly and learned more over the training period. This study tells us a lot about how the
brain works when it is trying to learn a complex task, Erikson said at the (9)
_______________ of the research, which was conducted in Illinois. Such information
might be useful in education or in treating (10) _______________ or dementia.
ABLE
CELL
COMPANY
CONCLUDE
FIND
FINE
PART
PERIOD
STRATEGIC
TASK

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3 The prefix out can be used to create new nouns, verbs and, less frequently, adjectives. Put the words
below in the correct part of the chart. Be careful one word can be both a noun and a verb.
outbreak
outgrow
outpatient
outbuilding
outlast
outperform
outburst
outlaw
outset
outdated
outlook
outspoken
outdistance
outlive
outstay
outdo
outlying

outdoor
outnumber

Noun Verb Adjective
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
.....................................................
4 The prefix out in some nouns and adjectives has the meaning of 'outside' or 'beyond'. Underline three
nouns and three adjectives where the prefix has this meaning.
5 In other cases, the noun and adjective has been formed from a phrasal verb with out, for example:
break out Cholera has broken out in the area.
outbreak There has been an outbreak of cholera in the area.
Applying this rule, what phrasal verbs have the remaining three nouns and one adjective been formed from
and what do they mean?
6 In most cases, the prefix out in a verb has the meaning more than, better than or longer than. Only
one verb in the chart does not have one of these meanings. Which one is it?
7 Complete the gaps in the text with a word formed from the word given in the margin.
Childhood self-esteem can overwhelm academic disadvantage or social (1)
_______________ in determining future earnings power, according to major new research.

There is now clear evidence that the earnings of people who had higher self-esteem at
age ten (2) _______________ those of their peers whose academic performance was better
at the same age. Bright children often have higher self-esteem, as do some from more
affluent (3) _______________. But the study compared children from similar families and
still found that those who were psychologically (4) _______________ at ten were now
(5) _______________ their peers.

The research also found, surprisingly, that it is not unusual for children to have high
academic (6) _______________ and low self-esteem, leading to significant later (7)
_______________ in the jobs market. A(n) (8) _______________ for the British
Association for Counselling said: (9) _______________ for children doesn't come only
from crude parental (10) _______________ at home; it can just be (11) _______________
or the constant feeling that theyre making you tired. Children pick that up. Nor is it only
(12) _______________ children who suffer. All too often you can ask affluent parents who
the important people in their child's life are teachers, friends and so on and they havent
a clue.

Bearing out the findings of this research, many (13) _______________ successful
entrepreneurs, such as Richard Branson, were (14) _______________ academically when
they were at school but had the advantage of (15) _______________ families.
-PRIV-
(base)
lack; absence



