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epl206-01.pdf

# epl206-01.pdf

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lecture notes solid state physics
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10/27/2013

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# Arrangement of Carbon atoms can do wonders!

GRAPHENE – Ultra high mobility

BUCKMINISTER FULLERINE (C60) =Balled Graphene Superconducting DIAMOND – High thermal conductivity, Insulating

Carbon Nano Tube (CNT)=Rolled Graphene
L01-2011

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NANO XTALLINE POLY CRYSTALLINE AND/OR SINGLE CRYSTAL • Window “glass” is “amorphous” • Amorphous Solid ≡ “Supercooled Liquid” L01-2011 2 .GAS /LIQUID PHASE cooling AMORPHOUS.

Crystalline and amorphous structures illustrated schematically in 2D L01-2011 3 .

2 VARIETIES CRYSTALLINE AMORPHOUS CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS : PERFECT PERIODICITY OF ATOMIC STRUCTURE. BETTER UNDERSTOOD AMORPHOUS SOLIDS: LITTLE OR NO PERIODCITY L01-2011 4 .SOLIDS .

The unit cell is a simple square with two atoms. (b) Basis has two atoms. (c) Crystal = Lattice + Basis. L01-2011 5 . (d) Placement of basis atoms in the crystal unit cell. The unit cell is a square with a side a.(a) A simple square lattice.

L01-2011 6 .

2D Bravais Lattice (Surface Crystallography) Oblique Net Rectangular Net Centered Rect. Net Hexagonal Net Square Net L01-2011 7 .

3-D space can be filled by repeating a smallest volume called unit cell. L01-2011 8 . c called lattice parameters and the angles α. Every lattice point in a 3-D lattice can be described by vector t (defined above) 2. defined by vectors a. l are integers 1. k . β.BRAVAIS LATTICES (3-D) r r r r t = ha + kb + lc r t = translational vector. The vectors a. & h. γ 3. b. c are primitive vectors if the parallelopiped defined by them does not include any more lattice point. b.

4. As required by crystal symmetry. (b×c) 6. in 3D. and it has the smallest volume 5.(a2×a3) OR a. Volume = a1. and γ) which can produce unit cells of various shapes. c. and therefore various kinds of point lattice. b. These are referred to as CRYSTAL SYSTEMS (points at corners) 7. β. α. There are 7 ways (obtained by giving different values to a. These are 14 BRAVAIS LATTICES (extra points at center of cell/face/base) L01-2011 9 . there are 14 ways of arranging points in space lattices such that all the lattice points have exactly the same surroundings. The parallelopiped defined by primitive vectors is called primitive unit cell.

The seven crystal systems (unit cell geometries) and fourteen Bravais lattices. L01-2011 10 .

L01-2011 11 .The 7 crystal systems (unit cell geometries) and 14 Bravais lattices..Contd….

L01-2011 12 . It actually yields a Simple Tetragonal.Q : Why not a new class – Base-Centered Tetragonl (See Below) ? Ans : It does not generate a new on.

.each axis is (1/√2) times the length of the axes of the cubic unit cell (Volume=1/4) • It possess a cubic symmetry (it possess four 3-fold axes) • It does not belong to the usual “Rhombohedral” (α =β =γ ≠ 90º).Primitive Cell of a Face Centered Cell • It’s a Rhombohedral. its axis angle is 60º. which does not have cubic symmetry (as it only possesses one 3-fold axis) L01-2011 13 .

Rh. Au. Face diagonal = √2 a = 4 r (b) An FCC unit cell with closed packed spheres. Cu : Lattice Parameter ‘a’ = 0. Pt. (c) Reduced sphere representation of the unit cell. L01-2011 14 .128 nm γ-Fe (>912 ˚C).face centered cubic (FCC). Ca.362 nm Al. Pd. Examples: Ag. Cu. Atomic Radius ‘r’ = 0.Packing of atoms: Face Cenetered Cubic (a) Copper . Ni. The atoms are positioned at well defined sites arranged periodically and there is a long range order in the crystal.

Na. β-Ti (> 882 ˚C) Body diagonal = √3 a = 4 r L01-2011 15 . α-Fe (< 912 ˚C). (a) A BCC unit cell with closely packed hard spheres representing the Fe atoms. W. Examples: Alkali metals (Li. (b)A reduced-sphere unit cell. Rb). Mo. Cr.Body Centered Cubic crystal (BCC) crystal structure. K. Mn.

APF = 3 ( 4r / 3 ) L01-2011 16 .N × AtomicVolume Atomic Packing Fraction (APF) = Unit Cell Volume N = Number of atoms in unit cell 2 × (4πr 3 / 3) ≈ 68% For BCC.

L01-2011 17 . Color difference distinguishes layers (stacks).(a) The Hexagonal Close Packed (HCP) Structure. A collection of many Zn atoms. (b) The stacking sequence of closely packed layers is ABAB (c) A unit cell with reduced spheres (d) The smallest unit cell with reduced spheres.

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