STRIP

GROUND
BALANCE
PERFORM

ACHIEVE
PERFORM
SPEAK
COURAGE
HOSTILE
SEND
PRIVILEGE



STAND
SHINE
SUPPORT
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Appendix 1
A1
Only university students are introduced to this knowledge. However, some gifted students may wonder about
the terms used in this booklet. Thus, it is necessary for teachers to clarify the terminologies so that they are
not confused, and can gain some insight into word formation.
1. Morphology is the study and description of word-structure. It also studies word-formation. In
linguistics, morphology is the study of morphemes and their arrangements in forming words.
2. Morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit in a language.
Example:
a. The word unkind consists of two morphemes: the base or root kind the lexical meaning of which is
friendly and thoughtful to others and the prefix un- the lexical meaning of which is not.
b. The word talks consists of two morphemes: the base or root talk the lexical meaning of which is say
something and the suffix -s, which has no lexical meaning and which is used to show that the verb
talks is in the third person singular present-tense form.
We can recognize a morpheme by either its lexical / derivational or its grammatical / inflectional
meaning.
3. Morphemes are of two kinds: free morpheme (one that can uttered alone with meaning) and bound
morpheme (one that cannot be uttered alone with meaning. It is always annexed to one or more
morphemes to form a word.)
Example: readers: read free morpheme; er and s bound morpheme.
4. Root is the morpheme in a word that has the principal meaning. Most of roots are free morphemes, but
some are bound morphemes.
Example: receive, deceive, perceive [ceive bound morphemes]; unbreakable, breakdown, breaker
[break free morphemes]
5. Affixes are bound morphemes that occur before or behind a root and somewhat modify the basic
meaning of the root/base. Affixes include prefix, suffix, infix and suprafix.
Example: ex-wife (ex- prefix), player (-er suffix), incubate (-cub- infix (to lie on, on or upon));
Suprafixes are morphemes which consist of suprasegmental (relating to stress, intonation,)
morphemes and which are added to the root or stem.
a. Inflectional Affixes
the noun plural morpheme: books, boxes,
the noun possessive morpheme: mans,
the verb third person singular present tense morpheme: walks, mixes,
the verb past simple morpheme: flowed, thought, drank,
the verb past participle morpheme: flowed, thought, drunk,
the adjective or adverb comparative morpheme: smaller, harder,
the adjective or adverb superlative morpheme: smallest, hardest,
b. Derivational Affixes: Prefixes are always derivational.
Class-changing derivational affixes: nation (n) national (adj)
Class-maintaining derivational affixes: mark (v) remark (v)
6. Base is any unit whatsoever to which affixes of any kind can be added. The affixes added to base may be
inflectional or derivational affixes. Base is also called root.
Example: unbreakable (break root / (free) base); suspender, pendant, (pend (bound) base can
never occurs alone but can only be joined to other bound morphemes)
7. Stem is that part of a word that is in existence before any inflectional affixes have been added. Base is
called stem only in the context of inflectional morphology.
Example: workers (work root / (free) base; worker stem; s inflectional suffix)
8. The relative order of morphemes in the English word is as follows:
derivational prefix base derivational suffix(es) inflectional suffix

stem

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Appendix 2
A2
This is the very short list of Derivational Prefixes and Suffixes, the classes of the bases to which they can be
attached and the words that are thereby formed. Advanced lists will be updated in upcoming booklets in this
series. These abbreviations are used in the list below: N for Noun, N (abs) for Abstract Noun; N (conc) for
Concrete Noun; V for Verb; Adj for Adjective; Adv for Adverb.
Prefix /
Suffix
Word class of
Input Base
Meaning
Word class of
Output Base
Example
1. in-
2. un-
3. un-
4. dis-
5. dis-
6. dis-
7. dis-
8. re-
9. ex-
10. en-
Adj
Adj
V
V
N (abs)
Adj
V
V
N
N
not
not
reverse
reverse
not
not
not
again
former
put in
Adj
Adj
V
V
N (abs)
Adj
V
V
N
V
inaccurate
unkind
untie, undo
discontinue
disorder
dishonest
disapprove
rewrite, redo
ex-major
encage
11. hood
12. ship
13. ness
14. ity
15. ment

16. less
17. ful
18. ic
19. al
20. al
21. er

22. ly
N
N
Adj
Adj
V

N
N
N
N
V
V

Adj
status
state or condition
quality, state or condition
state or condition
result or product of doing the action
indicated by the verb
without
having
pertaining to
pertaining to, of the kind
pertaining to or act of
agent who does whatever the verb
indicates
manner
N (abs)
N (abs)
N (abs)
Adj
Adj

Adj
Adj
Adj
Adj
N (abs)
N

Adv
childhood
kingship, lordship
kindness
sincerity
government

powerless
powerful
democratic
medicinal
refusal
reader

kindly
Appendix 3
A3
Look up Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes commonly used in English at:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Greek_and_Latin_roots_in_English


Preferences
1. Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 8
th
Edition. Oxford University Press.
2. Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary 3
rd
Edition. Cambridge University Press.
3. Rochelle Lieber. 2009. Introducing Morphology. Cambridge University Press.
4. R. Lieber and P. Stekauer. 2009. The Oxford Handbook of Compounding. Oxford University Press.
5. Michael McCarthy and Felicity ODell. 2006. Vocabulary in Use (Advanced). Cambridge University Press.
6. Ruth Gairns and Stuart Redman. 2009. Oxford Word Skills (Advanced). Oxford University Press.
7. John Morgan and Mario Rinvolucri. 2004. Vocabulary (Resources Books for Teachers). Oxford University Press.
8. Jeremy Harmer and Scott Thornbury. 2002. How to Teach Vocabulary. Longman Pearson Education.